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Title: A Handbook of Modern Japan
Author: Clement, Ernest Wilson
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Notes:

The spelling, hyphenation, punctuation and accentuation are as the
original, except for apparent typographical errors which have been
corrected.

There are references to both:

  Woman’s Christian Temperance Union
  and
  Women’s Christian Temperance Union

These have been left as in the original.

  Italic text is denoted _thus_.
  Bold text is denoted =thus=.



  A HANDBOOK
  OF MODERN JAPAN



_Uniform with this Work_


 JAPAN AS IT WAS AND IS: A HANDBOOK OF OLD JAPAN. By RICHARD HILDRETH.
 In two volumes. A reprint edited and revised, with notes and
 additions, by Ernest W. Clement and an Introduction by William Elliot
 Griffis. With maps and 100 illustrations. 12mo, in slip Case. $3.00
 _net_.

A. C. MCCLURG & CO.

_Chicago_


 [Illustration: THE LATE EMPEROR MEIJI TENNO]



  New Revised Edition


  A HANDBOOK

  OF

  MODERN JAPAN

  BY

  ERNEST W. CLEMENT


  WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS


  _NINTH EDITION_

  THOROUGHLY REVISED AND BROUGHT DOWN TO DATE
  WITH ADDITIONAL CHAPTERS ON

  THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

  AND

  GREATER JAPAN


  [Illustration]


  CHICAGO
  A. C. McCLURG & CO.
  1913



  COPYRIGHT
  A. C. MCCLURG & CO.
  1903; 1905; 1913

  Copyrighted in Great Britain


  UNIVERSITY PRESS · JOHN WILSON
  AND SON · CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A.



  TO THE MEMORY OF MY FATHER
  AND MY MOTHER



INTRODUCTION


This book, as its title indicates, is intended to portray Japan as it
is rather than as it was. It is not by any means the purpose, however,
to ignore the past, upon which the present is built, because such a
course would be both foolish and futile. Moreover, while there are
probably no portions of Japan, and very few of her people, entirely
unaffected by the new civilization, yet there are still some sections
which are comparatively unchanged by the new ideas and ideals. And,
although those who have been least affected by the changes are much
more numerous than those who have been most influenced, yet the latter
are much more active and powerful than the former.

In Japan reforms generally work from the top downward, or rather from
the government to the people. As another[1] has expressed it, “the
government is the moulder of public opinion”; and, to a large extent,
at least, this is true. We must, therefore, estimate Japan’s condition
and public opinion, not according to the great mass of her people, but
according to the “ruling class,” if we may transfer to Modern Japan
a term of Feudal Japan. For, as suffrage in Japan is limited by the
amount of taxes paid, “the masses” do not yet possess the franchise,
and may be said to be practically unconcerned about the government.
They will even endure heavy taxation and some injustice before they
will bother themselves about politics. These real conservatives are,
therefore, a comparatively insignificant factor in the equation of New
Japan. The people are conservative, but the government is progressive.

This book endeavors to portray Japan in all its features as a _modern
world power_. It cannot be expected to cover in great detail all
the ground outlined, because it is not intended to be an exhaustive
encyclopædia of “things Japanese.” It is expected to satisfy the
specialist, not by furnishing all materials, but by referring for
particulars to works where abundant materials may be found. It is
expected to satisfy the average general reader, by giving a kind of
bird’s-eye view of Modern Japan. It is planned to be a compendium of
condensed information, with careful references to the best sources of
more complete knowledge.

Therefore, a special and very important feature of the volume is its
bibliography of reference books at the end of each chapter. These lists
have been prepared with great care, and include practically all the
best works on Japan in the English language. In general, however, no
attempt has been made to cover magazine articles, which are included in
only very particular instances.

There are two very important works not included in any of the lists,
because they belong to almost all; they are omitted merely to avoid
monotonous repetition. These two books of general reference are
indispensable to the thorough student of Japan and the Japanese.
Chamberlain’s “Things Japanese”[2] is the most convenient for general
reference, and is a small encyclopædia. “The Mikado’s Empire,”[3] by
Dr. Griffis, is a thesaurus of information about Japan and the Japanese.

After these, one may add to his Japanese library according to his
special taste, although we think that Murray’s “Story of Japan,” also,
should be in every one’s hands. Then, if one can afford to get Rein’s
two exhaustive and thorough treatises, he is well equipped. And the
“Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan” will make him quite a
_savant_ on Japanese subjects. It should be added, that those who have
access to Captain Brinkley’s monumental work of eight volumes on Japan
will be richly rewarded with a mine of most valuable information by
one of the best authorities. “Fifty Years of New Japan” is valuable
and unique, because it is written by Japanese, each an authority in
his department.[4] For the latest statistics, “The Japan Year Book” is
invaluable.

We had intended, but finally abandoned the attempt, to follow
strictly one system of transliteration. Such a course would require
the correction of quotations, and seemed scarcely necessary. Indeed,
the doctors still disagree, and have not yet positively settled upon
a uniform method of transliteration. After all, there is no great
difference between Tōkiō and Tōkyō; _kaisha_ and _kwaisha_; Iyeyasu
and Ieyasu; Kyūshiu, Kiūshiu, Kyūshū, and Kiūshū. There is more
divergency between Ryūkyū, Riūkiū, Liukiu, Luchu, and Loo Choo; but
all are in such general use that it would be unwise, in a book like
this, to try to settle a question belonging to specialists. The fittest
will, in time, survive. We have, however, drawn the line on “Yeddo,”
“Jeddo,” and similar archaisms and barbarisms, for which there is
neither jot nor tittle of reason. But it is hoped that the varieties of
transliteration in this book are too few to confuse.

The author is under special obligations to Professor J. H. Wigmore,
formerly a teacher in Tōkyō, and now Dean of the Northwestern Law
School, Chicago, for kind criticisms and suggestions; to Mr. Frederick
W. Gookin, the art critic, of Chicago, for similar assistance, and for
the chapter on “Æsthetic Japan,” which is entirely his composition;
and also under general obligations for the varied assistance of
many friends, too numerous to mention, in Japan and America. He has
endeavored to be accurate, but doubts not that he has made mistakes. He
only asks that the book be judged merely for what it claims to be,—a
_Handbook of Modern Japan_.

  ERNEST WILSON CLEMENT.



NOTE TO NEW REVISED EDITION


The eight years which have elapsed since this book was revised have
been so crowded with great events that another revision seems advisable
in order to make the book yet more timely and as valuable as possible.
Whenever it was practicable, the statements and statistics in both the
body and the appendix of the book have been brought up to date. In some
cases, but only a very few, it was impossible to alter the text without
breaking up the paging; therefore the original text was allowed to
stand, and the corrections have been indicated in notes or some other
way. A new chapter, moreover, has been added, with new illustrations,
and presents as concisely and yet as comprehensively as possible the
facts which warrant its caption, “Greater Japan.”

 TŌKYŌ, January, 1913.



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                 PAGE

  I.     PHYSIOGRAPHY                        1

  II.    INDUSTRIAL JAPAN                   16

  III.   TRAVEL, TRANSPORTATION, COMMERCE   29

  IV.    PEOPLE, HOUSES, FOOD, DRESS        44

  V.     MANNERS AND CUSTOMS                60

  VI.    JAPANESE TRAITS                    76

  VII.   HISTORY (OLD JAPAN)                90

  VIII.  HISTORY (NEW JAPAN)               102

  IX.    CONSTITUTIONAL IMPERIALISM        118

  X.     LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT             133

  XI.    JAPAN AS A WORLD POWER            146

  XII.   LEGAL JAPAN                       159

  XIII.  THE NEW WOMAN IN JAPAN            175

  XIV.   LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE           191

  XV.    EDUCATION                         209

  XVI.   ÆSTHETIC JAPAN                    222

  XVII.  DISESTABLISHMENT OF SHINTŌ        237

  XVIII. CONFUCIANISM, BUSHIDŌ, BUDDHISM   250

  XIX.   JAPANESE CHRISTENDOM              262

  XX.    TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPAN           277

  XXI.   THE MISSION OF JAPAN              289


  THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR                   305


  GREATER JAPAN                            329


  APPENDIX                                 343

  INDEX                                    415



ILLUSTRATIONS


        PAGE

  The Late Emperor Meiji Tenno  _Frontispiece_

  Nagasaki Harbor                           10

  Lighthouse Inland Sea                     10

  Cotton Mills, Ōsaka                       20

  First Bank, Tōkyō                         38

  Baron Shibusawa                           42

  Group of Country People                   46

  New Year’s Greeting                       64

  Garden at Ōji                             78

  Ōsaka Castle                              92

  Perry Monument, near Uraga               106

  Statesmen of New Japan: Prince Sanjō
    and Count Katsu                        116

  Departments of State: Navy, Agriculture
    and Commerce, Justice, Foreign Affairs 126

  Naval Leaders of Japan: Admiral Enomoto,
    Admiral Kabayama                       136

  Distinguished Land Commanders: General
    Baron Kuroki, General Baron Oku,
    General Baron Nodzu                    146

  Military Leaders of New Japan:
    Field-Marshal Ōyama and Field-Marshal
    Yamagata                               150

  Statesmen of New Japan: Count Ōkuma,
    Marquis Inouye, Count Itagaki,
    Marquis Matsukata                      156

  Court Buildings, Tōkyō                   164

  The Mint, Ōsaka                          164

  Statesmen of New Japan: Ōkubo, Saigō,
    Kido, and Prince Iwakura               172

  H. I. M. the Empress                     188

  H. I. M. the Crown Prince                196

  Imperial University Buildings, Tōkyō     210

  Educators and Scientists of Japan:
    Baron Ishiguro, Viscount Mori,
    Mr. Fukuzawa, Dr. Kitasato             216

  Painting by Ho-Itsu: View of Fuji-San    224

  Painting by Yasunobu: Heron and Lotus    230

  Group of Pilgrims                        252

  Buddhist Priests                         252

  Gospel Ship, “Fukuin Maru”               268

  Y. M. C. A. Summer School, Dōshisha,
    Kyōto                                  268

  Four Gates: Palace, Tōkyō; Palace,
    Kyōto; Sakurada,Tōkyō; Nijō Castle,
    Kyōto                                  282

  The Naval Hero of the War, Admiral Togo  306

  Distinguished Naval Commanders: Admiral
    Uriu, Admiral Kamimura, Commander
    Hirose                                 310

  Distinguished Land Commanders: General
    Baron Kodama, General Count Nogi,
    Admiral Prince Itō                     316

  The Japanese Peace Envoys: Count Komura,
    Minister Takahira                      318

  H. I. M. the Emperor                     330

  Marquis Saionji                          332

  Statesmen of New Japan: Marquis Katsura
    and Prince Itō                         336

  Viscount Sone                            338

  General Viscount Terauchi                344

  Military Review, Himeji                  360

  “Shikishima” in Naval Review, Kōbe       384

  Map of Japan                             342



JAPANESE PRONUNCIATION


  _a_ like _a_ in _father_
  _e_   „  _e_  „ _men_
  _i_   „  _i_  „ _pin_
  _o_   „  _o_  „ _pony_
  _u_   „  _oo_ „ _book_
  _ai_ as in _aisle_
  _ei_   „   _weigh_
  _au_ as _o_ in _bone_
  _ō_   „  „   „   „
  _ū_ as _oo_ in _moon_

_i_ in the middle of a word and _u_ in the middle or at the end of a
word are sometimes almost inaudible.

The consonants are all sounded, as in English: _g_, however, has only
the hard sound, as in _give_, although the nasal _ng_ is often heard;
_ch_ and _s_ are always soft, as in _check_ and _sin_; and _z_ before
_u_ has the sound of _dz_. In the case of double consonants, each one
must be given its full sound.

There are as many syllables as vowels. There is practically no accent;
but care must be taken to distinguish between _o_ and _ō_, _u_ and _ū_,
of which the second is more prolonged than the first.

Be sure to avoid the flat sound of _a_, which is always pronounced
_ah_.



A HANDBOOK OF MODERN JAPAN



CHAPTER I

PHYSIOGRAPHY

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Situation of country; relation to the
 United States; lines of communication; “Key of Asia.”—Area of
 empire.—Divisions: highways, provinces, prefectures, principal
 cities and ports.—Dense population; natives and foreigners; Japanese
 abroad.—Mountains, volcanoes, hot springs, earthquakes.—Lakes, rivers,
 bays, harbors, floods, tidal waves.—Epidemics, pests.—Climate:
 temperature, winds (typhoons), moisture, ocean currents.—Flora and
 fauna.—Peculiar position: Japan and the United States.—Bibliography.


The Japanese may appropriately be called “our antipodal neighbors.”
They do not live, it is true, at a point exactly opposite to us on this
globe; but they belong to the obverse, or Eastern, hemisphere, and are
an Oriental people of another race. They are separated from us by from
4,000 to 5,000 miles of the so-called, but misnamed, Pacific Ocean;
but they are connected with us by many lines of freight and passenger
vessels. In fact, in their case, as in many other instances, the
“disuniting ocean” (_Oceanus dissociabilis_) of the Romans has really
disappeared, and even a broad expanse of waters has become a connecting
link between the countries on the opposite shores. It may be, in a
certain measure, correct to say, as pupils in geography are taught to
express it, that the Pacific Ocean separates the United States from
Japan; but it is, in a broader and higher sense, just as accurate to
state that this ocean binds us with our Asiatic neighbors and friends
in the closest ties. Japan was “opened” by the United States; has been
assisted materially, politically, socially, educationally, and morally
by American influences in her wonderful career of progress; and she
appreciates the kindliness and friendship of our people. We, in turn,
ought to know more about our rapidly developing _protégé_, and no doubt
desire to learn all we can concerning Japan and the Japanese.

The development of trade and commerce has been assisted by the power
of steam to bring Japan and the United States into close and intimate
relations. There are steamship lines from San Francisco, Vancouver,
Tacoma, Seattle, Portland, and San Diego to Yokohama or Koōbe; and
there are also a great many sailing vessels plying between Japan
and America. The routes from San Francisco and San Diego direct to
Japan are several hundred miles farther than the routes from the more
northerly ports mentioned above. The time occupied by the voyage
across the Pacific Ocean varies according to the vessel, the winds
and currents, etc.; but it may be put down in a general way at about
14 days. The fast royal mail steamers of the Canadian Pacific line
often make the trip in much less time, and thus bring Chicago, for
instance, within only a little more than two weeks’ communication with
Yokohama. It must, therefore, be evident that Japan is no longer a
remote country, but is as near to the Pacific coast of America, in time
of passage, as the Atlantic coast of America was twenty years ago to
Europe.

It is true that the steamers of the San Francisco and San Diego lines,
especially those carrying mails and passengers, go and come via
Honolulu, so that the voyage to Japan thus requires a few more days
than the direct trip would take. But, as Hawaii is now part of the
United States, our country has thus become only about 10 days distant
from Japan. Moreover, as the Philippine Islands are also a portion of
our country, and Formosa has been for several years a part, of Japan,
the territories of the two nations are brought almost within a stone’s
throw, and the people almost within speaking distance, of each other.
This proximity of the two nations to each other should be an incentive
to draw even more closely together the ties, not only historical,
commercial, and material, but also political, social, educational,
intellectual, moral, and religious, that bind them to each other, and,
so far as possible, to make “Japan and America all the same heart.”

But Japan is also an Asiatic country, and thus holds a peculiar
relation to the countries on the eastern coast of the mainland of Asia.
The islands of Japan stretch along that shore in close proximity to
Siberia, Korea, and China, and are not far distant from Siam. With
all of those countries she enters, therefore, into most intimate
relationship of many kinds. With Russia the relation is one of rivalry,
of more or less hostility, at present passive, but likely to be aroused
into activity by some unusually exasperating event. In any case,
Japan is the only Far-Eastern power that can be relied upon to check
the aggressions of Russia; and this fact the wise statesmen of Great
Britain have clearly recognized by entering into the Anglo-Japanese
Alliance. Toward Korea, China, and Siam, Japan sustains a natural
position of leadership, because she is far in advance of all those
nations in civilization. Ties geographical, racial, social, political,
intellectual, and religious, bind them more or less closely together,
so that Japan can more sympathetically and thus more easily lead them
out into the path of progress. The natural and common routes of trade
and travel from the United States to those countries run via Japan,
which thus becomes, in more senses than one, “the key of Asia”; and for
that very reason she is also the logical mediator between the East and
the West.

The Japanese call their country _Dai Nihon_, or _Dai Nippon_ (Great
Japan), and have always had a patriotic faith in the reality of its
greatness. But this delightful delusion is rudely dispelled when the
fact is expressed statistically, in cold figures, that the area of the
Empire of Japan is about 175,000 square miles,[5] or only a little
more than that of California. It has, however, a comparatively long
coast line of more than 18,000 miles. The name _Nihon_, or _Nippon_ (a
corruption of the Chinese _Jih-pên_, from which was derived “Japan”),
means “sun-source,” and was given because the country lay to the east
from China. It is for this reason that Japan is often called “The
Sunrise Kingdom,” and that the Imperial flag contains the simple design
of a bright sun on a plain white background.[6]

Japan proper comprises only the four large islands, called Hondo,
Shikoku, Kyūshiu, and Yezo (Hokkaidō); but the Empire includes also
Korea, Formosa, the Pescadores, and about 4,000 small islands, of which
the Ryūkyū (Loo Choo) and the Kurile groups are the most important.
Japan proper lies mainly between the same parallels of latitude[7] as
the States of the Mississippi valley, and presents even more various
and extreme climates than may be found from Minnesota to Louisiana.

The extreme northern point of the Empire of Japan is 50° 56´ N.,
and the extreme southern point is 21° 45´ N. The extreme eastern
point is 156° 32´ E., and the extreme western point 119° 18´ E. These
extremes furnish even greater varieties of climate than those just
mentioned. The Kurile Islands at the extreme north are frigid, and
have practically no animal or vegetable life; while the beautiful
island of Formosa at the extreme south is half in the tropics, with a
corresponding climate, and abounds in most valuable products. Marcus
Island, farther out in the Pacific, has guano deposits worth working.

Japan proper is divided geographically into nine “circuits,” called
Gokinai, Tōkaidō, Tōsandō, Hokurikudō, Sanindō, Sanyōdō, Nankaidō,
Saikaidō, Hokkaidō. The word _dō_, which appears in all the names
except the first, means “road” or “highway.” Some of these appellations
are not much used at present; but others are retained in various
connections, especially in the names of railways, banks, companies, or
schools. A common official division of the largest island (_Hondo_) is
into Central, Northern, and Western. Japan proper was also subdivided
into 85 _Kuni_ (Province), the names of which are still retained in
general use to some extent. But, for purposes of administration, the
empire is divided into 3 _Fu_ (Municipality) and 43 _Ken_ (Prefecture),
besides Yezo (or Hokkaidō) and Formosa, each of which is administered
as a “territory” or “colony.” The distinction between _Fu_ and _Ken_ is
practically one in name only. These large divisions are again divided:
the former into _Ku_ (Urban District) and _Gun_ (Rural District); and
the latter into _Gun_. There are also more than 50 incorporated Cities
(_Shi_) within the _Fu_ and _Ken_.[8] Moreover, the _Gun_ is subdivided
into _Chō_ (Town) and _Son_ (Village).

But, while the prefix “great” does not apply to Japan with reference
to its extent, it is certainly appropriate to the contents of that
country. Within the Empire of Japan are great mountains with grand
scenery, great and magnificent temples, great cities, and a great many
people. For, while the area of Japan is only one-twentieth of that
of the United States, the population is about one-half as numerous.
Even in the country districts the villages are almost continuous, so
that it is an infrequent experience to ride a mile without seeing a
habitation; and in the large cities the people are huddled very closely
together. The latest official statistics, those of 1909, give the total
population of Japan as 53,500,000, of whom the males exceed the females
by about 600,000; and as of late years the annual increase has amounted
to about 700,000, the present population (1912) may fairly be estimated
at more than 55,000,000.[9]

The number of foreigners resident in Japan in 1909 exceeded 17,000, of
whom more than half were Chinese, and less than a quarter were British
and American. The number of Japanese in 1909 living abroad was 301,000,
of whom 100,000 were in the United States (chiefly in Hawaii), 97,000
in China, and only a few in British territory.

Japan is a mountainous country. The level ground, including artificial
terraces, is barely 12 per cent of the area of the whole empire. A long
range of high mountains runs like a backbone through the main island.
The highest peak is the famous Fuji, which rises 12,365 feet above the
sea-level, and is a “dormant volcano,” whose last eruption occurred in
1708. Its summit is covered with snow about ten months in the year.[10]
There are several other peaks of more than 8,000 feet elevation, such
as Mitake, Akashi, Shirane, Komagatake, Aso, Asama, Bandai, some of
which are active volcanoes. Eruptions happen not infrequently; and
earthquakes, more or less severe, registered by the seismometer, are
of daily occurrence, although most of the shocks are not ordinarily
perceptible. There are also several excellent hot springs, of sulphuric
or other mineral quality, as at Ikao, Kusatsu, Atami, Hakone, Arima,
Onsen. The mountainous character of Japan has also its pleasant
features, because it furnishes means of escape from the depressing heat
of summer. Karuizawa, Nikkō, Miyanoshita, Hakone, Arima, Chūzenji are
the most popular summer resorts.

There are not many, or large, lakes in Japan. Lake Biwa, 50 miles long
and 20 miles wide at its widest point, is the largest and most famous.
Hakone Lake, the “Asiatic Loch Lomond,” is beautiful, and especially
noted for the reflection of Mount Fuji in its water by moonlight. Lake
Chūzenji, in the Nikkō mountains, is regarded by many as “unrivalled
for beauty” and “hardly surpassed in any land.”

There are many beautiful waterfalls, such as Kegon, Urami, and others
in the Nikkō district, Nunobiki at Kōbe, Nachi in Kii, etc.

There are numerous rivers, short and swift; and it is these streams,
which, after a rainy season, swelling and rushing impetuously down from
the mountains, overflow their sandy banks and cause annually a terrible
destruction of life and property. The most important rivers are the
Tone, the Shinano, the Kiso, the Kitakami, the Tenryū, in the main
island, and the Ishikari in Yezo. The last is the longest (about 400
miles); the next is the Shinano (almost 250 miles); but no other river
comes up even to 200 miles in length. The Tenryū-gawa[11] is famous for
its rapids. Some of these rivers are navigable by small steamers.

Japan, with its long and irregular coast line, is particularly rich in
bays and harbors, both natural and artificial, which furnish shelter
for the shipping of all kinds. The “open ports,” which formerly
numbered only 6 (Nagasaki, Yokohama, Hakodate, Ōsaka, Kōbe, Niigata),
have reached the figure 36; and the growing foreign commerce annually
demands further enlargement. Of the old ports, Niigata is of no special
importance in foreign commerce; but, of the new ports, Kuchinotsu in
Kyūshiu, Muroran in Yezo (Hokkaidō), and especially Bakan and Moji, on
opposite sides of the Straits of Shimonoseki, are rapidly growing. In
this connection it is, perhaps, not inappropriate to make mention of
the far-famed “Inland Sea,” known to the Japanese as _Seto-no-uchi_
(Between the Straits), or _Seto-uchi_, which lies between the main
island, Shikoku and Kyūshiu.

The long coast line of Japan is a source of danger; for tidal
waves occasionally spread devastation along the shore. These, with
floods, earthquakes, eruptions, typhoons, and conflagrations, make a
combination of calamities which annually prove very disastrous in Japan.

The country is subject to epidemics, like dysentery, smallpox,
cholera, plague, and “La Grippe,” which generally prove quite fatal.
In 1890, for instance, some 50,000 Japanese were attacked by cholera,
and about 30,000 died; and during two seasons of the “Russian epidemic”
large numbers of Japanese were carried away. In both cases the
foreigners living in Japan enjoyed comparative immunity. And now, on
account of the advance in medical science, more stringent quarantine,
and better sanitary measures, the mortality among Japanese has been
considerably diminished: This fortunate result is largely due to the
efforts of such men as Dr. Kitasato, whose fame as a bacteriologist
is world-wide. The zoölogical pests of Japan are fleas, mosquitoes,
and rats, all of which are very troublesome; but modern improvements
minimize the extent of their power.

[Illustration: NAGASAKI HARBOR, AND LIGHTHOUSE INLAND SEA]

But, in spite of the drawbacks just enumerated, Japan is a beautiful
spot for residence. “The aspect of nature in Japan ... comprises a
variety of savage hideousness, appalling destructiveness, and almost
heavenly beauty.” The climate, though somewhat debilitating, is fairly
salubrious, and on the whole is very delightful. The extremes of heat
and cold are not so great as in Chicago, for instance, but are rendered
more intolerable and depressing by the humidity of the atmosphere. No
month is exempt from rain, which is most plentiful from June on through
September; and those two months are the schedule dates for the two
“rainy seasons.” September is also liable to bring a terrible typhoon.
Except in the northern, or in the mountainous, districts, snow is
infrequent and light, and fogs are rare. The spring is the most trying,
and the autumn the most charming season of the year.[12]

On account of the extent of Japan from north to south, the wide
differences of elevation and depression, and the influence of monsoons
and ocean currents, there is no uniformity in the climate. For
instance, the eastern coast, along which runs the _Kuro Shio_ (Black
Stream), with a moderating influence like that of the Gulf Stream, is
much warmer than the western coast, which is swept by Siberian breezes
and Arctic currents. The excessive humidity is due to the insular
position and heavy rainfall. Almost all portions of the country are
subject more or less to sudden changes of weather. It is also said that
there is in the air a great lack of ozone (only about one-third as much
as in most Western lands); and for this reason Occidentals at least are
unable to carry on as vigorous physical and mental labor as in the home
lands. Foreign children, however, seem to thrive well in Japan.

“Roughly speaking, the Japanese summer is hot and occasionally wet;
September and the first half of October much wetter; the late autumn
and early winter cool, comparatively dry, and delightful; February and
March disagreeable, with occasional snow and dirty weather, which is
all the more keenly felt in Japanese inns devoid of fireplaces; the
late spring rainy and windy, with beautiful days interspersed. But
different years vary greatly from each other.”[13]

In Japan “a rich soil, a genial climate, and a sufficient rainfall
produce luxuriant vegetation” of the many varieties of the three zones
over which the country stretches. In Formosa, Kyūshiu, Shikoku, and the
Ryūkyū Islands, “the general aspect is tropical”; on the main island
the general appearance is temperate; while Yezo and the Kurile Islands
begin to be quite frigid. The commonest trees are the pine, cedar,
maple, oak, lacquer, camphor, camellia, plum, peach, and cherry; but
the last three are grown for their flowers rather than for their fruit
or wood. The bamboo, which grows abundantly, is one of the most useful
plants, and is extensively employed also in ornamentation.

In the fauna of Japan we do not find such great variety. Fish and other
marine life are very abundant; fresh-water fish are also numerous; and
all these furnish both livelihood and living to millions of people.
Birds are also quite numerous; and some of them, like the so-called
“nightingale” (_uguisu_), are sweet singers. The badger, bear,
boar, deer, fox, hare, and monkey are found; cats, chickens, dogs,
horses, oxen, rats, and weasels are numerous; but sheep and goats are
rare. Snakes and lizards are many; but really dangerous animals are
comparatively few, except the foxes and badgers, which are said to have
the power to bewitch people!

In conclusion, attention should be called once more to the
physiographical advantages of Japan, and it may be of interest to
set them forth from the point of view of a Japanese who has indulged
in some prognostications of the future of his nation. From the
insular position of Japan, he assumes an adaptability to commerce and
navigation; from the situation of Japan, “on the periphery of the land
hemisphere,” and thus at a safe distance from “the centre of national
animosities,” he deems her comparatively secure from “the depredations
of the world’s most conquering nations”; from the direction of
her chief mountain system (her backbone), and “the variegated
configurations of her surface,” he thinks that “national unity with
local independence” may easily be developed. Likewise, because more
indentations are found on the eastern than on the western sides of
the Japanese islands, except in the southwestern island of Kyushiu,
where the opposite is true; because the ports of California, Oregon,
Washington, and British Columbia are open _toward_ Japan; because the
Hoang-Ho, the Yangtze Kiang, and the Canton rivers all flow and empty
toward Japan; because the latter thus “turns her back on Siberia, but
extends one arm toward America and the other toward China and India”;
because “winds and currents seem to imply the same thing [by] making
a call at Yokohama almost a necessity to a vessel that plies between
the two continents,”—he conceives of his native country as a _nakōdo_
(middleman, or arbiter) “between the democratic West and the Imperial
East, between the Christian America and the Buddhist Asia.”

But since these comparisons were made, the geography of Eastern Asia
and the Pacific Ocean has been altered. Japan has acquired Formosa
and Korea; the United States has assumed the responsibility of the
Philippines; and China is threatened with partition through “spheres
of influence.” Japan, therefore, seems now to be lying off the eastern
coast of Asia, with her back turned on Russia with Siberian breezes
and Arctic currents, her face turned toward America, with one hand
stretched out toward the Aleutian Islands and Alaska and the other
toward the Philippines, for the hearty grasp of friendship.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  For more detailed information concerning the topics treated in this
  chapter, the reader is referred to “The Story of Japan” (Murray), in
  the “Story of the Nations” series; “The Gist of Japan” (Peery); and
  “Advance Japan” (Morris).

  For pleasant descriptions of various portions of Japan, “Jinrikisha
  Days in Japan” (Miss Scidmore); “Lotos-Time in Japan” (Finck); “Japan
  and her People” (Miss Hartshorne); “Unbeaten Tracks in Japan” (Miss
  Bird, now Mrs. Bishop); “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd); and “Japan To-Day”
  (Scherer) are recommended.

  The most complete popular work on the country is the “Hand-Book for
  Japan” (Chamberlain and Mason), 8th edition; and the most thorough
  scientific treatment is to be found in Rein’s “Japan.”

  Students of seismology should consult Prof. John Milne’s works.



CHAPTER II

INDUSTRIAL JAPAN

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Agriculture; petty farming; small capital and
 income; character of farmer; decrease of farmers; principal products;
 rice; tea; tobacco; silk; cotton; camphor; bamboo; marine products
 and industries.—Mining.—Engineering.—Shipbuilding.—Miscellaneous
 industries.—Mechanical industries.—Shopping in Japan.—Wages
 and incomes.—Guilds, labor unions, strikes, etc.—Mr.
 Katayama.—Socialism.—Bibliography.


The chief occupation of the Japanese is agriculture, in which the
great mass of the people are employed. On account of the volcanic
nature and the mountainous condition of the country, there are large
portions not tillable;[14] and for the same reason, perhaps, the soil
in general is not naturally very fertile. It must be, and can be, made
so by artificial means; but as yet not half of what is fairly fertile
soil is under cultivation. Large portions of arable land, particularly
in Yezo and Formosa, can be made to return rich harvests, and are
gradually being brought under man’s dominion. But it can be readily
understood that if for any reason the crops fail, severe suffering will
ensue, and perhaps become widespread. The prosperity of the country
depends largely upon the prosperity of its farmers.

Farming, like almost everything in that land of miniatures, is on a
limited scale, as each man has only a very small holding. “There is
no farm in Japan; there are only gardens” (Uchimura). Even a “petty
farmer” of our Northwest would ridicule the extremely insignificant
farms of the Japanese, who, in turn, would be astounded at the
prodigious domains of a Dalrymple. A careful investigator, Dr. Karl
Rathgen, has summed up the situation as follows: “In Japan are to be
found only small holdings. A farm of five _chō_[15] (twelve acres) is
considered very large. As a rule the Japanese farmer is without hired
labor and without cattle. The family alone cultivates the farm, which,
however, is so small that a large share of the available labor can
be devoted to other purposes besides farming, such as the production
of silk, indigo, tobacco. The average holding for the whole of Japan
(excluding the Hokkaidō) for each agricultural family is 8.3 _tan_[15]
(about two acres), varying from a maximum of 17.6 _tan_ in the
prefecture of Aomori to a minimum of 5.3 _tan_ in the prefecture of
Wakayama.” “There are no large landed proprietors in Japan.”

A Japanese farm is so insignificant, partly because a Japanese
farmer has only a very small capital, and needs only a slight income
to support life. It has been estimated that a man so fortunate as to
own a farm of five _chō_[15] obtains therefrom an annual income of
100 or 120 _yen_.[15] And yet the Japanese farmers are very careful
and thoroughly understand their business. “In spade-husbandry,” says
Dr. Griffis, “they have little to learn”; but “in stock-raising,
fruit-growing, and the raising of hardier grains than rice, they need
much instruction.”[16]

A Japanese farmer is hard-working, industrious, stolid, conservative,
and yet, by reason of his fatalistic and stoical notions, in a way
happy and contented. “Left to the soil to till it, to live and die upon
it, the Japanese farmer has remained the same, ... with his horizon
bounded by his rice-fields, his water-courses, or the timbered hills,
his intellect laid away for safe-keeping in the priest’s hands, ...
caring little who rules him, unless he is taxed beyond the power
of flesh and blood to bear.” He is, however, more than ordinarily
interested in taxation, for the land-tax of three and one-third per
cent of the assessed value of the land amounts to about half the
national revenue, and is no inconsiderable part of the state, county,
town, and village taxes. It would have reverted to the original rate of
two and one-half per cent; but it has been still further increased on
account of the Russo-Japanese War.[17]

The principal products of the Japanese farms are rice, barley, wheat,
millet, maize, beans, peas, potatoes (Irish and sweet), turnips,
carrots, melons, eggplants, buckwheat, onions, beets, and a large white
bitter radish (_daikon_). A very good average yield is fifty bushels
to an acre. The entire annual production of rice varies each year, but
averages about 46,000,000 _koku_;[18] and the annual exportation of
rice runs from about 8,000,000 _yen_ to over 10,000,000 _yen_. The list
of fruits[19] and nuts grown in Japan includes pears, peaches, oranges,
figs, persimmons, grapes, plums, loquats, apricots, strawberries,
bananas, apples, peanuts, chestnuts, etc.

Among other important Japanese productions must be mentioned, of
course, tea, tobacco, and mulberry trees. Of these the last is,
perhaps, indigenous; but the other two are importations in their
origin. The culture of tea is most extensively carried on in the middle
and southern districts. The annual production is now about 7,000,000
_kwan_;[20] the annual export trade is valued at over 10,000,000
_yen_. The price of tea runs from five cents to six dollars per pound,
of which the last is raised at Uji, near Kyōto. The Japanese are a
tea-drinking people; they use that beverage at meals and between meals,
at all times and in all places. It is true that they drink it from a
very small cup, which holds about two tablespoonfuls, but they drink,
as we are told to pray, “without ceasing.” Hot water is kept ever
ready for making tea, which is sipped every few minutes, and is always
served, with cake or confectionery, to visitors.[21]

Tobacco was introduced into Japan by the Portuguese, but its use
was at first strictly prohibited. The practice of smoking, however,
rapidly spread until it became well-nigh a universal custom, not even
restricted to the male sex. The Lilliputian pipe would seem to indicate
that only a limited amount of the weed is used; but smoking, like
tea-drinking, is practised “early and often.” The Japanese tobacco is
said to be “remarkable for its mildness and dryness.”

The silk industry is the most important in relation to Japan’s foreign
trade, and is on the increase. Silk is sent away to American and
European markets chiefly in its raw state, but is also manufactured
into handkerchiefs, etc. The exports of silk for the year 1910 amounted
to about $90,000,000, or about two-fifths of the entire export trade.
It would, of course, be beyond the limits of this chapter to enter into
the description of the details of sericulture; it may be sufficient
here to state that only the stolid patience of Orientals can well
endure the slow, tedious, and painstaking process of feeding the
silkworms.[22]

[Illustration: COTTON MILLS, ŌSAKA]

Cotton-spinning is a comparatively new industry in Japan, but is
growing rapidly. Cotton is, of course, the principal material for the
clothing of the common people, who cannot afford silk robes. But Japan,
though raising a great deal of cotton, cannot supply the demand, and
imports large quantities from India and America. It is only within a
short time that cotton-spinning by machinery has become a Japanese
industry; formerly all the yarn was spun by hand; but in 1907 there
were 136 cotton-mills in Japan. Some are very small concerns; but in
Osaka, Nagoya, and Tōkyō there are comparatively large and flourishing
mills. Ordinary workmen receive from 12 to 20 _sen_ a day; skilled
laborers make from 30 to 40 _sen_; girls earn from 10 to 20 _sen_,
and children only a few _sen_ per day; but the stockholders receive
dividends of from 10 to 20 per cent per annum.

Since Japan acquired Formosa from China, she has had added to her
resources another very important and valuable product, in which she
possesses practically a monopoly of the world’s market and a supply
supposed to be sufficient for the demands of the whole world for this
entire century. It has been estimated, for instance, that the area of
interior districts in which the camphor tree is found will reach over
1,500 miles. The camphor business of Japan in Formosa is in the hands
of a British firm, to whom, as highest bidder, the government let out
its monopoly for a fixed term of years.[23]

Perhaps the most generally useful product of Japan is the bamboo,[24]
which “finds a use in every size, at all ages, and for manifold
purposes,” or, as Huish expresses it, “is used for everything.” Rein
and Chamberlain each takes up a page or more for an incomplete list
of articles made from bamboo; so that Piggott is surely right when he
states that it is “an easier task to say what is not made of bamboo.”

Inasmuch as Japan is an insular country, with a long line of
sea-coast, it is natural that fishing should be one of the principal
occupations of the people, and that fish, seaweed, and other marine
products should be common diet. From ancient times down to the opening
of Japan, the fishing industry was a simple occupation, somewhat
limited in its scope; but since the Japanese have learned from other
nations to what extent marine industries are capable of development,
fishing has become the source of many and varied lines of business.
The canning industry, for instance, is of quite recent origin, but is
growing rapidly. Whaling and sealing are very profitable occupations.
Smelt-fishing by torchlight by means of tame cormorants was largely
employed in olden times, and is kept up somewhat even to the present
day. The occupation of a fisherman, though arduous and dangerous, is
not entirely prosaic, and, in Japan, contributes to art. The return
home of the fishing-smacks in the afternoon is an interesting sight;
and the aspect of the sea, dotted with white sails, appeals so strongly
to the æsthetic sense of the Japanese that it is included among the
“eight views” of any locality.

Mining is also a flourishing industry in Japan, as the country is
quite rich in mineral resources. Coal is so extensively found that it
constitutes an item of export. Copper, antimony, sulphur, and silver
are found in large quantities; gold, tin, iron, lead, salt, etc.,
in smaller quantities. Oil, too, has sprung up into an important
product.[25]

Engineering, perhaps, deserves a paragraph by itself. This department
in the Imperial University is flourishing, and sends forth annually a
large number of good engineers. In civil engineering the Japanese have
become so skilful that they have little need now of foreign experts
except in the matter of general supervision.

It is worthy of special notice that the Japanese have become quite
skilful in ship-building, so that they now construct vessels of various
kinds, not only for themselves but for other nations. The Mitsu
Bishi Company, Nagasaki, has constructed for the Oriental Steamship
Company three fine passenger steamers of 13,000 tons each. At the
Uraga Dockyard large American men-of-war have been satisfactorily
repaired; and on October 15, 1902, a small United States gunboat was
launched,—“_the first instance in which Japan has got an order of
shipbuilding from a Western country_.”[26]

Among the minor miscellaneous industries which can only be mentioned
are sugar-raising, paper-making (there are a number of mills which are
paying well), dyeing, glass-blowing, lumber, horse-breeding, poultry,
pisciculture, ice, brick, fan, match, button, handkerchief, pottery,
lacquer, weaving, embroidery, _sake_ and beer brewing, soy, etc. The
extent and variety of the industries of Modern Japan are also clearly
evidenced in a short article about “The Ōsaka Exhibition” of 1903 in
the Appendix.

In what we style “the mechanical arts” the Japanese excel, and
have a world-wide reputation. With their innate æsthetic instincts
they make the most commonplace beautiful. It is a trite saying that
a globe-trotter, picking up in a native shop a very pretty little
article, and admiring it for its simplicity and exquisite taste, is
likely to find it an ordinary household utensil. Japanese lacquer work
is distinctive and remarkable for its beauty and strength; lacquered
utensils, such as bowls, trays, etc., are not damaged by boiling
soups, hot water, or even cigar ashes. In porcelain and pottery, the
Japanese are celebrated for the artistic skill displayed in manufacture
and ornamentation. “The bronze and inlaid metal work of Japan is
highly esteemed.” Japanese swords, too, are remarkable weapons with
“astonishing cleaving power.” To summarize this paragraph, it may be
said that the Japanese have turned what we call mechanical industries
into fine arts, which display a magnificent triumph of æstheticism even
in little things.[27]

This chapter would be incomplete without a paragraph concerning
Japanese shops, or retail stores, which are among the first curiosities
to attract and rivet a foreigner’s attention. The building is,
perhaps, a small, low, frame structure, crowded among its fellows on
a narrow lane. The floor is raised a foot or so above the ground, and
is covered, as usual, with thick matting. Spread out on the floor or
on wooden tiers or on shelves are the goods for sale. The shopkeeper
sits on his feet on the floor, and calmly smokes his pipelet, or fans
himself, or in winter warms his hands over the _hibachi_ (fire-bowl).
He greets you with a profound bow and most respectful words of welcome,
but makes no attempt to effect a sale, or even to show an article
unless you ask to see it. He is imperturbably indifferent whether or
not you make a purchase; either way, it is all right. He will politely
display anything you want to see; and, even if, after making him much
trouble, you buy nothing or only an insignificant and cheap article,
he sends you away with as profound a bow and as polite expressions as
if you had bought out the shop. Whether you buy little or much or even
nothing, you are always dismissed with “_Arigatō gozaimasu_” and “_Mata
irasshai_,” which are very respectful phrases for “Thank you” and “Come
again.” Having dropped into “a veritable shoppers’ paradise,” you will
quickly “find yourself the prey of an acute case of shopping fever
before you know it!” It is, indeed, true, to quote further from this
same writer, that “to stroll down the Broadway [known as the Ginza] of
Tokio of an evening is a liberal education in every-day art.”[28]

From what has already been written, it is easily noticeable that wages
and incomes, like so many things in _petite_ Japan, are insignificant.
It may be added that ordinary mechanics earn on an average over
50 _sen_ a day, and the most skilful seldom get more than double
that amount; that carpenters earn from 70 to 100 _sen_ a day; that
street-car drivers and conductors receive 12 or 15 _yen_ per month, and
other workmen of the common people about the same. Even an official who
receives 1,000 _yen_ per year is considered to have a snug income. It
will be inferred from this that the cost of living is proportionately
cheaper, whether for provisions or for shelter or for clothes, and that
the wants, the absolute necessities, of the people are few and simple.
Literally true it is, that a Japanese man “wants but little here
below, nor wants that little long.” With rice, barley, sweet potatoes,
other vegetables, fish, eggs, tea, and even sweetmeats in abundance
and very cheap, a Japanese can subsist on little and be contented and
happy with enough, or even less than that. But, unfortunately, the
new civilization of the West has carried into Japan the itch for gold
and the desire for more numerous and more expensive luxuries, and has
increased the cost of living without increasing proportionately the
amount of income or wages.[29]

Industrial Japan has already become more or less modified by features
of Occidental industrialism, such as guilds, trade unions, strikes,
co-operative stores. It is true that feudal Japan also had guilds,
which are, however, now run rather on modern lines. One of the oldest,
strongest, and most compact is that of the dock coolies, who without
many written rules are yet so well organized that they have almost an
absolute monopoly, with frequent strikes, which are always successful.
Others of the guilds are those of the sawyers, the plasterers, the
stonemasons, the bricklayers, the carpenters, the barbers, the coolies
(who can travel all over the empire without a penny and live on their
fellows), the wrestlers, the actors, the gamblers, the pickpockets,
etc. The beggars’ guild is now defunct. The labor unions of modern days
include the iron-workers, the ship-carpenters, the railway engineers,
the railway workmen, the printers, and the European-style cooks. The
last-mentioned is one in which foreigners resident in Japan necessarily
take a practical interest! The only unions which have become absolute
masters of the situation are those of the dock coolies, the railway
laborers, and the railway engineers. As for co-operative stores, there
are a dozen or more in Tōkyō, Yokohama, and Northern Japan.

The perfect organization of these modern unions is due largely to the
efforts of a young man named Sen Katayama, who is the champion of the
rights of the laboring man in Japan. He spent ten years in America and
made a special study of social problems. He is the head of Kingsley
Hall, a social settlement of varied activity in the heart of Tōkyō, and
editor of the “Labor World,” the organ of the working classes. That the
changes rapidly taking place in the industrial life of Japan will raise
up serious problems, there is no doubt; what phases they will assume
cannot be foreseen. But “socialistic” ideas are carefully repressed in
modern Japan.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  “Japan and its Trade” and “Advance Japan” (Morris); “The Yankees
  of the East” (Curtis); “Japan in Transition” (Ransome), chap. x.;
  “The Awakening of the East” (Leroy-Beaulieu), chaps. iv. and v.;
  “Dai Nippon” (Dyer), chaps. viii. and xi.; and especially Rein’s
  “Industries of Japan,” in which the subject is treated in great
  detail with German thoroughness. But to keep pace with the rapid
  progress along industrial and commercial lines, one really needs
  current English newspapers and magazines, such as are mentioned in
  the chapter on “Language and Literature.” The reports of the British
  and United States consular officials are also very useful in this
  respect.

  “The Japan Year Book,” issued annually, is a veritable cyclopedia of
  important facts and figures.



CHAPTER III

TRAVEL, TRANSPORTATION, COMMERCE

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Travelling in Old Japan; vehicles of Old and
 New Japan; _jinrikisha_; railway travel; telegraph and telephone;
 street-car, bicycle, and automobile; steamships.—Postal system.—Oil,
 gas, and electric light.—Foreign commerce; variety of imports.—Mixed
 corporations.—Stock and other exchanges.—Banking system; coinage;
 monetary standard.—Baron Shibusawa on business ability of Japanese,
 prospects of industrial and commercial Japan, and financial
 situation.—Bibliography.


One of the most common and most important indications of a great
change in the life and civilization of Japan is to be seen in the
improved modes of travel and transportation. The ancient method, though
in some sections pack-horses and oxen were used, was essentially
pedestrian. The common people travelled on foot, and carried or dragged
over the road their own baggage or freight. Couriers, carrying the most
important despatches, relied upon fleetness of foot. The higher classes
and wealthy people, even though not themselves making any exertions in
their own behalf, were carried about in vehicles by coolies, who, with
their human burdens, tramped from place to place. On water, too, travel
and transportation depended mostly upon human muscular exertion, as all
boats, small or large, had to be propelled by oars or poles, except
when favored with a breeze to swell the sails and allow the boatmen a
respite from their toil. But all this hard labor developed, of course,
a strength of limb and a power of endurance that even in recent years
have enabled the Japanese soldiers to march and fight in either the
piercing cold and deep snow of Manchuria or the blistering heat of
Formosa. A life of constant outdoor exposure to wind, rain, cold, or
heat has toughened and browned the skin, and made an altogether hardy
race out of the common people; while the lack of this regular exercise
and calisthenic training has left its mark in the comparatively weak
constitutions of those who travelled, not on their own feet, but on the
shoulders of others.

The common vehicles of the olden days were ordinary carts for
freight and _norimono_ and _kago_ for passengers. The _norimono_ is
a good-sized sedan-chair or palanquin, in which the rider can sit
in a fairly comfortable position. The _kago_ is a sort of basket in
which the traveller takes a half-sitting, half-reclining posture, not
altogether comfortable—at least for tall foreigners. At present the
_norimono_ is seldom if ever employed except for corpses or invalids,
but the _kago_ is still used in mountainous regions, where nothing
else is available. It must be understood, of course, that the nobles
and their retainers often rode on horseback; but the great mass of the
people walked and the few rode in _kago_ or _norimono_.

Now, however, modes of travel have changed greatly, and are changing
year by year. There are still many pedestrians; the _kago_ is yet to be
seen; boats are propelled by stern-end oar or laboriously pushed along
with poles; and pack-horses and oxen—even in the streets of Tōkyō—are
in frequent use. But there are many other means of communication and
transportation. There have come into use the horse-car, the stage, the
_jinrikisha_, the railroad, with the telegraph and the telephone; the
modern row-boat, the steamboat; the bicycle, the automobile, and the
electric railway, with the electric light to show the road by night.
An excellent postal system and various other modern contrivances for
facilitating the means of communication have been adopted.

The most common mode of conveyance at present, in all possible
localities, is the _jin-riki-sha_ (man-power-carriage), or “Pull-man
car,” as it has been wittily called. This is a two-wheeled “small
gig,” or large baby-carriage, pulled by one or more men. A ride in a
_jinrikisha_, after one has become accustomed to human labor in that
capacity, is really comfortable and delightful. The coolies who pull
these vehicles develop swiftness and endurance, but are comparatively
short-lived. There is also a two-wheeled freight cart manipulated in
the same fashion. It has been estimated that in the Empire there are
almost 1,350,000 hand-carts, about 185,000 _jinrikishas_, about 28,000
ox-carts, more than 66,000 other freight carts, and almost 100,000
carriages and wagons. The business of transportation thus furnishes
occupation to thousands of people, but gives to each engaged therein
only a scanty remuneration, which is often insufficient for the support
of life, after the tax has been paid. The fee for a _jinrikisha_ ride
averages about 12 or 15 _sen_ per ri (2-1/2 miles), or varies from 20
to 30 _sen_ per hour. If a coolie makes 50 _sen_ in one day, he is
fortunate, and is lucky to average 25 or 30 _sen_ per day; for some
days he may be wearily waiting and watching from dawn to the dead of
night without receiving scarcely a copper. Hard, indeed, is their lot;
and their death rate is rather high.[30]

But even the _jinrikisha_ will eventually be supplanted for long
journeys wherever a railroad goes. There are now in Japan over 6,000
miles of railway, and in Korea and South Manchuria there are 641 and
706 miles more. There is one continuous line of railroad from Aomori
in the extreme north to Shimonoseki in the extreme south of the main
island, and then, after crossing the Straits of Shimonoseki, there is
another unbroken line from Moji to Nagasaki and Kagoshima or Kumamoto.
In the island of Yezo (Hokkaidō) is a short line built by American
engineers after American models; but all other railroads in Japan were
built and are operated according to the British methods. The rate of
fare is 1 _sen_ per mile for third class, 2 _sen_ for second class,
and 3 _sen_ for first class, and the rate of speed rarely exceeds 20
or 25 miles per hour; but fortunately the people are not in such a
hurry as Americans. Recently, however, express trains, running at the
rate of 30 or more miles per hour, have been started on several of
the roads, especially between large and important places. Dining-cars
and sleeping-cars, too, may be found on some of the lines; and the
American check system is used for baggage. The government owns most of
the railways; in 1906, the Twenty-second Diet adopted a bill for buying
up the seventeen largest private lines. This may have been desirable
from a strategic point of view; but from the business standpoint it was
not advisable, for the government lines are not so well managed. The
best line in the country was a private one, the Sanyō Railway Company,
operating west from Kōbe.[31]

Railroads have been naturally accompanied, and often preceded, by
telegraph lines, which now keep the various parts of the empire in
close communication with Tōkyō and with each other. During 1910 the
telegrams numbered over 28,000,000, and are increasing rapidly in
number every year. The Japanese syllabary has lent itself easily to a
code like the Morse Code.[32] Telephones, too, have been introduced and
are growing in favor so rapidly that the government cannot keep up with
the petitions for installation. According to the latest reports, there
were over 100,000 telephones in all Japan. There are many public slot
telephones, which can be used for a few minutes for 5 _sen_.

Horse-cars are largely used in cities, but are being gradually
supplanted by electric cars. The bus in the city and the stage in the
country are in common use, but cannot be recommended for comfort.
Bicycles are very popular, and are cheaply manufactured in Japan; even
Japanese women have begun to ride, while young men are very skilful as
trick riders and rapid as “scorchers.” Automobiles also are coming into
a limited use.

In a country where formerly no ships large enough to make long voyages
were allowed to be made, steamship companies are now flourishing. The
_Ōsaka Shōsen Kwaisha_ (Osaka Merchant Marine Company) is a very large
and prosperous corporation, whose business is chiefly coasting trade,
but which also runs to Formosa, the Ryūkyū Islands, the Bonin Islands,
Korea, China, and America. The largest steamship company in Japan, and
one of the largest in the world, is the _Nippon Yūsen Kwaisha_ (Japan
Mail Steamship Company). It has a fleet of 88 vessels with 300,000
tons; and maintains not only a frequent coasting service, but also
several foreign lines, to Siberia, Korea, China, India, Australia,
Europe, and America. This is the line which runs fortnightly from
Seattle to Hongkong with excellent passenger accommodations. The _Tōyō
Kisen Kwaisha_ (Oriental Steamship Company) is a Japanese organization
with three fine vessels running about once a month from San Francisco
to Hawaii, Japan, China, and Manila. The word _Maru_[33] in such
combinations as “America Maru” or “Kaga Maru” is a special suffix
always attached to the name of a ship.

In Old Japan there was no official postal system, and letters were
despatched by private messengers and relays of couriers. When Japan
was opened to the world, some of the foreign nations represented there
maintained special post-offices of their own, but these were gradually
abandoned. It was in 1872 that the modern postal system of Japan was
organized on American models; and it was only five years later when
Japan was admitted to the International Postal Union. The twenty-fifth
anniversary of this event was celebrated with great _éclat_ in Tōkyō
in 1902. The Japanese postal system has been gradually improved during
its quarter-century of existence, so that in some respects it excels
its model, the United States postal system, and is really one of the
most efficient in the world. It includes registration, money orders,
parcel post, reply postal cards, postal savings,[34] and universal free
delivery. Letter postage is 3 _sen_ within the empire and 10 _sen_ to
all countries of the International Postal Union; postal cards are 1-1/2
and 4 _sen_ respectively. We also beg leave to remind Americans that
letter postage to Japan is _not_ 2 cents, but 5 cents, per ounce.

Oil is most extensively used for lighting purposes; but gas and
electricity are also employed, and bring good dividends to companies
furnishing such illumination. A very large amount of oil has been
annually imported from the United States and Russia; but as rich
fields have been found in Northern Japan,[35] the Standard Oil Company
is also interested in a Japanese corporation, the International Oil
Company, organized to work Japanese fields. Foreign capital has also
been invested in the Ōsaka Gas Company, and is sought by the Tōkyō Gas
Company, as well as by several electric and steam railway companies.
The first buildings erected for the Imperial Diet were supplied
with electric lights, but caught fire in some way, and were totally
destroyed. This calamity was laid at the door of a flaw in the electric
lighting apparatus, and so frightened the Emperor that he decided not
to use the electric lights in the palace; but if my memory serves
me rightly, after one or two nights of imperfect and unsatisfactory
lighting, he resorted once more to electricity.

The foreign trade of Japan had increased from $13,123,272 in 1868
to $265,017,161 in 1902,—twenty-fold in a third of a century.[36]
Of recent years the imports have been larger than the exports; in
1898 they were more than $55,000,000 in excess; in 1900, almost
$41,500,000 in excess; but in 1901 the difference was only about
$1,750,000. The chief articles of export are silk (either raw, or
partly or wholly manufactured), cotton yarn and goods, matches,
coal, high-grade rice, copper, camphor, tea, matting, straw braid,
and porcelain. The principal imports are raw cotton, shirting and
printed cotton, mousseline, wool, cotton velvet, satin, cheap rice,
flour, sugar, petroleum, oil cake, peas and beans, machinery, iron and
steel (including nails and rails), steamers, locomotives, and railway
carriages. The exports are sent chiefly to the United States, Great
Britain and colonies (especially Hongkong), China, and France; while
the imports come mostly from Great Britain and colonies (especially
England, India, and Hongkong), the United States, Germany, France and
colonies, and China.

The variety in the geographical distribution of the imports of Japan
may be faintly illustrated by the following partial list of supplies
taken by an American family from Tōkyō to the summer resort of
Hakone: soap from England and America, cocoa from England, butter
from California, cornstarch from Buffalo, N. Y., Swiss milk, Holland
candles, pickles from England, Scotch oatmeal, American rolled oats and
cracked wheat, flour from Spokane Falls, Washington, canned goods from
San Francisco, Kansas City, Chicago, and Omaha, and evaporated cream
from Illinois.

The first mixed corporation, composed of Japanese and foreigners, to
be licensed under the new Commercial Codes after the new treaties went
into effect in 1899, was the Nippon Electric Company, in which a large
electric company of Chicago is specially interested.

Japan has several stock exchanges and chambers of commerce in various
localities, and these are all under the strictest supervision and close
restrictions.

It was in 1872 that National Bank Regulations were first issued, and
a few banks were established; but in 1876 it was found necessary to
make radical amendments in those regulations in the way of affording
greater facilities for the organization of banks. The result was that
by 1879 there were 153 national banks in the country; and in 1886 the
further organization of national banks was stopped. In the mean time
the Yokohama Specie Bank had been organized (in 1880) for the support
of the foreign trade; and (in 1882) the Bank of Japan (Nippon Ginkō)
had been organized to “secure proper regulations of the currency.” In
1897 the Industrial Bank, and later provincial agricultural-industrial
banks were organized to give special banking facilities to local
agricultural and industrial circles. The Bank of Formosa, the Colonial
Bank of Hokkaidō, and a Credit Mobilier complete the list of official
institutions. By 1899 all the national banks had either been changed
into private banks or had gone out of existence. Private banks number
almost 1,700, of which the Mitsui, the Mitsubishi, the Hundredth, the
Sumitomo, the Fifteenth (Nobles’), the First, and the Yasuda are the
strongest. Savings-banks are also quite numerous (652), and are helping
to develop habits of thrift and economy among the common people.[37]

[Illustration: FIRST BANK, TŌKYŌ]

The first Japanese mint was established at Ōsaka in 1871, and has been
actively at work ever since; and there is an institution in Tōkyō for
the manufacture of paper money. The coins now chiefly used the copper,
nickel, silver, and gold; but in the country districts it is still
possible to find brass coins of less than mill values. The copper
pieces are 1/2 _sen_ (5 _rin_), 1 _sen_, and 2 _sen_; the 5 _sen_ piece
is the only nickel coin; the silver pieces are 5 _sen_, 10 _sen_, 20
_sen_, and 50 _sen_; and the gold coins are 5 _yen_, 10 _yen_, and
20 _yen_. There are also paper notes of 1 _yen_ and upward: these
are issued only by the Bank of Japan, and amounted in 1910 to over
400,000,000 _yen_.

In 1897 Japan adopted the gold standard, so that exchange fluctuations
with the Occident are slight, and the Japanese currency has a fixed
value, at the rate of about 50 cents for the _yen_.[38]

Concerning the prospects of industrial and commercial Japan, it may be
well to note the views[39] of Baron Shibusawa, one of the foremost of
Japanese merchants and financiers. In referring to the capacity of the
Japanese for business, the Baron says:—

 “There are, however, four peculiarities in the Japanese character
 which make it hard for the people to achieve business success. These
 are: Firstly, impulsiveness, which causes them to be enthusiastic
 during successful business and progressive even to rashness when
 filled with enthusiasm; secondly, lack of patience, which causes
 easy discouragement when business is not so successful; thirdly,
 disinclination for union; and fourthly, they do not honor credit as
 they should, which is so important a factor in financial success.
 These four peculiarities are to be met with in Japanese business men
 in a more or less marked degree.

 “Although Japan, as a country, is old, yet her commercial and
 industrial career being new, there are necessarily many points of
 incompleteness. For example, although we have many railways, yet
 there is no close connection made between the railway station and the
 harbor. Again, although we have railways, yet we have no appropriate
 cars, etc. To complete such work and to open up the resources of
 the country, and to allow Japan to benefit from them, we need more
 capital. The capital we have in the country is not enough. So what
 is now wanted in Japan is foreign capital. A great proportion of the
 Japanese people, however, are opposed to the idea of sharing any
 profits equally with any other nation. Their exclusiveness in this
 respect is a distinct relic of the old era. They ignore altogether
 the fact that, with the assistance of foreign capital, the profits
 would be quadrupled. The very idea of sharing with an outside power is
 distasteful to them. For instance, I have been endeavoring for many
 years by word and deed to obtain a revision of the laws relative to
 the ownership of land in Japan by foreigners. I may say that Marquis
 Itō and other public men are of my opinion in the matter. Because,
 however, of this exclusive element in Japan, it has still been found
 impossible to allow foreigners to own Japanese land. Until this change
 is made, foreign investors will naturally feel that there is little
 safety for their investments.

 “I am also anxious to introduce the idea of a system of trusteeship in
 order to encourage foreign nations to invest their money in Japanese
 enterprises. There are very many uncompleted works in Japan, which
 need outside money to finish them and which would return good profits.
 I feel assured that it would be possible for prominent Japanese
 bankers and capitalists to make themselves personally responsible for
 the money of the foreign investor. By such a system the security of
 the investment would be much increased, and the foreign investor would
 have the assurance that his money was safe, even if the business in
 which it had been invested may have ceased to exist. The entire loss
 caused by the failure of Japanese business enterprises would thus be
 borne by the Japanese.

 “The day will come when Japan will compete with the powers already
 in the field on all lines of manufactured goods, but this time must
 necessarily be far distant. The trouble at present is that, while the
 Japanese can imitate everything, they cannot, at the same time, invent
 superior things. But the trade of the Oriental countries will come to
 be regarded as Japan’s natural share, and she is already well capable
 of supplying it.

 “The resources of Japan are very varied and very fair in quantity
 at present. Raw silk and tea are abundant, while coal is plentiful,
 as also copper and silver; gold is not so much so. I hope to see our
 plentiful water supply turned into good account and harnessed to
 produce electric energy. This would be a great saving of expense and
 would cheapen the cost of production very much. Oil has been found in
 several districts and will take the place of coal to a large extent,
 and it is possible that if fully developed its export trade may be
 made to the neighboring countries. In Hokkaidō we have rich coal and
 silver mines and oil wells, while in Formosa we have rich gold mines.
 The iron we use in our iron works in Kiūshiu comes partly from several
 mines of Japan and partly from China.

 “My hope for the future is that foreign capital may be brought into
 the country and that the economic position of the country may be made
 so secure as to leave no doubt possible in the mind of the world as to
 the stability of the Japanese Empire.”

We also take pleasure in quoting the same high authority upon the
subject of the present financial situation in Japan, as follows:[40]—

 “The present financial difficulty in Japan is only the natural
 sequence of the over-expansion of business of some years ago. In
 every country there are waves of prosperity followed by periods of
 depression. I have known, in the economic history of Japan since the
 Restoration, five or six such waves. They do not necessarily injure
 the real financial standing of the country. The peculiarities of the
 Japanese business character have much to answer for in the way of
 increasing the appearance of financial insecurity during the times
 of depression. After the prosperous times of 1893 came the war with
 China and the subsequent indemnity. Much of the money paid by China
 was spent in Japan, and the Japanese people came to the conclusion
 that this increased circulation of money would be permanent. They
 acted impulsively in many enterprises, and rushed into all kinds of
 business because the government had over-expanded its enterprises
 after the war. The depression reached its height in 1900 and 1901,
 and businesses were abandoned or reduced because it was not such easy
 work as formerly. By proper management our national income can be made
 still greater than our expenditure.”

 [Illustration: BARON SHIBUSAWA]

 The national debt of Japan January, 1913, was more than 2,500,000,000
 yen ($1,250,000,000), of which almost 1,500,000,000 yen ($750,000,000)
 was in foreign loans.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

 For interesting accounts of travel when and where modern conveniences
 were not available, read “Unbeaten Tracks in Japan” (Bird); “The
 Mikado’s Empire” (Griffis); “Noto, an Unexplored Corner of Japan”
 (Lowell); “Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan” (Hearn); and papers in
 the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. For similarly
 interesting accounts of travel with modern conveniences read
 “Jinrikisha Days in Japan” (Scidmore); “Japan and her People”
 (Hartshorne); “The Yankees of the East” (Curtis); “Japan To-day”
 (Scherer); “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd).

 On the industrial and commercial phases of these topics, consult
 books, papers, magazines, and pamphlets mentioned in the bibliography
 of the preceding chapter; especially, for the latest statistics, “The
 Japan Year Book.”



CHAPTER IV

PEOPLE, HOUSES, FOOD, DRESS

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Ainu; ethnology; two types; comparative stature
 and weight; intellectual and moral qualities.—Classes in society of
 old and new _régimes_; social principle.—Family and empire.—Houses;
 public buildings; rooms; foreign architecture.—Gardens.—Food;
 meals; table manners; foreign cooking.—Undress and dress; European
 costume.—Bathing.—Bibliography.


Who were the aborigines of Japan is yet a disputed question. Remains
have been found of a race of dwarfs who dwelt in caves and pits, but
who these people were is not positively known. They may have been
contemporary with the Ainu, whom many call “the aborigines of Japan.”
It is certain, however, that the Ainu were once a very numerous
nation, “the members of which formerly extended all over Japan, and
were in Japan long before the present race of Japanese.” But the
latter gradually forced the former northward, until a final refuge was
found in Yezo and the Kurile Islands. There the Ainu are now living,
but are slowly dying out as a race; there are at present only about
17,000 remaining. They are said to be “the hairiest race in the whole
world,” “of sturdy build,” filthy in their habits (bathing is unknown),
addicted to drunkenness, and yet “of a mild and amiable disposition.”
Their religion is nature-worship.[41]

It is well known that the Japanese are classed under the Mongolian
(or Yellow) Race. They themselves boastfully assert that they belong
to the “golden race,” and are superior to Caucasians, who belong to
the “silver race”! As Mongolians, they are marked, not only by a
yellowish hue, of many shades from the darkest to the lightest, but
also by straight black hair (rather coarse), scanty beard, rather broad
and prominent cheek-bones, and eyes more or less oblique. Some think
that the Japanese people show strong evidences of Malay origin,[42]
and claim that the present Emperor, for instance, is of a striking
Malay type. It is not impossible, nor even improbable, that Malays
were borne on the “Japan Current” northward from their tropical abodes
to the Japanese islands; but there is no historical record of such a
movement. Therefore the best authorities, like Rein and Baelz, do not
acknowledge more than slight traces of Malay influence. A more recent
theory concerning the origin of the real Japanese—or Yamato men, as
they called themselves—is that they are descendants of the Hittites,
whose capital was Hamath, or Yamath, or Yamato!

There are two distinct types of Japanese: the oval-faced, narrow-eyed,
small aristocratic class; and the pudding-faced, full-eyed, flat-nosed,
stout common people. Of these, the latter is the one claimed to be
Malay. The plebeians, having always been accustomed to hard labor by
the sweat of the brow, are comparatively strong; the others, having
been developed by centuries of an inactive life, have inherited weak
constitutions. Indeed, the people, as a whole, are subject to early
maturity and early decay. There is a Japanese proverb to this effect:
“At ten, a god-like child; at twenty, a clever man; from twenty-five
on, an ordinary man.” And, in spite of the fact that there have been
remarkable exceptions to this rule, careful investigation by Japanese
supports the truth of the proverb. And yet there seems to be no doubt
that modern education and conditions of life show a gradual improvement
in this respect.

[Illustration: GROUP OF COUNTRY PEOPLE]

The average Japanese, compared with the average European or American,
has a lower stature[43] with a long body and short legs. A good
authority states that “the average stature of Japanese men is about
the same as the average stature of European women”; and that “the
[Japanese] women are proportionately smaller.” Some one has wittily
called the Japanese “the diamond edition of humanity.”

The Japanese also weigh much less than Europeans. The average weight
of young men of twenty years of age in Europe is about 144 pounds,
while the average weight of the strongest young men of the suburban
districts of Tōkyō was only about 121 pounds; which gives the European
an advantage of 23 pounds.

The Japanese are very quick to learn. Their minds are strong in
observation, perception, and memory, and weak in logic and abstraction.
As born lovers of nature, they have well-trained powers of observation
and perception, so that their minds turn readily to scientific
pursuits. And as the ancient Japanese system of education followed
Chinese models, the power of memorizing by rote has been strongly
developed, so that the Japanese mind has little difficulty in becoming
a storehouse of historical and other facts. But, as the powers of
reasoning and abstraction have not been well trained, the Japanese do
not take so readily to mathematical problems and metaphysical theorems.

The typical Japanese is loyal, filial, respectful, obedient, faithful,
kind, gentle, courteous, unselfish, generous.[44] His besetting sins
are deception, intemperance, debauchery,—and these are common sins
of humanity. In respect to these evils, he is unmoral rather than
immoral; and in his case these sins should not be considered so heinous
as in the case of one who has been taught and knows better.[45] And
it is with reference to these very evils that Shintō, Buddhism,
and Confucianism have been a complete failure in Japan, and that
Christianity is making its impress upon the nation.

There never were distinct and rigid castes in Japan, as in Egypt and
India, but formerly there were four classes in society. These were,
in order, the official and military class; the agricultural class, or
the farmers; the laboring class, or the artisans; and the mercantile
class, or merchants. Above all these were the Emperor and the Imperial
family; below all these were the tanners, grave-diggers, beggars, etc.,
who were the Japanese pariah, or outcasts. The first class included
the court nobility, the feudal lords, and their knights; they alone
were permitted to carry two swords, were exempt from taxation, and were
also the special educated and literary class, because they had the most
leisure for study. The other three classes together constituted the
common people, who were kept in rigid subjection and bled profusely by
taxes.

Under the present _régime_ there are three general classes of the
entire population of Japan: the nobility, the gentry, and the common
people. The nobility, created in 1884, comprises five orders: prince,
marquis, count, viscount, and baron; the gentry are the descendants
of the knights (_samurai_) of the old first class; the common people
include all the rest of the population. By the census of 1903 the
nobility numbered 5,055; the gentry, 2,168,058; and the common people,
44,559,015. (These figures are exclusive of Formosa.) Even now the
burden of taxation falls upon the mass of the common people, especially
upon the farming class, for the land tax is the most important source
of revenue in Japan.

The fundamental principle of Japanese society was, and still is,
reverent obedience to superiors. This polite and humble deference is
exhibited in their language and in their manners and customs, and has
become so thoroughly incorporated into their natures that it even yet
resists the levelling tendency of the present age. The language is full
of honorifics to be applied to or concerning another, and of humilifics
to be applied concerning self. I and mine are thus always ignorant,
stupid, dirty, homely, insignificant, etc., while you and yours are
ever intelligent, wise, clean, beautiful, noble etc. Perhaps there is
nothing that causes the student of the vernacular deeper chagrin than
to find that he has made so serious an error as to transpose the humble
and the honorific words or phrases! The ordinary salutation is really
an obeisance, as it consists of a profound bow,—on the street with
body bent half forward, in the house with forehead touching the floor.
This deep and universal feeling of reverence for superiors and elders
early developed into worship, both of the family and of the national
ancestors. This is the fundamental and central idea of Shintō, the
native cult, of which more will be written in a subsequent chapter.

The Japanese family[46] was, in its constitution, an empire, with
absolute authority in the hands of one man. The husband was,
theoretically and practically, the great authority to whom wife and
children were subject. He was a veritable autocrat and despot; and he
received superciliously the homage of all the family, who literally
bowed down before him. The family, and not the individual, was the unit
of society; but by the new codes now in operation the individual has
acquired greater rights. There is much hope, therefore, that gradually
the tyranny of the family will be eliminated.

One writer on Japan has well said: “The Empire is one great family;
the family is a little empire.”[47] In truth, the empire is founded and
maintained on the family idea of one line “in unbroken succession” from
Jimmu Tennō.

A house alone does not make a “home,” but merely gives it local
habitation; and as Japanese houses[48] are unique, they deserve some
consideration. Although brick and stone are coming into use among the
wealthy classes, wood is the chief material employed in building. A
typical Japanese house is a slight and flimsy frame structure with
straw-thatched, or shingled, or tiled roof. It has no foundation in
the ground, but rests on stones laid on the ground, and stands wholly
above the surface. This and other peculiar features of construction and
ornamentation are the outcome of attempts to lessen the dangers from
the frequent and severe earthquakes. The outer doors and windows of
Japanese houses are called _amado_ (rain-doors), and are solid wood.
They slide in grooves above and below; in stormy weather and at night
they are closed and fastened, not so tightly, however, as to prevent
them from rattling; at other times they are open. The inner doors, the
windows, and sometimes the partitions between the different rooms are
lattice frames, covered with a translucent, but not transparent, white
paper, and running in grooves. These, too, as well as the opaque paper
screens used between the rooms, can be taken out; so that all the rooms
may be turned into one, or the entire house be thrown open to the air
of heaven. The floors are covered with _tatami_—thick, soft mats of
straw, each usually six by three feet in size. Thus the accommodations
of rooms are indicated by the terms, “six-mat room,” “eight-mat room,”
etc. Inasmuch as on these mats the Japanese walk, sit, eat, work,
sleep, it is necessary to keep them very clean. They are carpet, chair,
sofa, bed, table, all in one, and must not be soiled by dirty sandals,
clogs, shoes, or boots, all of which are, therefore, to be removed
before entering a house. It may readily be seen that this is quite an
inconvenient custom for foreigners!

Schools, churches, offices, stores, and other places for large and
frequent public gatherings are being constructed in Occidental style,
with doors on hinges, glass windows, chairs, benches, tables, stoves,
grates, and other “modern conveniences.”

A room in a Japanese house seems to an American to be comparatively
bare and plain, as it is devoid of furniture and bric-à-brac. There is
no stove, for only a small box or brazier, containing a few pieces of
charcoal in a bed of ashes, is used for heating purposes. There are no
chairs or sofas, for the Japanese sit on their feet on the floor. There
are no huge bed sets, for they sleep on thick padded quilts spread on
the floor at night, and kept in a closet when not needed. There is no
large dining-table, for each person eats sitting before a small, low
lacquer tray, or table, about a foot high. There is no dazzling array
of pictures and other ornaments on the wall—only a _kakemono_ (wall
banner) or two; and there are no miscellaneous ornaments set around
here and there—only a vase of flowers.

But more and more are the Japanese coming to build at least parts of
the house in Occidental style, so that it is now quite common to find,
in houses of well-to-do people, a foreign room with carpet, table,
chairs, pictures, etc. Stoves and grates, too, for either wood or coal,
are being largely used. Mattresses, springs, and bedsteads are also
coming into use, because sleeping on the floor, where one is subject
to draughts, has been found to be unhealthy. In the case of foreign
rooms, moreover, it is generally unnecessary to take off the shoes; and
thus another frequent cause of colds is removed. A prevailing style of
architecture at present is the hybrid!

The best rooms of a Japanese house are not in the front, but in the
rear, and have an outlook upon the garden, which likewise, from its
plainness and simplicity, is unique. “Its artistic purpose is to copy
faithfully the attractions of a veritable landscape, and to carry the
real impressions that a real landscape communicates. It is, therefore,
at once a picture and a poem; perhaps even more a poem than a picture.”
It is in Japan, moreover, that it is possible to have a “garden”
without flowers or grass—with, perhaps, only “rocks and pebbles and
sand.” For the Japanese truly and literally find “sermons in stones,”
and give them not only “character” but also “tones and values.” More
than all that, “they held it possible to express moral lessons in
the design of a garden, and abstract ideas, such as charity, faith,
piety, content, calm, and connubial bliss.” In Japan, therefore,
landscape-gardening is and always has been a fine art.[49]

The Japanese may be called vegetarians, for it is only within a recent
period that meat has come to play any part in their diet. Fish, flesh,
and fowl were once strictly forbidden as articles of food by the tenets
of Buddhism, but gradually, one after another, came to be allowed as
eatables. Even now meat, though becoming more and more popular as an
article of diet, is not used in large quantities at one meal. Chicken,
game, beef, ham, and pork may be found on sale in most large towns and
cities. But beef is cut up into mouthfuls, and sold to Japanese by
the ounce; chickens are carefully and minutely dissected, and sold by
parts, as the wing, the leg, or an ounce or two of the breast. It was a
matter of great amazement to the Japanese of Mito that the foreigners
living there bought a whole chicken or two, or five or six pounds of
beef, at one time, and devoured them all in two or three meals!

Rice is, of course, the staple article of diet, “the staff of life”
of the Japanese; and yet, in poverty-stricken country districts, this
may be a luxury, with barley or millet as the ordinary food. Various
vegetables, particularly beans, are much used, fresh or pickled;
seaweed, fish, eggs, and nuts are largely eaten; and a sauce, made
of beans and wheat, and sold in America as “soy,” is “the universal
condiment.” Thin vegetable soups are an important part of their meals,
and, as no spoons are used, are drunk with a loud sucking noise, which
is a fixed habit in drinking. The principal beverages, even more common
than water, are tea and _sake_. The latter, an alcoholic liquor brewed
from rice, is taken hot; the former, without milk or sugar, is also
taken hot, and is served, not only at meals, but just about all the
time. A kettle of hot water is always kept ready at hand, in house or
inn, so that tea may be steeped in a moment and procured to drink at
any time. It is always set before a guest as soon as he arrives, and is
absolutely indispensable in every household.

At meal time each person sits on the floor before a small, low table
on which his food is placed. They use no knife, fork, or spoon, only
chop-sticks; and do not consider it in bad form to eat and drink with
loud smacking and sucking sounds. Their food, when served, seems to
foreigners more beautiful than palatable; it is “unsatisfying and
mawkish.” One who has probably had innumerable experiences during
a long residence in Japan says: “After a Japanese dinner you have
simultaneously a feeling of fulness and a feeling of having eaten
nothing that will do you any good.”[50] Yet, in time foreigners learn
to like many parts of a Japanese bill of fare; and when travelling
about the country, by carrying with them bread, butter, jam, and canned
meats, can get along with rice, eggs, vegetables, and chicken or
fish to complete the daily fare. In the summer resorts frequented by
foreigners there are always hotels and restaurants where only European
cooking is served. With the introduction of Western civilization came
wine, ale, beer, etc., which are extensively used by the Japanese.

Indeed, we must not fail to take notice of the change that is taking
place in the diet of the Japanese. Bread and meat, which were long ago
introduced into the diet of the army and the navy, are pretty generally
popular; and many other articles of “foreign food” are largely used. It
is quite a common custom in well-to-do families to have at least one
“foreign meal” per day; and “foreign restaurants,” especially in the
large cities, are well patronized. It is said, indeed, that first-class
“foreign cooking” is cheaper than first-class “Japanese cooking.” The
standard of living has been considerably raised within the past decade.

It is important to touch briefly on the subject of costume, though it
will not be possible or profitable to describe minutely every garment.
It may not be improper to begin with the topic of undress; for the
Japanese, perhaps because great lovers of nature, think it nothing
immodest to be seen, even in public, in the garb of nature. Of course,
in the open ports and large cities, foreign ideas of modesty are more
strongly enforced; but in the interior the primitive innocence of the
Garden of Eden prevails to a greater or less extent. In hot weather
children go stark-naked, and men wear only a loin-cloth: “_Honi soit
qui mal y pense_”—“Evil to him who evil thinks.”

The ordinary Japanese costume may be said to consist of a shirt, a
loose silk gown fastened at the waist with a silk sash, short socks
with separate places for the big toes, and either straw sandals or
wooden clogs. For ceremonial occasions, “a divided skirt,” and a silk
coat, adorned with the family crest, are used; these are called,
respectively, _hakama_ and _haori_. In winter two or three padded gowns
are added; and in all seasons many persons go bare-footed, bare-legged,
and bare-headed. The female garb[51] does not differ greatly from the
male costume, except that the sash is larger and richer and the gown is
made of lighter fabrics. The women powder and paint, oil their hair,
and adorn their heads with pretty combs and hairpins.

The Japanese costume is certainly very beautiful and becoming, and is
pronounced by medical authorities to be highly sanitary. For persons,
however, in active business, and for those who work in the fields, it
is not so convenient as the European costume; but it is altogether
too charming to be entirely discarded, and, with some modification,
might well be adopted in other lands. At court, the European costume
is generally used; the frock coat and evening dress have become common
ceremonial garbs; and silk hats, gloves, and canes also have become
fashionable. The efforts of the Japanese to adopt Western customs
and to conform to the usages of the Occident in matters of dress are
sometimes quite amusing to those who witness them.[52]

Chamberlain affirms that “cleanliness is one of the few original items
of Japanese civilization.” Surely their practice of frequent bathing
ought to have brought them to that stage which is considered “next to
godliness.” A bathroom is commonly an important part of the house; but
if a room is not available for that purpose, a bathtub outdoors will
do, or the public bath-houses afford every facility at a very small
charge. Necessary exposure of the person in connection with bathing is
not considered immodest; but, in large cities at least, the two sexes
are no longer permitted to bathe together promiscuously. The hot baths,
with water at about 110° F., are generally unendurable by foreigners.
The latter, however, after some experience, may become accustomed to
such heat and find it quite healthy. “Sea-bathing was not formerly
much practised; but since 1885 the upper classes have taken greatly to
it, in imitation of European usage, and the coast is now dotted with
bathing establishments.”[53] The Japanese also resort “to an almost
incredible extreme” to the hot mineral springs, which are so numerous
in Japan and generally possess excellent medicinal qualities.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Rein’s “Japan” is valuable on these topics; “Advance Japan” has
  a good chapter on “Diet, Dress, and Manners” (iv.); “A Japanese
  Interior,” by Miss Alice M. Bacon, gives most interesting glimpses
  of the inner life of the people; Murray’s “Story of Japan,” chap.
  ii.; Knapp’s “Feudal and Modern Japan,” vol. i. chap. v. and vol. ii.
  chap. iv.; and “Japan in History, Folklore, and Art” (Griffis), are
  useful; Finck in his “Lotos-Time in Japan,” also gives interesting
  glimpses of these topics; and Miss Bacon’s “Japanese Girls and Women”
  (revised and illustrated edition) is invaluable concerning family
  life. Miss Hartshorne’s “Japan and her People” is well worth reading
  on these subjects. “Japanese Life in Town and Country” (Knox), “Dai
  Nippon” (Dyer), and “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd) are also valuable.



CHAPTER V

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Birth and birthdays; marriage; death and funeral;
 mourning.—Holidays (national, local, class, and religions); the
 “five festivals”; New Year’s holidays; the other four festivals;
 floral festivals; religious festivals.—Games; wrestling.—Theatre;
 scenery and wardrobes; chorus and pantomime; the _Nō_.—Music;
 dancing-girls.—Occidentalization.—Folk-lore; superstitions about lucky
 and unlucky days, hours, ages, years, etc.—Bibliography.


The three great events in the career of a Japanese are, of course,
birth, marriage, and death, each of which is, therefore celebrated
with much formality. When a child is born, he or she is the recipient
of many presents, which, however, create an obligation that must
eventually be cleared off. A very common but honorable present on such
an occasion consists of eggs in small or large quantities, according
to circumstances. When the first American baby was born in Mito,
she was favored with a total of 456 eggs, besides dried fish, toys,
Japanese robes, and other articles of clothing, etc., and her parents
were favored with universal congratulations, diluted with condolences
because the new baby was a girl instead of a boy! Japanese babyhood is
blithesome.[54]

The birthday of an individual, however, is not especially observed upon
its recurring anniversary; for New Year’s Day is a kind of national, or
universal, birthday, from which age is reckoned. And this loss of an
individual birthday is also made up to the boys and girls by the two
special festivals, hereafter described, of Dolls and of Flags.

The wedding ceremony[55] is quite simple but very formal.
The principal feature thereof is the _san-san-ku-do_
(three-three-nine-times); that is, both the bride and the bridegroom
drink three times out of each of three cups of different sizes. This
ceremony, however, does not affect at all the validity of the marriage;
it is purely a social affair, of practically no more importance than
the wedding reception in America or England. In Christian circles this
convivial ceremony is omitted, and a rite performed by a Christian
minister is substituted. As marriage is only a civil contract, its
legality rests upon the official registration of the couple as
husband and wife; and this formality is often neglected, so that
divorce is easy and frequent. And as “matches” are generally made by
parents, guardians, relatives, or friends, the _mariage de convenance_
prevails in Japan. But the new Civil Code throws safeguards around the
institution of wedlock; and the teachings of Christianity have already
caused considerable improvement in the way of elevating marriage from
its low standard to a holy rite.

To the fatalistic Japanese death has no terrors, especially as they
are a people who seem to take about as much care of the dead as of the
living. Funeral ceremonies[56] are very elaborate, expensive, solemn,
and yet somewhat boisterous affairs. The Shintō rites are much plainer
than Buddhist ceremonies. In the former, the coffin is long and low,
as in the West, but in the latter it is small and square, so that the
corpse “is fitted into it in a squatting posture with the head bent
to the knees.” There are other distinguishing features of the two
funerals: the bare shaven heads of Buddhist priests in contrast with
the non-shaven heads of Shintō priests; the dark blue coats of the
Buddhist pall-bearers in contrast with the plain white garb of the
Shintō pall-bearers.

The mourning code of Japan is rather strict, and contains two features:
the wearing of mourning garments (which are white), and the abstinence
from animal food. The regular dates for visits to the grave are
the seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, thirty-fifth, forty-ninth,
and one-hundredth days, and the first, third, seventh, thirteenth,
twenty-third, twenty-seventh, thirty-third, thirty-seventh, fiftieth,
and one-hundredth years.

As is shown in another chapter (“Japanese Traits”), the Japanese are
a merry, vivacious, pleasure-loving people, who are satisfied with a
simple life. They give and take frequent holidays, which they enjoy to
the fullest extent. The national holidays are numerous, and come as
follows every year:—

  Four Sides’ Worship, January 1.
  First Beginning Festival, January 3.
  Emperor Kōmei’s Festival, January 30.
  _Kigen-setsu_, February 11.
  Spring Festival, March 22 (about).
  Jimmu Tennō Festival, April 3.
  Autumn Festival, September 24 (about).
  _Kanname_ Festival, October 17.
  Emperor’s Birthday, November 3.
  _Niiname_ Festival, November 23.

Some of the national holidays need a few words of explanation.
_Kigen-setsu_, for instance, was originally a festival in honor of
the ascension of Jimmu, the first Emperor, to the throne, and was
thus the anniversary of the establishment of the Old Empire; but it
is now observed also as the celebration of the promulgation of the
constitution (Feb. 11, 1889), and is thus the anniversary of the
establishment of the New Empire. The Jimmu Tennō Festival of April 3 is
the so-called anniversary of the death of that Emperor. The _Kanname_
Festival in October celebrates the offering of first-fruits to the
ancestral deities, and the _Niiname_ Festival in November celebrates
the tasting of those first-fruits by the Emperor. The Spring and Autumn
Festivals in March and September are adaptations of the Buddhist
equinoctial festivals of the dead, and are especially observed for the
worship of the Imperial ancestors. The Emperor Kōmei was the father
of the present Emperor, and reigned from 1847 to 1867. “Four Sides’
Worship” naturally suggests worship from the four principal directions.
This and the “First Beginning Festival” make the special New Year’s
holidays.

Besides these, there are a great many local, class, and religious
holidays, including Sunday, so that comparatively few persons
in Japan are kept under high pressure, but almost every one has
frequent opportunities to relax from the tension of his occupation
or profession. Even the poorest, who have to be content with a
hand-to-mouth existence, take their occasional holidays.

The five great festivals of the year fall on the first day of the
first month (New Year’s Day), the third day of the third month (Dolls’
Festival), the fifth day of the fifth month (Feast of the Flags), the
seventh day of the seventh month (Festival of the Star Vega), and the
ninth day of the ninth month (Chrysanthemum Festival). These are now
officially observed according to the Gregorian calendar, but may also
be popularly celebrated according to the old lunar calendar, and would
then fall from three to seven weeks later. And there are not a few
people who are perfectly willing to observe both calendars and thus
double their number of holidays!

The greatest of these is the New Year’s holiday or season, which
is often prolonged to three, five, seven, or even fifteen days. The
practice of making calls and presents still prevails, and, though quite
burdensome, illustrates the thoughtfulness, good cheer, and generosity
of the people.[57]

[Illustration: NEW YEAR’S GREETING]

The Dolls’ Festival is the one especially devoted to the girls; and the
Feast of Flags is set apart for the boys. The Festival of the Star Vega
commemorates a tradition concerning two starry lovers on opposite sides
of the Milky Way, or River of Heaven. The Chrysanthemum Festival seems
to have been overshadowed by the Emperor’s Birthday.

There are also many “flower festivals,” such as those of viewing the
plum, cherry, wistaria, iris, morning-glory, lotus, maple, etc.[58]

One of the most important of the Buddhist festivals is that in honor
of the spirits of the dead; it is called _Bon-matsuri_ and comes in the
middle of July. Buddha’s birthday in April is also observed. There is
a Japanese Memorial Day, celebrated twice a year in May and November,
when immense crowds flock to the shrines called _Shōkonsha_, and pay
their homage to the spirits of those who have died for their country.
Moreover, space would fail to tell of the numerous local shrines and
temples, Shintō and Buddhist, where the people flock annually or
semi-annually, to “worship” a few minutes and enjoy a picnic for the
remainder of the day. And, in Christian circles, Christmas, Easter, and
Sunday-school picnics are important and interesting occasions.

The common games are chess, _go_ (a very complicated game slightly
resembling checkers), parchesi, and cards. Flower-cards and poetical
quotations are old-style, but still popular; while Occidental cards,
under the name of _torompu_ (“trump”) are coming into general use.
Children find great amusement also with kites, tops, battledore and
shuttlecock, snow-men, dolls, cards, etc.[59] The chief sports of young
men are wrestling, rowing, tennis, and baseball. In the great American
game they have become so proficient that they frequently win against
the Americans and British who make up the baseball club of the Yokohama
Athletic Association!

Professional wrestling-matches[60] continue to draw large crowds to see
the huge masses of flesh measure their strength and skill. _Jūjutsu_
is a kind of wrestling in which skill and dexterity are more important
than mere physical strength.[61] Sleight-of-hand performers and
acrobats are quite popular.

The theatre[60] is a very important feature in the Japanese world of
amusements, and still remains about the only place where Old Japan
can be well studied. Theatrical performances in Japan are, of course,
quite different from those in the Occident, and seem very tedious to
Westerners, partly because they are so long and partly because they
are unintelligible. When the writer attended the theatre in Mito, the
play began, thirty minutes late, at 3:30 P. M., and continued, without
interruption, until almost midnight. Then, according to custom, a short
supplementary play of almost an hour’s duration followed, so that it
was about one o’clock when he finally reached home. The Japanese,
however, are accustomed to this “sweetness long drawn out,” and either
bring their lunches or slip out between acts to get something to eat
and drink, or buy tea and cake in the theatre.

The wardrobes and the scenery are elaborate and magnificent. The former
are often almost priceless heirlooms handed down from one generation
to another. Changes of wardrobe are often made in the presence of the
audience; an actor, by dropping off one robe (which is immediately
carried away by a small boy), entirely metamorphoses his appearance.
One convenient arrangement of the scenery is that of the revolving
stage, so that, as an old scene gradually disappears, the new one is
coming into view. The supernumeraries, moreover, though theoretically
invisible, are distinctly present, but seem to distract neither players
nor audience. The female parts are usually taken by men dressed as
women; and animals are represented by either men or wooden models.

The orchestra plays an exceedingly important part in a Japanese drama.
It consists of the _samisen_ (a guitar of three strings), the _fue_
(flute), and the _taiko_ (drum). It plays, not between the acts to
entertain the spectators, but, like the Greek chorus, during the scene,
to direct and explain the drama. Pantomime is an important element in
the play and exceedingly expressive. The pantomimic actions are guided
by the orchestra and the singers of the chants that furnish necessary
explanations. Japanese plays are mostly historical, though some depict
life and manners. It is quite interesting to note that in 1903 an
adapted translation of “Othello” was put on the Japanese stage with
marked success.

The _Nō_ “dances,” as they are sometimes called, were at first “purely
religious performances, intended to propitiate the chief deities of
the Shintō religion, and were acted exclusively in connection with
their shrines.” But they were afterwards secularized and popularized,
as lyric dramas. They are comparatively brief, and occupy only
about an hour in performing. They are now given chiefly as special
entertainments in high society or court circles to extraordinary
guests.[62]

Music, especially in connection with dancing, furnishes another
common means of amusement. The chief instruments of the old style
are the _koto_, a kind of lyre; the _samisen_, already described;
the _kokyū_, a sort of fiddle; lutes, flutes, fifes, drums, etc.;
while the violin, organ, and piano are coming into general use. These
instruments, moreover, are now being manufactured by the Japanese.
Individuals, bands, and orchestras, trained under foreign supervision,
furnish music, both instrumental and vocal, for private and public
entertainments; and concerts in European style are becoming very
popular.

It used to be that no evening entertainment was considered complete
without the dancing-girls (_geisha_),[63] whose presence is never
conducive to morality. But a strong effort is now being made, even
in non-Christian circles, to banish these evil features of social
entertainments. The Occidental mixed dances have not yet met with
great favor, except that in the court circle, which is cosmopolitan,
quadrilles, waltzes, etc., are encouraged.

The manners and customs, especially in the large cities, are
undergoing considerable Occidentalizing, which results at first in an
amusing mixture, or a queer hybrid. This is particularly true of social
functions in official or high life. It is, of course, true that the
great mass of the people, the “lower classes,” are not yet to any great
extent affected by the social changes in the world above their reach
and ken, and still conduct their social intercourse _more Japonico_,
that is, in the approved methods of their ancestors; but in the life of
the middle and upper classes, and especially in official functions, the
influence of Occidental manners and customs is quite marked.

Japanese literature is immensely rich in stories of adventure, most
interesting historical and biographical incidents, folk-lore, and fairy
tales. All of these are quite familiar to the Japanese child, whether
boy or girl, whose mind feasts upon, and delights in, the heroic and
the marvellous. The youth and the adults, also, are not at all averse
to such mental pabulum, and flock, for instance, to the hall of the
professional story-teller, who regales them with fact and fiction
ingeniously blended. Yoshitsune, Benkei, Momotarō, Kintarō, and others
are common heroes of folk-lore and fiction; while “The Tongue-Cut
Sparrow,” “The Matsuyama Mirror,” “The Man who Made Trees Bloom,” are
examples of hundreds of popular fairy tales. Japanese folk-lore is an
instructive and most interesting subject, which must, however, be now
dismissed with references.[64]

To an audience of Athenians on Mars Hill, Paul said: “Ye men of
Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are altogether superstitious.”
One might likewise stand before an audience of Japanese and say:
“Ye men of Nippon, I perceive that in all things ye are altogether
superstitious.” For most faithfully and devoutly do the mass of
the people still worship their innumerable deities, estimated with
the indefinite expression “eight hundred myriads”; and most firmly
do they continue to believe in the efficacy of charms and amulets
and to hold to inherited superstitious ideas. It is only where the
common school and Christianity have had full sway that these “foolish
notions” disappear. And while we have not space for a methodical study
of Japanese superstitions, we ought at least to present, even in a
desultory manner, some illustrations, culled at random from various
sources.[65]

The days of each month were named, not only in numerical order, but
also according to the animals of the Chinese zodiac. And the latter
names were perhaps more important than the numerical ones, because,
according to these special names, a day was judged to be either lucky
or unlucky for particular events. “Every day has its degree of luck
for removal [from one place to another], and, indeed, according to
another system, for actions of any kind; for a day is presided over in
succession by one of six stars which may make it lucky throughout or
only at night, or in the forenoon or the afternoon, or exactly at noon,
or absolutely unlucky. There are also special days on which marriages
should take place, prayers are granted by the gods, stores should be
opened, and signboards put up.” Dr. Griffis informs us in “The Mikado’s
Empire,” that “many people of the lower classes would not wash their
heads or hair on ‘the day of the horse,’ lest their hair become red.”
On the other hand, this “horse day” is sacred to Inari Sama, the
rice-god, who employs foxes as his messengers; and “the day of the rat”
is sacred to Daikoku, the god of wealth, who, in pictures, is always
accompanied by that rodent. As for wedding days, Rev. N. Tamura says:
“We think it is very unfortunate to be married on the 16th of January,
20th of February, 4th of March, 18th of April, 6th of May, 7th of
June, 10th of July, 11th of August, 9th of September, 3d of October,
25th of November, or 30th of December, also on the grandfather’s or
grandmother’s death day.” These dates are probably applicable to only
the old calendar. “Seeds will not germinate if planted on certain days”
(Griffis).

The hours were named, not only according to the numerical plan, but
also according to the heavenly menagerie in the following way:—

  1. Hour of the Rat        11 P. M.-1 A. M.
  2. Hour of the Ox                1-3 A. M.
  3. Hour of the Tiger             3-5 A. M.
  4. Hour of the Hare              5-7 A. M.
  6. Hour of the Dragon            7-9 A. M.
  6. Hour of the Serpent          9-11 A. M.
  7. Hour of the Horse      11 A. M.-1 P. M.
  8. Hour of the Goat              1-3 P. M.
  9. Hour of the Monkey            3-5 P. M.
  10. Hour of the Cock             5-7 P. M.
  11. Hour of the Dog              7-9 P. M.
  12. Hour of the Boar            9-11 P. M.

The “hour of the ox,” by the way, being the time of sound sleep, was
sacred to women crossed in love for taking vengeance upon a straw image
of the recreant lover at the shrine of Fudō.

“After 5 P. M. many people will not put on new clothes or sandals”
(Griffis). From “Superstitious Japan”: “If one swallows seven grains of
red beans (_azuki_) and one _go_ of _sake_ before the hour of the ox on
the first day of the year, he will be free from sickness and calamity
throughout the year; if he drinks _toso_ (spiced _sake_) at the hour of
the tiger of the same day, he will be untouched by malaria through the
year. On the seventh day of the first month if a male swallows seven,
and a female fourteen, red beans, they will be free from sickness all
their lives; if one bathes at the hour of the dog on the tenth day [of
the same month], his teeth will become hard.”

There are also superstitions about ages. Some persons, for instance,
“are averse to a marriage between those whose ages differ by three or
nine years. A man’s nativity also influences the direction in which
he should remove; and his age may permit his removal one year and
absolutely forbid it the next.” There are also critical years in a
person’s life, such as the seventh, twenty-fifth, forty-second, and
sixty-first[66] years for a man, and the seventh, eighth, thirty-third,
forty-second, and sixty-first[66] years for a woman. There is a similar
story to the effect that a child born (or begotten?) in the father’s
forty-third year is supposed to be possessed of a devil. When such a
child is about one month old, it is, therefore, exposed for about three
hours in some sacred place. Some member or friend of the family then
goes to get it, and bringing it to the parents, says: “This is a child
whom I have found and whom you had better take and bring up.” Thus
having fooled the devil, the parents receive their own child back.

From Inouye’s “Sketches of Tōkyō Life” we learn that aged persons
provide against failing memory by passing through seven different
shrine gates on the spring or autumn equinox. An incantation against
noxious insects, written with the infusion of India ink in liquorice
water on the eighth day of the fourth moon, Buddha’s birthday, will
prevent the entrance of the insects at every doorway or window where
it is posted. January 16 and July 16 were and are special holidays for
servants and apprentices, and considered sacred to Emma, the god of
Hades. At the time of the winter solstice doctors would worship the
Chinese Esculapius. “The foot-wear left outside on the night of the
winter equinox should be thrown away; he who wears them will shorten
his own life. If you cut a bamboo on a moonlight night, you will find a
snake in the hollow of it between the third and fourth joints.” “During
an eclipse of the sun or moon, people carefully cover, the wells, as
they suppose that poison falls from the sky during the period of the
obscuration.” “If on the night of the second day of the first moon, one
dreams of the _takara-bune_ (treasure-ship), he shall become a rich
man.” The first “dog day” and the third “dog day” in July are days for
eating special cakes. “The third dog day is considered by the peasantry
a turning-point in the life of the crops. Eels are eaten on any day
of the bull [ox] that may occur during this period of greatest heat.”
The author was once warned by a Japanese woman that he must not take
medicine or consult a doctor on New Year’s Day, because such acts would
portend a year of illness.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  There are many good books which portray the manners and customs of
  the Japanese people; and as for magazine and newspaper articles on
  the subject their name is legion. The works of Griffis, Chamberlain,
  Rein, Hearn, Lowell, Miss Bacon, Miss Scidmore, Miss Hartshorne,
  Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop, and Mitford’s “Tales of Old Japan” may be
  recommended. Good novels, like “Mito Yashiki” (Maclay), “Honda the
  Samurai” (Griffis), “In the Mikado’s Service” (Griffis), etc., give
  an insight into Japanese life. This may suffice, as more particular
  references have been given in connection with many of the topics of
  the chapter. “A Japanese Boy” (Shigemi), “When I was a Boy in Japan”
  (Shioya), “Japanese Girls and Women” (Miss Bacon), and “The Wee Ones
  of Japan” (Mrs. Bramhall) give good pictures of child-life; and Dr.
  Griffis has edited an edition of Mrs. Chaplin-Ayrton’s valuable
  “Child-Life in Japan.” “Japanese Life in Town and Country” (Knox),
  and “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd) also contain good material in this
  connection.



CHAPTER VI

JAPANESE TRAITS

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: First impressions: minuteness; politeness
 and courtesy; etiquette; simplicity; vivacity; equanimity;
 union of Stoicism and Epicureanism; generosity; unpracticality;
 procrastination; humility and conceit; lack of originality;
 fickleness; æstheticism; loyalty; filial piety; sentimental
 temperament; susceptibility to impulse; land and people.—Bibliography.


First impressions are, of course, often deceitful, as they are likely
to be formed from merely superficial views; but they are quite certain
to emphasize the peculiar characteristics of a person or a people. The
points of difference are very evident at first, but gradually become
less observable or prominent, and in time may scarcely be noticed. It
is, of course, undeniable that first impressions must be more or less
modified, but it is also true that some remain practically unchanged,
or are verified and strengthened by long experience.

In the case of the Japanese, for instance, a first and lasting
impression is that of minuteness. This characteristic of “things
Japanese” pertains less to quality than to quantity, is not a mental
or a moral, so much as a physical or dimensional, feature. The empire,
though called _Dai Nippon_ (Great Japan) is small; the people are
short; the lanes are narrow; the houses are low and small; farms are
insignificant;[67] teacups, other dishes, pipes, etc., are like our
toys; and innumerable other objects are Lilliputian. Pierre Loti, the
French writer, in his description of Japanese life, draws extensively
on the diminutives of his native tongue. In business matters, moreover,
the Japanese seem incapable of managing big enterprises, and do
everything on a small scale with a small capital. The saying that they
are “great in little things and little in great things” contains some
truth. But it must, in fairness, be acknowledged that, of recent years,
the Japanese have begun to display a remarkable facility and success
in the management of great enterprises. They are outgrowing this
characteristic of smallness, and are even now reckoned among the “great
world-powers.”

The Japanese are famous the world over for their politeness and
courtesy; they are a nation of good manners, and, for this and other
qualities, have been styled “the French of the Orient.” From morning to
night, from the cradle to the grave, the entire life is characterized
by unvarying gentleness and politeness in word and act. Many of the
expressions and actions are mere formalities, it is true; but they
have, by centuries of hereditary influence, been so far incorporated
into the individual and national life as to be a second nature. This
trait is one which most deeply impresses all visitors and residents,
and concerning which Sir Edwin Arnold has written the following:—

 “Where else in the world does there exist such a conspiracy to
 be agreeable; such a widespread compact to render the difficult
 affairs of life as smooth and graceful as circumstances admit; such
 fair decrees of fine behavior fixed and accomplished for all; such
 universal restraint of the coarser impulses of speech and act; such
 pretty picturesqueness of daily existence; such lovely love of
 nature as the embellisher of that existence; such sincere delight in
 beautiful, artistic things; such frank enjoyment of the enjoyable;
 such tenderness to little children; such reverence for parents and old
 persons; such widespread refinement of taste and habits; such courtesy
 to strangers; and such willingness to please and to be pleased?”

As stated above, the innate courtesy of the Japanese manifests itself
in every possible way in word and deed. Thus has been developed an
almost perfect code of etiquette, of polite speech and conduct for
every possible occasion; and while these formalities are sometimes
apparently unnecessary, often even a cloak for insincerity, and also a
waste of time in this practical age, we cannot but lament the decadence
of Japanese manners.

[Illustration: GARDEN AT ŌJI]

Another prominent and prevailing element of Japanese civilization
is simplicity. The people have the simplicity of nature to such an
extent that the garb of nature is not considered immodest. They find
delight in the simplest forms of natural beauties, and they plant
their standard of beauty on a simple base. A rough and gnarled tree,
or even a mere trunk or stump; a bare twig or branch without leaves
or blossoms; an old stone; all kinds of flowers and grasses have in
themselves a real natural beauty. A Japanese admires the beauties of
nature just as they are; he loves a flower _as a flower_. The Japanese
truly worship Nature in all her varied forms and hold communion with
all her aspects. They enjoy the simplest amusements with the simplest
toys which, cheap and frail, may last only an hour, but easily yield
their money’s worth and more of real pleasure. They find the greatest
happiness in such simple recreations as going to see the plum blossoms
or cherry flowers, and gazing at the full moon. They are, in comparison
with Americans, childish in their simplicity; but they succeed in
extracting more solid enjoyment out of life than any other people on
the globe. Americans sacrifice life to get a living: Japanese, by
simply living, enjoy life.

And this leads to another impression and characterization of the
Japanese people as merry, lighthearted, and vivacious. Careless, even
to an extreme; free from worry and anxiety, because easily satisfied
with little, and because inclined to be excessively fatalistic,—they
not only are faithful disciples of the Epicurean philosophy, that
happiness or pleasure is the _summum bonum_ of life, but they succeed
in being happy without much exertion. They believe that men “by
perpetual toil, bustle, and worry render themselves unfit to enjoy
the pleasures which nature places within their reach”; and that the
Occidental, and especially the American, life of high pressure, with
too much work and too little play, is actually making Jack a dull boy.
It is certainly to be hoped, but perhaps in vain, that the increasing
complexity of modern life in Japan will not entirely obliterate the
simplicity and vivacity of the Japanese; for they seem to “have verily
solved the great problem—how to be happy though poor.”

The Japanese are, however, extremely stoical in belief and behavior,
and can refrain as rigidly from manifestations of joy or sorrow as
could a Spartan or a Roman.[68] Many a Japanese Leonidas, Brutus, or
Cato stands forth as a typical hero in their annals. Without the least
sign of suffering they can experience the severest torture, such as
disembowelling themselves; and without a word of complaint they receive
adversity or affliction. _Shikata ga nai_ (“There is no help”) is the
stereotyped phrase of consolation from the least to the greatest loss,
injury, or affliction. For a broken dish, a bruise, a broken limb, a
business failure, a death, weeping is silly, sympathy is useless; alike
for all, _shikata ga nai_.

It is possibly this combination or union of Stoicism and Epicureanism
that makes the real and complete enjoyment of life. The following
paragraph pictures graphically the contrasting characteristics of
Japanese and American women: “It is said that the habitual serenity
of Japanese women is due to their freedom from small worries. The
fashion of their dress never varies, so they are saved much anxiety
of mind on that subject. Housekeeping is simplified by the absence of
draperies and a crowd of ornaments to gather dust, and the custom of
leaving footwear at the entrance keeps out much mud and dirt. With all
our boasted civilization, we may well learn from the Orientals how to
prevent the little foxes of petty anxieties from spoiling the vines of
our domestic comfort. If American housekeepers could eliminate from
their lives some of the unnecessary care of things, it would probably
smooth their brows and tone down the sharpened expression of their
features.”

The Japanese are, by instinct, a very unselfish and generous people.
These two seemingly synonymous adjectives are purposely used; for
the Japanese possess, not only the negative and passive virtue
of unselfishness, but also its positive and active expression in
generosity; they are not merely careless and thoughtless of self, but
they are careful and thoughtful of others. In fact, their philanthropic
instincts are so strong that neither excessive wealth nor extreme
pauperism is prevalent. These two traits had their origin, probably,
in a contempt for mere money-making and the lack of a strong desire
for wealth. The merchant, engaged in trade,—that is, in money-making
pursuits,—was ranked below the soldier, the farmer, and the artisan.
The typical Japanese believed that “the love of money is the root of
all evil,” and was not actuated by “the accursed greed for gold” (_auri
sacra fames_). No sordid views of life on a cash basis were held by
the Japanese, and not even the materialism of modern life has yet
destroyed their generous and philanthropic instincts. They are as truly
altruistic as Occidentals are egoistic.

The modern characteristic expressed by the term “practical” does not
belong to the Japanese, who are rather visionary in disposition. This
trait is undoubtedly an effect of the old distaste for money-making
pursuits, and renders the Japanese people, on the whole, incapable of
attending strictly and carefully to the minutiæ of business. They do
not, indeed, appear to possess the mental and moral qualities which
go to make a successful merchant or business man.[69] This is the
testimony both of those who have studied their psychological natures
and of those who have had actual business experience with them. The
former say that unpracticality and a distaste for money-making are
natural elements of the Japanese character, as is evidenced by the
fact that, in ancient society, the merchant was assigned to the fourth
class—below the soldier, the farmer, the artisan. “The temperament, the
training, and the necessary materials are, for the most part, lacking”;
and these cannot, in spite of the impressionableness of the Japanese
nature, be readily acquired and developed. Business men, moreover, who
have had actual dealings with the Japanese, complain of dishonesty,[70]
“pettiness, constant shilly-shallying,” and unbusiness-like habits; and
call them “good-natured, artistic, and all that, but muddle-pated folks
when it comes to matters of business.”

One illustration of their natural incapacity for business life
is found in the fact that they had no idea of time. They did not
understand the value, according to our standards, of the minutes,
and were much given to what we call a “waste of time.” They were not
accustomed to reckon time minute-ly, or to take into notice any period
less than an hour, and considered it nine o’clock until it was ten
o’clock. Moreover, the hour of the old “time-table” was 120 minutes
long.[71] Besides, the Japanese are too dignified to be in a hurry; so
that, if they miss one train, they do not fume and fret because they
have to wait even several hours for the next train, but take it all
calmly and patiently. And as clocks and watches are still somewhat
of a luxury to the common people, we must not expect them to come up
at once to our ideas of strict punctuality. But in school and office
and business they are learning habits of promptness and coming to
realize that “time is money”; so that recent years have shown a marked
improvement.

In the character of the Japanese are blended the two inharmonious
elements of humility and conceit. Their language, customs, and manners
are permeated with the idea of self-abasement, “in honor preferring
one another”; but their minds are filled with excessive vanity,
individual and national. They call their own country “Great Japan,”
and have always had a strong faith in the reality of its greatness.
The precocity and conceit of Japanese youth are very noticeable. A
schoolboy of fourteen is always ready to express with confidence and
positiveness his criticisms on Occidental and Oriental politics,
philosophy, and religion. Young Japan, whether individually or
collectively, is now in the Sophomore class of the World’s University.
Japan is self-assertive, self-confident, and independent. But the
marvellous achievements in the transformation of Japan during the
past half-century are some excuse for the development of vanity; and
the future, with its responsibilities, surely demands a measure of
self-confidence.

The Japanese are commonly criticised as being imitative rather than
initiative or inventive; and it must be acknowledged that a study of
their history bears out this criticism. The old civilization was very
largely borrowed from the Chinese, perhaps through the Koreans; and
in modern times we have witnessed a similar adoption and imitation of
Occidental civilization. But it must also be borne in mind that in
few cases was there servile imitation; for, in almost every instance,
there was an adaptation to the peculiar needs of Japan. And yet even
this assimilation might show that the Japanese have “great talent, but
little genius” (Munzinger), or “little creative power” (Rein). However,
there have been indications of late years that the Japanese mind is
developing inventive power. Originality is making itself known in
many really remarkable inventions, especially along mechanical lines.
Rifles, repeating pistols, smokeless gunpowder, guncotton, and bicycle
boats are a few illustrations of Japanese inventions. Moreover, many of
the Japanese inventors have secured letters patent in England, Germany,
France, Austria, and the United States. In scientific discoveries, too,
the Japanese are coming forward.

The Japanese have also been frequently accused of fickleness, and
during the past fifty years have certainly furnished numerous reasons
for such a charge. They have seemed to shift about with “every wind
of doctrine,” and, like the Athenians in Paul’s day, have been often
attracted by new things. But Dening’s defence against this accusation
is worthy of notice, and seems quite reasonable. He claims that “this
peculiarity is accidental, not inherent”; that there was “no lack
of permanence in their laws, institutions, and pursuits in the days
of their isolation”; that in recent times “their attention has been
attracted by such a multitude of [new] things ... that they have found
great difficulty in making a judicious selection”; and the rapid
changes “have not been usually dictated by mere fickleness, but have
resulted from the wish to _prove all things_.” Chamberlain, likewise,
refers to so-called “characteristic traits” that are “characteristic
merely of the stage through which the nation is now passing.” And
certainly a growing steadfastness of purpose and action is perceptible
in many phases of Japanese life.

The Japanese are pre-eminently an æsthetic people. In all sections,
among all classes, art reigns supreme. It permeates everything, great
or small. “Whatever these people fashion, from the toy of an hour to
the triumphs of all time, is touched by a taste unknown elsewhere.”[72]

The national spirit is excessively strong in Japan, and has been
made powerful by centuries of development. Every Japanese is born,
lives, and dies for his country. Loyalty is the highest virtue; and
_Yamato-damashii_ (Japan spirit) is a synonym too often of narrow and
inordinate patriotism. But the vision of the Japanese is broadening,
and they are learning that cosmopolitanism is not necessarily
antagonistic to patriotism. They used to harp on “The Japan of the
Japanese”; later they began to talk about “The Japan of Asia”; but now
they wax eloquent over “The Japan of the World.”

Filial piety is the second virtue in the Japanese ethics, and is often
carried to a silly extreme. The old custom of _inkyō_ made it possible
for parents, even while they were still able-bodied, to retire from
active work and become an incubus on the eldest son, perhaps just
starting out in his life career. But now there is a law that no one can
become inkyō before he is sixty years of age. And yet filial piety can
easily nullify the law!

Professor George T. Ladd, who has made a special study of the Japanese
from the psychological point of view, sums up their “character” as
of the “sentimental temperament.”[73] The following are suggestive
passages:—

 “This distinctive Japanese temperament is that which Lotze has so
 happily called the ‘sentimental temperament.’ It is the temperament
 characteristic of youth, predominatingly, in all races. It is, as a
 temperament, characteristic of all ages, of both sexes, and of all
 classes of population, among the Japanese. But, of course, in Japan as
 everywhere, the different ages, sexes, and classes of society, differ
 in respect to the purity of this temperamental distinction. Many
 important individual exceptions, or examples of other temperaments,
 also occur.

 “The distinguishing mark of the sentimental temperament is great
 susceptibility to variety of influences—especially on the side of
 feeling, and independent of clear logical analysis or fixed and
 well-comprehended principles—with a tendency to a will that is
 impulsive and liable to collapse. Such susceptibility is likely to
 be accompanied by unusual difficulty in giving due weight to those
 practical considerations, which lead to compromises in politics,
 to steadiness in labor, to patience in developing the details of
 science and philosophy, and to the establishment of a firm connection
 between the higher life of thought and feeling and the details of
 daily conduct. On the other hand, it is the artistic temperament, the
 temperament which makes one ‘interesting,’ the ‘clever’ mind, the
 temperament which has a suggestion of genius at its command....

 “Japan is the land of much natural scenery that is pre-eminently
 interesting and picturesque. It is the land of beautiful green
 mountains and of luxurious and highly variegated flora. It is the
 land that lends itself to art, to sentiment, to reverie and brooding
 over the mysteries of nature and of life. But it is also the land of
 volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, and typhoons; the land under whose
 thin fair crust, or weird and grotesque superficial beauty, and in
 whose air and surrounding waters, the mightiest destructive forces
 of nature slumber and mutter, and betimes break forth with amazing
 destructive effect. As is the land, so—in many striking respects—are
 the people that dwell in it. The superficial observer, especially
 if he himself be a victim of the unmixed sentimental temperament,
 may find everything interesting, æsthetically pleasing, promising
 continued kindness of feeling, and unwearied delightful politeness of
 address. But the more profound student will take note of the clear
 indications, that beneath this thin, fair crust, there are smouldering
 fires of national sentiment, uncontrolled by solid moral principle,
 and unguided by sound, practical judgment. As yet, however, we are
 confident in the larger hope for the future of this most ‘interesting’
 of Oriental races.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Rein’s “Japan,” “The Gist of Japan” (Peery), “Japan and its
  Regeneration” (Cary), “The Soul of the Far East” (Lowell), “Feudal
  and Modern Japan” (Knapp), “Lotos-Time in Japan” (Finck), and
  Hearn’s works discuss the subject of Japanese characteristics with
  intelligence from various points of view. The most interesting and
  instructive Japanese writer on the subject is Nitobe in his “Bushidō,
  the Soul of Japan.” Dening’s paper in vol. xix. Transactions Asiatic
  Society of Japan is very valuable. “The Evolution of the Japanese”
  (Gulick) should also be carefully studied, especially as he differs
  from Lowell and others, who contend that Orientals in general, and
  Japanese in particular, have no “soul,” or distinct personality.

  Hearn’s best work, entitled “Japan, An Interpretation,” is
  interesting and instructive in this connection. “Japanese Life in
  Town and Country” (Knox), “Dai Nippon” (Dyer), chap. iii., and “Every
  Day Japan” (Lloyd) also throw light on this topic.



CHAPTER VII

HISTORY (OLD JAPAN)


 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Outline of mythology and history; sources of
 material; earlier periods; Japanese and Græco-Roman mythology;
 prehistoric period; continental influences; capitals; Imperialism;
 Fujiwara Epoch; Taira and Minamoto; Hōjō tyranny; Ashikaga Period;
 Nobunaga and Hideyoshi; Iyeyasu; Tokugawa Dynasty.—Bibliography.


The mythology and history of Japan may be outlined in the following
manner:—

  A. Sources of material.

  1. Oral tradition.

  2. Kojiki [711 A. D.].

  3. Nihongi [720 A. D.].

  B. Chronology.

  I. Old Japan.

  1. “Divine Ages.” Creation of world; Izanagi and Izanami; Sun-goddess
  and brother; Ninigi; Princes Fire-Shine and Fire-Fade; Jimmu.

  2. Prehistoric Period [660 B.C.-400 (?) A. D.]. Jimmu Tennō; “Sūjin,
  the Civilizer”; Yamato-Dake; Empress Jingu; Invasion of Korea; Ōjin,
  deified as Hachiman, the Japanese Mars; Take-no-uchi. Native elements
  of civilization. Chinese literature.

  3. Imperialistic Period [400 (?)-888 A. D.]. Continental influences
  (on language and literature, learning, government, manners and
  customs, and religion); Buddhism; Shōtoku Taishi; practice of
  abdication; Nara Epoch; capital settled at Kyōto; Sugawara; Fujiwara
  family established in regency (888 A. D.).

  4. Civil Strife [888-1603 A. D.]. Fujiwara bureaucracy; Taira
  supremacy (1156-1185); wars of red and white flags; Yoritomo and
  Yoshitsune; Minamoto supremacy (1185-1199); first Shōgunate; Hōjō
  tyranny (1199-1333); Tartar armada; Kusunoki and Nitta; Ashikaga
  supremacy (1333-1573); “War of the Chrysanthemums”; tribute to
  China; fine arts and architecture; _cha-no-yu_; Portuguese; Francis
  Xavier; spread of Christianity; Nobunaga, persecutor of Buddhists
  (1573-1582); Hideyoshi, “Napoleon of Japan” (1585-1598); persecution
  of Christianity; invasion of Korea; Iyeyasu; battle of Sekigahara
  (1600 A. D.).

  5. Tokugawa Feudalism [1603-1868 A. D.]. Iyeyasu Shōgun (1603);
  capital Yedo, girdled by friendly fiefs; perfection of feudalism;
  Dutch; Will Adams; English; extermination of Christianity; seclusion
  and crystallization (1638-1853); Confucian influences.

  II. New Japan.

  5 (continued). Perry’s Expedition; treaties with foreign nations;
  internal strife; Richardson affair; Shimonoseki affair; resignation
  of Shōgun; abolition of Shōgunate; Revolutionary War; New
  Imperialism; Imperial capital Yedo, renamed Tōkyō; Meiji Era.

  6. New Empire [1868- ]. Opening of ports and cities; “Charter
  Oath”; telegraphs, light-houses, postal system, mint, dockyard,
  etc.; outcasts acknowledged as human beings; abolition of feudalism;
  first railway, newspaper, and church; Imperial University; Yokohama
  Missionary Conference; Gregorian calendar; anti-Christian edicts
  removed; Saga rebellion; Formosan Expedition; assembly of governors;
  Senate; treaty with Korea; Satsuma rebellion; bi-metallism; Loo Choo
  annexed; new codes; prefectural assemblies; Bank of Japan; Ōsaka
  Missionary Conference; new nobility; Japan Mail Steamship Company;
  Privy Council; Prince Haru made Crown Prince; anti-foreign reaction;
  promulgation of Constitution; first Diet; Gifu earthquake; war with
  China; Formosa; tariff revision; gold standard; freedom of press and
  public meetings; opening of Japan by new treaties; war with China;
  Tōkyō Missionary Conference; Anglo-Japanese Alliance.

The student of Japanese history is confronted, at the outset, with
a serious difficulty. In ancient times the Japanese had no literary
script, so that all events had to be handed down from generation to
generation by oral tradition. The art of writing was introduced into
Japan, from China probably, in the latter part of the third century
A. D.; but it was not used for recording events until the beginning
of the fifth century. All these early records, moreover, were
destroyed by fire; so that the only “reliance for information about
... antiquity” has to be placed in the _Kojiki_,[74] or “Records of
Ancient Matters,” and the _Nihongi_,[75] or “Chronicles of Japan.”
The former, completed in 712 A. D., is written in a purer Japanese
style; the latter, finished in 720 A. D., is “much more tinctured
with Chinese philosophy”; though differing in some details, they are
practically concordant, and supply the data upon which the Japanese
have constructed their “history.” It is thus evident that the accounts
of the period before Christ must be largely mythological, and the
records of the first four centuries of the Christian era must be a
thorough mixture of fact and fiction, which it is difficult carefully
to separate.

[Illustration: ŌSAKA CASTLE]

According to Japanese chronology, the Empire of Japan was founded by
Jimmu Tennō in 660 B. C. This was when Assyria, under Sardanapalus, was
at the height of its power; not long after the ten tribes of Israel
had been carried into captivity, and soon after the reign of the good
Hezekiah in Judah; before Media had risen into prominence; a century
later than Lycurgus, and a few decades before Draco; and during the
period of the Roman kingdom. But according to a foreign scholar who
has sifted the material at hand, the first absolutely authentic date
in Japanese history is 461 A. D.,[76]—just the time when the Saxons
were settling in England. If, therefore, the Japanese are given the
benefit of more than a century, there yet remains a millennium which
falls under the sacrificial knife of the historical critic. But while
we cannot accept unchallenged the details of about a thousand years,
and cannot withhold surprise that even the Constitution of New Japan
maintains the “exploded religious fiction” of the foundation of the
empire, we must acknowledge that the Imperial family of Japan has
formed the oldest continuous dynasty in the world, and can probably
boast an “unbroken line” of eighteen or twenty centuries.


1. “_Divine Ages._”


2. _Prehistoric Period_ [660 B. C.—400 (?) A. D.].

Dr. Murray, in “The Story of Japan,” following the illustrious example
of Arnold in Roman history, treats these more or less mythological
periods in a reasonable way. He says: “Yet the events of the earlier
period[s] ... are capable, with due care and inspection, of furnishing
important lessons and disclosing many facts in regard to the lives and
characteristics of the primitive Japanese.” These facts concerning the
native elements of civilization pertain to the mode of government,
which was feudal; to food, clothing, houses, arms, and implements; to
plants and domestic and wild animals; to modes of travel; to reading
and writing, as being unknown; to various manners and customs; to
superstitions; and to “religious notions,” which found expression in
Shintō, itself not strictly a “religion,” but only a cult without a
moral code. “Morals were invented by the Chinese because they were an
immoral people; but in Japan there was no necessity for any system
of morals, as every Japanese acted rightly if he only consulted his
own heart”! So asserts a Shintō apologist. And from the fact that so
many myths cluster around Izumo, it is a natural inference that one
migration of the ancestors of the Japanese from Korea landed in that
province, while the legends relating to Izanagi and Izanami, the first
male and female deities, since they find local habitation in Kyūshiu,
seem to indicate another migration (Korean or Malay?) to that locality.
These different migrations are also supposed to account for the two
distinct types of Japanese.

The story of the creation of the world bears considerable resemblance
to that related in Ovid’s Metamorphoses; and this is only one of many
points of remarkable similarity between the mythology of Japan and the
Græco-Roman mythology.[77] And one famous incident in the career of the
Sun-Goddess is evidently a myth of a solar eclipse.

Although the Emperor Jimmu cannot be accepted as a truly historical
personage, neither can he be entirely ignored, for he is still an
important “character” in Japanese “history” and continues to claim in
his honor two national holidays (February 11 and April 3). And, just as
Jimmu may be considered the Cyrus, or founder, of the Japanese Empire,
so Sūjin, “the Civilizer,” may be called its Darius, or organizer. The
Prince Yamato-Dake is a popular hero, whose wonderful exploits are
still sung in prose and poetry. As for the Empress Jingu, or Jingō,
although she is not included in the official list[78] of the rulers of
the empire, she is considered a great heroine, and is especially famous
for her successful invasion of Korea, assigned to about 200 A. d. And
it is her son, Ōjin, who, deified as Hachiman, is still “worshipped” as
god of war; while Take-no-uchi is renowned for having served as Prime
Minister to five Emperors and one Empress (Jingu). It was during this
period that the Chinese language and literature, together with the art
of writing, were introduced into Japan through Korea.


3. _Imperialistic Period_ [400(?)-888 A. D.].

The continental influences form an important factor in the equation of
Japanese civilization. The Japanese “have been from the beginning of
their history a receptive people,” and are indebted to Korea and China
for the beginnings of language, literature, education, art, mental and
moral philosophy (Confucianism), religion (Buddhism), and many social
ideas. The conversion of the nation to Buddhism took place in the sixth
and seventh centuries, and was largely due to the powerful influence
of the Prime Minister of the Empress Suiko. He is best known by his
posthumous title of Shōtoku Taishi, and is also famous for having
compiled “the first written law[s] in Japan.”

For a long period, on account of superstitions, the capital was
frequently removed, so that Japan is said to have had “no less than
sixty capitals.” But during most of the eighth century the court was
located at Nara, which gave its name to that epoch; and in 794 A. D.
the capital was permanently established at Kyōto.

At first the government of Japan was an absolute monarchy, not only in
name, but also in fact; for the authority of the Emperor was recognized
and maintained, comparatively unimpaired, throughout the realm. But
the decay of the Imperial power began quite early in “the Middle Ages
of Japan,” as Dr. Murray calls the period from about 700 to 1184 A. D.
The Emperors themselves, wearied with the restrained and dignified life
which, as “descendants of the gods,” they were obliged by etiquette
to endure, preferred to abdicate; and in retirement “often wielded a
greater influence and exerted a more active part in the administration
of affairs.” This practice of abdication frequently brought a youth, or
even an infant, to the throne, and naturally transferred the real power
to the subordinate administrative officers. This was the way in which
gradatim the “duarchy,” as it is sometimes called, was developed, and
in which _seriatim_ families and even individuals became prominent.


4. _Civil Strife_ [888-1603 A. D.].

Although actual warfare did not begin for a long period, the date of
the appointment of a Fujiwara as Regent practically ended Imperialism
and was the beginning of jealousy and strife. And yet the Fujiwara
Epoch was the “Elizabethan Age” of classical literature. But after that
family had for about 400 years “monopolized nearly all the important
offices in the government,” and from 888 had held the regency in
hereditary tenure, it was finally deposed by the so-called “military
families.”

The first of these was the Taira, who, after only a short period of
power (1156-1185) through Kiyomori, were utterly overthrown in the
“wars of the red and white flags,” and practically annihilated in the
great naval battle of Dan-no-ura. Next came the Minamoto, represented
by Yoritomo,[79] whose authority was further enhanced when the Emperor
bestowed on him the highest military title, _Sei-i-Tai-Shōgun_.
And from this time (1192) till 1868 the emperors were practical
nonentities, and subordinates actually governed the empire. The
Japanese Merovingians, however, were never deprived of their titular
honor by their “Mayors of the Palace.”

But the successors of Yoritomo in the office of Shōgun were young
and sensual, and gladly relinquished the executive duties to their
guardians of the Hōjō family, who, as regents, ruled “with resistless
authority” and “unexampled cruelty and rapacity,” but yet deserve
credit for defeating (in 1281) an invading force of Tartars sent by
Kublai Khan. The great patriots, Kusunoki and Nitta, with the aid
of Ashikaga, finally overthrew the Hōjō domination in 1333; but the
Ashikaga rule succeeded and continued till 1573.

During the fourteenth century occurred the Japanese “War of the Roses,”
or the “War of the Chrysanthemums,” which was a conflict between two
rival branches of the Imperial family. It resulted in the defeat of
the “Southern Court” by the “Northern Court,” and the reunion of the
Imperial authority in the person of the Emperor Komatsu II. It was
an Ashikaga Shōgun who encouraged the quaint tea-ceremonial, called
_cha-no-yu_; it was the same family who fostered fine arts, especially
painting and architecture; it was an Ashikaga who paid tribute to
China; it was “in almost the worst period of the Ashikaga anarchy”
that, in 1542, “the Portuguese made their first appearance in Japan”;
and it was only seven years later when Francis Xavier arrived there to
begin his missionary labors, from which Christianity spread rapidly,
until the converts were numbered by the millions.[80]

The next few decades of Japanese history are crowded with civil
strife, and include the three great men, Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and
Iyeyasu, each of whom in turn seized the supreme power. The first-named
persecuted Buddhism and was favorable to Christianity; the other two
interdicted the latter. Hideyoshi, who “rose from obscurity solely
by his own talents,” has been called “the Napoleon of Japan.” He is
generally known by his title of Taikō; and he extended his name abroad
by an invasion of Korea, which was not, however, a complete success.
He is regarded by many as “the greatest soldier, if not the greatest
man, whom Japan has produced.” If this statement can be successfully
challenged, the palm will certainly be awarded to Iyeyasu, who, by the
victory of Sekigahara in 1600, became the virtual ruler of the empire.


5. _Tokugawa Feudalism_ [1603-1868 A. D.].

Iyeyasu founded a dynasty (Tokugawa) of Shōguns, who, for more than
260 years, ruled at Yedo, surrounded by faithful vassals, and who at
least gave the empire a long period of peace. He brought Japanese
feudalism to its perfection of organization. His successors destroyed
Christianity by means of a fearful persecution; prohibited commercial
intercourse, except with the Chinese and the Dutch,[81] and allowed it
with these only to a limited extent, and thus crystallized Japanese
civilization and institutions. It may be true that “Japan reached the
acme of her ancient greatness during the Tokugawa Dynasty”; but it is
also true that by this policy of insulation and seclusion she was put
back two and a half centuries in the matter of progress in civilization.

The long years of peace under the Tokugawas were also years of
literary development. Chinese history, literature, and philosophy were
ardently studied; Confucianism wielded a mighty influence; but Japanese
history and literature were not neglected. The Mito clan especially
was the centre of intellectual industry, and produced, among a large
number of works, the _Dai Nihon Shi_ (History of Great Japan), which
is even to-day the standard. The study of Japanese history revealed
the fact that the governmental authority had been originally centred
in the Emperor, and not divided with any subordinate; and the study
of Confucian political science led to the same idea of an absolute
monarchy. Thus the spirit of Imperialism grew, encouraged, perhaps, by
clan jealousies and fostered by anti-foreign opinions, until “the last
of the Shōguns” resigned his position, and the Emperor was restored
to his original sole authority. Then the leaders of the Restoration
abandoned their anti-foreign slogan, which had been only a pretext, and
by a complete but wise _volte-face_, began to turn their country into
the path of modern civilization, to make up for the lost centuries. But
the story of this wonderful transformation belongs to the next chapter.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Griffis, in his “Japan in History, Folk-lore, and Art,” gives
  interesting glimpses of Japanese history; and many other works on
  Japan present a brief treatment of this subject. Clement’s Hildreth’s
  “Japan as it Was and Is” is especially valuable for the period of
  seclusion. Knapp’s “Feudal and Modern Japan” is instructive in its
  contrasts. The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan abound
  in valuable material. For a single volume on this subject, Murray’s
  “Japan” in the series of “The Stories of the Nations” or Longford’s
  “Story of Old Japan” is the best. Murdoch’s “History of Japan”
  in three volumes, of which two have been published, is the most
  authoritative.



CHAPTER VIII

HISTORY (NEW JAPAN)

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Birth of New Japan.—Nineteenth Century Japan;
 calendars; six periods: (I) Period of Seclusion, chronology and
 description; (II) Period of Treaty-making, chronology and description;
 (III) Period of Civil Commotions, chronology and description; (IV)
 Period of Reconstruction, chronology and description, especially the
 “Charter Oath”; (V) Period of Internal Development, chronology and
 description; (VI) Period of Constitutional Government, chronology and
 description; summary of general progress.—Bibliography.


July 14, 1853, was the birthday of New Japan. It was the day when
Commodore Perry and his suite first landed on the shore of Yedo Bay
at Kurihama, near Uraga, and when Japanese authorities received, in
contravention of their own laws, an official communication from Millard
Fillmore, President of the United States.

It may be true that, even if Perry had not come, Japan would have been
eventually opened, because internal public opinion was shaping itself
against the policy of seclusion; but we care little for what “might
have been.” It is, of course, true that Perry did not fully carry
out the purpose of his expedition until the following year, when he
negotiated a treaty of friendship; but the reception of the President’s
letter was the crucial point; it was the beginning of the end of
old Japan. The rest followed in due course of time. When Japanese
authorities broke their own laws, the downfall of the old system was
inevitable. Mark those words in the receipt—“in opposition to the
Japanese law.” That was a clear confession that the old policy of
seclusion and its prohibitions could no longer be strictly maintained.
A precedent was thus established, of which other nations were not at
all slow to avail themselves.

But although New Japan was not born until the second half of the
nineteenth century, it suits the purpose of this book a little better,
even at the expense of possible repetition, to take a survey in this
chapter of that entire century, in order that the real progress of
Japan may thereby be more clearly revealed in all its marvellous
strides.

Of course, the employment of the Gregorian calendar in Japan is of
comparatively recent occurrence, so that it would be quite proper
to divide up the century according to the old Japanese custom of
periods, or eras,[82] of varying length. This system was introduced
from China and has prevailed since 645 A. D. A new era was always
chosen “whenever it was deemed necessary to commemorate an auspicious
or ward off a malign event.” It is interesting, by the way, to notice
that, immediately after Commodore Perry’s arrival (1853), the name
of the period was changed for a good omen! Hereafter these eras will
correspond with the reigns of the emperors.

But it is really more intelligible to divide the history of the
century into six periods of well-determined duration. Each one of
these periods, moreover, may be accurately named in accord with the
distinguishing characteristic of that period. It must, however, be
clearly understood that these distinctions are not all absolute, but
rather relative. It is also possible, without an undue stretch of
the imagination, to trace, in the order of the periods, the general
progress that has marked the history of New Japan. These periods are as
follows:—

  I.   Seclusion (1801-1853).
  II.  Treaty-making (1854-1858).
  III. Civil Commotions (1858-1868).
  IV.  Reconstruction (1868-1878).
  V.   Internal Development (1879-1889).
  VI.  Constitutional Government (1889-1900).[83]


It is of special interest for Americans to notice that the third and
fourth periods are almost contemporaneous with the periods of Civil War
and Reconstruction in the United States.

We now take up each period in detail.


I. _Period of Seclusion_ (1801-1853).


CHRONOLOGY.

  1804.       Resanoff, Russian Embassy.
  1807.       The “Eclipse” of Boston at Nagasaki.
  1808.       The British frigate “Phaethon” at Nagasaki.
  1811-1813.  Golownin’s captivity in Yezo.
  1818.       Captain Gordon (British) in Yedo Bay.
  1825-1829.  Dr. Von Siebold (Dutch) in Yedo.
  1827.       Beechey (British) in “Blossom” at Loo Choo Islands.
  1837.       The “Morrison” Expedition in Yedo Bay.
  1844.       Letter[84] from King William II. of Holland.
  1845.       American whaler “Mercator” in Yedo Bay.
              British frigate “Saramang” at Nagasaki.
  1846.       Dr. Bettelheim in Loo Choo Islands.
              Wreck of American whaler “Lawrence” on Kurile Islands.
              (United States) Commodore Biddle’s Expedition in Yedo Bay.
  1848.       Wreck of American whaler “Ladoga” off Matsumai, Yezo.
              Ronald McDonald landed in Japan.
  1849.       United States “Preble” in Nagasaki harbor.
              British “Mariner” in Yedo Bay.
  1853.       Shōgun Iyeyoshi died.
              Commodore Perry in Yedo Bay.

It needs only a few words to summarize this period which includes the
final days of the two-edged policy of exclusion and inclusion, which
forbade not only foreigners to enter, but also Japanese to leave, the
country. It would not even allow Japanese ship-wrecked on other shores
to be brought back to their native land, as several futile attempts
mentioned above attest. Nagasaki was the only place where foreign trade
was allowed, and there only in a slight degree with Chinese and Dutch.
The events of this period are almost all vain attempts to open Japan.
Two important events concern the Loo Choo Islands, then independent,
and later visited also by Commodore Perry on his way from China to
Japan. Ronald McDonald was an Oregon boy, who, “voluntarily left
adrift, got into Yezo, and thence to Nagasaki.” He is reported to have
puzzled the Japanese authorities by stating that in America “the people
are king and the source of authority”! This period of seclusion came
to an end on July 14, 1853, when the Japanese, _contrary to their own
laws_, received from Commodore Perry the letter from President Fillmore
to the Emperor of Japan.[85]


II. _Period of Treaty-Making_ (1854-1858).


CHRONOLOGY.

  1854. Perry’s treaty of peace and amity.
        British treaty of peace and amity.
  1855. Russian treaty of peace and amity.
        Terrible earthquake.
  1856. Fire in Yedo; 100,000 lives lost.
        Dutch treaty of peace and amity.
        Townsend Harris, United States Consul, arrived.
  1857. Harris in audience with the Shōgun.
  1858. Harris treaty of trade and commerce.
        Elgin treaty of trade and commerce.

[Illustration: PERRY MONUMENT, NEAR URAGA]

This is the era which was opened by Commodore Perry, and was almost
entirely devoted to the persevering attempts of Perry, Harris, Curtius,
Lord Elgin, and others to negotiate treaties, first of friendship
and amity, and afterwards of trade and commerce, with Japan. It is
rather interesting that the only events chronicled above, besides
treaty-making, are terrible catastrophes, which the superstitious
conservatives believed to have been visited upon their country as a
punishment for treating with the barbarians! It is again a matter of
peculiar pride to Americans that the first treaty of friendship and
amity was negotiated by Perry; that the first foreign flag raised
officially in Japan was the Stars and Stripes, hoisted at Shimoda by
Harris on September 4, 1856; that Harris was the first accredited
diplomatic agent from a foreign country to Japan; that he also had
the honor of the first audience of a foreign representative with the
Shōgun, then supposed to be the Emperor; and that he negotiated the
first treaty of trade and commerce.


III. _Period of Civil Commotions_ (1858-1868).


CHRONOLOGY.

  1859. Yokohama, Nagasaki, Hakodate opened.
        First Christian missionaries.
  1860. Assassination of Ii, Prime Minister of the Shōgun.
  1861. Frequent attacks on foreigners.
  1862. First foreign embassy. Richardson affair.
  1863. Bombardment of Kagoshima.
  1864. Bombardment of Shimonoseki.
  1865. Imperial sanction of treaties. Tariff convention.
  1866. Shōgun Iyemochi died; succeeded by Keiki.
  1867. Emperor Kōmei died; succeeded by Mutsuhito.
        Keiki resigned. Reorganization of the Government.
  1868. Restoration, or Revolution.

This era has been so named because it was marked by commotions, not
merely between different factions among the Japanese, but also between
Japanese and foreigners. The anti-foreign spirit that manifested itself
in numerous assaults and conspiracies was so involved with internal
dissensions that it is quite difficult to distinguish them. The
assassination of Ii, the Shōgun’s Prime Minister, who had the courage
and the foresight to sign the treaties, was the natural sequence of the
opening of three ports to foreign commerce. The conservative spirit,
moreover, was still so strong that the Shōgun had to send an embassy,
the first one ever sent abroad officially by Japan, to petition the
treaty-powers to permit the postponement of the opening of other ports.
The murder of Richardson, an Englishman who rudely interrupted the
progress of the retinue of the Prince of Satsuma, was the pretext for
the bombardment of Kagoshima; and the firing on an American vessel
that was passing through the Straits of Shimonoseki was the excuse for
the bombardment of Shimonoseki. About the middle of this period the
Imperial sanction of the treaties was obtained, and a tariff convention
was negotiated.

The civil dissensions, however, continued; the great clan of Chōshiu
became engaged in actual warfare against the Shōgun’s troops in
Kyōto and were proclaimed “rebels,” against whom an Imperial army
was despatched; the young Shōgun, Iyemochi, died and was succeeded
by Keiki; and the Emperor Kōmei also died and was succeeded by his
young son, Mutsuhito, the present Emperor. Finally, the new Shōgun,
observing the drift of political affairs and the need of the times for
a more centralized and unified administration, resigned his position;
and the system of government was re-formed with the Emperor in direct
control. The new Emperor declared in a manifesto: “Henceforward we
shall exercise supreme authority, both in the internal and [the]
external affairs of the country. Consequently the title of Emperor
should be substituted for that of Tycoon [Shōgun], which has hitherto
been employed in the treaties.” Of this manifesto, one writer says:
“Appended were the seal of Dai Nippon, and the signature, Mutsuhito,
this being the first occasion in Japanese history on which the name of
an Emperor had appeared during his lifetime.”[86]

But the effect of the reorganization of the government seemed to the
adherents of the former Shōgun to work so much injustice to them that
they rose in arms against the Sat-Chō [Satsuma-Chōshiu] combination
which was then influential at court. This led, in 1867, to a civil war,
which, after a severe struggle, culminated in 1868 in the complete
triumph of the Imperialists. This event is what is called by some “the
Restoration,” and by others “the Revolution.” This was, in fact, the
climax of all the civil commotions of the period; the anti-foreign
spirit and policy were only secondary to the prime purpose of
overthrowing the usurpation of the Tokugawa Shōgunate and restoring the
one legal Emperor to his lawful authority. And thus fell, not only the
Tokugawa Dynasty, as had fallen other dynasties, of Shōguns, but also
the whole system of a Shōgunate; and thus the Emperor of Japan became,
not ruler in name and fame only, but sovereign in act and fact. From
1868 to the middle of 1912 Mutsuhito was Emperor both _de jure_ and _de
facto_.


IV. _Period of Reconstruction_ (1868-1878).


CHRONOLOGY.

  1868. Opening of Hyōgo (Kōbe) and Ōsaka.
        Emperor’s audience of foreign ministers.
        Yedo named Tōkyō and made capital.
  1869. Opening of Yedo and Niigata.
        The “Charter Oath” of Japan.
  1870. Light-houses, telegraphs.
  1871. Postal system, mint, and dock.
        Feudalism abolished.
        _Eta_ and _hinin_ (outcasts) admitted to citizenship.
        Colonization in Yezo [Hokkaidō].
  1872. First railway, newspaper, church, and Missionary Conference.
        Imperial University in Tōkyō.
        Iwakura Embassy to America and Europe.
  1873. Adoption of Gregorian calendar.
        Removal of anti-Christian edicts.
        Empress gave audience to foreign ladies.
  1874. Saga Rebellion. Formosan Expedition.
  1875. Assembly of Governors. Senate.
        Sakhalin traded off for Kurile Islands.
  1876. Treaty with Korea.
  1877. Satsuma Rebellion.
        First National Exhibition in Tōkyō.
  1878. Bimetallism.
        Promise to establish Prefectural Assemblies.

This period was one of laying the foundations of a New Japan, to be
constructed out of the old, and was one of such kaleidoscopic changes
and marvellous transformations in society, business, and administration
that it is almost blinding to the eye to attempt to watch the work of
reconstruction. There were abortive but costly attempts, like the Saga
and the Satsuma rebellions, to check the progressive policy. It was
the great period of “firsts,” of beginnings: the first audiences of
foreign ministers by the Emperor and of foreign ladies by the Empress;
the first telegraph, mint, dock, railroad, postal system, newspaper,
exhibition, church, etc.; an assembly of provincial governors to confer
together upon general policy, and a Senate.

The “Charter Oath” of Japan was not obtained by coercion, but
voluntarily taken: it is such an important document that at least a
summary may be given:[87]—

 “1. A deliberative assembly should be formed, and all measures be
 decided by public opinion.

 “2. The principles of social and political economics should be
 diligently studied by both the superior and [the] inferior classes of
 our people.

 “3. Every one in the community shall be assisted to persevere in
 carrying out his will for all good purposes.

 “4. All the old absurd usages of former times should be disregarded,
 and the impartiality and justice displayed in the workings of nature
 be adopted as a basis of action.

 “5. Wisdom and ability should be sought after in all quarters of the
 world for the purpose of firmly establishing the foundations of the
 empire.”

Two years later feudalism was abolished by the following laconic
decree: “The clans are abolished, and prefectures are established
in their places.” In the same year the outcast _eta_ and _hi-nin_
(not-human) were recognized as common people. Then followed the
despatch of the Iwakura Embassy to America and Europe, where, although
they failed in their prime purpose of securing a revision of the
treaties on more nearly equal terms, they learned most valuable
lessons. Two immediate results thereof were seen in the removal of the
anti-Christian edicts and the adoption of the Gregorian, or Christian,
calendar. And finally came the promise to establish prefectural
assemblies as training schools in local self-government.


V. _Period of Internal Development_ (1879-1889).


CHRONOLOGY.

  1879. Annexation of the Loo Choo Islands.
        Visit of General U. S. Grant.
  1880. Promulgation of Penal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure.
        Establishment of prefectural assemblies.
  1881. Announcement of Constitutional Government.
  1882. Organization of political parties.
        Bank of Japan (_Nippon Ginkō_).
  1883. Missionary Conference, Ōsaka.
  1884. New orders of nobility in European fashion.
        English introduced into school curricula.
  1885. Japan Mail Steamship Company (_Nippon Yūsen Kwaisha_).
        Cabinet reconstruction, known as “The Great Earthquake”
          (political).
  1886. Dissatisfaction of Radicals.
  1887. “Peace Preservation Act.”
  1888. Establishment of Privy Council.
        Eruption of Mount Bandai.
  1889. Promulgation of the Constitution (February 11).
        Establishment of local self-government.
        Prince Haru proclaimed Crown Prince.

This period is not marked, perhaps, by so many unusual events as the
preceding one; but it was a period of rapid, though somewhat quiet,
internal development. We note in financial affairs the organization
of the Bank of Japan, which has ever since been a most important
agent in maintaining an economic equilibrium; in business circles
the organization of the Japan Mail Steamship Company, which has been
instrumental in expanding Japanese trade and commerce; in society the
reorganization of the nobility; and in legal matters the promulgation
of new codes. Several political events are noted in the chronology;
but they were mostly preparatory to the next period. The promise to
establish prefectural assemblies was fulfilled, and these became
preparatory schools in political science; and another promise, that of
a constitution, was made. The Cabinet was reconstructed, and political
parties were organized. The Radicals, however, became dissatisfied
with the slowness of political progress, and made such an agitation
that, in 1887, many were expelled from Tōkyō by the so-called “Peace
Preservation Act,” and those who refused to obey were imprisoned.
But finally, in 1889, as the climax of the internal development and
political preparations, came the establishment of local self-government
and the promulgation of the Constitution, which ushered in the next
period.


VI. _Period of Constitutional Government_ (1889-1900).


CHRONOLOGY.

  1889. Anti-foreign reaction.
  1890. First National Election. First Imperial Diet.
        Promulgation of Civil and Commercial Codes.
  1891. Attack on the Czarowitz, now Emperor of Russia.
        Gifu earthquake.
  1892. Dispute between the two Houses of Diet.
  1893. Dispute between the Diet and the Government.
  1894. War with China.
  1895. War with China. Acquisition of Formosa.
  1896. Alliance between the Government and Liberals.
        Tidal wave on northeastern coast of main island.
  1897. Revised tariff. Gold standard.
        Freedom of press and public meeting.
  1898. Revised Civil Code. First “Party Cabinet.”
  1899. New treaties on terms of equality—Japan wide open.
  1900. Wedding of Crown Prince Haru.
        Extension of electoral franchise.
        War with China—Japan allied with Christendom.
        General Missionary Conference, Tōkyō.

This period included wars and other calamities, but also some very
fortunate events. It opened, strange to say, with the “anti-foreign
reaction” at its height. This reaction was the natural result of the
rapid Occidentalizing that had been going on, and was strengthened by
the refusal of Western nations to revise the treaties which kept Japan
in thraldom. But the period closed with “treaty revision” accomplished,
and Japan admitted, on terms of equality, to alliance with Western
nations.[88] And in quelling the “Boxer” disturbances in China and
particularly in raising the Siege of Peking, Japan played a most
important part. This period was chiefly occupied with the experimental
stage in constitutional government, when the relations between the
two Houses of the Diet, between the Diet and the Cabinet, between the
Cabinet and political parties, were being defined. This was also the
period during which new civil, commercial, and criminal codes were
put into operation; the gold standard was adopted; the restrictions
on the freedom of the press and of public meeting were almost
entirely removed; the tariff was revised in the interests of Japan;
and the electoral franchise in elections for members of the House of
Representatives was largely extended.

It has already been suggested that the very order of these periods
indicates in general the progress of Japan during those hundred
years. The century dawns, nay, even the second half of the century
opens, with Japan in seclusion. But Commodore Perry breaks down that
isolation; and Japan enters, first merely into amity, but afterwards
into commercial intercourse, with foreign nations. The break up of the
old foreign policy accelerates the break up of the old national policy
of government, and civil commotions culminate in the restoration of
the Emperor to his lawful authority. Japan is then reconstructed on
new lines; and a tremendous internal development prepares the Japanese
to be admitted by their generous Emperor into a share of his inherited
prerogatives. And the century sets with Japan among the great nations
of Christendom, and with the Japanese enjoying a constitutional
government, representative institutions, local self-government, freedom
of the press and of public meeting, and religious liberty. If this is
the record of Nineteenth Century Japan, what of Twentieth Century Japan?

[Illustration: STATESMEN OF NEW JAPAN

PRINCE SANJŌ AND COUNT KATSU]

It certainly has a good start, in formal alliance with Great Britain to
maintain peace and justice in the Far East.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  The same as the preceding chapter, with the addition of “The
  Intercourse between the United States and Japan” (Nitobe); “Matthew
  Calbraith Perry,” “Townsend Harris,” and “Verbeck of Japan” (all by
  Griffis); “Advance Japan” (Morris); and Perry’s Expedition (official
  report).

  On the early history of New Japan there are many valuable works
  by Alcock, Black, Dickson, Dixon (W. G.), House, Lanman, Mounsey,
  Mossman, and others. See also Satow’s translation of “Kinse
  Shiriaku.” On the war with China (1894, 1895), see “Heroic Japan”
  (Eastlake and Yamada); and on the lessons and results of that war,
  see “The New Far East” (Diosy). “The Awakening of Japan” (Okakura),
  “The White Peril in the Far East” (Gulick), and “Young Japan”
  (Scherer) trace thoughtfully the development of New Japan. “Dai
  Nippon” (Dyer), chaps, ii. and iv., may be read with profit. “The
  Progress of Japan, 1853-1871” (Gubbins), covers thoroughly part of
  this period.



CHAPTER IX

CONSTITUTIONAL IMPERIALISM

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: The “Charter Oath” of Japan; popular agitation;
 promise of a national assembly; a red-letter year; the “Magna Charta”
 of Japan; Imperial prerogatives; personality of Emperor and Empress;
 Crown Prince and Princess; Imperial grandchildren; Privy Council;
 Imperial Cabinet; Departments of State; sundry comments; House of
 Peers; House of Commons; some “firsts”; rights and duties of subjects;
 criticisms of Japanese politics; popular rights; personnel of two
 Houses; cabinet responsibility; political parties; persons and
 principles; constitutional system satisfactory.—Bibliography.


When the Revolution, or Restoration, of 1868 ended the usurpation, and
overthrew the despotism of the Shōgun, the young Emperor, Mutsuhito,
restored to his ancestral rights as the actual sole ruler of the
empire, took solemn oath that “a deliberative assembly should be
formed; all measures be decided by public opinion; the uncivilized
customs of former times should be broken through; the impartiality and
justice displayed in the workings of nature be adopted as a basis of
action; and that intellect and learning should be sought for throughout
the world, in order to establish the foundations of the empire.” In
that same year an assembly of representatives of the clans was called
to meet in the capital, and was given the title of _Shūgi-in_ (House
of Commons). It consisted of _samurai_ (knights) from each clan; and
as they were appointed by each _daimyō_ (prince), the body was a
purely feudal, and not at all a popular, assembly. In 1871 feudalism
was abolished, and later a senate was established; but that was an
advisory body, consisting of officials appointed by the Emperor and
without legislative power. In 1875 the Emperor convoked a council of
the officers of the provincial governments with a purpose stated as
follows: “We also call a council of the officials of our provinces,
so that the feelings of the people may be made known and the public
welfare attained. By these means we shall gradually confer upon the
nation a constitutional form of government. The provincial officials
are summoned as the representatives of the people in the various
provinces, that they may express their opinion on behalf of the people.”

But a body so constituted and rather conservative could not satisfy
the demands of the new age. Itagaki (now Count) insisted that the
government should “guarantee the establishment of a popular assembly,”
and organized societies, or associations, for popular agitation of the
subject. Petitions and memorials poured in upon the government, within
whose circles Ōkuma (now Count), Minister of Finance, was most active
in the same direction. In the mean time (1878) provincial assemblies,
the members of which were chosen by popular election, had been
established as a preparatory measure.

It was on October 12, 1881, that the Emperor issued his memorable
proclamation that a National Assembly should be opened in 1890. That
proclamation read as follows:—

 “We therefore hereby declare that we shall, in the 23rd year of
 Meiji, establish a Parliament, in order to carry into full effect the
 determination we have announced, and we charge our faithful subjects
 bearing our commissions to make, in the mean time, all necessary
 preparations to that end. With regard to the limitations upon the
 Imperial prerogative, and the constitution of the Parliament, we shall
 decide hereafter, and shall make proclamation in due time.”

From that time on there was progress, “steadily, if slowly, in the
direction of greater decentralization and broader popular prerogative.”

The year 1889 was a red-letter year in the calendar of Japan’s
political progress. On February 11 was promulgated that famous
document[89] which took Japan forever out of the ranks of Oriental
despotisms and placed her among constitutional monarchies; and on April
1 the law of local self-government for city, town, and village went
into effect.

The Japanese Constitution has very appropriately been called “the
Magna Charta of Japanese liberty.” It was not, however, like the famous
English document, extorted by force from an unwilling monarch and a
cruel tyrant, but was voluntarily granted by a kind and loved ruler at
the expense of his inherited and long-established rights. The present
Emperor holds the throne according to the native tradition, perpetuated
even in the language of the Constitution, by virtue of a “lineal
succession unbroken for ages eternal.” But even though rigid criticism
compels us to reject as more or less mythological the so-called
“history” of about 1,000 years; and although Yoshihito, therefore, may
not be really the 123d ruler of the line from the Japanese Romulus
(Jimmu), nevertheless he remains the representative of the oldest
living dynasty in the world. If, then, time is a factor in confirming
the claims and rights of a ruler, no king or emperor of the present day
has a better title. And his father, born and bred in the atmosphere of
Oriental absolutism and despotism, “in consideration of the progressive
tendency of the course of human affairs, and in parallel with the
advance of civilization,”[90] voluntarily and generously admitted his
people to a share in the administration of public affairs.

That important document, which signed away such strongly acquired
and inherited prerogatives, at the outset, however, seems far from
generous. The Emperor, “sacred and inviolate,” is “the head of the
empire,” combining in himself the rights of sovereignty; but he
“exercises them according to the provisions of the Constitution.” It is
only “in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety
or to avert public calamities,” that the Emperor, “when the Imperial
Diet is not sitting,” may issue “Imperial Ordinances in place of law.”
But these ordinances must be approved by the Imperial Diet at its next
session, or become “invalid for the future.” To the Emperor is reserved
the function of issuing ordinances necessary for carrying out the laws
passed by the Diet or for the maintenance of public peace and order;
but “no Ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws.”
The Emperor also determines the organization of the various branches
of the government, appoints and dismisses all officials, and fixes
their salaries. Moreover, he has “the supreme command of the army and
navy,” whose organization and peace standing he determines; “declares
war, makes peace, and concludes treaties”; “confers titles of nobility,
rank, orders, and other marks of honor”; and “orders amnesty, pardon,
commutation of punishments and rehabilitation.”

Now it must be quite evident to the most casual reader that, in
carrying out this Constitution, patterned after that of Germany, much
depends upon the Emperor and his personality. One, like Kōmei (the
father of the recent Emperor), bigoted and intent upon resisting any
infringement, to the slightest degree, upon his “divine rights,” could
create a great deal of friction in the administration of affairs. But,
fortunately for Japan and the world, Mutsuhito was not at all inclined
to be narrow-minded, selfish, and despotic, but was graciously pleased
to be the leader of his subjects in broader and better paths. And
although the Empress had no share in the administration and wisely kept
“out of politics,” her popularity enhanced the interest felt in the
reign recently closed.[91]

It is, moreover, fortunate for Japan that the new Emperor, Yoshihito,
is also a man of most liberal ideas and progressive tendencies. He has
had a broad education, by both public and private instruction, and
a careful training for the career that lies before him; and he will
undoubtedly be found ready to extend popular privileges just so far as
conditions warrant. Seated on the ancestral throne, he is the first
Japanese Emperor who has received any education in public; for it was
in the _Gakushūin_—or Nobles’ School, as it is called in English—that
he completed the elementary course.[92] After that, on account of poor
health, he was compelled to pursue his studies under private tutors.

And that the Imperial line will, in all human probability, remain
“unbroken” for many years, is rendered likely by the fact that the
Emperor and the Empress Sada have been blessed with three healthy sons,
Princes Michi, Atsu, and Teru, who are being brought up by professional
“tutors,” Count and Countess Kawamura, away from court life, with such
care as the needs of said Imperial line demand.

But, to return from this digression to the subject of the Constitution,
another body recognized by that document is the Privy Council
(_Sumitsu-In_), appointed by the Emperor and consulted by him upon
certain matters of State. It consists of 1 President, 1 Vice-President,
25 Councillors, and 1 Secretary, with 5 assistants; and it is composed
of “personages who have rendered signal service to the State and who
are distinguished for their experience,” such as ex-Ministers of
State and others, whose “valuable advice on matters of State” would
naturally be sought. The matters coming within the cognizance of the
Privy Council are specified as follows: Matters which come under its
jurisdiction by the Law of the Houses (of Parliament); drafts and
doubtful points relating to articles of the Constitution, and to laws
and ordinances dependent to the Constitution; proclamation of the law
of siege and certain Imperial ordinances; international treaties; and
matters specially called for. The Ministers of State are, _ex officio_,
members of the Privy Council; but although it is “the Emperor’s highest
resort of counsel, it shall not interfere with the Executive.”

The Cabinet includes the holders of 10 portfolios: those of the
Minister President, or Premier; the Minister of Foreign Affairs; the
Minister of Home Affairs; the Minister of Finance; the Minister of
the Army, or War; the Minister of the Navy; the Minister of Justice;
the Minister of Education; the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce;
and the Minister of Communications. There is one other official who
holds the title of Minister, but is not a member of the Cabinet, that
is, the Minister of the Imperial Household. When the Cabinet is fully
organized, it contains 10 members; but occasionally circumstances
compel the Premier or some other Minister to hold an extra portfolio,
at least temporarily. Each department of state has its own subordinate
officials, most of whom hold office under civil-service rules and are
not removable.

The titles of the departments are mostly self-explanatory, and
correspond in general to similar departments in Occidental countries;
but in some cases there are vital differences, especially in comparison
with the United States Cabinet. In a paternal government, like that
of Japan, the Minister of Home Affairs holds a much more important
position than our Secretary of the Interior, for he has the general
oversight of the police system and the prefectural governments; the
Minister of Justice holds a broader position than our Attorney-General;
and the Minister of Communications has the oversight, not of the postal
system only, but also of telegraphs, telephones, railways, and other
modes of conveyance and communication. In general, as will be observed,
the Japanese Government owns many institutions which, in our country,
are entrusted to private enterprise.

The Premier receives a salary of 9,600 _yen_, and other ministers
receive 6,000 _yen_, besides official residence and sundry allowances.
In most cases the real work of each department is performed by the
subordinate officials, while the frequently changing[93] Ministers of
State are only nominal heads of the departments. The two portfolios
of the Army and the Navy, however, have been taken out of politics,
and are not subject to change whenever a ministry goes out of office.
Ministers of State, as well as governmental delegates, specially
appointed for the purpose, “may, at any time, take seats and speak in
either House” of the Imperial Diet.

The Imperial Diet of Japan consists of two Houses, the House of Peers
and the House of Commons. The membership of the former comprises three
classes,—hereditary, elective, and appointive.[94] The members of the
Imperial Family and of the orders of Princes and Marquises possess the
hereditary tenure. From among those persons who have the titles of
Count, Baron, and Viscount a certain number are chosen by election,
for a term of seven years. The Emperor has the power of appointing
for life membership a limited number of persons, deserving on account
of meritorious services to the State or of erudition. Finally, in
each _Fu_ and _Ken_ one member is elected from and among the highest
tax-payers and appointed by the Emperor, for a term of seven years.

The members of the House of Commons are always elected by ballot
in accordance with the Election Law, by which they now number 379.
Their term of office is four years, unless they lose their seats by
dissolution of the Diet, as has often happened. “Those [persons] alone
shall be eligible [as candidates], that are male Japanese subjects, of
not less than full thirty years of age, and that in the _Fu_ or _Ken_
in which they desire to be elected, have been paying direct national
taxes to an amount of not less than 15 _yen_, for a period of not less
than one year previous to the date of making out the electoral list,
and that are still paying that amount of direct national taxes.”[95]
Certain officials, as well as military and naval officers, are
ineligible. A voter must be full twenty-five years of age; must have
actually resided in that _Fu_ or _Ken_ for one year; and must have been
paying direct national taxes of not less than 10 _yen_. The limits of
an electoral district include a whole _Fu_ or _Ken_, except that an
incorporated city (_Shi_) forms one or more districts by itself. And
the number of the latter kind of districts has been increased lately,
so that urban populations might have a more adequate representation.
The plan of unsigned uni-nominal ballots is employed. The present
number of eligible voters is a little over one million.

[Illustration: DEPARTMENTS OF STATE: NAVY; AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE;
JUSTICE; FOREIGN AFFAIRS]

The first election under the Constitution took place (whether
designedly or accidentally, I know not), by a curious coincidence,
on _July 4_, 1890; and the first session of the Imperial Diet opened
on November 29, 1890. On December 2 the House of Peers received the
first bill ever presented to a National Assembly in Japan; and on
December 4 the first Budget (for 1891) was laid before the House of
Representatives by Count Matsukata, Minister of Finance.

Some notice must be taken of the rights and duties of subjects under
the Japanese Constitution. All such persons are eligible to civil
and military offices; amenable to service in the army and the navy,
and the duty of paying taxes, according to law; have the liberty of
abode, inviolate right of property, right of trial by law, and freedom
of speech, writing, publication, public meeting, association, and
religious belief, “within the limits of law”; cannot be arrested,
detained, tried, or punished, “unless according to law,” and can
claim inviolate secrecy of correspondence. Moreover, “the house of no
Japanese subject shall be entered or searched without his consent,”
except in due process of law. All subjects may also present petitions,
“by observing the proper forms of respect.” The freedom of religious
belief is granted “within limits not prejudicial to peace and order,
and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects.” These “rights” are
old to Anglo-Saxons, but new to Japanese.

Now we often see and hear rather uncomplimentary statements about
the Imperial Diet, political parties, cabinet ministers, and Japanese
political affairs in general, and are even told that Japan is only
“playing” with parliamentary and representative institutions, that her
popular assemblies are mere “toys,” her constitutional government is
all a “farce,” and her new civilization is nothing but a “bib.” Such
criticisms, however, result either from ignorance or from a wrong point
of view. It is undeniably true that, viewed from the vantage-ground
attained by popular institutions and constitutional government in many
Occidental nations, Japan is still lagging behind. It is not fair,
however, to judge her by our own standards; the only just way is to
estimate carefully the exact difference between her former and her
present conditions. This the author has tried to do elsewhere in a
pamphlet[96] on “Constitutional Government in Japan,” in which he has
given a sketch of the workings of the Japanese Constitution during
the first decade, or period, of its history. From that he quotes the
following conclusions:—

The progress made during the first decade of constitutional government
in Japan was considerable. In the first place, popular rights were
largely expanded by the removal of most of the restrictions on freedom
of the press and public meeting; as much extension of the electoral
franchise as seems warranted was accomplished; and public opinion, as
voiced in the newspapers and magazines, was wielding an increased and
constantly increasing influence.

On this point the “Japan Times” says: “No one who goes into the country
and compares the present degree of the people’s political education
with what it was ten years ago, can fail to be struck by the immense
progress achieved during that interval.”

In the second place, the character of the two Houses of the Imperial
Diet has greatly improved. The inexperienced have given way to the
experienced, the ignorant to the intelligent; so that, after six
elections, the personnel of the House of Representatives is of a much
better quality, and the House of Peers has been quickened by the
infusion of new blood. Experience, as usual, has been a good teacher.

In the third place, the Cabinet, theoretically responsible to the
Emperor because appointed by him on his own sole authority, is
practically responsible to the Imperial Diet and must command the
support of a majority of that body. Hereafter it would seem that
dissolution of the Diet is not likely to occur as often as dissolution
of the Cabinet.

The one weak point in this situation is that, although the principle
of party cabinets is thus established, its practical application is
difficult of realization, simply because there are no true political
parties in Japan. There are many so-called “parties,” which are really
only factions, bound together by personal, class, geographical, or
mercantile ties, and without distinctive principles. One “party”
is actually Count Ōkuma’s following; another is Count Itagaki’s;
another is called “the business men’s party”; another is composed of
politicians of the Northeast; and another tries to maintain the old
clan alliances; so in 1913 Prince Katsura assumed leadership of a new
progressive party.[97]

But it is, nevertheless, true that “Japan is at length passing out
of the epoch of persons and entering the era of principles,” when,
of course, will speedily come the development of parties. It is not,
perhaps, strange that the personality of the great statesmen who made
New Japan possible has been felt for so long a time, nor that the able
men of the rising generation have begun to chafe a little under the
prolonged control of those older statesmen. But, as the “Japan Times”
says, “the conflict between the old and the new elements of political
power, the so-called clan statesmen and the party politicians, has been
so far removed that the time is already in sight when the country will
see them working harmoniously under the same banner and with the same
platform.” Such was apparently the case in the Seiyukwai, Marquis Itō’s
new party, organized in 1900, the closing year of the first decade
of Japanese constitutionalism. And this problem of political parties
is the great one to be solved in the second period of constitutional
government in Japan.

We may, therefore, conclude that the working of the new system of
government has, on the whole, been satisfactory. We must acknowledge,
with the “Japan Mail,” that “it would be altogether extravagant
to expect that Japan’s new constitutional garments should fit her
perfectly from the first. They are too large for her. She has to
grow into them, and of course the process is destined to be more
or less awkward.” We must agree with Prince Itō, the author of the
Constitution, not only that there has been the experimental period,
but also that “excellent results have thus far been obtained, when it
is remembered how sudden has been the transition from feudalism to
representative institutions.” We ought, indeed, to bear in mind, that,
when the Constitution was promulgated, Japan was only eighteen years
out of feudalism and twenty-one years out of military despotism; so
that, by both the Oriental and the Occidental reckoning, New Japan had
only just come “of age” politically. She seems, therefore, deserving
of the greatest credit for the progress of the first decade of
constitutionalism.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

“The Story of Japan” (Murray), “Advance Japan” (Morris), and “The
Yankees of the East” (Curtis), give some information here and there
about the government of Japan. But especially helpful are Wigmore’s
articles in the “Nation” and “Scribner’s Monthly,” Iyenaga’s
“Constitutional Development of Japan,” Knapp’s “Feudal and Modern
Japan,” Count (now Marquis) Itō’s “Commentaries on the Constitution of
the Empire of Japan,” and Lay’s “History of Japanese Political Parties”
(Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xxx. part iii.). See also
“The Political Ideas of Modern Japan” (Kawakami), and “Dai Nippon”
(Dyer), chaps. xiii. and xiv. Uycharu’s “Political Development of Japan
(1867-1909)” is the latest and best.



CHAPTER X

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Local government under feudalism; periods of modern
 local self-government; gradual development therein; prefectural
 assemblies; candidates and electors; standing committee; sessions;
 business; speaking; petitions; how bills become laws; powers of
 prefectural assemblies, theoretical and practical; residents and
 citizens of cities, towns, and villages; rights and duties of
 citizens; administration in city, town, and village; city council;
 town and village officials; city assembly; assemblymen; powers of
 city assembly; town or village assembly; special provisions for
 towns and villages; administration of territories; pacification of
 Formosa; colonial government; policy in Formosa; political progress in
 Japan.—Bibliography.


We have already noted incidentally in preceding chapters some of the
steps in the development of local self-government in Japan; and now we
must treat that subject more particularly. First it is well to observe
in passing that the steps from feudalism to local self-government were
not so difficult as might be imagined; for under the feudal system
local government by clans had prevailed.[98] And yet when feudalism
was abolished, the reconstruction of local government was entered
upon slowly and cautiously in order to minimize jealousies and other
obstacles.

Wigmore, in his articles[99] on this subject, divides the period from
1867 to 1889 into two parts (1867-1878 and 1878-1889), and explains
as follows: “The former was occupied with testing the capacity of the
people for self-government; the latter with extending to them a larger
and larger measure of power, and in advancing towards a proper degree
of decentralization.” As he wrote in 1890, he was just at the beginning
of the third period, what he himself calls “a new period,” during which
local self-government, under the new constitutional _régime_, was to be
still further expanded in the line of popular privileges.

After the Shōgunate fell, but before feudalism was formally abolished,
that is, from 1867 to 1871, the chiefs of the clans were allowed to
continue their administration of local affairs under the title of
_chi-hanji_ (local governor). But when feudalism was formally abolished
in 1871, these feudal lords were retired on annuities; their fiefs (263
in number) were incorporated, regardless of former geographical and
feudal boundaries, and with regard for convenience of administration
by the central government, into 72 _Ken_ and 3 _Fu_; and outsiders
were largely appointed to the position of governor in these new local
governments. The first attempts on the part of the central government
to consult local public opinion were by means of meetings of the local
officials; but the people were gradually allowed, in rather an informal
and limited way, to have a voice in certain matters. In 1878, however,
as we have seen, prefectural assemblies, the members of which should be
chosen by popular election, were established; and just ten years later
a law extending local self-government to cities, towns, and villages
was enacted, to go into effect in 1889. And these two agencies of local
self-government in Japan are worthy of a little study.

The Japanese _Kenkwai_ and _Fukwai_ correspond, in general, with an
American State legislature, but differ in many respects, because they
are part of a centralized national administration. They are “to counsel
about the budget of expenses to be met by local taxation, and about
the manner of collecting such taxes.” The members are elected in each
_Ken_ or _Fu_ according to the population, at the rate of 1 member for
each 20,000 people. Each electoral district may also elect _yobi-in_
(reserve members), twice the number of regular members. As their name
indicates, they are to take the places of regular members who may for
any reason be unable to serve. It is, therefore, unlikely that there
would ever be a vacancy to be filled by a special election; for each
member has two “substitutes” ready to step into his vacant place! The
term of service covers 4 years; but half of the members retire every 2
years. Each member receives an emolument of 1 _yen_ _per diem_ during
the session, and travelling expenses.

A candidate for representative in a prefectural assembly must be over
25 years of age, a permanent resident of that _Ken_ or _Fu_, and be
paying an annual land-tax of more than 10 _yen_. Voters in such an
election must be over 20 years of age, permanent residents of that
_Ken_ or _Fu_, and be paying annual land-taxes of more than 5 _yen_.
There are about 2,000,000 voters in all.

From among the members, the assembly elects a “standing committee of
from five to seven persons,” who serve for a period of two years.
They remain in the capital throughout the year, to give advice when
the Governor asks it about the manner and order of carrying out the
enactments of the assembly and about the payment of extraordinary
expense. A member of this committee receives “from 30 _yen_ to 80 _yen_
per month, and travelling expenses.”

The ordinary annual session of an assembly opens some time in November
and continues for not more than 30 days. But the Governor has power to
call a special session and to suspend an assembly; while the power to
prorogue an assembly rests with the Minister of State for Home Affairs.

Each session of an assembly is formally “opened” by the Governor;
and the business to come before the assembly is presented in bills
originating with him and his subordinates. At any time, when a member
of the assembly wishes explanations concerning any matter within the
purview of the assembly, the Governor or his representative must
explain. In fact, such officials may speak at any time, provided they
do not interrupt the speech of a member; but they have no vote.

[Illustration: NAVAL LEADERS OF JAPAN

  ADMIRAL ENOMOTO
  ADMIRAL KABAYAMA
]

When a member wishes to address the assembly, he rises, calls out
“_Gichō_” (Chairman), and gives the number of his seat. When the
chairman has recognized him by repeating that number, he “has the
floor.”[100]

If other matters, besides those included in the “original bill(s)” of
the Governor, seem to at least two members to warrant discussion, they
present these matters in the form of petitions; and if the assembly
grants permission, these petitions may be discussed, like bills.

No bill becomes a law until it has been signed by the Governor. If the
latter does not agree with a bill, he may appeal to the Department of
Home Affairs, where it will be finally decided.

If we now endeavor to measure the extent and limitations of the
power of a Japanese prefectural assembly, we may say that in theory
a _Kenkwai_ or a _Fukwai_ is by no means entirely independent of
the central government, nor does it possess absolute control of the
matters of its own _Ken_ or _Fu_. It will be noticed that in all cases
the final ratification or decision rests with the Governor or the
Department of Home Affairs. The latter also has the power in its own
hands of suspending an assembly at its discretion. It would seem, then,
that theoretically a _Fukwai_ or a _Kenkwai_ is pretty much under the
control of the central government, and has very little real power of
its own. Its nature appears more like that of an elective advisory
board than of a legislative body.

But, in practice and in fact, a wise Governor, though he is an
appointive officer of the central government, does not often put
himself in opposition to public opinion, unless it be a case of the
greatest importance; and the Department of Home Affairs is loath to
exercise authority unless it is absolutely necessary. The central
government holds the power to control these assemblies if it should
be necessary; but it also respects public opinion, and allows local
self-government as far as possible.[101]

The extension of local self-government to cities, towns, and villages
(_shi_, _chō_, and _son_) led to the introduction into the Japanese
language of several special terms, like _jūmin_ (resident) and _kōmin_
(citizen), and to a careful distinction between the respective rights
and duties of the two. The “residents” of a city [town or village]
include “all those who have their residence in the city [town or
village], without distinction of sex, age, color, nationality, or
condition in life.” A “citizen,” however, must be “an independent male
person,” that is, one who has completed his twenty-fifth year and has
a household; he must be “a subject of the empire and in the enjoyment
of his civil rights”; and for two years he must have been a resident
of the given local division, must have contributed toward its common
burdens, and must have paid therein a “national land-tax of 2 or more
_yen_ in other direct national taxes.” The rights of a citizen over and
above his rights as a resident are simply but comprehensively stated.
They consist in the privilege of voting in the local elections, and
of eligibility to the honorary offices. There is, however, a slight
qualification of this seemingly universal citizen suffrage. Those
whose citizenship, for reasons to be given later, is suspended, and
“those who are in actual military or naval service,” are disfranchised.
Companies, however, and “other juristic persons” are entitled to the
suffrage on similar conditions with individuals.[102]

But when we come to consider the duties of a citizen, we find peculiar
conditions. The citizen of a Japanese city, town, or village, is under
obligation to fill any honorary office to which he may be elected
or appointed; and except for certain specified reasons he cannot
decline official service without being “subjected to suspension of
citizenship for from three to six years, together with an additional
levy, during the same period, of from one-eighth to one-quarter more
than his ordinary share of contribution to the city expenditure.” Here
is compulsory “public spirit”! On the whole, citizenship seems to be
regarded more as a duty than as a privilege; and the citizens best
qualified to fill official positions of trust would find it much more
difficult than in America to “keep out of politics.”

The administration of local affairs in city, town, or village is
more or less centralized. In the cities the origination and the
administration of the local laws devolves upon a “city council”; and in
the towns and the villages, upon certain chiefs and their deputies.

A city council consists of a mayor, his deputy, and a certain number
of honorary councilmen. The mayor is appointed directly by the Emperor
from among three candidates previously selected by the city assembly, a
body to be described later. The deputy-mayor and councilmen are elected
by the city assembly. The councilmen hold office for four years, but
half of them retire every two years. In the case of a very large city
it is permissible to divide the city into _Ku_ (wards), each with its
own chief and deputy and even council and assembly. The functions of a
city council include the preparation of business for the city assembly
and the execution of the decisions of the assembly; the administration
of the city revenue, and the carrying out of the budget voted by the
assembly; and general superintendence of city affairs.

In towns or villages these duties devolve upon the mayors and deputies,
who are elected by the town or village assembly from among the local
citizens.

The city assembly, already mentioned, is a popular representative body.
The number of members varies, in proportion to the population, from
thirty to sixty; and the membership is divided into three classes,
elected by three classes of voters, according to the amount of taxes
paid by the electors to the city. The object of this division, copied
from the Prussian system of local government, seems to be to give the
highest tax-payers a power and a representation greater than what they
might secure by mere proportion of numbers.[103]

The assemblymen hold office for six years, are eligible for
re-election, and, like the councilmen, draw no salary, but receive
“compensation for the actual expenses needed for the discharge of their
duties.” The assemblymen go out in rotation every two years.

The principal matters to be decided by the city assembly, besides the
election of certain city officials by secret ballot, are as follows:
the making and altering of city by-laws and regulations; the voting of
the budget and all matters involving expense; the modes of imposing and
collecting all kinds of taxes; the incurring of a new liability or the
relinquishment of an acquired right; the modes of management of city
property and establishments; etc.

The constitution of a town or village assembly is also based upon the
population, according to a fixed ratio. But in the grouping of electors
according to the amount of taxes paid, there are only two classes. The
rules, powers, and functions of a town or village assembly correspond
exactly to those of the city assembly.

There are, in the case of towns and villages, two provisions which
are not necessary in the case of cities. One provision prescribes a
method by which two or more towns or villages, by mutual agreement and
with the permission of the superintending authority, may form a union
for the common administration of affairs that are common to them. The
other provision prescribes that, by a town or village by-law, decided
upon by the _Gun_ council, “a small town or village may substitute for
the town or village assembly _a general meeting of all citizens having
suffrage_.” This appears to be an imitation, in theory at least, of the
Anglo-Saxon town meeting and village assembly.

The privileges of local self-government are extended to all parts
of the empire except Hokkaidō and Formosa, which are administered as
“territories” by the central government. In Hokkaidō, moreover, a small
measure of local administration has been granted, and this will be
enlarged as rapidly as possible. But Japanese rule in Formosa is worthy
of special consideration, because it is illustrative of what Japan can
do in bringing enemies under her jurisdiction into harmony with her
government. Japanese colonial government in Formosa may be called a
success.

When Formosa[104] was ceded by China to Japan in 1895, it was well
understood that the Japanese had no easy task in pacifying the Chinese,
civilizing the savages, and thus bringing the beautiful isle, with its
great resources, under cultivation and proper restraint. But, by a wise
combination of military force and civil government, Japan has achieved
a remarkable success.

At first, for a brief period, Formosan affairs were under a separate
department of State, that of Colonization; but when administrative
economy and reform were demanded, this department was abolished,
and the Governor-General of Formosa, appointed by the Emperor upon
recommendation of the Cabinet, was made directly responsible to the
Cabinet. At first, of course, mistakes were made, and a great deal of
incapacity and corruption manifested themselves in official circles.
But, by a gradual weeding out of the incompetent and the dishonest,
the civil service has been greatly improved. Especially in dealing
with opium smoking and foot-binding among the Chinese has the Japanese
government shown remarkable tact. And it has also encouraged local
administration among the natives to the extent of employing them in
subordinate positions where they can be trained for future usefulness.

The general policy of Japan in Formosa has been stated succinctly by
Count Kabayama: “Subjugate it from one side by force of arms, and then
confer on the subjugated portion the benefits of civil government.”
It is the expressed determination to make Formosa, “body, soul, and
spirit,” a part of their empire; and reliable testimony shows that they
are making a success of their labors.[105]

We have now noticed the chief features of local self-government as
applied in Japan to prefectures, counties, cities, towns, and villages.
Although there are many enactments against which the democratic ideas
of Americans would revolt, the system is certainly well adapted to
the present needs and capabilities of Japan. It is an interesting
fact that Japan’s political institutions have been developed, since
the Restoration of 1868, from the top downward. In Japan the people
are conservative, and the government is progressive; and the people
are simply under the necessity of growing up to political privileges
that are gradually bestowed upon them. And we may feel assured that,
as the people show themselves capable of exercising power, their
privileges will be gradually extended. We should not find fault
with Japan, because in only a few years she has not leaped into the
enjoyment of political privileges which the English and American people
obtained only after centuries of slow and often bloody development;
but we should congratulate Japan, because by peaceful measures she
has gradually removed herself entirely out of the pale of Oriental
absolutism, beyond even despotic Russia, and may be classed with her
model, Germany.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Especially helpful are Iyenaga’s “Constitutional Development of
  Japan,” Wigmore’s articles in the “Nation,” and several papers in the
  Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan. See also the author’s “Local
  Self-Government in Japan” in the “Political Science Quarterly” for
  June, 1892, and “A Japanese State Legislature” in the “Nation” for
  February 27, 1890. On the subject of Formosa, besides Davidson’s book
  already mentioned, see chap. xiv. of Ransome’s “Japan in Transition,”
  pp. 167, 169, of Diosy’s “New Far East,” and Takekoshi’s “Japanese
  Rule in Formosa.”



CHAPTER XI

JAPAN AS A WORLD POWER

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Standards of world-power; conscription; draft
 and exemption; army; arms and ammunition; officers of the army;
 navy; types of Japanese war-vessels; coal supply; “Blue-jacket
 Spirit”; Japan as a sea power; growth of cosmopolitan spirit;
 Anglo-Japanese Alliance,—natural, guarantee of peace, confession
 of England’s weakness, admission of Japan’s strength; Japan’s
 responsibility; meaning for Christianity; the United States a silent
 partner.—Bibliography.


It is a sad commentary on the present standards of civilization that
a consideration of Japan as a world power requires special attention
to military and naval affairs. It is rather a strange coincidence that
it was not until little Japan in 1894 showed that she could easily
overcome immense China that the “Great Powers” were willing to revise
their treaties with her on terms of equality and admit her to the
comity of nations. And it is another strange coincidence that it was
the Boxer troubles which gave Japan another opportunity to display
the efficiency of her military and naval organizations, and win such
laurels side by side with troops of the other “Powers,” that Great
Britain, the mightiest of them all, abandoned her time-honored policy
of “splendid isolation” and sought Japan’s assistance by means of the
Anglo-Japanese Alliance. It is not, however, to be imagined that Great
Britain overlooked or ignored Japan’s other elements of power; but it
is quite evident that the latter’s military and naval efficiency made
a great impression on the former. Therefore it is our duty, having
considered Japan’s geographical, industrial, commercial, social,
historical, and political features, to take up now her polemic ability.

[Illustration: DISTINGUISHED LAND COMMANDERS

  GENERAL BARON KUROKI
  GENERAL BARON OKU
  GENERAL BARON NODZU
]

The Japanese army and navy are created and sustained, as to personnel,
by a conscription system, quite like that of Germany. Theoretically,
“all males between the full ages of 17 and 40 years, who are Japanese
subjects, shall be liable to conscription.”[106] This period is,
moreover, divided up as follows: (1) Active service with the colors,
for 3 years in the army and 4 years in the navy, by those who have
“attained the full age of 20 years”; so that those who are between
17 and 20 are apparently exempt except “in time of war or other
emergency”; (2) First Reserve term, of 4 years in the army and 3 years
in the navy, “by such as have completed their service with the colors”;
(3) Second Reserve term of 5 years, “by those who have completed their
service in the First Reserves”; and (4) Service in the Territorial
Army for the remaining years by those who have completed the preceding
term. But the last three services are merely nominal, as the First and
Second Reserves and the Territorial Army are ordinarily called out only
for drill once a year and are mobilized, in order, “in time of war or
of emergency.” And, by a special arrangement, the actual service in
barracks may be only 2 years.

A very thorough method of drafting carries into effect these
provisions, and would make more than 200,000 young men annually liable
to service. But, as this is a much larger number than the government
could possibly care for, or would need in times of peace, there is a
“sweeping system of exemptions” that brings the number of conscripts
down within practical limits. This system takes into account physical
conditions, educational courses, individual and family necessities,
official duties, business requirements, etc. Even then the number of
those available who pass the examination is too large, so that it is
reduced by lot. Those who are finally enrolled are divided up among the
various lines of service according to physique, former occupation and
attainments. “Conscripts for active naval service shall be selected
from youths belonging to the sea-coast or insular districts.” The term
of active service is computed from December 1 of each year; so that
the days just preceding or following that day are busy ones for those
who are either giving new conscripts a fine send-off or welcoming home
those whose terms have expired.

Japan is divided, for military purposes, into eighteen districts,
each of which is occupied by a division. The headquarters of these
districts are located at Tōkyō, Sendai, Nagoya, Ōsaka, Hiroshima,
Kumamoto, Asahigawa, etc., etc. There is also the Imperial Guard, with
headquarters, of course, at Tōkyō: they are to be distinguished from
other soldiers by having a red instead of a yellow band around the
cap, and are “a picked corps,” who present a very fine appearance.
The war-footing of the Japanese army exceeds 500,000 men, and its
peace-footing is almost 200,000: these figures take account only of
combatants. The discipline, courage, and endurance of the Japanese army
have been clearly exhibited side by side with the troops of Occidental
nations in China, and have suffered naught by comparison. The army has
been called “the most formidable mobile land force in the Far East,
indeed in the whole of Asia,” and “the best army in the world, for its
size.” And the remarkable manner in which the various parts of the
service coöperate and smoothly carry out the general plans has won the
admiration of capable critics.[107]

The guns for the artillery service used to be purchased abroad, but
are now chiefly manufactured in Ōsaka. There is an excellent arsenal
in the Koishikawa District of Tōkyō; it is on part of the site of the
magnificent _yashiki_ (mansion) of the Prince of Mito, whose beautiful
garden still remains a delight to all visitors. This arsenal is where
the once famous Murata rifle was formerly manufactured; but that has
been superseded by the “30th Year” (of Meiji) rifle; and both of these
are Japanese inventions. The arsenal is also turning out ammunition at
the ordinary rate of a million rounds a day.

According to the Constitution, the Emperor “has the supreme command
of the army and the navy”; and under him come the Minister of War,
the actual Commander-in-Chief, the Chief of Staff, the generals and
other officers and officials in order. The Emperor is not expected to
take command in person; but often one of the Imperial Princes will
act as Commander-in-Chief in the field. There are now only two living
Field-Marshals, Marquis Yamagata and Marquis Ōyama. There are various
schools for educating and training the officers of the army and the
navy.

As Japan is entirely an insular nation, the importance of her
navy cannot be over-estimated. Even before the war with China, the
Japanese navy had been rapidly growing; and it showed its marked
efficiency in the battles of the Yalu and Wei-hai-wei (1894, 1895).
The _post-bellum_ plans for expansion have, moreover, emphasized the
value to Japan of sea-power; and the programme of naval expansion,
in spite of increased burdens of taxation, has met comparatively
little opposition. For purposes of administration, the coast of Japan
is divided into five naval districts, each with one fort which is a
first-class naval station. These stations are Yokosuka, Kure, Saseho,
Maizuru, and (to be established) Muroran. The navy at present includes
battleships, cruisers, ships for coast defence, gunboats, torpedo
boats, torpedo catchers, and despatch ships. Of the first four kinds
there are two or three classes in each; and of battleships there are
nine first-class ones of more than 15,000 tons each. The organization
of the navy is similar to that of the army: below the Emperor, who is
nominally in supreme command, come the Minister of the Navy, the actual
Commander-in-Chief, the Chief of Staff, the admirals, etc.

[Illustration: MILITARY LEADERS OF NEW JAPAN

FIELD-MARSHAL ŌYAMA AND FIELD-MARSHAL YAMAGATA]

Attention should be called to two or three points emphasized by Mr.
Arthur Diosy.[108] The first is that “Nelson’s own plan, as valid
to-day as it was in his time,” has been carried out in the types of
vessels built for the Japanese fleet. “The main idea prevailing in
their selection is the defence of the national interests by _offensive_
operations against the enemy’s fleets,” but “at no very great distance
from the base of operations at home.” The warships of Japan, therefore,
are not required to devote so much space to the storage of coal and
other supplies for long voyages, and can utilize more space for guns
and reserve ammunition, or can be built smaller and “handier.” It is in
this way that “they are among the swiftest of all the fighting ships
afloat.”

The second point, which is related to the first, is that Japan “stands
in the foremost rank as a naval power,” not merely on account of the
number and fighting strength of her ships, the efficiency of their
officers and crews, and the perfection of the naval organization,
but also on account of the well-equipped dockyards and arsenals in
convenient locations, and the abundant supply of excellent coal in easy
reach.

The third point concerns what Diosy calls the “Blue-jacket Spirit,” a
“scarcely definable _something_” that is hard to describe in words, but
that shines forth in every word and deed of the officer, the sailor,
the marine,—the _esprit de corps_ of the personnel of the Japanese
navy. This spirit he finds only in the British, Japanese, and United
States navies.

And we cannot refrain from quoting the same writer’s paragraph of
summary as follows:—

 “Japan possesses all the elements of Sea-Power: swift, powerful ships,
 adapted to the work they are intended for, numerous good harbors,
 excellent coal in abundance, capital facilities for the repair of her
 vessels, and the necessary plant, constantly augmented and improved,
 for building new ones. Her naval organization is wise and efficient,
 her administrative services are thorough and honest; her naval
 officers are gallant, dashing, and scientifically trained, and the
 armament they control is of the latest and best pattern. Strong in
 ships, strong in guns, Japan is stronger still in the factor without
 which ships and guns are useless—‘the Man behind the Gun.’”[109]

Ten years ago it was improper to speak of Japan as a world power; it
was then fitting to treat of her, as Norman did in one chapter of his
“Real Japan,” under the caption of “Japan as an Eastern Power.” But,
as already pointed out, it was her overwhelming defeat of China that
at least expedited her formal and nominal recognition in the comity of
nations. The new treaties which formulated this recognition went into
effect in 1899, from which date it may be eminently proper to begin a
seventh period,[110] that of “Cosmopolitanism,” in the history of New
Japan. And by Japan’s successes in the second war with China arising
out of the Boxer troubles, she confirmed her claim to recognition
as a world power; and this recognition was completed through the
Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902. Not many years ago the ideal was still
such a narrow theme as “The Japan of the Japanese”; then the vision
widened out so as to include “The Japan of Asia”; but now the horizon
is unlimited and extends to “The Japan of the World.” Indeed, the
Japanese have outgrown “Native Japan,” and even “Asiatic Japan,” into
“Cosmopolitan Japan.” They are interested, not only in national, but
also international, problems.

It has already been pointed out that the complete recognition of Japan
as a world power was manifested in the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. This is
the greatest political event of 1902,[111] so far as concerns directly
the future of the Orient and indirectly the affairs of the Occident.
This convention between Great Britain and Japan caused profound
surprise and widespread rejoicing, and in Japan particularly it was the
occasion for numerous feasts, even in various provincial localities,
where more or less profuse self-gratulation was the order of the day.
But it is now possible to take a calmer view of the situation and to
make a more judicial estimate of the importance of the alliance.

In the first place, it is well to remember that this formal alliance
is only the natural outcome of a community of interests in the Far
East, and is the natural result of practical coöperation for some time
past. As Count Ōkuma put it, they (Great Britain and Japan) have been
allies in effect for some years; they are now allies in name. Indeed,
for several years past this alliance has existed in spirit, and it has
now merely become a public acknowledgment of sympathy and similar aims
in policy in the Far East. This alliance, then, is not artificial or
compulsory, but natural, spontaneous, and voluntary.

The second point to notice is that the Anglo-Japanese Alliance includes
the greatest power each of the Occident and of the Orient. This
alliance is also the combination of two of the greatest naval powers,
as well as two great military powers of the world. It would seem
likely, therefore, as a prominent Japanese expressed it, “that there
is no power or combination of powers that could make head against this
union in the Far East; the attempt would be like spitting at a tiger.”
The Anglo-Japanese Alliance is, therefore, a guarantee, of the very
first quality, of peace in the Orient, and of just dealings with China
and Korea.

Another important point in connection with this alliance is the fact
that herein Great Britain has abandoned, has broken to pieces, her
traditional policy of “splendid isolation.” For many decades she has
not been in the habit of contracting alliances with other powers in
carrying out plans to advance her own interests. The fact, therefore,
that in this case she has seen fit to depart from her usual policy is
a positive indication that the situation in the Far East was one of
imminent peril and demanded unusual precaution. It is a proof that
Russian aggressions were no mere phantoms, but were terribly real and
threatening.

And the fact that, when Great Britain broke her policy of grand
isolation, it was to enter into alliance with an Oriental rather than
an Occidental power, is also one of great significance. It proves more
effectively than folios of verbal argument, and speaks out more loudly
than a thousand tongues could tell, the present satisfactory status
of Japan. The insignificant, “half-civilized” country of a few years
ago is now “on the same lotus-blossom” with Great Britain. That little
island-empire of the Orient is now but fifty years out of her own
practically complete isolation from the rest of the world; she is only
thirty years out of feudalism; she has been only a little more than a
decade in constitutionalism and parliamentary government, and she has
been only a few years in the comity of nations by virtue of treaties on
terms of equality; nevertheless, she has become the political partner
of that immense island-empire which stretches in all directions, and
encircles the globe with the drum-beat of her garrisons. The huge
empire on whose possessions the sun never sets has taken as its ally
the small empire of the rising sun!

This recognition of the status of New Japan has been, of course, a
matter of great pride and rejoicing to that nation and therefore a
source of encouragement to continue steadfast in the paths of progress
along which she has been moving so rapidly.[112] It has likewise
been recognized that this alliance imposes great responsibilities
upon Japan, if she would maintain her new position.[113] These
responsibilities are along not only military, naval, political, and
commercial lines, but also along social, moral, and religious lines.
The new alliance means that licentiousness, dishonesty, and other vices
should not be tolerated, and that ignorance, superstition, and idolatry
should not be allowed to thrive among a people in alliance with such a
progressively Christian nation as Great Britain. In other words, this
alliance should hasten the spread of the Gospel in Japan.

But this alliance means much to Christianity, not merely in Japan,
but over all the Orient. For the prime objects of the alliance are the
independence of Korea and the integrity of the Chinese Empire; and the
prime effect of the alliance is peace in the Orient. This means that
Russian aggressions in China and Korea will be, already have been,
considerably checked, and that Anglo-Saxon and Japanese influences will
be paramount in those countries. And all this means that Christian
missionary work will be practically unhindered, unless it be by local
and spasmodic prejudice; and that the word will have freer course and
be glorified. The alliance of the first nation of Christendom with a
largely Christianized nation like Japan cannot fail to Christianize the
Far East.

[Illustration: STATESMEN OF NEW JAPAN

COUNT ŌKUMA, MARQUIS INOUYE, COUNT ITAGAKI, MARQUIS MATSUKATA]

Finally, one significant phase of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance is the
fact that, to all intents and purposes, it includes the United States
of America, which may be called a “silent partner.” It is well known
that the convention was shown at Washington before it was promulgated,
and that it was heartily approved by our government. Practically,
therefore, it is, in a very broad sense, an Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
Certainly our interests in the Far East have been and are identical
with those of Great Britain and Japan; and all our “moral influence,”
at least, should be exerted toward the purposes of that convention.
Indeed, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance should mean the union of Great
Britain and the United States with Japan to maintain in the Orient
the “open door,” not merely of trade and commerce, but of all social,
intellectual, moral, and religious reforms; the open door, not of
material civilization only, but also of the gospel of Jesus Christ.[114]


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  “The Real Japan” (Norman), chaps. v., xiii.; “Advance Japan”
  (Morris), chap. xiii.; “The New Far East” (Diosy), especially
  chap. vii.; “Heroic Japan” (Eastlake and Yamada); “The Awakening
  of the East” (Leroy-Beaulieu), chap. ix; and “Japan in Transition”
  (Ransome), chap. xv.; “Japan Today” (Scherer), chap. xi.; “The Real
  Triumph of Japan” (Seaman); “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd); “Dai Nippon”
  (Dyer), chaps. vi., xvi., and xvii.; and “The Imperial Japanese Navy”
  (Janes).



CHAPTER XII

LEGAL JAPAN

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Justice in Old Japan; new codes; list of same;
 crimes and punishments; convicts; police; arrest; trials; courts;
 judiciary; prisons; legalized prostitution; crusade against social
 evil; rescue homes, etc.—Registration.—Taxation.—Foreigners
 under Japanese law; restrictions upon them.—Leasing
 land.—Mines.—Railways.—Banking, insurance, etc.; kinds of
 corporations; foreign associations; Japanese corporations.—Foreigners
 in business.—Bibliography.


The difference between Old Japan and New Japan is quite clearly
evident when one comes to the study of law and jurisprudence. It would
be very misleading to affirm that the administration of justice was a
farce; and yet so-called legal decisions were too often arbitrary and
tyrannical. The feudal lords were too much inclined to visit summary
and cruel punishment on slight pretext; and altogether too few were
the men like Oöka, the justice and wisdom of whose decisions won for
him the title of “Japanese Solomon.” As a matter of fact, there was
in Old Japan, as Wigmore has abundantly shown,[115] “a legal system,
a body of clear and consistent rules, a collection of statutes and of
binding precedents.” The chief characteristics of Japanese justice
under the old _régime_, as indicated by Wigmore, were the following:
(1) Making justice “personal, not impersonal,” by balancing “the
benefits and disadvantages of a given course, not for all time in a
fixed rule, but anew in each instance,” and thus “to sacrifice legal
principle to present expediency”; (2) the feudal spirit, especially in
criminal law, as illustrated by the use of torture, humiliating forms
of procedure, and awfully severe punishments; and (3) the attainment
of justice, “not so much by the aid of the law as by mutual consent,”
by means of definite customs, applied, however, “through arbitration
and concession,” so that there was “a universal resort to arbitration
and compromise as a primary means of settling disputes,” and only a
_dernier ressort_ to the process of law. These characteristics should
be noticed, not merely on account of their historical value, but in
explanation of certain traits still prominent even in New Japan.

But Modern Japan is pretty well equipped with a system of new codes,
based on European models, yet showing some modifications to suit
Japan’s peculiar needs. This codification along Western lines was
strongly opposed by the conservatives, who insisted that national
codes, “interpreting national needs,” should be naturally developed in
due course of time. But this opposition was overcome by the demands
for treaty revision and the recognition of Japan in the comity of
nations; for Occidental powers would not remove their extra-territorial
jurisdiction and leave their nationals to the mercy of Japanese courts,
unless the laws were codified according to Western models.

A list of the new codes is taken, with slight modifications, from
Chamberlain’s “Things Japanese,” which has been especially helpful in
the preparation of this chapter.

The new codes resulting from the legislative activity of the present
reign are: (1) the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure,
drafted by Monsieur Boissonade, on the basis of the Code Napoleon, with
modifications suggested by the old Japanese Criminal Law; these were
published in 1880, and came into force in 1882; the Code of Criminal
Procedure was, however, revised in 1890, in order that it might be
uniform with the Code of Civil Procedure, according to the provisions
of (2) the Law of the Organization of the Judicial Courts, promulgated
in the month of February, 1890, and put into force on November 1 of
the same year; (3) the Code of Civil Procedure, which went into effect
at once; (4) the Civil Code, and (5) the Commercial Code, which were
put into force in 1898; and (6) divers statutes on miscellaneous
subjects.[116]

There are, according to the Japanese Criminal Code, three kinds of
crimes, of two degrees, major and minor. The three kinds are: (1)
against the State or the Imperial Family, and in violation of the
public credit, policy, peace, health, etc.; (2) against person and
property; and (3) police offences. Major crimes are punishable by (1)
death by hanging; (2) deportation with or without hard labor, for life
or for a term of years; and (3) imprisonment on similar terms. Minor
crimes are punishable by fines and confinement with or without hard
labor. What are called police offences are punishable by small fines
running from 5 _sen_ to 2 _yen_, and by detention for from 1 to 10 days
without hard labor. In cases of capital punishment no public visitors,
only the necessary officials, are allowed to be present. Deportation is
usually made to the northern island of Yezo, to work generally in the
mines.

Convicts are easily recognizable by their “crushed strawberry”
uniforms, and are often seen in public; for convict labor, in the case
both of individuals and of gangs, is utilized by the authorities. In
fact, all prisoners, according to their abilities, are required to
labor nine hours each day in some kind of employment, either inside or
outside of the prison.

The Japanese policeman is one of the most interesting “characters”
of his nation. He is the successor of the _samurai_, who, in the old
_régime_, took upon themselves the duty of enforcing justice. He
possesses all the pomp and dignity of his knightly predecessor; and he,
too, carries a sword. All the people, from children up to grandfather,
stand in complete awe of him. And well may they be afraid; for in his
dealings, at least with the common people, he manifests no gentleness,
but by his dictatorial manners compels the utmost respect for himself
and the law. He seldom has to use force in making an arrest, unless in
the cases of the professional criminals; and he does not usually find
it necessary to use handcuffs, as a strong cord will serve his purpose
on ordinary occasions. He is more easily to be found, when wanted,
than the proverbial American policeman. He is poorly paid, but richly
faithful, and in every sense of the words upholds the dignity of the
law. His figure clad in white or blue uniform, respectively, for five
and seven months of the year, is familiar and welcome to foreigners,
because to them he is invariably kind and courteous.

When a person suspected of some crime or misdemeanor has been
arrested by the police, he is taken to the nearest detention station
and put through a preliminary investigation before the judge of the
local court. As this may be delayed, and bail allowed or not at
the discretion of the judge, accused persons are sometimes kept in
detention for a considerable period. No counsel is allowed at this
secret preliminary examination before a kind of justice of peace. The
latter, from the evidence, either dismisses the prisoner, or imposes a
suitable punishment, or remands him for trial before the proper court.

A trial in Japan, as in France, is of the “inquisitorial” type, and is
conducted by the judge (or judges) alone. “All questions by counsel
must be put through him. Counsel do not so much defend their clients
as represent them.” Witnesses are sworn, so to speak, by “a solemn
asseveration,” without “any religious sanction”; and this takes the
form of a written document “duly signed and sealed.” The government
is represented by the public procurator, who seems to combine in one
person the duties of inspector, grand jury, and prosecuting attorney.
Hearsay evidence is admitted; and circumstantial evidence has no small
influence.

Japanese courts are organized according to the French system, with
some modifications along German lines. They are four in kind, from the
Local Court, through the District or Provincial Court, and the Court
of Appeal, up to the Supreme Court. The local courts have jurisdiction
over police offences and some minor crimes; the district courts
conduct preliminary investigations and have jurisdiction over crimes;
the courts of appeal hear new trials; while the supreme court hears
criminal appeals on matters of law. Japanese courts are very solemn
places, with strict regulations as to costume, ceremony, and conduct.

The Japanese judiciary is, by this time, pretty much weeded out of
the old judges with antiquated notions, and consists very largely of
comparatively young men, educated in the modern systems. A graduate of
the Law College of the Imperial University may attain a seat on the
bench after three years as a probationary judge, and one examination;
other persons must pass two severe examinations. The salary of an
ordinary judge is small; and just after the Imperial Diet in 1901 had
failed to pass a bill for increase of their salaries, a large number
went on a strike! Judges are appointed for life on good behavior.

[Illustration: COURT BUILDINGS, TŌKYŌ, AND THE MINT, ŌSAKA]

The management of the Japanese prison system will bear favorable
comparison with that of any Western country; for it has undergone
considerable improvement of recent years, and is quite up to date. It
is rather amusing to recall the fact that, before the new treaties
came into effect, by which foreigners were to fall under Japanese
jurisdiction, considerable anxiety was manifested lest American
criminals, for instance, should suffer inconvenience in Japanese jails!
And it was a singular coincidence that the first crime committed
after the midnight when those treaties went into effect was by an
American, who committed a triple murder in Yokohama. But the trial and
treatment of Miller showed to the world that Japanese law and prisons
were entirely unworthy of the captious criticism that had been passed
upon them. With commodious buildings, extensive grounds, ventilated
rooms, gardens and shops for laborers, hospitals for the sick, bath
privileges, wholesome food, reading matter under certain limitations,
rewards for good behavior, part pay for labor, the Japanese prison,
especially the largest ones at Tōkyō, Yokohama, and other important
cities, must be acknowledged to hold high rank among the reformatory
institutions of the world.

This is, perhaps, as appropriate a place as any to introduce one
of the peculiar legal institutions of Japan, that is, the public
brothel. As is well known, the social evil is licensed, and therefore
legalized, in Japan; it is not merely not condemned, but actually
condoned. In Old Japan the young girl willing to sell herself to a
life of shame to relieve the poverty and distress of her parents would
be considered virtuous, because filial piety was regarded as a higher
virtue than personal chastity. Nor would the parents who accepted
such relief be severely condemned, because the welfare of the family
was more important than the condition of the individual. And even
in Modern Japan, in the eyes of the law, it is no crime to visit a
licensed house of ill-fame; and visitors to such places hand in their
cards and have their names and addresses registered, just as if they
were attending an ordinary public function. Nay more, an ex-President
of the Imperial University, and one of the leading philosophers and
educators of the day, has come out in public print and affirmed that,
from the standpoint of science and philosophy, he can see no evil in
prostitution _per se_. And when such licensed brothels are allowed near
Buddhist temples and Shintō shrines, it would appear as if those cults
were really culpable not to protest. Indeed, when the patriotic youth
of New Japan, wishing to pay homage at the most famous shrines of Ise,
are compelled to reach the spot by passing along a road lined on both
sides with legalized brothels, it looks as if official encouragement
to impurity was offered, or at least temptation was presented, to the
rising generation.

But Christianity has always taught, in Japan as elsewhere, that
prostitution, whether licensed or unlicensed, is a sin, and has sought
by various means to check this terrible evil. Formerly no girl was
able to escape from her awful slavery, no matter how much she desired
to free herself, except by permission of the keeper! But within the
past few years a campaign has been waged that has greatly weakened
the tyranny of the abominable system. A test case, bitterly fought at
every point, was carried up through all the courts to the highest,
and finally won by those who contended that a girl could not be kept
in a brothel against her will. Another test case, carried up to the
Supreme Court, and decided in favor of the keepers, to the effect
that the financial obligations of the girls are valid in law, has
given the reform movement a temporary set-back. But, in spite of all
obstacles and opposition, the crusade against the social evil has
achieved a large measure of success. About 14,000 girls have been set
free; the number of applicants for admission, as well as of unlicensed
prostitutes, has diminished; the number of visitors has so largely
decreased, that some brothels have been compelled to go into bankruptcy
and close up the business; public opinion has been aroused, and the
moral tone of society has been elevated and purified.

We must not fail to call attention to the fact that the destructive
work of this crusade has been supplemented by the constructive work
of establishing “rescue homes” under the auspices of the Woman’s
Christian Temperance Union, the Salvation Army, and other Christian
organizations. There is also a very large and successful Home for
ex-Convicts, conducted in Tōkyō by Mr. Hara, a Christian minister,
often called the “Howard of Japan.” This title might also be given to
Mr. Tomeoka, another Christian minister, who has made a special study
of penology and prison management, and is conducting both a “reform
school” and a “school for prison officials.”

Inasmuch as Japan is under a paternal government, the system of
registration is carefully and thoroughly employed. It is practically
ubiquitous and universal; and it is carried to such an extreme as to be
vexatious to Anglo-Saxons, especially to Americans. But to a Japanese
the _seki_ (register) is all important; it is the certificate of his
(or her) very existence, age, status, occupation, home (permanent or
temporary), and almost of the character of the individual. In case
of change of residence, this biographical sketch must be transferred
from one locality to another; and even in case of travel, or presence
in a hotel for a single night only, the guest must give an account of
himself to the proprietor according to certain blanks supplied by the
police. A foreigner is concerned with the following information by Dr.
Masujima, the eminent lawyer and jurist of Tōkyō:—

 “A foreign householder who intends to stay for more than nine days
 at one place in Japan, must, within ten days of his arrival, report
 to the police regarding himself and persons in his company, stating
 full particulars, ages, profession or other occupation, the place
 from which they last came, their home domicile, and the relationship
 of those persons with him; as well as the full address of the house
 in which he lives, countersigned by the landlord, any changes in such
 information to be treated in like manner from time to time.”

The subject of taxation is one which may well be mentioned in this
chapter, although it is scarcely profitable to devote much space
thereto. In Old Japan taxes were paid in kind, chiefly with rice; but
in New Japan they are payable only with cash. The system of taxation
is rather complicated and oppressive; and yet the people stoically
endure their burdens without indulging in the pastime of agrarian
riots. The land-tax of 3-1/3 per cent of the assessed value of the
land in the case of rural lands and 5 per cent in the case of urban
lands is a very important source of revenue, and has always been the
cause of great trouble in political circles. Other taxes are the
business tax, the income tax, the house tax, etc. The last mentioned
is the one which foreigners claimed to be exempt from paying, but the
Japanese government claimed to have the authority to levy; the question
has been submitted to arbitration, and is still _sub judice_. Under
the new treaties Japan has the right to levy duties on imports, and
thereby secures considerable revenue. In the list of articles exempt
from duties we find books, maps, charts, bullion, coins, cotton, flax,
hemp, jute, rice, wool, plants, trees, shrubs, etc.; and in the list of
prohibited articles opium and adulterations are most prominent.[117]

Inasmuch as the status of foreigners under Japanese law is a subject
of growing practical importance, we make extracts from an address
delivered by Dr. Masujima before the New York State Bar Association in
January, 1903:—

 “The cases in which foreigners are restricted in the enjoyment of
 private rights, are the ownership of land or Japanese ships, the right
 to work mines, to own shares in the Bank of Japan or the Yokohama
 Specie Bank, to be members or brokers of exchanges, to engage in
 emigration business, or to receive bounties for navigation or ship
 building. Any company must, in order to own Japanese ships, have
 its principal office in Japan, and all members in case of a _Gōmei
 Kaisha_, all unlimited liability members in case of either a _Gōshi
 Kaisha_ or _Kabushiki Gōshi Kaisha_, and all directors in case of
 a limited company, must be Japanese subjects. Otherwise foreigners
 are as free as the Japanese to own shares in any Japanese commercial
 companies organized by themselves alone, or in combination with
 the Japanese, or to engage in any manufacture or other commercial
 operations.

 “Foreigners may hold a long lease of land to plant trees or erect
 permanent structures, which may be arranged for an indefinite term
 almost perpetual, such as one thousand years, or as long as may be
 agreed upon. Such a holding is called superficies, and it is very much
 like a long English lease, the only difference being that trees or
 buildings do not, at the end of the term, revert to the landlord, his
 right being only that of pre-emption at current valuation. The most
 advisable way for the enjoyment of the actual and permanent holding
 of land is for a foreigner to buy land himself through a Japanese, as
 bare trustee, and to secure its superficies for the period of as long
 a term as may be desirable for his purposes.

 “Although no foreigners may work mines individually, they may be taken
 on mortgage, and a company registered as a Japanese organization is
 entitled to engage in mining; the theory is that foreigners as members
 merge themselves in the entity of a Japanese corporation, although it
 may be composed of foreigners exclusively.

 “No railway or tramway business is allowed to be carried on unless by
 a limited company and a concession for such purpose has to be secured
 from the proper authorities. No such railway can be pledged, but it
 may be hypothecated. Japanese pledge corresponds to English mortgage,
 differing therefrom in that immediate transfer of possession and
 holding the pledged property absolutely is essential. Hypothecation
 does not carry possession nor the right of entry. This condition of
 Japanese railway law has not satisfied capitalists as not affording
 sufficient security to induce investment by them. There has been some
 attempt to have this law altered, but it has not yet been accomplished.

 “Banking, insurance, shipping, and all other kinds of commercial
 business may be carried on in Japan by foreign companies by observing
 the treaties and certain regulations, such as the registration
 of their branch offices, their representatives or other matters
 prescribed by law.

 “There are two kinds of civil corporations, the one consisting of
 persons associated together, and the other an estate of aggregate
 property somewhat like a trust in English law, formed or established
 for the purpose of religious worship, teaching, art, charity,
 education, or any other object of public benefit, not aiming at the
 making of a profit. Such a corporation can come in existence only with
 the permission of the competent authorities, while Japanese commercial
 corporations may be formed without it.

 “No foreign association of persons or trust property is accorded
 the same rights and privileges as are enjoyed by similar Japanese
 corporations; such a foreign corporation has no standing whatsoever
 in the Japanese courts, and the only way in which it could obtain
 protection would be to appear in the individual names of its members,
 just as used once to be the case in partnership actions. Purely
 technical evidence must be procured and filed before any legal
 proceeding can be initiated, and the best interests of the corporation
 might easily be jeopardized. Some foreign religious societies have
 sought to get themselves incorporated as Japanese corporations, but
 failed. Japan has no State religion, and she is absolutely impartial
 in religious matters. Any religious body so applying must be and show
 itself to be a purely Japanese institution, free from all control of
 any sort from its corresponding religious bodies in foreign countries.
 Any legal connection whatever between the home body and Japanese
 organization is a bar to such purpose.[118]

 [Illustration: STATESMEN OF NEW JAPAN

 ŌKUBO, SAIGŌ, KIDO, AND PRINCE IWAKURA]

 “A Japanese corporation has almost as large privileges as a Japanese
 subject. It can own land and exercise other rights not accorded to
 individual foreigners. A corporation so organized may contain in its
 ranks foreign members, but it must be of such a nature as not to be
 under any danger of control of any kind from outside. Even after
 incorporation, the charter will be forfeited should the policy of the
 Japanese Government be at any time prejudiced by the conduct of a
 corporation so sanctioned.

 “If foreigners wish to do business in combination with the Japanese,
 the best way would be to form a _Gōshi Kaisha_ or limited partnership,
 they themselves carrying unlimited liability. To control a _Kabushiki
 Kaisha_, or limited company, they should own more than half the
 amount of capital, either by holding themselves or through their
 own nominees, and shares should be tied up so as not to allow their
 transfer without the consent of the board of directors. The advantage
 of any business being organized as a Japanese corporation consists,
 as the law now stands, in owning land and having the full rights of
 Japanese subjects.”

 It should be added here that many prominent Japanese continue to
 urge that foreigners be allowed to own land, possibly under certain
 restrictions; and that such a privilege is quite likely to be granted
 before very long.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Suitable works of reference on this chapter are scarce. “The Yankees
  of the East” (Curtis), chap, viii., and “The Real Japan” (Norman),
  chaps. iii. and xi., furnish some material. Dr. Masujima’s papers
  in the Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan on “The Japanese Legal
  Seal” (vol. xvii.) and “Modern Japanese Legal Institutions” (vol.
  xviii.) are quite instructive; and so is Longford’s “Summary of
  the Japanese Penal Codes” in vol. v. Some specific references have
  already been made in footnotes.

  “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd) contains interesting material on these
  topics. Hozumi’s “Lectures on the New Japanese Civil Code” and
  “Ancestor Worship and Japanese Law” are very valuable.



CHAPTER XIII

THE NEW WOMAN IN JAPAN[119]

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Not Western “new woman,” but abstract, legal new
 woman in Japan.—Woman in old _régime_; wife in old _régime_; lack of
 “home”; woman anciently honored.—Legal status in Old Japan, in New
 Japan; independent person; marriage; right of marriage; husband and
 wife.—Divorce,—by arrangement and judicial.—Concubinage; child of
 a concubine.—Prospects of new woman; openings for labor.—The “New
 Great Learning for Women.”—Enlarged educational advantages; new
 schools.—Women in business.—The Empress and the Crown Princess.—The
 woman question; further needs; women and Christianity.—Bibliography.


Any intention of using the term “new woman” in a jocose or satirical
way is disclaimed at the outset. It is not our purpose to refer at all
to such a creature as that called “new woman” in the Occident; for it
has not yet appeared to any great extent among the Japanese. It may be
true, in some cases, that the modernized Japanese woman is “without
gentleness or refinement,” and may be called a “parody of a man” or
a “sickening sort of person.” But, as the “Jiji Shimpo” explains,
“the process of the new woman’s evolution may be disfigured by some
accident”; and “the new woman stands out with objectionable salience
because her environment is so colorless.”

It is desired, in the first instance, to consider, not the new woman
in the concrete, in the flesh, but the abstract, legal new woman that
has been created by the new Civil Code of Japan. In looking through
the translation of that document by Mr. Gubbins, we have been deeply
impressed with the possibilities which lie before the women of New
Japan through the rights and privileges vouchsafed to them under that
code.

In Old Japan, as stated in a preceding chapter,[120] the constitution
of the family was practically that of an empire, in which all other
members thereof were subject to the despotic authority of the master. A
Japanese woman was subject to the “three obediences”: as a maiden, to
her father; as a wife, to her husband and his parents;[121] as a widow,
to her oldest son, whether real or only adopted. A daughter might even
be called upon, for the sake of her parents, to sacrifice her honor
and enter a brothel; and she was still considered virtuous, because
personal chastity was a lower virtue than filial piety.

A Japanese, like a Grecian, wife was to her husband a faithful slave,
“something better than his dog, a little dearer than his horse”; she
was both a drudge and a plaything, to be cast aside as capriciously as
a child throws away a toy. She must tamely submit to having concubines
brought, perhaps, right into the house at the will of her lord; or
she herself might, under slight and flimsy pretexts, be divorced and
sent back to her parents. The following “seven reasons for divorce”
were laid down by a celebrated Japanese moralist: disobedience to
father-in-law or mother-in-law; barrenness; lewdness; jealousy; leprosy
or any like foul disease; garrulousness and prattling; stealing.

It is, therefore, a misnomer to speak of “Japanese homes” of the old
_régime_, in the sense in which we use that little word “home” with all
its depth and wealth of meaning and its associated thoughts of “love”
and “sympathy.” Indeed, the word “home” cannot be perfectly translated
into the Japanese language, and is generally transferred bodily with
the pronunciation _homu_. And one of the far-reaching results of
Christian mission work in Japan has been the introduction of the idea
and the ideal of the Christian home.

It should, however, be constantly kept in mind that in the most
ancient times women were highly esteemed, and even “used to play an
important part on the political stage.” In Shintō the central object
of adoration is the sun, which is worshipped as a goddess. There have
been seated on the imperial throne of Japan eight empresses, one of
whom is famous for her martial valor and military exploits. It was
when Buddhism became powerful that Hindoo and Chinese conceptions of
woman’s position moulded public opinion and thus eventually changed
the manners, customs, and laws of Japan so as to relegate woman to
an abnormally inferior position. As only one striking example out
of many possible illustrations of the relative positions of man and
woman, we note that, in the case of the death of the husband, the law
prescribed mourning garments for thirteen months and abstinence from
impurity for fifty days; but, in the case of the death of the wife,
mourning garments for three months and abstinence for twenty days were
sufficient.

Mr. Gubbins in the introduction to Part II. of his translation of the
Civil Code, writes as follows:—

 “The legal position of women in Japan before the commencement of
 modern legislative reform is well illustrated by the fact that
 offences came under different categories according to their commission
 by the wife against the husband, or by the husband against the wife,
 and by the curious anomaly that, while the husband stood in the first
 degree of relationship to his wife, the latter stood to him only in
 the second.[122] The disabilities under which a woman formerly labored
 shut her out from the exercise of almost all rights. She could not
 inherit or own property in her own name, she could not become the head
 of a family, she could not adopt, and she could not be the guardian
 of her child. The maxim, _mulier est finis familiae_, was as true in
 Japan as in Rome, though its observance may have been less strict,
 owing to the greater frequency of adoption.

 “In no respect has modern progress in Japan made greater strides
 than in the improvement of the position of women. Though she still
 labors under certain disabilities, a woman can now become the head
 of a family and exercise authority as such; she can inherit and own
 property and manage it herself; she can exercise parental authority;
 if single, or a widow, she can adopt; she is one of the parties to
 adoption effected by her husband, and her consent in addition to that
 of her husband is necessary to the adoption of her child by another
 person; she can act as guardian or curator; and she has a voice in
 family councils.”[123]

Moreover, although it is true that for the performance of certain
acts (Art. 14) a wife must obtain her husband’s permission, and that
a wife’s acts may be annulled by her husband (Art. 120), yet it is
explicitly stated that “a wife who has been permitted to engage in
one or more businesses possesses in regard thereto the capacity of an
independent person.”

But let us look a little more particularly into the provisions
relating to marriage, divorce, etc. The marriageable age is 17 full
years for men and 15 full years for women. Marriage takes effect when
notice of the fact is given to a registrar, by both parties with two
witnesses. From this it will appear that the ceremony is a “purely
social function, having no connection whatsoever with law beyond
the somewhat remote contingency of its being adducible as evidence
of a marriage having taken place.” And here is where some Japanese
Christians make an unfortunate and sometimes serious mistake, in
thinking that the ceremony by a minister of the gospel is sufficient
and registration is a matter of convenience. _Without registration a
marriage is not legal._

The right of marriage is not free, except to the head of a family.[124]
All other persons, whatever their ages, can marry only with the consent
of the head of his or her family. Men under 30 and women under 25
cannot marry without the consent of the parents; and minors in some
cases must obtain the consent of the guardian or even of a family
council.

In Art. 790 it is stipulated that “a husband and wife are mutually
bound to support one another.” A husband manages the property of his
wife, unless he is unable to do so, when she manages it herself. “With
regard to daily household matters, a wife is regarded as her husband’s
agent.”

There are two ways of effecting divorce: either by arrangement, which
is effected in a similar way to marriage—that is, by simply having
the registration of marriage cancelled—or by judicial divorce, which
may be granted on several grounds specified in the Code. But divorce
by arrangement cannot be effected by persons under 25 years of age,
without consent of the person or persons by whose consent marriage was
effected. And if the persons who effect this kind of divorce fail to
determine who is to have the custody of the children, they belong to
the father; but “in cases where the father leaves the family owing to
divorce, the custody of the children belongs to the mother,” evidently
because she remains in the family. In other words, _children are
chattels of the family_.

The grounds on which judicial divorce is granted include bigamy,
adultery on the part of the wife, the husband’s receiving a criminal
sentence for an offence against morality, cruel treatment or grave
insult such as to render living together unbearable, desertion with
evil intent, cruel treatment or gross insult of or by lineal ascendants.

The new Civil Code indirectly sanctions concubinage by stipulating (in
Art. 827) that “an illegitimate child may be recognized by the father
or mother” by giving notice to a registrar. Such a child is called
_shoshi_, but is not legitimized. It is, however, stipulated (in Art.
728) that between a wife and a _shoshi_ “the same relationship as that
between parent and child is established.” That seems clearly enough to
mean that a wife must accept a concubine’s child as if it were her own,
in case the father “recognizes” it. This would appear to be little, if
any, advance over the old _régime_, where “the wife of the father,” as
she was technically called, frequently had to accept as her own child
that of a concubine.

Mr. Gubbins makes the following explanation of _shoshi_:—

 “This term illustrates the transitionary phase through which Japanese
 law is passing. Japanese dictionaries define _shoshi_ as the child of
 a concubine, and this, so long as concubinage was sanctioned by law,
 and the question of legitimacy never arose, was the accepted meaning
 of the term. The law of Japan, which, in the course of its development
 on western lines, has come to accept the principle of legitimacy, and
 to admit of the legitimization of children by the subsequent marriage
 of their parents, now recognizes an intermediate stage between
 legitimacy and illegitimacy.”

Such is the general outline of the legal status of woman according to
the new Civil Code. It will undoubtedly be most interesting to watch
the gradual evolution of a new woman in Japan as the outcome of this
legislation. It remains to be seen how far the social status of woman
will be improved. It is not at all likely that her actual position will
be immediately advanced in any great degree. It is probable that custom
will continue, for a while at least, to wield a mightier influence than
the Code; and that, as Mr. Gubbins remarks, “the present transitional
condition of Japanese society may favor a rule being honored more in
the breach than in the observance.” But it will probably not be long
before here and there certain women will claim the rights accorded by
law[125] and will find a corresponding improvement in their social
condition; and thus the general position of the Japanese woman will
gradually be advanced.

And, as a matter of fact, the status of woman in Japan is improving in
practice no less than in theory, especially in the new openings for
work that render her more or less independent of male support. For
instance, although the work of weaving, formerly carried on by women
in the homes, is now largely transferred to factories, with modern
machinery, there is an increasing demand for female hands. This is also
true in cotton mills, match factories, tobacco shops, and many other
such places of work. Telephone exchanges, post-offices, railway ticket
offices, printing offices, also find girls and women deft and skilful.
In hospitals and schools, too, the Japanese young woman is finding her
sphere. She is likewise showing her skill and taste in both artistic
and literary employments. But in Japan, as elsewhere, this drift into
industrial and other occupations is producing a scarcity of servants
for housework.

Just as Kaibara’s “Onna Daigaku” (Great Learning for Women) was the
standard for female education under the old _régime_, so New Japan most
appropriately has a “Shin [New] Onna-Daigaku,” by Mr. Fukuzawa, the
famous educator and writer. The following summary thereof is from the
“Japan Mail”:—

 “The ‘Sekai-no-Nihon’ reviews at some length Mr. Fukuzawa’s series
 of articles entitled ‘Shin Onna-Daigaku,’ which have now appeared in
 book form. We give in a brief form the gist of the reviewer’s remarks.
 Mr. Fukuzawa’s object in writing so much on the subject of women’s
 position in modern times is to endeavor to create a new standard
 for women. Hitherto the teaching of Kaibara Ekiken’s ‘Onna Daigaku’
 has been accepted in all quarters. According to it woman occupies a
 subordinate position, and must on no account assert her independence
 or claim equality with man. While showing the untenableness of all
 such theories, Mr. Fukuzawa does not rush to an opposite extreme. He
 defines woman’s position in a remarkably common-sense way. He would
 not have women attempt to imitate men. They have their own spheres
 and should keep to them. When discussing the education of girls he
 insists on the necessity of making a special point of giving them a
 thorough drilling in household duties. They should have a knowledge of
 cooking; they should be taught how to make the most of money, how to
 manage servants, &c. Next to these things he attaches great importance
 to their being instructed in the laws of health. Among other subjects
 botany is to be recommended as specially suited to the female mind. He
 further argues that women should be taught Economy and Law. He thinks
 that a knowledge of these subjects will tend to develop their general
 intelligence, and save them from becoming the creatures of emotion.
 In olden times a woman carried a dagger in her girdle to be used as
 a last resource. In modern times a thoroughly enlightened mind will
 be her best protection against the dangers to which she is exposed.
 With the tendency to conceit which is said to be engendered by the
 kind of education recommended, Mr. Fukuzawa deals in his treatise,
 arguing that this tendency can be rendered harmless by instruction in
 the kind of demeanor that best becomes a woman.... Marriage according
 to the old methods Mr. Fukuzawa condemns, and the practice of having
 the father-in-law or mother-in-law living with the married couple
 should, he thinks, be discontinued. Marriage should be regarded in a
 serious light, and the duties and responsibilities it involves should
 be duly considered. Mothers should take pleasure in instructing their
 children, and should know enough to gain their respect. The whole
 system recommended is based on Western life and thought. This new
 Gospel for woman preached by a man who has spent his whole life in
 advocating reform, as one of his last messages to the nation, is,
 says the ‘Sekai-no-Nihon,’ very striking and likely to effect great
 good.”[126]

Within the past decade or so the educational advantages for Japanese
girls have very largely increased; and the number of girls and young
women availing themselves of these advantages has grown encouragingly.
There has been a marked increase in the number of female pupils in
public and private, including mission, schools of all grades; and
there have been new institutions organized especially for young women,
concerning two of which it is necessary to speak more particularly.

One is a kind of English normal school in charge of Miss Umé Tsuda,
herself a type of the best kind of “new woman” in Japan. She was
the youngest of the first group of Japanese girls sent over to the
United States in 1871 to be educated; and ever since her return to
Japan she has been trying to elevate the condition of her sisters.
Her school is intended primarily to train young women to be efficient
teachers, particularly of English. Another important institution is the
University for Women, opened in 1901 in Tōkyō, the first of its kind
started in the first year of the new century, as a harbinger that the
Twentieth Century in Japan will be largely the women’s century.[127]

What the new woman in Japan is able to accomplish in business lines is
well illustrated in the following paragraphs:[128]—

 “Mrs. Asa Hiroöka, of Ōsaka, is well known in business circles as
 the actual guiding spirit and organizer of the famous banking firm
 of Kajima. A daughter of the Mitsui family, she was married at the
 age of 17 to Mr. Shingorō Hiroöka of Ōsaka a few years previous to
 the restoration. The Hiroöka family was one of those celebrated
 banking agents of the feudal barons who flourished at Ōsaka during the
 Tokugawa _régime_, and, like many of the rest, had its affairs thrown
 into disorder and was itself reduced to a precarious condition by the
 political convulsion of three decades ago. The Kajimaya, under which
 style the Hiroöka family conducted its business, would certainly have
 shared the same melancholy fate that overtook so many of its compeers
 had it not been for the resolute character and business capacity of
 Mrs. Asa, who assumed the sole direction of affairs, introducing
 sweeping changes in the organization of the firm, and in a remarkably
 short space of time succeeded in starting it on a career of fresh and
 increasing prosperity.

 “About twenty years ago Moji, the present flourishing centre of the
 coal business, had scarcely come into existence; in other words, few
 people had yet commenced to turn their attention to the development of
 coal-mining. In this venture she encountered innumerable difficulties.
 In the first place, she had to overcome the determined opposition
 of the other members of the family. Their position was, in fact,
 so strong and persistent that she had to engage in the undertaking
 entirely on her own account and responsibility. She had thus to
 start afresh with little capital, except her own personal credit,
 and many were the hardships and disadvantages against which she had
 to struggle. But there is always a way where there is a will, and
 our fair but indomitable miner was ultimately rewarded with signal
 success, and succeeded in adding largely to the capital of the firm
 and in establishing her reputation as a resourceful organizer and a
 unique business woman.

 “All the collieries in her possession have one after another been
 disposed of at profitable prices, and just at present she is devoting
 her whole attention to the expansion of the banking business of the
 firm. An eminently successful financier and business organizer, she is
 by no means indifferent to interests of a higher sort. Herself well
 educated, she takes a keen interest in educational matters, especially
 those relating to her own sex, being one of the principal supporters
 of Mr. Naruse’s scheme for a university for girls. By way of giving
 practical encouragement to the movement in favor of female education,
 she already employs some educated girls as clerks at her banks, and
 intends to place a new department which is about to be opened at those
 banks almost exclusively in the hands of female clerks.”

This chapter would, of course, be incomplete without a few words about
the recent first lady of the land now Empress Dowager, who has proved
herself to be in heartiest sympathy with the ideals of New Japan. As
she had no children of her own, she adopted the entire nation and
completely won their love; she was, indeed, the mother of millions. She
is especially interested in educational and benevolent institutions;
she is the active patron of the Peeresses’ School, the University for
Women,[129] the Red Cross Society, and other philanthropic enterprises.
In times of calamity her purse is always opened for a liberal
contribution to the suffering.[130]

The lady now of special interest is Empress Sada, the young wife
of the new Emperor. She was born in 1884, and was educated in the
Peeresses’ School until her betrothal, when she was placed under
private tutors. She was married on May 10, 1900, and is the mother of
three healthy sons. The young rulers live a happy and congenial life.

[Illustration: H. I. M. THE EMPRESS]

In conclusion, we make one more quotation, from Miss Bacon’s “Japanese
Girls and Women,” as follows:—

 “The woman question in Japan is at the present moment a matter of much
 consideration. There seems to be an uneasy feeling in the minds of
 even the more conservative men that some change in the status of women
 is inevitable, if the nation wishes to keep the pace it has set for
 itself. The Japanese women of the past and of the present are exactly
 suited to the position accorded them in society, and any attempt to
 alter them without changing their status only results in making square
 pegs for round holes. If the pegs hereafter are to be cut square, the
 holes must be enlarged and squared to fit them. The Japanese woman
 stands in no need of alteration unless her place in life is somehow
 enlarged, nor, on the other hand, can she fill a larger place without
 additional training. The men of new Japan, to whom the opinions and
 customs of the western world are becoming daily more familiar, while
 they shrink aghast, in many cases, at the thought that their women may
 ever become like the forward, self-assertive, half-masculine women
 of the West, show a growing tendency to dissatisfaction with the
 smallness and narrowness of the lives of their wives and daughters—a
 growing belief that better-educated women would make better homes, and
 that the ideal home of Europe and America is the product of a more
 advanced civilization than that of Japan. Reluctantly in many cases,
 but still almost universally, it is admitted that in the interest of
 the homes, and for the sake of future generations, something must be
 done to carry the women forward into a position more in harmony with
 what the nation is reaching for in other directions. This desire shows
 itself in individual efforts to improve by more advanced education
 daughters of exceptional promise, and in general efforts for the
 improvement of the condition of women.”

Miss Bacon, in her book, traces very clearly the progress that has been
made in the condition of woman, and shows how “better laws, broader
education for the women, [and] a change in public opinion” are still
necessary. And she affirms that “we can feel pretty sure that, when the
people have become used to these [recent] changes [of the new Civil
Code], other and more binding laws will be enacted, for the drift of
enlightened public opinion seems to be in favor of securing better and
more firmly established homes.”

The following is also worthy of quotation: “It is not possible to
understand the actual progress made in Japan in improving the condition
of women, without some consideration of the effect that Christian
thought and Christian lives have had on the thought and lives of the
modern Japanese.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  “The Real Japan,” chap. viii.; “Out of the Far East” (Hearn), pp.
  85-125; “The Yankees of the East,” chaps. ix., xix.; “An American
  Missionary in Japan” (Gordon), chap. xv.; “Japan and her People,”
  vol. i. pp. 178-191; “A Japanese Interior” (Miss Bacon); “Every Day
  Japan” (Lloyd); and, last and best, Miss Bacon’s “Japanese Girls and
  Women,” revised edition, illustrated.



CHAPTER XIV

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Japanese syllabary; _i-ro-ha_ arrangement;
 arrangement of fifty-sounds; modern inventions.—Chinese ideographs;
 _Kata-kana_; _Hira-gana_; _Kana-majiri_ and _Kana-tsuki_; variety
 in pronunciation.—Japanese elocution.—Japanese syntax; logic in
 linguistics; a sample sentence; kind of language; topsy-turvy
 practices.—Ancient literature; poetry; _naga-uta_ and _tanka_;
 _hokku_; a poem a picture.—Characteristics of Japanese poetry.—Modern
 literature: newspapers; press laws; English journals; Japanese
 journals; magazines and periodicals; books; what the Japanese read;
 their literary taste; foreign books; linguistic reforms, theory and
 practice.—Bibliography.


The Japanese language belongs, philologically, to the Altaic family,
and is of the agglutinative type. Practically, it is musical and easy
to pronounce, but, on account of its long and involved sentences,
difficult to learn. Its alphabet is not phonetic, but syllabic, and
very simple and regular. It comprises 73 characters, of which 5 are
duplicates of the same sounds, so that there are really only 68
distinct sounds. As many of the sounds, moreover, are only slight
modifications of other sounds, they are represented by the same
characters, with certain diacritical signs attached (as in the case of
_ha_, _ba_, and _pa_). There are, consequently, in common use only 48
distinct characters, which are arranged in such an order as to form a
stanza of poetry[131] as follows:—

  Iro wa nioedo
    Chirinuru wo—
  Waga yo tare zo
    Tsune naran?
  Ui no oku-yama
    Kyō koete,
  Asaki yume miji,
    Ei mo sezu.

Which means, being interpreted by Professor B. H. Chamberlain:—

 “Though gay in hue, [the blossoms] flutter down, Alas! Who then,
 in this world of ours, may continue forever? Crossing to-day the
 uttermost limits of phenomenal existence, I shall see no more fleeting
 dreams, neither be any longer intoxicated.” In other words, “all is
 transitory in this fleeting world. Let us escape from its illusions
 and vanities.”

Another arrangement, based on the five vowels and their combination
with certain consonants, gives fifty sounds, of which, however, two or
three are really duplicates. This table of fifty sounds (_gojū-on_) is
as follows:—

  [132]
  a  ka  sa  ta  na  ha  ma  ya  ra  wa

  i  ki  shi  chi  ni  hi  mi  _(y)i_  ri  (w)i

  u  ku  su  tsu  nu  fu  mu  yu  ru  _(w)u_

  e  ke  se  te  ne  he  me  _(y)e_  re  (w)e

  o  ko  so  to  no  ho  mo  yo  ro  wo

Those in italics are duplicates; and _(w)i_ and _(w)e_, though written
with different characters from _i_ and _e_, have practically the same
pronunciation.

It will be seen that both of these arrangements are more or less
artificial; at least, they appear to be mnemonic contrivances, and are
certainly very convenient, because they are flexible. For instance,
the demands of modern times and European languages for a v sound has
led the Japanese to represent it by the simple device of attaching the
common diacritical mark to the _w_ series. By a similar device they
might utilize the r series for _l_ and the _s_ series for _th_!

The Japanese characters, not difficult or complex in formation, are
modifications and simplifications of Chinese ideographs. There had
been in Japan no written language until after the introduction of
Chinese civilization in the sixth century A. D., when Chinese words
and characters were absorbed by the wholesale. Later, two systems
of contracting the complex and cumbersome Chinese ideographs were
invented, and are still used to some extent, indeed almost entirely by
the uneducated class.

The oldest and simplest modification is called _Kata-kana_
(side-letters), and consisted merely in taking _part_ of a Chinese
ideograph. But, as these characters were separate, and did not easily
run together, they have not been used much, “except in dictionaries,
books intended for the learned, or to spell foreign names.”

The next modification was a _contraction_ of Chinese characters
into a running, or grass, hand, and is therefore called _Hira-gana_
(plain-letters). These are all that the ignorant, especially the women,
can read.

But a Japanese who aspires to the smallest degree of education must
be familiar with many Chinese characters; and a pupil is, in fact,
instructed in that language and literature from the primary school up
through the university. Some books are written entirely in Chinese,
and, of course, can be read only by the best educated. But the
commonest method for newspapers and books which are not intended for a
limited circulation among the erudite only, is the use of a mixture of
Chinese and Japanese characters, of which the root forms are Chinese,
and the connectives, agglutinative particles, and grammatical endings
are Japanese; this is called _Kana-majiri_. For even more general
circulation the Chinese characters will be explained by Japanese
characters at the side; this is called _Kana-tsuki_.

This practice of mixing the characters of the two languages leads
to some variety in pronunciation. That is to say, a word written
with Chinese ideographs may be read with the Japonicized Chinese
pronunciation or with that of the pure Japanese word of which it is the
equivalent. For instance, the Chinese characters which make up the word
meaning “Japan” are usually pronounced _Nippon_, or _Nihon_, by the
Japanese, but may also be read, in pure Japanese, as _Hi-no-moto_. It
is practically the same as when we are allowed to read “etc.” either as
“_et cetera_” or as “and-so-forth” (or “_i. e._,” either as “_id est_”
or as “that is”).

In connection with this topic of reading, we may as well touch on the
elocutionary element in reading by Japanese. Their style of reading,
as amusing to us as ours is to them, may be called “sing-song”: they
rise and fall by monotones, and, going very rapidly without attention
to the beginning or the end of a sentence, catch breath now and then by
a peculiar sucking sound. They seem to make no attempt to read “with
expression,” as we call it; and, when they come to study English, are a
great trial for a while to the foreign teacher!

The peculiarities of Japanese syntax have been so attractively
discussed by Mr. Percival Lowell,[133] that any other writer on that
subject must at the outset acknowledge his indebtedness to that author.
It will be unnecessary in this chapter to go into details; it will
be sufficient to mention several of the points in which Japanese and
English syntax are different. For instance, a Japanese noun knows no
distinction (in form) of gender and number; a Japanese adjective or
adverb has no terminational comparison; a Japanese verb is proof to
the distinctions of number and person. In the Japanese language the
connectives which correspond to our prepositions are placed after
their nouns; the verbs always come last; our personal and possessive
pronouns are supplanted by honorific expressions; and the definite
article, the relative pronoun, and the pure temporal conjunction are
lacking. To illustrate the first point, it is enough to say that a
teacher once asked a young Japanese pupil, “Have you any brothers?” and
received this answer: “There are four men; but they are all women.”
In the question, the generic term _kyōdai_, which may be applied to
both sexes, although strictly it should be limited to the male sex,
was employed; in the reply, the generic term for “man” was used in the
first clause, and the proper specification was added in the second
clause. What he literally replied was this: “There are [=I have] four
[such] persons; but they are all women.” And, in Japanese, “man,”
whether singular, dual, or plural, whether single or married, may be
simply _hito_; and yet the idea of “men” may also be expressed by
doubling the word into _hito-bito_; while that of “women” is expressed
by suffixing domo or _tachi_ to _onna_ and making _onna-tachi_,
_onna-domo_.

With reference to language in general, a most patriotic Japanese once
proved, to his own satisfaction, “the wickedness of foreign nations,
not only in act but in speech,” and illustrated by the fact that the
Europeans, for instance, put the verb before the noun, and said, “see
the moon.” But the Japanese said “moon see,” because, “if the moon was
not there first, you could not see it afterwards”!

[Illustration: H. I. M. THE CROWN PRINCE]

Some of the peculiarities of Japanese sentences are illustrated
in the following: “The man whom I met yesterday went to Tōkyō by
the nine o’clock train this morning,” if translated literally from
Japanese, would read: “My yesterday-on met man-as-for, this morning’s
ninth-hour’s train-by Tōkyō-to went.”

In short, the Japanese language is an involved, complicated,
impersonal, neutral, obscure, but withal a pretty, musical, logical,
and polite tongue. Chamberlain says: “Japanese is probably—all things
considered—the most difficult language on the face of the earth.”

A Japanese book begins where an English book ends; it is read from top
to bottom in lines running from right to left; and the “foot-notes”
are at the top of the page, while the reader’s mark is inserted at
the bottom. Books are always arranged on a shelf or elsewhere, with
the first volume at the right hand, or in horizontal piles. The
Japanese call our style of writing “crab-writing,” because it “goes
backward” and across the page like a crawfish; and the individual just
quoted, claimed to be able to judge of the hearts of foreigners by
their writing, “which was crooked”! Inversion appears again in such
expressions as “east-north,” “west-south,” instead of “northeast,”
“southwest.” The address of a letter runs as follows: “America, United
States, Illinois State, Chicago City, Hyde Park District, Washington
Avenue, 0000 No., Smith, John, Mr.” In dates the order of year,
month, day, is followed. The word for roof (_yane_) means literally
“house-root,” because a Japanese house is constructed to fit the roof,
which is made first. But, as words are only the expression of thought,
this contrariety must be traced back to the thoughts and ideas of
Japanese, who, in so many other things, seem to us as “topsy-turvy” as
we seem to them.

Japanese literature of the old _régime_ was written partly in classical
Chinese, partly in pure Japanese, and comprised mostly mythology,
history, law, poetry, romance, drama, and Buddhist and Confucian
philosophy. As we cannot go into details on this subject, so tempting,
we shall confine ourselves to a few comments on Japanese poetry, which
is more original and less Chinese than prose. The Japanese are very
much addicted to writing poetry; like Silas Wegg, they drop off into
poetry on every possible occasion. They are, in one sense, “born”
poets, and, in another sense, made poets: _poeta Japonicus et nascitur
et fit_,—“The Japanese poet is both born and made.” There are certain
rigid forms, and only a few, for verse; and all fairly educated
Japanese know those forms. In school, moreover, they are carefully
taught the theory and the practice of versification.

Occasionally a Japanese poem will be rather long, and is then called
_naga-uta_, (long poem); but usually it is only a “tiny ode” of 31
syllables, arranged in 5 lines of respectively 5, 7, 5, 7, and 7
syllables. The following is a specimen of such an _uta_, or _tanka_,
from the famous “Hundred Poems”:—

  Kokoro-ate ni
    Orobaya oran
  Hatsu-shimo no
    Oki-madowaseru
  Shiragiku no hana.

  “If it were my wish
    White chrysanthemum to cull:—
  Puzzled by the frost
    Of the early autumn time,
  I perchance might pluck the flower.”[134]

There is also an abbreviated form called _hokku_, which contains only
the 17 syllables of the first 3 lines of the _tanka_. The following is
an example:—

  Kare-eda ni
  U no tomari keri
  Aki no kure.

 “On an autumn evening a crow perches on a withered branch.”

The quaintness and simplicity of Japanese thought and expression appear
very clearly in their poetry. It has been truly said that a Japanese
poem is a picture or even only the outline of a picture to be filled
in by the imagination. It may be merely an exclamation, without any
logical assertion, like the following, written a thousand years ago:—

  Shira-kumo ni
  Hane uchi-kawashi
  Tobu kari no
  Kazu sae miyuru
  Aki no yo no tsuki.

“The moon on an autumn night, making visible the very number of wild
geese flying past with wings intercrossed in white clouds.”[135]

Japanese poetry has no rhyme, no parallelism, no alliteration, no
accent; it is almost all lyrical, and abounds in acrostics, anagrams,
and palindromes. Its chief subjects are taken from nature, and a poem
may be evoked by the simplest thing. Although Japanese poetry is
difficult to understand, it is interesting to study.

Japanese literature of the new _régime_ is too varied to enumerate, as
it covers, in both original and translated work, about all the fields
of modern thought, as well as the fields of the old _régime_, just
mentioned.

The development of newspapers is, perhaps, one of the most interesting
phases of the progress of New Japan. The year 1902 was the thirtieth
anniversary of the establishment of Japanese journalism. Before that
time small sheets, each like a modern “extra,” were issued to give
account of a murder or an important event, and were hawked about by
street-criers. But the “Nisshin Shinjishi,” started in 1872 by an
Englishman named Black, was the first attempt at a real newspaper.[136]
Now there are probably more than 1,000 papers, magazines, etc.,
published in the empire. The newspapers are issued daily, and cost from
25 to 50 _sen_ per month. Most of the metropolitan papers indulge in
wood-cuts, even cartoons.

At first the press laws were rigorous and the official censors
zealous; so that a Japanese editor must weigh carefully his utterances,
and even then was likely, in a time of great political excitement, to
bring upon his paper the ban of either temporary or total suspension.
Some of the papers tried to circumvent the laws by having an extra
edition issued under a different name, so that when one was suspended
the other might continue; and sometimes a paper had nominal editors,
or dummies, to suffer the punishment of imprisonment, while the real
editors, or criminals, remained at their desks! It might be added, in
this connection, that a public speaker also was liable to interruption
by the police if he was considered by them to be uttering sentiments
subversive of peace and order. Perfect freedom of speech and liberty
of the press do not now, and cannot yet, exist in Japan; but the
restrictions have been gradually withdrawn, and are now comparatively
small.

Newspapers in foreign languages, most of them in English, are issued
in Yokohama, Kōbe, Nagasaki, and Tōkyō. Of all these, the “Japan
Mail,” of Yokohama, is _facile princeps_, for it does not deal in
captious criticisms of the mistakes and sins of the Japanese, but is
keenly sympathetic with their desire for improvement and progress in
all lines. The “Japan Times,” of Tōkyō, is owned, managed, and edited
by Japanese, and is a valuable paper. Deserving also of mention are
the “Japan Daily Advertiser,” of Tōkyō, and the “Herald” and the
“Chronicle” of Kōbe.

It is rather a difficult task to select from the vernacular newspapers
the few most worthy of mention; but two from Ōsaka and six from Tōkyō
will suffice. The “Ōsaka Asahi Shimbun” is said to have the largest
circulation in the whole country; and the “Ōsaka Mainichi Shimbun” is
well known. In Tōkyō the most prominent journals are the “Jiji Shimpō,”
the “Nichi Nichi Shimbun,” the “Kokumin Shimbun,” the “Mainichi
Shimbun,” and the “Hōchi Shimbun.” Another Tokyo paper of very large
circulation is the “Yorozu Chōhō.” Almost all the newspapers of Japan
are morning papers; but, as they generally go to press early in the
evening of the preceding day, the “news” is not the latest. But very
important events will always be published in “extras” at any hour.[137]

There are also magazines galore of every kind. Some of them prove
rather short-lived; but most of them find a constituency, as each one
seems to have its own field. Probably the largest and most successful
magazine is named “Taiyō” (Sun), which issues monthly about 250
pages of Japanese matter, with 24 pages of English matter, and is
finely illustrated. Its leading articles by well-known writers cover
a great variety of topics. The “Kokumin-no-Tomo” (Nation’s Friend)
is another excellent magazine, famous for the admirable style of its
contributions. The “Rikugō Zasshi” (Cosmos) is philosophical and
religious. There are a great many Shintō, Buddhist, and Christian
weekly and monthly periodicals, which are published primarily for the
edification of the believers.

“Of making many books there is no end” in Japan. Composition is
apparently such an easy task, and publishing is so cheap, that every
person inspired with an idea is tempted to rush into print. And those
who are not so fortunate as to be rich in “original” ideas, have an
inexhaustible field in the translation of books from English and other
Occidental languages; indeed, a fair living may be made in that way.

Japanese taste in reading is illustrated by a table accompanying a
recent official report from the Imperial Library at Tōkyō. During a
period of 24 days covered by the report, the readers numbered 7,770,
and the books called for were classified as follows:—

                                               Japanese and   European
                                              Chinese works.    works.
  Theology and religion                                635          14
  Philosophy and education                           2,368         145
  Literature and languages                           8,038         998
  History, biography, geography, travel              9,768         460
  Law, politics, sociology, economy, statistics      6,577         304
  Mathematics, natural philosophy, medicine          9,506         388
  Engineering, military arts, industries             4,943         205
  Miscellaneous books                                4,840         530

The table will interest American readers as showing how large is the
number of European works included. It may be added that the Japanese
are decidedly a reading people. Even the “jinrikisha man,” waiting on
the street-corner for a customer, is frequently to be seen reading a
newspaper, magazine, or book.

The leading firm of booksellers in Japan recently asked a large number
of eminent Japanese men of letters, of science, of business, etc., to
name their favorite European or American books. The 73 answers received
have been published in a Japanese periodical, and are interesting
as displaying the literary tastes of Japanese readers of foreign
literature.

The most popular work is Darwin’s “Origin of Species,” which received
26 votes; next come Goethe’s “Faust,” the “Encyclopædia Britannica,”
and Hugo’s “Les Misérables,” in the order named. Among English men
of letters, Byron and Tennyson are the most popular. The names of
Stevenson, Hardy, Meredith, “Mark Twain,” and other recent writers
are rarely met with, while that of Kipling occurs not even once.
Among continental writers, Tolstoi, Schopenhauer, Heine, and Zola are
frequently mentioned; and Nietzsche’s “Zarathustra” is characterized
more than once as the greatest work in the last decade of the
nineteenth century.[138]

Some interesting information with reference to the demand for foreign
works in Japan has been made public in the “Japan Times” by a Japanese
importer of foreign books, and several items therefrom are of interest.

Works relating to architecture and building, chemistry, electricity
and magnetism, engineering and mechanics, manufactures and industrial
arts, metallurgy and mining, together with dictionaries and
encyclopædias, enjoy the largest demand. In chemistry, Remsen is one
of the popular authors; in metallurgy, Phillips’s work heads the list;
in electricity and magnetism, Thomson’s works find the largest number
of purchasers; and there is an active demand for Taggart’s “Cotton
Spinning.” The favorite dictionary is “Nuttall’s Standard Dictionary,”
of which the firm above named has already sold between 200,000 and
300,000 copies! Next comes “Webster’s Condensed Dictionary,” and even
“Webster’s Unabridged” sells at the rate of from 50 to 60 copies per
month. The “Students’ Standard Dictionary” also sells well.

Works on scientific subjects, especially new publications, are in
great demand, and show the eagerness of Japanese students to become
acquainted with the results of the latest investigations. In astronomy,
Newcomb and Holden’s popular treatise comes first. In pedagogics,
Herbart is the most popular author at present. In history, Fisher’s
“Universal History” heads the list; in general, works on modern history
are in greater demand than those of earlier periods. The greater demand
for language books, among which the Otto series stands first, may
have been due to the arrival of the date [1899] of mixed residence.
Mathematical books are only in fair request.

In medicine, German books have practically driven from the field
works in other languages. In politics and diplomacy, however, French
works are preferred; Walker’s “Political Economy,” Jevons’s “Money,”
and Bastiat’s “Science of Finance” have a large sale. In law, German
works are beginning to predominate. Taine’s “English Literature” heads
the list in works of that class, and is used as a text-book or work
of reference in several higher institutions of learning. Of books
on Japan, Griffis’s “Mikado’s Empire” maintains its ground as the
favorite. Works on antiquities and ethnology, elocution and oratory,
theology and religion, are said to be practically devoid of demand; but
philosophical works find good sale, with Herbert Spencer in the van.

Fifty years ago a foreign book had to be smuggled into Japan and
studied secretly; and many an earnest scholar paid with his life the
penalty for desiring a broad education through books. Fifty years ago,
Dutch books were about the only ones, except Chinese, that got into
the empire even by smuggling. Now information is eagerly sought from
all quarters of the globe; and books in many languages are readable by
Japanese.[139]

It is generally supposed that languages, like poets, are “born, not
made,” and that the changes in a language come, not artificially, but
naturally. Interesting, therefore, is the spectacle of an attempt
to effect a tremendous reform in a language, many centuries old, by
legislative enactment. The nation which is making this apparently
foolish and useless attempt is Japan, which has already often startled
the world by its marvellous reforms. And if its wonderful success in
legislative reforms in other lines are any criterion in this case, it
will succeed in effecting much-needed reform in its language. At the
sixteenth session of the Imperial Diet, a sum of money was appropriated
for a “linguistic commission.” This was appointed in the spring of
that year, has held several meetings, and has already arrived at some
decisions. It has been decided, for instance, that “a phonographic
script” is to be employed; but the much discussed question, whether
it shall be the common Japanese _kana_ (syllabic characters) or Roman
letters, is still on the docket. It is also proposed to reduce the
number of Chinese ideographs in common use. Moreover, the differences
between the written and the spoken language are to be abolished;
and the formal epistolary style is to be reformed. It has also been
decided that the whole system of Japanese etymology must be “carefully
revised.” Even the “problem of local dialects” is to be attacked, and
“a standard dialect fixed.” It is noticeable that the commission is not
afflicted with trepidity, but is proceeding with the utmost courage to
attack the most difficult problems. It is composed of some of the most
practical as well as the most scholarly men of the empire, and its work
will be watched with the deepest interest, both at home and abroad. And
the great changes already effected in the Japanese language since the
country was opened are some warrant for believing that this commission
will achieve a measure of success.[140]

And yet we understand that legislative enactment alone cannot
make these reforms perfectly effective; but we are gratified that
intelligent public opinion will support these reforms, not only
theoretically, but also practically. For the full fruition of such
reforms must be attained through the schools and the public press;
and the latter has already begun to work along these very lines. It
is, indeed, well for Japan that her leaders realize the necessity
of breaking loose from her thraldom to Chinese letters, literature,
thought, and ideals.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Rein’s “Japan”; “Advance Japan” (Morris), chap. xi.; Knapp’s “Feudal
  and Modern Japan,” vol. ii. chaps. i.-iii.; and “Japan in History,
  Folk-lore and Art” (Griffis), pp. 76-91, 104-107. For special study
  of the language, Imbrie’s “English-Japanese Etymology,” Chamberlain’s
  “Hand-book of Colloquial Japanese” and “Moji no Shirube”[141];
  Aston’s “Grammar of the Japanese Written Language”[142]; and
  Brinkley’s “Unabridged Japanese-English Dictionary.”[143] On the
  literature, Aston’s “History of Japanese Literature,” entire; see
  also Chamberlain’s “Japanese Epigrams” in Transactions Asiatic
  Society of Japan, vol. xxx. part ii.



CHAPTER XV

EDUCATION

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Old-style education; study of Dutch; modern
 education; branches of curricula; three kinds of schools; school age;
 the Imperial Rescript; kindergartens; elementary schools; middle
 schools; higher schools; universities; normal schools; agricultural
 schools; technical schools; commercial schools; foreign language
 schools; art and music; eleemosynary institutions; female education;
 professional schools; private schools; mission schools; foreign
 instructors and study abroad; teachers’ associations; libraries;
 scientific study; defects of Japanese education.—Bibliography.


The old-style education was at first Buddhist, afterwards Confucian,
in method and matter. It comprised chiefly instruction in the Japanese
and the Chinese languages, literature, and history, and was mostly
confined to the samurai (knights), or military class. Female education
consisted mainly of reading and writing Japanese, the elaborate rules
of etiquette, and “polite accomplishments” in music and art. All
instruction was given pretty much by the Chinese system of lectures;
and a “memoriter” method of learning hampered original investigation.
Especially in the domain of Japanese history, so called, on which
rested the political institutions, skepticism was practically
synonymous with treason.

According to a Japanese authority, “the first book published [in
Japan] on foreign subjects” was by the famous scholar Arai Hakuseki
[1657-1725] under the title “Seiyō Kibun” (Notes of the Western
Ocean). Early in the eighteenth century a few scholars were officially
commissioned to study Dutch; and many others secretly engaged in the
same pursuit. It was almost entirely through the Dutch that, during the
period of seclusion, the Japanese obtained their knowledge of Western
countries and peoples, of history and science, especially of medical
science.[144] Several Dutch scholars also studied Japan.

But since the opening of Japan new ideas have gradually come to
prevail; and especially since the Restoration of 1868, education,
like all other institutions of Japan, has had the methodical and
progressive spirit of Western civilization infused into it. Foreigners,
especially Americans, were called in to remodel the whole system and
to instruct in the new education. Thus in the various provinces the
system of education was graded and made harmonious for the entire
empire. Kindergartens have been established in many localities, and
are especially valuable, because most mothers are incompetent to give
satisfactory home instruction. Six is the age at which a child may
enter the “elementary school” for a course of eight years; next comes
the “middle school” for five years; then the “higher school” for two
or three years, and, finally, the Imperial Universities at Tōkyō and
Kyōto, each with its various colleges. There are also normal schools,
“common” and “higher,” for the training of teachers, and a great many
technical and professional schools, public and private. Missionary
schools of all grades are doing an excellent work, and in many
particulars supplying a great need. Co-education prevails only in the
elementary schools; and the higher education of woman has been sadly
neglected, but better provision for it is gradually being made. The
first year of the new century was marked by the establishment at Tōkyō
of the first University for Women.[145] The present Emperor attended
the “Nobles’ School,” and having ascended the throne, becomes the first
Japanese Emperor educated in a public school; and the Empress Sada
attended the Peeresses’ School.

[Illustration: IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS, TŌKYŌ]

The principal branches taught in the elementary schools are reading,
writing, arithmetic (Japanese and foreign), composition, grammar,
geography, history, physical exercise, morals (Confucian), and English;
those in the middle and higher schools are Japanese and Chinese
history, composition, language and literature, general history,
mathematics, sciences, philosophy, morals, physical exercise, English,
French, and German; in the universities the lines of study are varied
and specialized. The Japanese learn well to translate, write, and speak
the modern languages, and in the university may study Latin, Greek, and
Sanskrit.

If we classify Japanese schools according to management, there are
three kinds: those respectively under the central government, local
authorities, and private auspices. Those of the first class are under
the supervision of the Department of Education, are mainly special
schools and higher institutions of learning, and are supported by
appropriations voted by the Imperial Diet in the annual budget. Those
of the second class are mainly elementary, middle and normal schools,
are under the supervision of the local authorities, and are supported
by local taxes, sometimes supplemented by national aid. Those of the
third class are supported chiefly by tuition fees, but may also be
assisted by individual beneficence.[146]

The school age for children is from six to fourteen, and covers the
period of the elementary school; while the period of compulsory
attendance is from six to ten years of age. During the latter period
education is free; and in any case tuition fees are arranged to suit
the financial ability of the payer. Corporal punishment is not allowed
in any school.

The inspiring motive of education in Japan is found in an Imperial
Rescript that the late Emperor issued in October, 1890. A copy of
this is kept, often hanging framed, in every school, and on special
occasions it is read aloud, while all the scholars reverently listen
with bowed heads. It reads as follows:[147]—


KNOW YE, OUR SUBJECTS:

  Our Imperial Ancestors have founded Our Empire on a basis broad
  and everlasting and have deeply and firmly implanted virtue. Our
  subjects, ever united in loyalty and filial piety, have from
  generation to generation illustrated the beauty thereof. This is
  the glory of the fundamental character of Our Empire, and herein
  also lies the source of Our education. Ye, Our subjects, be filial
  to your parents, affectionate to your brothers and sisters, as
  husbands and wives be harmonious, as friends true; brothers, bear
  yourselves in modesty and moderation; extend your benevolence to all;
  pursue learning and cultivate arts, and thereby develop intellectual
  faculties and perfect moral powers; furthermore, advance public
  good and promote common interests; always respect the Constitution
  and observe the laws; should emergency arise, offer yourselves
  courageously to the State; and thus guard and maintain the prosperity
  of Our Imperial Throne coeval with heaven and earth. So shall ye not
  only be Our good and faithful subjects, but render illustrious the
  best traditions of your forefathers.

  The Way here set forth is indeed the teaching bequeathed by Our
  Imperial Ancestors, to be observed alike by their Descendants and the
  subjects, infallible for all ages and true in all reverence in common
  with you, Our subjects, that we may all thus attain to the same
  virtue.

There are between 200 and 300 kindergartens, public and private, in
Japan; and they are conducted, so far as outward forms are concerned,
very much as in America and Europe. The common means of training
are games, singing, conversation, and handiwork. But the Christian
kindergartens are the only ones that carry out to full fruition the
real spirit, as expressed in Froebel’s own words: “My system is based
upon religion and leads up to religion.” The Christian kindergartens
are quite popular and successful.

The Japanese elementary school, like the American grammar school,
covers a period of eight years, which is, however, divided into two
parts of four years each. The lower portion is called the “common
elementary school,” and the upper portion is the “higher elementary
school.” In many a small village only the former is maintained, and the
latter is often carried on by the co-operation of several villages;
but in large places both exist, either separately or conjointly. Under
certain circumstances a supplementary course may be established in
elementary schools (_Shō Gakkō_). English may be begun in the higher
elementary school, and it is required in every middle school.

Each prefecture must maintain at least one middle school (_Chū
Gakkō_), and three prefectures have as many as seven each. This
institution corresponds practically to an American high school; but
its course of study covers five years, besides the opportunity of a
supplementary year. Candidates for admission must be over twelve years
of age, and possess attainments equal to those who have completed the
second year of the higher elementary school. Thus two years of these
schools lap over each other. The number of middle schools, in spite of
annual increase, is still inadequate to accommodate all the applicants.

There are in Japan eight “higher schools” (_Kōtō Gakkō_), located at
Tōkyō, Sendai, Kyōto, Kanazawa, Kumamoto, Okayama, Yamaguchi, and
Kagoshima. These bear numbers in this order, and are often called by
the name “High School,” because the word _Kōtō_ means simply “high
grade.” If the reader, for instance, sees elsewhere a reference to the
“Third High School,” it will refer to the _Kōtō Gakkō_ at Kyōto. The
word “Higher” is, therefore, used in this book to avoid confusion.
These schools are clearing-houses, or preparatory schools, for the
universities, and have also their own complete departments.

At present there are only two public universities in Japan,—at
Tōkyō and Kyōto. The former contains six colleges (Law, Medicine,
Engineering, Literature, Science, and Agriculture); and the latter
consists of only four colleges (Law, Medicine, Science, and
Engineering), but others will be added gradually. There are also just
two great private universities, both in Tōkyō: the Keiō-gijiku, founded
by the late Mr. Fukuzawa, the “great commoner,” and the “grand old man”
of Japan; and the Waseda, founded by that veteran statesman, Count
Ōkuma. There is no Christian institution of university grade, although
it is confidently expected that the Dōshisha, at Kyōto, will soon be
elevated again to that rank. The Japanese universities have very good
accommodations and equipment, with strong faculties, and are doing work
worthy to be compared with that of Occidental universities. One of the
most unique phases of university work in Japan is the fact that the
Imperial University in Tōkyō maintains a chair of seismology, or, in
other words, supports a most important “professor of earthquakes”!

Common normal schools number over fifty; there must be at least one in
each prefecture, and in four cases there are two or three each. Besides
these and above these is a “higher normal school,” or normal college,
in Tōkyō, with an elementary school and a middle school for practice
work. There is also in Tōkyō a “higher female normal school,” with a
kindergarten, an elementary school, and a high school for practice
work. But these provisions are inadequate to supply the increasing
demand for teachers in public schools.

Inasmuch as Japan is an agricultural country and is rich in forests,
agricultural and dendrological schools are a necessity, in order that
the people may be able to make the most out of their resources. The
Sapporo Agricultural College, founded by Americans in 1872, is the best
of its kind, and furnishes a broader course of study than its name
implies.

And, in order that the industrial life of New Japan may be elevated,
and both capital and labor may profit by the latest inventions and
improvements, manual training and other technical schools have been
started and are very popular.

[Illustration: EDUCATORS AND SCIENTISTS OF JAPAN

BARON ISHIGURO, VISCOUNT MORI, MR. FUKUZAWA, DR. KITASATO]

In view of the fact that the Japanese are not fitted by natural
temperament for a mercantile life, and yet the geographical position of
Japan is so well adapted to a commercial career, the need of thorough
instruction in modern methods of business has been keenly felt, and is
being supplied by business colleges, of which the Higher Commercial
School in Tōkyō is most useful and prosperous.

Formerly an adjunct of the above-mentioned institution, but now an
independent organization, is the Foreign Language School, Tōkyō.
Besides this, several foreign languages are taught in the middle and
higher schools and the universities; and there are also a great many
private schools and classes for instruction in one or more foreign
languages. English is, of course, the most popular and most useful.

The Tōkyō Fine Arts School is the best of its kind, and gives
instruction in painting (both Japanese and European), designing,
sculpture, and “industrial arts,” like engraving, puddling, casting,
lacquer, etc. The Tōkyō Academy of Music is a type of its kind,
and gives instruction in vocal and instrumental music and musical
composition. It has accomplished wonders along those lines.

The education of the blind, the deaf, and the dumb is not neglected
in Japan; there are ten schools for the benefit of these unfortunates;
and the government institution in Tōkyō is the most important. Charity
schools and orphan asylums are also carried on, chiefly under Christian
auspices, in very poor districts in large cities.

During the early years of New Japan female education was almost
entirely in the hands of the Christian missionaries, who alone seemed
to realize the necessity of a better education and training for the
future mothers of the nation. But thinking Japanese have come to
realize, with Count Ōkuma, that all countries which have attempted “to
work with the male sex as the single standard” have “fallen signally
behind in the march of progress”; and that “Japan by raising woman
to her proper place should provide herself with a double standard.”
Thus it has come about that educational privileges for girls and young
ladies are increasing.

Law schools, medical schools, theological seminaries, and other
professional schools are numerous; on these lines private enterprise is
very active, because the public institutions are inadequate.

There used to be a great dearth of good private institutions of
learning, and this lack was partly due to the fact that private
enterprise in this direction received little encouragement, and public
spirit was lacking on the part of those who might have assisted in
this way. But recently both the advantages of private schools and the
opportunities thus afforded to men of means have come to be appreciated.

In this connection a few words should be written concerning mission
schools, which will also be considered in the chapter on Christianity.
In spite of limitations both from within and from without, these
institutions, having their “ups and downs,” nevertheless maintained
themselves and have won popular favor against a strong prejudice.
They have always insisted upon a high mental and moral standard,
and have without doubt aroused the public schools to raise their
standards and ideals. Whatever may be said for or against mission
schools as evangelizing agencies, it is generally acknowledged that, as
educational institutions, they have been models of correct pedagogical
principles and exemplars of high morality.

It is also interesting to note that, after a period during which the
Japanese thought that they could teach foreign languages as well as
foreigners, there is an increasing demand for foreign instructors.
Within the past two years several young men from America have
been engaged as teachers of English in middle schools; and such
opportunities are increasing. Moreover, a larger number of students
than ever are annually sent abroad by the government, or go abroad at
their own expense, to finish their education. Thus narrow prejudices
are dissipated and minds are broadened.

Another means for improving the educational system of Japan is to be
found in teachers’ associations, educational societies, and summer
institutes. The first two are local; the last are national. The
educational societies are for the purpose of increasing the general
interest in education in the different localities; the teachers’
associations are, as in America, for the improvement of methods of
instruction; and the summer institutes are for the same purpose on a
broader scale.

What was written about private schools may be repeated concerning
libraries. No Japanese Carnegie has yet appeared; only a few men, like
Mr. Ōhashi, and the late Baron Kodama, formerly Governor of Formosa,
have endowed libraries as memorials. The largest public library is the
Imperial Library[148] in Tōkyō, with over 400,000 volumes, of which
more than 50,000 volumes are in European languages.

It is in the domain of science that the Japanese have achieved,
perhaps, their greatest intellectual successes. Their work in original
investigation is always painstaking, and in many cases it has attained
an international reputation. The names of Dr. Kitasato, associated with
the famous Dr. Koch in his researches, and Dr. Aoyama, the hero of the
pest in China, are well known; and now comes Dr. Ishigami, who claims
to have discovered the germ of smallpox.

The chief defects in the Japanese educational system are on three
lines: dependence on Chinese ideographs, vague instruction in ethics,
and encouragement of cramming. The removal of these hindrances to
progress is engaging the attention of thoughtful educators, but is a
slow and gradual process.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  “The Wee Ones of Japan” (Mrs. Bramhall), pp. 97-108; “When I was
  a Boy in Japan” (Shioya); “A Japanese Boy” (Shigemi); “Japanese
  Girls and Women” and “A Japanese Interior” (Miss Bacon), all give
  interesting accounts of school life in both Old and New Japan.
  The Department of Education issues annually in English, for free
  distribution on application, a “Report,” which contains the latest
  statistics and other information. “The Educational Conquest of
  the Far East” (Lewis) is an excellent discussion of educational
  conditions and problems of the day in China and Japan. See also
  Scherer’s “Young Japan,” pp. 284-311. The (English) catalogue of the
  Imperial University, Tōkyō, is instructive. “Every Day Japan” (Lloyd)
  contains interesting material on this subject. “Japanese Education”
  (Kikuchi) is authoritative.



CHAPTER XVI

ÆSTHETIC JAPAN

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Japan’s debt to art.—Wide diffusion of
 æsthetic ideals.—Chinese origin of Japanese art.—Painting the
 key-note.—Considered a form of poetry.—Characteristics.—Color
 prints.—Sculpture.—Keramics.—Metal work.—Cloisonné.
 Lacquer.—Embroidery.—Music.—Poetry.—Dancing.—Drama. Tea
 ceremonies.—Flower arrangement.—Landscape gardening.—Unity of the
 arts.—Bibliography.


It has been said with a great deal of truth that no other country in
the world owes so much to its art as Japan. As Huish puts it, “Japan
would never have attracted the extraordinary notice which she so
rapidly did had it not been for her art.... Her art manufactures have
penetrated the length and breadth of the world.” Yet it is a curious
fact, to which Chamberlain calls attention, that the Japanese have
“no genuinely native word” for either art or nature. The expression
“fine art” is commonly represented by the word _bi-jutsu_, a Chinese
compound meaning literally “beauty-craft.” So intimately are æsthetic
ideals bound up with the whole course of Japanese life and modes of
thought, that art is not, as in the Western world, a mere sporadic
efflorescence, but the inevitable expression of the spirit of the
Eastern civilization, and needing therefore no distinctive term to
denote it as a thing set apart and existing by itself.

While this is true, it is also true that Japan furnishes no exception
to Mr. Whistler’s dictum that “there never was an art-loving nation.”
The explanation of this seeming paradox is one which needs to be borne
in mind. The æsthetic ideals crystallized in the works of the countless
generations of artists who for more than a thousand years have held
to them firmly as their guiding principles, have become so much the
intellectual heritage of the people as a whole that it is most natural
that the foreign observer, noting the æsthetic impress upon everything
about him, should look upon the Japanese as a nation of artists. To an
extent not known elsewhere the Japanese mechanic is indeed an art-isan.
And there is a measure of truth in Percival Lowell’s assertion that
there are “no mechanical arts in Japan simply because all such have
been raised to the position of fine arts.”[149] From the Japanese
point of view, however, differences in degree of artistic perception
are as pronounced among the Japanese as among other peoples. In Japan,
as in all other lands, artistic inspiration is given to but few among
the many; artists having creative genius tower high above their
fellows; and the little touches that excite the wonder and admiration
of the outside world are seen to be in large degree the outcome of
conventional notions rather than the expression of individual feeling.

The art of Japan like most other elements in her civilization is
of Chinese origin. Concurrently with the introduction by way of the
Middle Kingdom of that stream of abstract idealism known as Northern
Buddhism, China became the fountain head whence until comparatively
recent times a succession of æsthetic ideas spread over Japan.[150]
Modern Chinese art is justly held to possess little merit, but in the
days when it exerted its dominating influence upon the Japanese mind
it had attained a very high standard of excellence, and in particular
some of the Chinese painters were among the greatest the world has ever
known. With the exception of a few original modifications, the product
of temperament and historical situation, everything in Japanese art
has come from China; yet the generic ideas have been so worked over
and transformed in the process that the resultant is distinctly not
Chinese but Japanese. The influence of Buddhism has been very great; it
would indeed, be difficult to overestimate it.[151] Most of the earlier
artists were Buddhist priests, and, until the revival of Shintō as the
State religion, during the present reign, Buddhism was directly and
indirectly one of the principal promoters and patrons of the arts.

[Illustration: PAINTING BY HO-ITSU: VIEW OF FUJI-SAN]

Foremost among the arts of Japan, both relatively and as the key
which is necessary to understanding and appreciation of the others,
is painting. It is an art differing in many respects from that of
the European schools of painting, but not less worthy of serious
consideration, and in certain qualities it ranks supreme. To those who
have seen the masterpieces preserved among the temple treasures, or
hidden in the collections of Japanese noblemen, and have felt their
grandeur and charm, this will seem far short of over-statement. In the
West, however, there is little opportunity to gauge the achievements of
the great Japanese painters,[152] and it is even possible to spend a
lifetime in Japan and remain in ignorance thereof.

Japanese critics have always considered painting to be a form of
poetry. The painter therefore strives to represent the soul of things
rather than their visible forms. Not that he scorns realism, indeed
he is often minutely realistic in a way that is unapproachable; but
realism with him is only incidental, his main purpose being to produce
a poem in form and color. To this end all irrelevant details are
necessarily omitted. Nothing is given that in any way interferes with
the central thought. Reduced thus to its simplest elements, his art
calls for the utmost harmony in all that enters into it, and first of
all for perfect composition of line, mass, and vacant space. Scarcely
less important is color arrangement, including the balancing of light
and dark as factors in the result. A high degree of technical skill is
also requisite, for the poetry would be lost should the execution seem
labored. The greatest works are, in appearance at least, spontaneous
to an astonishing degree. Wonderful indeed are the possibilities of
a single brush stroke in the hands of a master. The effects produced
range from almost microscopic realism to the broadest impressionism,
the latter quality being predominant in the works of some of the most
eminent artists.

So far as it is possible to sum them up in a brief statement, the
distinguishing characteristics of Japanese painting are these:—

 1. Excellence of composition.

 2. Subtlety and beauty of line.

 3. Remarkable command of the brush, and directness of method in its
 use.

 4. Simplicity of treatment, and rigid exclusion of non-essentials.

 5. Absence of chiaroscuro, and the employment of _notan_, or contrast
 between light and dark.

 6. Skilful generalization of forms.

 7. Poetical conception.

 8. High development of the sense of harmony in color.

Any such summing up is, however, necessarily imperfect. It is not
feasible to give here any account of the various schools and artists,
and the reader desiring more extended information is referred to
the sources indicated in the bibliography appended to this chapter.
Before leaving this branch of the subject, mention should be made of
calligraphy, which, although justly regarded in Japan as an art, is
not so much a separate art as the art of painting applied to writing
the Chinese ideographs. It will not appear strange, therefore, that
masterly writing should be esteemed equally with painting.

An art closely allied to painting is that of chromoxylography, or
color printing from engraved wood blocks. Nothing could be simpler
than the method employed, the sheets of paper being laid face down on
the block which has been previously inked with a brush, and pressure
is then applied by rubbing the back of the sheets with a pad held
in the hand of the printer. Nevertheless no greater triumphs of the
printer’s art have ever been achieved than the beautiful color prints
of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries after designs by Harunobu,
Koriusai, Shunsho, Kyonaga, Toyokuni, Utamaro, Hokusai, and other noted
artists of the Popular school. Though still in use, this process is
largely being superseded by the cheaper, if less artistic, processes of
lithography, collotype, etc.

In glyptic art the triumphs of the Japanese have been little less than
in that of painting. The most remarkable specimens are the ancient
figures in bronze and in wood which are preserved in the temples. The
Daibutsu, or gigantic bronze statue of Buddha, at Nara will serve as
an example, having been illustrated so often that all the world is
familiar with its appearance.

The objects upon which the art of the Japanese sculptors has been
exercised are many. Particularly in the carving of the masks used in
the _Nō_ dances, and the little ornaments called _netsuke_, the skill
and artistic qualities displayed are often of the highest order. It
would be difficult to overpraise the best work of such artists in this
line, as Deme Jikan, Minko, Tomotada, Miwa, and many others. As in the
case of painting, the method used by the carver must be direct and
masterly to satisfy Japanese taste. Only clean, strong strokes will
pass muster. There must be no niggling nor retouching. Visitors to the
shrines at Nikkō will be impressed by this quality in the remarkable
works to be found there by the famous seventeenth-century sculptor
Hidari Jingorō, that is to say, “Left-handed Jingorō.”

One of the most ancient of the arts of Japan is that of the potter.
It is also one of the most profitable for study. The principles which
have been enumerated as applicable to painting will be found carefully
embodied in the fabrication and ornamentation of keramic wares, the
variety of which is endless. In some instances these wares are known by
the names of the makers, as Ninsei, Kenzan, Kozan, Seifu, and others;
but in general they are designated by the names of the provinces
wherein they are made. Thus we have the wares of Satsuma, Hizen, Arita,
Imari, Kaga, Kyōto, Owari, Bizen, Iga, Ota, Soma, Izumo, and many more.
Occasionally the name of a particular locality is used, as for instance
that of Seto in Owari. Here it was that Shirozaemon, called “the Father
of Pottery,” established himself in the thirteenth century; and such
was the repute of the products of his kiln that _Seto-mono_, or Seto
ware, became a generic name in Japan for all keramic productions,
quite as in English we use the term “china” for all kinds of porcelain
wherever made.

Unfortunately the Japanese potter of to-day is largely under the
influence of foreign markets, to the great degradation of his art.
The condition is well portrayed by Huish, who says: “The wealthy
‘red-hairs’ who came to him from the West could see no beauties in the
objects that had given the greatest pleasure to the men of refinement
of his own country; and in order that the potter might participate in
the overflow of silver dollars with which the foreigners were blessed,
he was obliged to put aside those principles which he and his father
before him had looked upon as the fundamental ones of their craft, and
produce wares totally at variance with his preconceived ideas of the
right.”

Many and distinctive are the arts of the Japanese metal-workers. They
are widely renowned for their skill in compounding numerous alloys, for
inlaying one metal upon another, for clever manipulation of refractory
materials such as wrought iron of exceeding toughness which they
nevertheless carve and chase almost as though it were wax, for casting
in bronze and iron by the cire perdue process, and especially for the
manufacture of armor, both offensive (such as swords and spears) and
defensive (such as helmets and coats of mail). Japanese swords excel
even the famous blades of Damascus and Toledo, and the names of the
swordsmiths Munichika, Masamune, Muramasa, and others, are now of
international reputation. The blades which were made by these men are
not only of extraordinary excellence, but are also veritable works of
art and highly prized as such by connoisseurs. Equally celebrated in
different lines are the works of the Miochin and Goto families; and
among the metal-workers of to-day are many worthy successors of these
giants of the past.

The art of enamelling upon metal is, with some exceptions,
comparatively a new one in Japan, but is now very popular. The wares
are known to the Japanese as _Shippō-yaki_, and in general, in the
West, as cloisonné. The centres of the enamel-workers are Tōkyō, Kyōto,
and Nagoya, and the best-known makers are Namikawa, of Tōkyō, the
inventor of the “cloison-less” enamel, and his namesake of Kyōto.

One of the most distinctive of the arts of Japan is that of
lacquering, and the Japanese product far excels that of any other
makers. The lac, which is a varnish made from the poisonous sap of
a tree of the sumac (rhus) family, is applied in thin layers on a
carefully prepared ground, usually of wood, and after being dried in a
moist oven or steam-chest, is carefully rubbed down and polished. This
is repeated with each layer. Various substances, metallic and other,
are mixed with the lac or applied to its surface before it is dry, and
it may be carved and inlaid in different ways. This is a bare outline
of a process which is long and tedious and which has many variations.
Extended accounts with many interesting details will be found in Rein’s
“Industries of Japan,” in the ninth volume of the Transactions of the
Asiatic Society of Japan, and in Volume VII. of Captain Brinkley’s
“Japan.”

[Illustration: PAINTING BY YASUNOBU: HERON AND LOTUS]

Embroidery, like the designing for brocades and other fabrics, is an
art which follows closely the analogies of the art of painting, and is
governed by the same æsthetic principles. The embroiderers in Japan
are not women but men, and in their work they often display remarkable
taste and ability as designers, as well as craftsmanship of the highest
order.

To Occidental ears Japanese music, set, as it always is, in a minor
key and abounding in discords, seems unworthy of the name of music. To
characterize it as merely “strummings and squealings” because it does
not conform to our ideas, is, however, an unfair aspersion. The fact is
that it is based upon a scale which differs from that which we use, one
of its peculiarities being the introduction of a semi-tone above the
tonic. In the Japanese mind music is so closely related to the sister
arts of poetry and dancing that neither can well be treated separately.
As Captain Brinkley tells us: “There is no Japanese music that will
not serve as accompaniment for the Japanese stanza, and the stanza, in
turn, adapts itself perfectly to the fashion of the Japanese dance. The
law of the unities seems to have prescribed that the cadence of the
stanza should melt into the lilt of the song, and that the measure of
the song should be worked out by the ‘woven paces and waving hands’ of
the dance. The affinity between them is so close that it is difficult
to tell where one begins and the other ends.”

Japanese poetry is also conspicuously different from that of the
Occident. It is a form of word painting in brief lyrics, and “it is
primarily an expression of emotion.” The odes which all Japanese learn
to compose are verbal melodies which can be neither transposed nor
translated. Owing to the nature of the Japanese language, there are no
accented syllables, nor is there any quantity, nor any rhyme. This is
well explained by Aston in his “History of Japanese Literature.” He
says:—

 “As every syllable ends in a vowel, and as there are only five vowels,
 there could only be five rhymes, the constant reiteration of which
 would be intolerably monotonous.... The only thing in the mechanism of
 Japanese poetry which distinguishes it from prose is the _alternation
 of phrases of five and seven syllables each_. It is, in fact, a
 species of blank verse.”

The art of dancing, which consists mainly in rhythmic posturings,
often of great beauty, and requiring not only physical training of
the most rigorous character but a high degree of skill, is in turn
intimately associated with the histrionic art. For an account of
the early dances and their gradual merging into the classical drama
or dance known as _Nō_ (literally, “accomplishment”), the reader is
referred to the third volume of Captain Brinkley’s “Japan: Its History,
Arts, and Literature.” Few foreigners ever learn to appreciate Japanese
dancing. Its primary purpose is mimetic. “The mechanics of the dance,”
says Brinkley, “are as nothing to the Japanese spectator compared with
the music of its motion, and he interprets the _staccato_ and _legato_
of its passages with discrimination amounting almost to instinct. In
exceptional cases the foreigner’s perception may be similarly subtle,”
but as he must generally be unable to apprehend the esoterics of the
dance, he is “like one watching a drama where an unknown plot is acted
in an unintelligible language.”

As to the Japanese drama proper, it differs from our own chiefly in the
stage setting and accessories, and in the greater importance given to
the mimetic side of the performance.

An art essentially Japanese is that of flower arrangement. In its
origin it is closely related to the _Cha-no-yu_, or Tea Ceremonial,
which developed into a cult during the Shōgunate of Ashikaga Yoshimasa
in the fifteenth century. This cult, which was founded on the four
cardinal virtues of urbanity, courtesy, purity, and imperturbability,
has been a mighty force in holding the Japanese true to a high
standard in matters of taste, by combining “æsthetic eclecticism of
the most fastidious nature with the severest canons of simplicity and
austerity.” The end has been achieved not so much by the elaborate
code as through what it stands for; the ceremony being in reality a
gathering of connoisseurs to view works of art, each of which to win
favor must meet the requirements of the most exacting taste. Out of
the æsthetic necessity of making fitting disposition of the flowers
introduced into the tea-room, grew the art of _Ike-bana_, or flower
arrangement. This has gradually come to have an elaborate code of its
own, and several distinct “schools” have arisen. In a general way it
may be said that the art consists in arranging flowers with regard to
harmonious composition of line, while keeping in mind certain poetic
analogies which must not be violated, and the appearance of vitality
and natural growth. Here, again, the principles of composition in
painting find their application.

Still another application is found in landscape gardening, which in the
hands of the Japanese is also a fine art. This too has its different
“schools” and its special code of rules, formulated during the many
centuries of development at the hands of successive generations of
artists.

Japan is, in truth, a shining example of the essential unity of all
the arts, and illustrates admirably the truth of the old saying,
_Natura artis magister_ (Nature the mistress of art). Unfortunately,
what has been said in this chapter applies more to Old Japan than to
the Japan of to-day. Modern Japan, whether rightly or wrongly, is
becoming tired of being praised for æsthetic excellence, and is more
anxious to be appraised and appreciated for its material, social,
commercial, and political “progress.” To the cultivated Japanese,
who regard art as the highest outcome and flowering of civilization,
this tendency is not encouraging. And as to the future of Japanese
art, its perpetuation must come from excluding rather than attempting
to amalgamate Western ideas. In the impressive words of Okakura, the
outcome will be “victory from within, or a mighty death without.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  _Painting_: “The Pictorial Arts of Japan” (Anderson); “Catalogue of
  Japanese and Chinese Paintings in the British Museum” (Anderson);
  “The Painters of Japan” (Morrison).

  _Prints_: “An Outline of the History of Ukiyo-ye” (Fenollosa);
  “Geschichte des Japanischen Farbenholzschnitts” (Seidlitz); “Japanese
  Illustration” (Strange); “Japanese Wood Engravings” (Anderson);
  “Japanese Wood-cutting and Wood-cut Printing” (Tokuno).

  _Pottery_: “Catalogue of the Morse Collection of Japanese Pottery,
  Museum of Fine Arts, Boston” (Morse); “Japan: Its History, Art, and
  Literature” (Brinkley); “Keramic Art of Japan” (Audsley and Bowes);
  “L’Art Japonais” (Gonse).

  _Glyptic Art_: “Histoire de l’Art du Japan,” published by the
  Japanese Commission for the Paris Exposition of 1900. This work
  contains much information about all the arts, not available elsewhere.

  _Metal Work—Lacquer_: “The Industries of Japan” (Rein); “Notes
  on Shippo” (Bowes); “Ornamental Arts of Japan” (Audsley); “L’Art
  Japonais” (Gonse); “Japan and its Art” (Huish).

  _Music_: “The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan” (Piggott);
  “Miyako-Dori” (Bevan).

  _Poetry_: “History of Japanese Literature” (Aston); “Classical Poetry
  of the Japanese” (Chamberlain); “Japanese Odes” (Dickins).

  _Drama_: “Artistic Japan,” vol. v. (edited by S. Bing).

  _Flower Arrangement_: “The Flowers of Japan and the Art of Floral
  Arrangement” (Conder).

  _Landscape-Gardening_: “Landscape-Gardening in Japan” (Conder).

  _Tea Ceremonial_: “The Book of Tea” (Okakura).

  _General_: “An Artist’s Letters from Japan” (La Farge); “Jinrikisha
  Days in Japan” (Scidmore).



CHAPTER XVII[153]

DISESTABLISHMENT OF SHINTŌ

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Religion in Japan; Shintō; a “natural religion”;
 simple services; religious patriotism; perfunctory worship; Shintō
 doomed “as a religion”; secularization of Ise shrines; element of
 embarrassment to Christians; “worship” (?) of Emperor’s portrait;
 difficulties in translation of Christian terms; method of reforms in
 Japan; future of Shintō.—Bibliography.


It is a curious fact that Japan cannot boast of an indigenous
religion, or of much original mental or moral philosophy. “Shintō”
(The Gods’ Way), purely Japanese in its origin, is only a cult, a
system of worship, not a religion, or even a philosophy. Buddhism
and Confucianism came in from China, perhaps through Korea, and
Christianity entered from Europe and America.

Shintō is a system in which the deification and worship of heroes,
emperors, family ancestors, and forces of nature play an important
part. It has no dogmas, no sacred books, no moral code, “no philosophy,
no code of ethics, no metaphysics”; it sums up its theory of human duty
in the following injunction: “Follow your natural impulses and obey the
laws of the State.”[154] It requires of its adherents nothing except
worship at certain temples or shrines on stated days. A “pure Shintō”
temple is an exceedingly plain affair, in front of which, at a little
distance, is invariably set a _torii_, or arch. Without idols, the
temple contains, as emblems of Shintō, strips of paper hanging from a
wand, together with a mirror. The form of ordinary worship is simple:
it consists of washing the face, or hands, or both, with holy water;
of ringing a bell, or clapping the hands, to call the god’s attention;
of casting in a coin as an offering; of standing with clasped hands
during a short prayer, and of making a farewell bow. This ceremony is
sufficient to “cover a multitude of sins”! At the regular festivals
there are special and elaborate services, at which the priests (often
laymen) officiate. Pilgrimages to holy spots, usually “high places,”
are important in Shintō.

But Shintō seems destined to decay as naturally as it developed.
According to the best authorities, it was, in the original and purest
form, ancestor-worship combined with the worship of nature. That is to
say, it arose from the natural reverence paid to ancestors, whether
individual or national, and from the awe inspired by the wonderful
and frequently horrible forces of nature. In time these two elements
became more or less confused, so that eventually, in some cases,
national ancestors were identified with heavenly bodies, and the sun,
for instance, worshipped as a goddess, was called the special ancestor
of the Japanese nation. It seems proper, therefore, to call Shintō, so
far as the word “religion” is applicable to it, a “natural religion” in
more senses than one of the word “natural.”[155]

It has just been intimated that the word “religion” is not in all
points applicable to Shintō. It has, for instance, no dogmas or creed,
except the very simple and general injunction: “Follow your own
natural impulses and obey the laws of the State.” Dr. Nitobe says, in
his book entitled “Bushidō”: “The tenets of Shintōism cover the two
predominating features of the emotional life of our race—patriotism and
loyalty.” Its services are very simple, and consist of the presentation
of offerings and the recital of formal addresses, which are partly
praises and partly prayers. In one ritual, that of purification, it is
true that there may be seen signs of moral instruction; but this is
now a mere formal ceremony, performed, perhaps, only twice a year in
some, not all, of the principal Shintō shrines. Certainly, in the sense
that Christianity, with its creeds, whether simple or complex, its
moral doctrines, its spiritual teachings, its outlook into the future
life, its restraining and uplifting influence upon the individual and
society, is called a religion, Shintō has no right to that appellation.

But as a system of national as well as of individual worship,
including prayers to the deified ancestors or national heroes or to
the personified and deified powers of nature, Shintō is properly a
religion. And there can be no doubt that, in the eyes of the great
mass of the people, it has all the force of a religion. One needs to
stand but a few minutes in front of a Shintō shrine to observe that
the mode of worship is practically the same as that before a Buddhist
temple. This does not refer to the regular public ceremonies at stated
times, but to the brief ordinary visits of the common people to the
shrines and temples as they may be passing by. In their hearts there
is apparently as much “worship” and “reverence” in one case as in the
other. And this superstitious attitude of the people toward Shintō has
been utilized on more than one occasion in political measures, so that
Shintō has often been nothing but a political engine. “In its lower
forms [it] is blind obedience to governmental and priestly dictates.”
It has thus been unfairly used as a test of so-called patriotism,
a kind of ecclesiastical patriotism, founded on mythology and
superstition. Thus Shintō has been, as Sir Ernest Satow called it, “in
a certain sense, a state religion, since its temples are maintained out
of the imperial and local revenues, and the attendance of the principal
officials is required by court etiquette at certain annual festivals
which are celebrated at the palace.” Similarly, local officials are
required to be present and “worship” on certain occasions at local
shrines. As Dr. Griffis has remarked, “To those Japanese whose first
idea of duty is loyalty to the Emperor, Shintō thus becomes a system of
patriotism exalted to a religion.”

But the relation of the educated classes toward Shintō is quite
different. A knowledge of science has shown the foolishness of
personifying and deifying the forces of nature and of worshipping
foxes, badgers, and other animals. Moreover, the scientific study of
the Japanese annals has revealed the absurdities of much that had been
accepted as real history, and has shown that the so-called historical
foundation of Shintō is a mass of myths and legends. The well-educated
Japanese do not believe the nonsense of the “Kojiki”[156] upon which
the claim that the Emperor should be worshipped is based; but few, if
any, dare to give public expression to their own private opinions, for
they love life and reputation more than liberty of speech. And many of
those who really know better not only will employ the old fictions in
word of mouth or on the written page, but will even visit shrines and
go perfunctorily through the forms of worship.

Now it is quite evident that, ever since the opening of Japan
and the consequent spread of popular education, the diffusion of
scientific knowledge, and the propagation of Christianity, Shintō _as
a religion_ has been doomed. Not merely monotheism, but also science,
ridiculed the Shintō doctrine of myriads of gods; and even atheism
and agnosticism, so heartily welcomed in Japan, would not lend any
support to the superstitions of Shintō. Ever since the Restoration
of 1868, which was, of course, a revival of pure political Shintō,
frequent attempts have been made to have Shintō declared, in actual
fact, by special enactment, the State religion of Japan. But religious
Shintō has been suffering a gradual decline, as Dr. Griffis shows in
“The Religions of Japan.” For a little while the council that had
charge of Shintō matters “held equal authority with the great council
of the government. Pretty soon the first step downward was taken,
and from a supreme council it was made one of the ten departments
of the government. In less than a year followed another retrograde
movement, and the department was called a board. Finally, in 1877, the
board became a bureau.” And, in the closing year of the nineteenth
century, another step downward was taken by making a complete official
demarcation between Shintō shrines and Buddhist temples. Hereafter
Buddhist and Christian matters come under the charge of the Bureau of
Religions; while Shintō affairs are entirely secularized and set apart
under a Bureau of Shrines. This is the final step in the official
_disestablishment of Shintō_. It is one of the greatest triumphs of
civilization and Christianity in Japan, for it has evidently been made
necessary by the spread of the gospel; and this move is fraught with
deep significance, with great promise and encouragement.

Even before this official action had been taken, the necessity for
completely secularizing Shintō had been fully recognized within its
own circles. In 1899 the officials of the Great Shrine at Ise, in
which are preserved the mirror, the sword, and the jewel, the three
sacred treasures of Shintō, took the proper legal steps to become a
secular organization. They asserted that Shintō is “merely a mechanism
for keeping generations in touch with generations, and preserving
the continuity of the nation’s veneration for its ancestors.” Shintō
could never hope “to stand as a religion,” but it might stand “as the
embodiment of a national sentiment.” According to the editor of the
“Japan Mail,” the leaders of Shintō have “shown great astuteness”
in taking that step; and others have even suggested that they have
very shrewdly laid a most dangerous trap for Christians by attempting
to deprive them of a valid reason for not participating in Shintō
ceremonies.

And there is no doubt that there still remains an element of
embarrassment to Christians. Nominally and theoretically, Shintō is
no longer a religion; it is “merely a cult embodying the principle
of veneration for ancestors, and having for its chief function the
performance of rites in memory of the [so-called] divine ancestors of
the empire’s sovereigns.” But the common people will continue to regard
Shintō in the light of a religion, and to worship and pray at the
shrines. Until, therefore, the masses are educated up to a knowledge
of the distinctions between “human” and “divine,” “secular” and
“religious,” “reverence” and “worship,” they will continue to bow their
heads, clap their hands, and mumble their prayers at Shintō shrines.
Christians, of course, ought not to indulge in such practices; but,
because such things are done by those who do not know better, should
they refrain entirely from participating in national celebrations and
patriotic ceremonies? Or should they, regardless of what others may
be doing, take part in whatever way their consciences will allow? Is
this a case in which Paul’s instructions about eating meat and things
offered to idols would be applicable?

This is really much the same question that arose some years ago with
reference to bowing before the Emperor’s portrait. To that ceremony
the common word for “worship” [_reihai_ or _hairei_] was applied;
and therefore many Christians conscientiously refused to perform it.
Now, those Japanese words are composed of _rei_, a very common term
indicating any polite act, and _hai_, which in its original ideographic
form was written with a picture of two hands clasped, and therefore
naturally indicates worship. But this word _hai_ is an integral part
of such words as _haiken_ (a very polite expression for “please let
me see”), _haishaku_ (“please lend”), _haikei_ (the humble phrase
at the beginning of a letter). In all these cases the word _hai_
expresses a humble request to a superior, originally made with clasped
hands and bowed head. These words are in daily use by Christians,
including missionaries, without conscientious scruples, because they
are apparently cases of what rhetoricians call “fossil metaphors.” It
would appear, then, that _hai_, which gives _reihai_ its significance
of “worship,” may have shades of meaning, just as we speak, not only
of the “worship of the one, true God,” but also of “hero-worship.”
It is, in fact, a question of terms in a language and among a people
where such fine distinctions are not drawn between the secular and the
religious, the common and the uncommon, the holy and the unholy. In a
country where each person must humble himself before others and must
express that humility in words and deeds that to Occidentals suggest
Uriah Heep, and where profound bows are the most ordinary occurrence,
bowing to the Emperor’s portrait is scarcely “worship.” It is no more
“worship” or “idolatry” than baring the head when the United States
flag was raised at San Juan de Porto Rico, or when the British sing
“God Save the King,” or than standing with bared and bowed heads before
an open grave. To repeat, the whole question is largely one of terms
in a language undergoing great transitions and modifications through
contact with Occidental thought and speech.

In this connection the whole subject of translation comes up. What
Japanese words, for instance, shall be used for “God,” “spirit,”
“love,” “home,” “worship,” “personal,” and many other terms? The ideas
included in such words do not exist in the Japanese mind, and therefore
there are no absolutely equivalent terms. Either old words of lower
concepts must be used, or words must be coined; in either case the full
idea of the original is not transferred to the Japanese mind without
considerable explanation. But this is a digression.

This disestablishment of Shintō is another instance of the peculiar
method by which reforms, whether political, social, or moral, are
usually accomplished in Japan. In Occidental nations political reforms
have been initiated by the people, by the power of public opinion;
and popular rights have been wrested by the ruled from the unwilling
rulers, whether feudal barons or monarchs. But in Japan all the
political and social reforms of the last few decades have been imposed
by the ruling classes upon the indifferent people. It is probably
true that the great mass of the Japanese care very little, if any,
whether their government is an absolute or a constitutional monarchy;
know scarcely anything about the cabinet, the Imperial Diet, the
new codes, and such things; and are contented with the old customs,
costumes, ceremonies, and religions. They are not like that Irishman
who, when he was asked, immediately upon landing in New York, to which
party he belonged, promptly replied, “I’m agin the government.” The
common people of Japan go to the other extreme and are always “for
the government”; that is, they favor the established order, whatever
it may be, and do not want any disturbance. Or it may, perhaps, be
nearer the truth to say that they keep “the noiseless tenor of their
way,” regardless of what changes may be transpiring in social and
political Japan. But, although they are natural conservatives, they
are, nevertheless, able to adapt themselves gradually to the new
order of things, as soon as these are firmly established. Now this
disestablishment of Shintō has not come about, as idolatry has often
been overthrown in the isles of the sea, in accordance with the
demands of the people, who had learned better from the teachings of
Christianity and modern science; but it has been carried out somewhat
as a political measure by the government, and the people must still be
educated up to an understanding of the new status of Shintō.

But, although Shintō will continue for some time to be considered
a religion by the mass of the people, and thus the full results of
disestablishment cannot be immediately realized; yet this official
removal of Shintō from the position of a religion is one of the most
important reforms of this great reform era in Japan. When Constantine
disestablished the religions of Greece and Rome by establishing
Christianity as the religion of his empire, the worship of Zeus (or
Jupiter), of Aphrodite (or Venus), and of the other deities of Olympus,
did not cease at once; nor, on the other hand, did the efforts of
Julian succeed in reviving the old idolatry. Shintō will linger and
continue to attract thousands of worshippers to its shrines; but it is
doomed to die as perished the Greek and Roman religions. Amaterasu,
the sun-goddess, will yet have her votaries in Japan as had Apollo
in Greece and Rome; but the rays of the Sun of Righteousness will
dispel the darkness of this myth. The farmers will continue to make
their offerings and their petitions at the shrines of Inari Sama,
the rice-god, and will attempt to propitiate the wrath of the god of
thunder and lightning; but they will gradually learn of the Almighty,
who sendeth seed-time and harvest, lightning and thunder, rain and
sunshine. The sailors and fishermen will continue their worship at the
shrines of their special deities, until they know of Him who maketh
the seas to be calm and the winds to be still. Therefore, although
the Japanese government has pronounced the sentence of death upon the
Shintō religion, the execution of that sentence will be a very gradual
and prolonged affair. In the mean time it behooves the disciples of
Jesus Christ to be unremitting in their labors of teaching the Japanese
people to substitute for “the Way of the Gods” the religion of Him who
said, “I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  See Rein’s “Japan,” Peery’s “Gist of Japan,” Cary’s “Japan and its
  Regeneration,” Knapp’s “Feudal and Modern Japan,” and Lowell’s
  “Soul of the Far East,” pp. 162-193. But especially valuable are
  “The Religions of Japan” (Griffis), “The Development of Religion in
  Japan” (Knox), “Occult Japan” (Lowell), Hearn’s works, and papers by
  Sir Ernest Satow and Dr. Florenz in Transactions Asiatic Society of
  Japan, vols. ii., iii. (App.), vii., ix., xxvii. These references
  are, of course, on the general subject of Shintō rather than the
  special topic of this chapter.

  Aston’s “Shintō: The Way of the Gods” (1905) is, of course, most
  excellent. Hozumi’s “Ancestor-Worship and Japanese Law” is very
  valuable.



CHAPTER XVIII

CONFUCIANISM, BUSHIDŌ, BUDDHISM

OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Confucianism; “Five Relations”; Bushidō; influences
of Confucianism and Bushidō.—Buddhism; general view; chief sects;
Tendai sect; Shingon sect; Zen sect; Jōdo sect; Shin sect; Nichiren
sect; New Buddhism; influences of Buddhism; corruption of Buddhism;
control of cemeteries; mixed sects.—Relations of Shintō, Confucianism,
and Buddhism.—Religious toleration.—Bibliography.


The philosophical teachings of Confucius were very popular in Japan
among the educated classes, who, caring little for religion, were
content to supplement Shintō with Confucianism. Its moral code
undoubtedly proved beneficial to Japan in many respects; but now it is
practically superseded by the doctrines of Western atheistic, agnostic,
and materialistic philosophy.

The “five relations” (_gorin_), around which clustered the Confucian
ethical code, were those of Father and Son, Ruler and Ruled, Husband
and Wife, Elder and Younger Brothers, and Friends. In China, “filial
piety,” the great virtue of the first relation, was the foundation
of the whole system; but in Japanese Confucianism this was relegated
to the second place, and “loyalty,” the great virtue of the second
relation, was put first. The scope of this relation, moreover, was
quite wide; it included not only the relation between the sovereign
and his subjects, but also that between a lord and his retainers, and
even that between any master and servants. The virtue of the third
relation was known as “distinction,” which practically meant that each
should know and keep his or her own place; that of the fourth relation
was “order,” which insisted upon the primacy of seniority in age;
and between friends the typical virtue was “faith,” or “trust,” or
“confidence.”

The word _Bushidō_ means, literally, “The Warrior’s Way,” which was
the code of ethics that prevailed in Feudal Japan, and whose influence
is still felt, although waning, in Modern Japan. It was the moral
code of Japanese chivalry, of the knight and of the gentleman. It
has not inaptly been styled “Japonicized Confucianism,” for it was
chiefly Confucian in its constitution. But it gathered elements from
Shintō and Buddhism: from the latter it received fatalism (Stoicism);
and from the former it received loyalty and patriotism, which meant
practically the same thing. It ignored personal chastity (except in
women); it encouraged suicide and revenge; but it emphasized justice,
courage, benevolence, politeness, veracity, honor, and self-control.
One of its most powerful principles was _giri_ (right reason), which
is difficult to translate or define, but comes pretty close to what we
call “duty” or “the right.” This still maintains a potent influence in
New Japan, and often accounts for erratic procedures. Indeed, so-called
peculiarities of the Japanese cannot be understood without a knowledge
of Bushidō, which has been analyzed in a flattering manner in Dr.
Nitobe’s book, entitled “Bushidō, the Soul of Japan.”

Inasmuch as the influence of Confucianism in Japan was chiefly
manifested through Bushidō, to be correct, we ought to speak of their
joint influences. But since Bushidō, as we have just seen, was largely
Confucianism, slightly modified to suit the needs of the Japanese
spirit (_Yamato-damashii_), we shall, for convenience, follow other
writers in using the term “Confucianism.” Rein testifies that in Japan
“widely diffused religious indifference and formal atheism are the
consequences” of the pursuit of Confucianism. Chamberlain says that
“during the two hundred years that followed, the whole intellect of the
country was moulded by Confucian ideas.” Griffis bears similarly strong
testimony, and emphasizes the fact that “all Japanese social, official,
intellectual, and literary life was permeated with the new spirit of
Confucian thought.” It is not strange, therefore, that when Japan was
opened to the world, and Occidental learning and literature poured in,
the materialism and the agnosticism of the West met with a sympathetic
reception.

[Illustration: GROUP OF PILGRIMS, AND BUDDHIST PRIESTS]

Buddhism is the accepted faith of the great mass of the Japanese
people. It was introduced into Japan from Korea, in the sixth century
A. D., and spread rapidly. It is now divided in Japan into eight
sects, with various sub-sects, which bring the grand total up to about
thirty-five. These sects vary, some in doctrines and others in rituals,
and are even quite hostile to each other. The Shin sect deserves,
perhaps, a special mention; because it opposes celibacy and asceticism,
does not restrict the diet, worships only one Buddha, and preaches
salvation by faith. It is often called “the Protestantism of Buddhism.”
Buddhist temples are usually magnificent structures, and the ritual
is elaborate; but, in spite of the assistance of Colonel Olcott, Sir
Edwin Arnold, and others, it is fast losing ground. It has degenerated
and become idolatry and superstition. It keeps hold of the ignorant
masses, and even of intelligent persons, chiefly because it has control
of funeral rites and cemeteries. It has been said that a Japanese is
a Shintōist in life and a Buddhist at death; and it is also true that
he may be during life, at one and the same time, a devotee of both.
Buddhism may suffice for a people who are crushed under an Oriental
despotism; but Christianity alone is the religion of liberty and
progress. Buddha may be “the light of Asia,” but Jesus Christ is “the
light of the world.”

Nanjō, the historian of Japanese Buddhism, has written a “History
of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects”; but as some of these are now
defunct, it is sufficient to notice here only eight principal sects, as
follows: Tendai, Shingon, Zen, Jōdo, Shin, Nichiren, Ji, Yuzu Nembutsu.
Moreover, as the last two of these are comparatively insignificant, the
mere mention of their names is enough, but a little more should be said
concerning each of the other six.

1. The Tendai sect is the oldest, but now ranks among the lowest.
It belongs to the school which “sought to define truth and to find
salvation in knowledge”: but as the truth was often too abstruse for
the mass, it must be dealt out, by means of pious devices, according
to the ability of the learner; so that the disciples of this sect have
been called the Jesuits of Buddhism.

2. To the same school belongs the Shingon sect, which is only a year
younger than the former sect and now ranks third in the list. It was
founded by the celebrated priest Kōbō Daishi; and its doctrines also
are quite abstruse. This is the sect which is responsible for that
mixing of Shintō and Buddhism that prevailed for so many centuries
by the adoption of Shintō deities into the Buddhist pantheon. These
believers are sometimes called the Gnostics of Buddhism.

3. The Zen sect represents the school which teaches that “abstract
contemplation leads to a knowledge of saving truth.” “Look carefully
within, and there you will find the Buddha.” This sect arose probably
“out of a reaction against the multiplication of idols,” and was
“a return to simpler forms of worship and conduct”; therefore its
disciples have been called “the Quakers of Japanese Buddhism.” Others
call them “the Japanese Quietists” or “the Japanese Mystics.” This is
now the largest Buddhist sect.

4. A third school, teaching that salvation was to be obtained only
through the works of another, has been represented by two sects, the
Jōdo and the Shin. The former, which now ranks fourth, was founded
upon a very simple doctrine, with an easy rule of life, that is, the
frequent repetition of the invocation _Namu Amida Butsu_, “Hail to
Amida the Buddha.” These Buddhists use a double rosary.

5. The Shin sect,[157] which sprung out of the Jōdo sect, is that of
the Japanese Reformers or Protestants. In numerical strength it is
second to the Zen sect, but in real power and influence it is _facile
princeps_. Its priests are allowed to marry, and to eat flesh and
fish. It teaches that morality is as important as faith; or, in quite
familiar words, that “faith without works is dead.” It is monotheistic,
as it worships only one Buddha. It alone of all Buddhist sects provides
a way of salvation for women. It upholds a high standard of education,
carries on vigorous missions in China and Korea, and has priests even
in America.

6. The sect founded by the priest Nichiren and named for him is not
large, but very radical and influential. In their controversial and
uncompromising attitude toward other religions or even other sects of
Buddhism, the disciples of the “fiery Nichiren” have been called “the
Jesuits of Buddhism.” Their invocation is _Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō_ (Hail
to the Doctrine of the Lotus of the Wonderful Law). Their doctrine is
complete pantheism; as Dr. Griffis expresses it, Nichiren “was destined
to bring religion, not only down to men, but even down to the beasts
and the mud.”

Of all these sects, the only one which has been appreciably influenced
by contact with Western civilization and conflict with Christianity is
the Shin sect. One type of New Buddhism tries to ally itself with the
doctrines of scientific evolution. Another type has learned lessons
from Christian activity in Japan, and is putting forth its energies in
the direction of philanthropic and educational institutions; so that
it has its hospitals, magazines, schools, and, to balance the Young
Men’s Christian Association, its Young Men’s Buddhist Association, with
summer schools, etc. The New Buddhism will die hard.

The influence of Buddhism upon the Japanese people must not be
underestimated, especially because it is still manifest, to a high
degree, even in New Japan. Chamberlain says:[158] “All education was
for centuries in Buddhist hands, as was the care of the poor and sick;
Buddhism introduced art, introduced medicine, moulded the folk-lore of
the country, created its dramatic poetry, deeply influenced politics
and every sphere of social and intellectual activity. In a word,
Buddhism was the teacher under whose instruction the Japanese nation
grew up.” Or, as Griffis outlines it,[159] the Buddhist missionaries
were purveyors of civilization, ministers of art, wielded a mighty
influence in military and political affairs, transformed the manners
and customs, inspired a tremendous development in education and
literature; but Buddhism was “kind to the brute and cruel to man,”
neglected charity and philanthropy, degraded woman, and left upon the
Japanese character the blight of a merciless fatalism and an awful
pessimism.[160] It created “habits of gentleness and courtesy” and a
“spirit of hopeless resignation.” To sum up, “in a word, Buddhism is
law, but not gospel.”

At present, Buddhism in Japan is exceedingly corrupt, is losing its
hold upon the educated, but retains a tremendous influence over the
great mass of the people. The majority of the priests are ignorant,
illiterate, and immoral, “blind leaders of the blind.” The newspapers
of the day are unsparing in their denunciation of the immoralities of
the priesthood. The following is only one of many such testimonies
by ex-priests: “Something that did trouble me was the growing
conviction that Buddhism was dead, that it had reached the extremity of
corruption. Strife and scandal were rife everywhere. The chief priests
... were grasping after worldly place and prosperity. Of the immorality
of the priests it makes me blush to speak. It is not a rare thing to
see men with shaven heads and attired in black garments wandering
about in prostitute quarters, or to find women living in temples, or
to discover fish-bones thrown among the graves.... The religion has no
rallying power left, no inner life.... It has contributed much to our
civilization in the past, but it is now exhausted.”

One element of the strong hold which Buddhism had and has upon the
people, even upon the educated classes, is the fact that so many
cemeteries have been and are connected with Buddhist temples. It used
to be a frequent saying that a Japanese was a Shintōist in life and a
Buddhist in death; because, though he may never have espoused Buddhism,
he might be laid away in his grave according to Buddhist ceremonies
in a Buddhist temple and a Buddhist graveyard. But this control of
the cemeteries seems to be passing out of Buddhist hands into the
care of the local civil authorities. And this secularization, if it
may be so called, of the graveyards not only abolishes the Buddhist
monopoly, but also takes away from the priests the golden opportunity
of extorting immense fees. The Buddhist control of cemeteries has
often been a source of great embarrassment to Christians, who were
frequently compelled to bury their dead under Buddhist auspices. But
there have lately been cases where no objection was made to the burial
of Christians with Christian rites in a Buddhist graveyard.

This is, perhaps, the most suitable place to devote just a few words
to those sects which are comparatively modern in their origin, and
are so composite in their doctrine that they cannot be classed under
either Shintō or Buddhism. Indeed, they even show traces, though
perhaps slight, of Christian teaching; and they all agree in the
one doctrine of faith healing. These are _Remmon-kyō_ (Doctrine of
the Lotus-Gate),[161] _Kurozumi-kyō_ (Doctrine of Kurozumi, name of
founder),[162] and _Tenrikyō_ (Doctrine of Heavenly Reason).[163]
The first and the last were founded by ignorant peasant women, and
win adherents mostly among the lowest classes. The first seems more
Buddhist than Shintō; the second seems more Shintō than Buddhist; while
the third is the one which shows most plainly traces of Christian
influence. In _Kurozumi-kyō_, the Sun-goddess is the chief object of
devotion, because the founder was healed by worshipping the rising sun.
_Tenrikyō_ is growing rapidly, and is exclusive and intolerant.

The eclecticism of the Japanese in intellectual matters may be
explained by calling attention to one phase of their attitude toward
the three cults of Old Japan. There was in general a feeling of “with
malice toward none, with charity for all”; for the three, to a greater
or less degree, overlapped or supplemented each other.[164] Shintō, as
we have seen, was only a national cult; Confucianism was a philosophy
of the relations between man and man; while Buddhism was a true
religion, with ideas about sin and salvation. As another has summed up
the scope of these three “ways,” “Shintōism furnishes the object of
worship, Confucianism offers the rules of life, and Buddhism supplies
the way of future salvation.” It was, therefore, possible for a person
to be a disciple of two, or even all, of these “doctrines” at one and
the same time. He “had constantly before his eyes the emblems of each
of these religions. In nearly every Samurai’s house were the moral
books of Confucius, the black lacquered wooden tablets, inscribed in
gold with the Buddhist names of his ancestors, while on the god-shelf
stood the idols and symbols of Shintō.”

Therefore there are to-day probably thousands of Japanese who would
readily accept Christianity by simply adding the image of Jesus to
their present collection, and giving it equal honor with those of
Buddha and their ancestors. They might easily incorporate Jehovah
in their pantheon; but they find difficulty in appreciating the
intolerance of Christians in having “no other gods besides” Jehovah.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  The references for this chapter are in general the same as those for
  the preceding chapter, except that, in place of the special papers
  on Shintō, should be substituted special papers on Confucianism by
  Knox and Haga in Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xx.
  pp. 1-192; on Buddhism, by Lloyd in Transactions Asiatic Society of
  Japan, vol. xxii. pp. 337-506, and in “Every Day Japan”; and Nitobe’s
  “Bushidō, the Soul of Japan.”

  “Japan To-day” (Scherer) contains an interesting chapter (vi.) of
  Buddhist sermons: see also Mitford’s “Tales of Old Japan.”

  Dr. Knox, who is an authority on Confucianism, has given in his
  “Japanese Life in Town and Country” a few chapters (vi.-xi.) of
  interest in this connection; and he has also issued (1907) a valuable
  book, entitled “The Development of Religion in Japan.” Lloyd’s “Creed
  of Half Japan” is very suggestive.



CHAPTER XIX

JAPANESE CHRISTENDOM

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Mediæval Christianity; Modern Christianity;
 missionaries; Japanese Christians; Christian literature; kinds and
 methods of work; churches and chapels; Sunday-schools; Christian
 education; Christian philanthropy; Young Men’s Christian Association
 and Young Women’s Christian Association; temperance and the social
 evil; interdenominational institutions; Japonicized Christianity;
 Christianity and business; Sabbath; Christianity and the press;
 Christianity and Christians in politics; simple Christianity; status
 of Christianity.—Bibliography.


The great Jesuit missionary, Francis Xavier, was the one who introduced
Christianity into Japan, in 1549; and the labors of himself and his
successors were so faithful and successful, that at the beginning
of the next century there were about 1,000,000 Christians in Japan.
But political complications, internal and external, and religious
jealousies, brought on a terrible persecution, in which the Church was
practically extinguished. In 1638 the following edict was issued:—

 “So long as the sun shall continue to warm the earth, let no Christian
 be so bold as to come to Japan; and let all know that the King of
 Spain himself, or the Christian’s God, or the great God of all, if he
 dare violate this command, shall pay for it with his head.”

And, all over the Empire, on special bulletin-boards, notices were
published to the effect that this edict must be strictly enforced.[165]
And yet, in spite of the shrewd measures employed to detect Christians,
by compelling suspected persons, for instance, to trample on the cross
or be crucified, in some sections the knowledge of the Gospel was
handed down in secret from one generation to another; so that, when
these edicts were removed in 1873, to a few here and there Christianity
was not a strange doctrine.[166]

Just as soon as it was possible, under the treaties of 1858, for
foreigners to reside in Japan, even under restrictions, missionaries
began to enter (1859), and are now numbered by the hundreds. This count
includes both single and married men, the wives (for in some cases the
wife is worth more than the husband), and single ladies.

The work of the Greek Church has been carried on, except for a few
years, so far as foreigners are concerned, by only one man, and even
now has only two single men connected with the mission; but the
remarkable personality of the late Bishop Nicolai and his tact in
utilizing Japanese workers made a profound impression and neutralized
the prejudice arising out of political animosity to Russia.

The Roman Catholic missionaries, both male and female, have been
carrying on their work with the usual devotion and self-sacrifice in a
quiet and un-ostentatious manner, and are overcoming to a large extent
the inherited prejudice against the Catholic Christians of Old Japan.
The present workers are mostly French, and number more than 200; they
are scattered all over the empire, even in small places.

The principal Protestant denominations represented by missionaries in
Japan are the Baptists, Congregationalists, Disciples, Episcopalians,
Friends, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians (including Reformed),
Salvation Army, and Universalists. There are in all over thirty
different Protestant organizations at work in Japan, of all sorts and
shades of belief; and there are several Independents, or free lances.
The Protestant missionaries represent High Church, Low Church, and
No-Church (Plymouth Brethren _et al._); two regular Baptist societies
(but only one Japanese Church), besides Disciples and Christians; six
branches of the Presbyterian family, but all uniting in one Japanese
Church; six branches of the Methodist family, now at work, with good
prospects for success, to effect a similar union of their Japanese
churches; three kinds of Episcopalians, with one Japanese Church;
Seventh-Day Adventists; Dowie’s followers; Faith Mission; Christian
Alliance; Scandinavian Alliance; German Liberals; the Young Men’s
Christian Association; the Women’s Christian Temperance Union; the
Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavor;—in short, the entire
alphabet for a complete vocabulary of Christian activity. And the
Mormons, too, have recently sent emissaries to Japan.

The missionaries have been, and are, a mighty force in New Japan, not
merely through their preaching of the Gospel, but also through their
practising of the Christian virtues; not only by their teaching of
all-sided truth and wisdom, but also by their touching, their social
contact with the people; not only by their logic, but also by their
lives. They are vivid and impressive object-lessons of the ideal
Christian life,—“living epistles, known and read of all men.” They are,
in general, well-educated men and women, a noble company, respected and
loved by the Japanese.

The Japanese Christians are not strong numerically; but they exercise
an influence entirely out of proportion to their mere numbers. There
are more than 180,000 nominal Christians of all kinds, who may
represent a Christian community of at least twice that number. But,
in spite of their faults and failings, due to the fact that they are
less than fifty years removed from anti-Christian influences of the
worst types, and are still surrounded by various hindrances,[167]
they are also a noble body of men and women, loved and honored by
fellow-Japanese and foreigners.

The Christian literature of Japan is truly voluminous, and is an
important factor in moulding and elevating public opinion. The
Bible has been translated into the Japanese language, and is widely
circulated; it is published in many forms by the Bible societies. Until
a few years ago, it was almost impossible to induce a non-Christian
bookseller to keep the Bible on hand; for its presence in his store
might prejudice him in the eyes of the public, and, besides, it was
not easily salable. But such prejudice has died away, and a demand
for the Bible has sprung up, so that it has become to the book-dealer
a profitable article of his stock. Commentaries on the books of the
Bible and theological treatises are numerous, and tracts are counted
by the millions.[168] Christian magazines and books are published and
obtain circulation. The Methodist Publishing House and several Japanese
companies find the publication of Christian literature a profitable
venture. There are daily newspapers, owned and edited by Christians,
who use their columns to teach Christian ideals. And in 1901 was issued
a popular novel, called “Ichijiku” (The Fig Tree), which is Christian
in tone and teaching.

The work of foreign missionaries and native Christians in Japan may be
divided into four kinds: evangelistic, educational, publication, and
philanthropic. It is, however, very difficult and extremely unwise to
attempt always to make and to maintain these distinctions; for these
classes of work often overlap and supplement each other. The work,
as a whole, is carried on much as it is in the West, except that the
measures and methods must be more or less adapted to the peculiar
conditions in Japan.[169] Thus Christianity is represented there by
certain institutions, which, according to various circumstances, are
flourishing in a greater or less degree in different localities, but
which, as a whole, are exerting a tremendous influence upon the nation
and are creating the ideals for Twentieth Century Japan.

There are hundreds of churches and chapels, but they are seldom
indicated by spires and steeples pointing upward as signs of the
doctrine which leads mankind onward and upward. For that reason
they are not generally discovered by the “globe-trotter,” who tries
to do Japan in a month or less, and is not usually looking for
such things, but yet goes back to report Christianity a failure in
Japan. Nevertheless, the churches and chapels are there,—perhaps in
out-of-the-way places, on narrow side-streets, or even on the principal
thoroughfares, and they may be only ordinary Japanese houses; but the
work is going on there, quietly and unostentatiously. There is also a
“gospel ship” (Fukuin Maru), cruising about the long-neglected islands
of the Inland Sea.

In the churches and chapels, or in other buildings, or even in
the private houses of foreigners and Japanese, are about 1,000
Sunday-schools, where the children are being instructed in the simplest
truths of the Bible. They may not understand at once much of what they
hear; but they gradually come to better and better ideas, and when they
reach years of understanding, many of them fully accept the truths
learned in Sunday-school.[170]

But the duty of the Christian propagandist is not completed by the
conversion of unbelievers; it extends also to the training of these
converts into a useful body of Christian citizens. It is unwise to rely
entirely upon public education by a system so well organized even as
that of Japan. If private schools under Christian auspices are useful,
in America, they are an absolute necessity in Japan. It is dangerous to
leave Christian boys and girls under the irreligious and often immoral
influences of public institutions. As “an ounce of prevention is worth
a pound of cure,” it is supremely important to keep Christian Japanese
youth under positive Christian instruction and influences during their
impressible period. And it is also necessary to train up a strong
body of Christian pastors and laymen, who shall be the leaders in the
self-supporting Japanese church that is the goal of all missionary
effort. Therefore the work of Christianity in Japan includes a system
of education, with kindergartens and elementary schools, academies and
colleges, universities and theological seminaries, and with a strong
emphasis on the education and training of the girls and women.[171]

[Illustration: GOSPEL SHIP “FUKUIN MARU,” AND Y.M.C.A. SUMMER SCHOOL,
DŌSHISHA, KYŌTO]

But Christianity in Japan is also philanthropic, as it should be, and
therein exposes clearly what Buddhism left undone. The latter was, as
has already been said, proportionately “kind to the brute and cruel
to man”; for it allowed humanity to suffer while it regarded animals
as “sacred.” Christianity, however, has not only its Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, but also its “Homes,” asylums,
hospitals, refuges,—for the poor, the neglected, the widow, the
fatherless, the sick, the insane, the outcast, the Magdalene, and the
worst criminal. All such institutions it is carrying on in Japan; and
most of them never existed there until Christians introduced them or
Christian teaching inspired them. This may be predicated even of the
Red Cross Society; for although the branch in Japan was first organized
as an independent association, yet the very fact that the need of such
a society was felt was due largely to Christian influence. Revenge and
“no quarter” were the doctrines of Old Japan; but New Japan, aroused
by the example of Christian nations, and inspired by the teachings of
the Bible, now heartily supports the Red Cross Society, a Christian
institution with a distinctively Christian banner.

When the forces that have made for true civilization and for
righteousness are figured out, it will be found that the work of the
Young Men’s Christian Association has been a very important factor.
In Japan, as elsewhere, that work is unusually successful in gaining
sympathy and forming a common platform on which all Christians
may unite in valuable work. It has there both city and student
associations, of which the latter are more numerous and powerful, but
the former are increasing in number and influence. The work there is
varied, as in other lands, and is constantly broadening out. The visits
of Mr. John R. Mott have been peculiarly beneficial to the student
class. In two special phases the work of the Young Men’s Christian
Association in Japan has been most helpful,—in the establishment of
Christian boarding-houses for young men in public schools, and in
securing for public high schools and colleges Christian young men from
America as teachers of English. And it is a matter of great rejoicing
to all interested in the welfare of the girls in the public schools,
and shops and factories,[172] of the large cities of Japan that Young
Women’s Christian Association work has been started.

The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and other Christian temperance
organizations are fighting the same battles in Japan as in America. The
old religions never made any attempt to check the tobacco, liquor, and
social evils; they seemed to assume such to be inevitable. Even now the
leadership in these social and moral reforms is almost solely in the
hands of Christians. By their untiring efforts the public sentiment
against these evils is rapidly growing, and various organizations, by
public meetings and pages of literature, are trying to lift the people
out of these “habits.” A bill prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors
was made a law by the Diet, and one prohibiting the sale of liquor to
minors is being pushed. By the indefatigable labors of a Methodist
missionary, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, and the Salvation
Army, some 14,000 girls have been enabled to free themselves from their
slavery in the brothels; some of these wicked resorts had to close up;
and public sentiment was so vehemently aroused against this evil that
the number of visitors to houses of ill-fame considerably decreased.
And it is Christian teaching that has disestablished concubinage and is
constantly working to purify the family life of Japan.

The Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavor, the Scripture Union,
and the Evangelical Alliance are other examples of interdenominational
institutions which are doing much to minimize sectarianism and remind
Japanese Christians that, in spite of minor differences, they ought to
be and are really “one.”

Indeed, the Japanese converts are naturally much less sectarian than
the missionaries, and can change their denominational affiliations
without difficulty. The Japanese Protestants are coming nearer and
nearer together by minimizing their differences and emphasizing
their correspondences. For instance, the innate courtesy of Japanese
Baptists makes them loath to insist on “close communion”; while
with the Presbyterians and other Pedobaptists, “infant baptism” is
unpopular. The Methodists, in their plan for a single church of all
their branches, had to choose an ambiguous term for the title, instead
of “Bishop,” of their chief official. The Friends cannot emphasize
their anti-military doctrine among a people liable to conscription;
and though High-Church Episcopal missionaries may be exclusive, their
Japanese believers enjoy co-operation with other Christians. There will
eventually be developed a “Japonicized Christianity.”

Christianity has already made an impression upon the commercial life
of New Japan. The tremendous development of industry, trade, and
commerce has required new business standards, and especially does it
demand honesty and integrity. It is not infrequent, therefore, for
companies and corporations to seek out young men trained in Christian
schools, because they are most likely to be actuated by high ideals.
The Sabbath, too, although Sunday is more a holiday than a holy day, is
also proving to be a boon in business and labor circles, and is coming
gradually to be observed more strictly. Christian socialism, too, is
not without its influence in Japan.

There are a few Japanese newspapers which are owned, managed, and
edited by Christians, and are working, in their way, to uphold
Christian institutions. They are also striving to introduce into
Japanese journalism higher ideals. There is a still larger number of
papers, whose managers and editors, though not professedly Christian,
favor Christianity, especially in its social and moral aspects, and
have, for instance, given a hearty support to the crusade against the
social evil. The influence of Christianity may also be seen in the
elevation of the tone of the Japanese press.

The impress of Christianity has also been felt even in the political
institutions of New Japan. The principle of constitutionalism found
no encouragement in the philosophy of Old Japan, but is the fruit of
Christian civilization. The doctrine of religious liberty, acknowledged
in the Constitution, is of Christian origin. The old idea of
impersonality, which recognized no value in the individual, but called
him or her a “thing,” could not live long after the Christian teachings
of individual worth, rights, and responsibility, and personal salvation
became prevalent. These points illustrate some indirect, but important,
results of Christianity in Japan.

There are also influential Christian men in public life. Every Diet
contains a disproportionately large number of Christians, who may
be counted upon on every occasion to stand up for right principles,
and most of whom are very influential. The late Speaker Kataoka and
Messrs. Ebara, Shimada, and Nemoto may be named as examples of Japanese
Christian men in politics. In army and navy circles, on the bench and
at the bar, in business, and in many other high positions, Christian
men are among the most prominent, and are found even in “Cæsar’s
household.”

Christianity is bound to become a greater power in Japan, but it
will be a Christianity modified by native ideas and influences. It
is the tendency of the Japanese less to originate than to imitate;
to adopt, but also to adapt and to simplify. They are not inclined
to metaphysical and theological discussions, and they care little
for Occidental and accidental denominations differentiated by
hair-splitting distinctions embodied in verbose creeds. They are,
therefore, desirous of uniting Japanese believers upon a simple
statement of the fundamental and essential truths of Christianity.
They need less of dogmas and rituals, and more of the spirit of Christ
in their lives. The people are superstitious and sensual, and need
intellectual and moral training. Superstition can be dissipated by
science, and sensuality can be conquered only by spirituality. The
great mass of the people are still sunk in comparative ignorance
and superstition, but are gradually being elevated by the spread of
knowledge. But the Japanese public-school education is one-sided
and imperfect, without a lofty and inspiring standard of morality.
Christian education supplies all needs by developing a well-rounded and
balanced intellect, and furnishing the highest and purest ideals of
life. Theology is not wanted or needed in Japan so much as a practical
and spiritual Christianity.

The condition of Christianity in Japan at the present time is
quite like that of Christianity in the Roman Empire in the days
of Constantine, who, himself a nominal Christian, “established”
Christianity as the official faith of his empire. And yet, as Uhlhorn
says,[173] “the ancient religion was still deeply rooted in the manners
and customs, in the domestic and the public life.” And this situation
Uhlhorn represents by the following illustration:—

 “In this new city on the Bosphorus, Constantine set up a colossal
 statue of himself. It was an ancient statue of Apollo. Its head was
 struck off and a head of Constantine was substituted. Also, inside the
 statue was placed a piece of what was supposed to be the holy cross.
 This is a kind of mirror of the age. A heathen body with a Christian
 head and Christian life at the heart.”

This is a fair illustration of the condition of affairs
in Japan at the beginning of the twentieth century. There is a heathen
body, for the great mass of the Japanese (many millions) still cling
to the old faiths. But there is a Christian head, because the leaders
of New Japan are favorable to Christianity and its institutions, and
are reconstructing the nation largely on Christian lines and with
Christian ideals. And there is Christian life at the heart, for it is
that life, as shown in the preceding pages, which is inspiring Japan
with new ideas and ideals. And when we take into consideration how much
Christianity has done for Japan in less than fifty years, we feel quite
warranted in prophesying that within this twentieth century Japan will
become practically a Christian nation.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  Those specially interested should not fail to consult “The Gist of
  Japan” (Peery); “Christianity in Modern Japan” (Clement); “Japan and
  its Regeneration” (Cary); “Dux Christus: An Outline Study of Japan”;
  “The Religions of Japan,” “Verbeck of Japan,” and “A Maker of the
  New Orient” (all by Griffis); and “Sunrise in the Sunrise Kingdom”
  (De Forest). The “Proceedings” of the Osaka and the Tōkyō Missionary
  Conferences, and Ritter’s “History of Protestant Missions in Japan”
  are very valuable. “From Far Formosa” (Mackay) tells of wonderful
  pioneer work there. For current news, the “Japan Evangelist,” a
  monthly magazine published by the Methodist Publishing House, Tōkyō,
  is the best.

  The pamphlet entitled “The Christian Movement [in its Relation to the
  New Life] in Japan,” issued annually by the Standing Committee of
  Coöperating Christian Missions, is most instructive.

  On early Catholicism, the “History of Japan,” by Murdoch and
  Yamagata, is invaluable.

  The authoritative work is Cary’s “History of Christianity in Japan”
  (2 vols.).



CHAPTER XX

TWENTIETH CENTURY JAPAN

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Japan in 1801 and 1901; eras; Emperor
 and Court; Shōgun.—Sealed and wide-open Japan.—Travel and
 barriers.—Social changes.—_Samurai._—Ideals of 1801 and
 1901.—Costume.—Architecture.—Diet.—Education.—Newspapers.—Manufactures.
 —Status of woman.—Christianity.—Permanent transformations.—Prophecy.


In order to understand as clearly as possible the progress made by New
Japan during the past fifty years, it will be profitable to institute
some comparisons between conditions then and now. As a matter of fact
the greater part of this wonderful advancement was achieved during the
last third of the nineteenth century; but it suits our purpose better
to compare 1801 and 1901, the first years of the two centuries. Thus
can we appreciate fully with how much difference in conditions and
prospects Japan has entered upon the twentieth century than she entered
upon the nineteenth century.

By the Japanese calendar, the year 1801 was the first of the Kyōwa
Era, a short and uneventful period; but the year 1901 was the
thirty-fourth of the Meiji Era, or Period of Enlightened Rule,—a most
appropriate name for the first era of the New Empire.

The Emperor in 1801 had been known before his ascension of the throne
as Prince Kanin Kanehito (from whom the present Prince Kanin has
descended); but he is now known by his posthumous title of Kōkaku. He
is said to have been “a sovereign of great sagacity”; but he was, as we
know, only a nominal ruler, like the fainéant kings of France, while
the actual authority was held, and the real power was exercised, by a
Mayor of the Palace, a Shōgun of the Tokugawa family. The Emperor was
“powerless and lived in splendid poverty.”

The Imperial Court was organized in Kyōto “with all pomp and
circumstance; it had its Ministers, Vice-Ministers, and subordinate
officials; it had its five principal, as well as more than a hundred
ordinary, Court nobles; but the sovereign’s actual power did not
extend beyond the direction of matters relating to rank and etiquette,
the classification of shrine-keepers, priests and priestesses, and
professionals of various kinds,—in a word, actual functions of no
material importance whatever.” In an absolute empire Kōkaku was Emperor
in name and fame only.

“He was practically confined in sacred seclusion; his person must
neither touch the earth nor be polluted by contact with common mortals.
The most scrupulous care was exercised about his dress, food, even the
very dishes themselves; he was, to the common people, a real invisible
deity. It is reported that the Emperors of the olden days must sit
motionless upon the throne for a certain number of hours each day, in
order that the empire might have peace. Their persons were sacred, so
that nobody was permitted to lay hands thereon; therefore their hair
and nails might have grown to an unseemly length, had they not been
clandestinely trimmed during sleeping hours. The dishes from which
they had partaken of food were forthwith dashed in pieces, in order
that nobody else might ever use them. And the very rice that they ate
was picked over kernel by kernel, in order that no broken or imperfect
grain might find lodgment in the Imperial stomach.” It is also said
that no one was allowed to speak the name of the Emperor or to write in
full the characters of his name; in the latter case, for clearness, at
least one stroke must be omitted from each character.

But the late Emperor, whose name was Mutsuhito, was an entirely
different personage. He did not live in seclusion, but frequently
showed himself in public to his subjects, who could look upon his
face without fear of being smitten with death. He was, none the less,
revered and loved by all the people, and was the real ruler of the
land. He had, however, voluntarily surrendered to the people some of
his prerogatives, so that the Japanese to-day enjoy constitutional
government, parliamentary and representative institutions, and local
self-government. And in 1901 the Empire, instead of being divided
up, as in 1801, into about 300 feudal fiefs, in each of which a
_Daimyō_ was more or less a law unto himself, is divided into about
50 Prefectures, Imperial Cities and Territories, in each of which the
people have more or less a voice in the administration.

The Empress Dowager, too, although brought up and educated in the
old-fashioned way, had yet adopted modern ideas with great ease. She
did not have shaven eyebrows and blackened teeth, like her predecessor
of 1801. She often appears in public, and continues a generous
patron of female education, the Red Cross Society, and artistic and
philanthropic enterprises.

The Shōgun of 1801 was Iyenari, who exercised that authority for about
half a century. He lived in glory and splendor in Yedo (now Tōkyō)
with his vassals around him. Theoretically he was only Generalissimo
under the Emperor, and, as a matter of policy, kept up the practice of
occasional visits to Kyōto, where he humbled himself before his nominal
superior; but, as the highest administrative officer, he was ruler in
act and fact. Very appropriately has he been called “the Emperor’s
vassal jailer.” During his Shōgunate “the military class remained
perfectly tranquil, and the feudal system attained its highest stage of
efficiency.”

In 1901 there was no Shōgun; the last of the Tokugawa dynasty
abdicated in 1867, and has spent most of his life since then in
retirement in Mito and Shizuoka. He is now living quietly in Tōkyō,
without much regard, apparently, to the new-fangled ways of these
times, except that he is reported to ride a bicycle!

In 1801 Japan was still a sealed country, but not hermetically,
because there was one chink at Nagasaki, where occasional intercourse
was allowed with the Chinese and the Dutch. Not only were foreigners
forbidden to enter, but natives were also forbidden to leave, this
“holy land.” Already, however, efforts were being made spasmodically to
break down the policy of seclusion, with its two phases of exclusion
and inclusion.

In 1901, however, thousands of foreigners of many nationalities
travelled and resided in Japan; and thousands of Japanese were
travelling and residing in many parts of the globe. Foreign vessels,
flying many different flags, freely entered the harbors of Japan;
and Japanese ships conducted freight and passenger services to Asia,
Australasia, America, and Europe. The figures of the small amount of
the foreign trade of Nagasaki in 1801 are not at hand; but the exports
and imports of Japan for 1901 amounted respectively to 252,349,543
_yen_ and 255,816,645 _yen_.

A Japanese of 1801 would have travelled, if he were one of the common
people, by foot, and, if he were of sufficient rank or wealth, by
_norimono_, or _kago_, or on horseback. The Japanese of 1901 might
continue to travel by foot, and, in mountainous districts, might still
use the _kago_; but they might also travel by _jinrikisha_, horse-car,
stage, steam-car, steamboat, horse and carriage, electric car, and
bicycle. The letter of 1801 was despatched by courier or relays of
couriers; that of 1901 by mail, and communication by telegraph and
telephone was becoming more and more common. There were over 3,600
miles of railway, 9,500 miles of telegraph, and, in Tōkyō alone,
over 6,000 telephones. An electric railway was actually disturbing
and desecrating the hallowed precincts of Kyōto, once sacred to the
Emperor. And even His Majesty’s Palace in Tōkyō had been put into
telephonic and telegraphic communication with the rest of the city and
even of the world.

Nor was travel throughout the empire itself free and unimpeded to all
in 1801. The country was split up into feudal fiefs, of which each lord
was intensely jealous of other lords and had to act on the defensive.
Every traveller was under considerable surveillance, and had to be able
to give a strict account of himself; and many “barriers” were erected
where travellers were challenged by guards. The large places where the
lords lived were walled towns, entered by gates carefully guarded by
sentinels. In Kyōto and Yedo the palaces of the Emperor and the Shōgun
were protected by moats and gateway. But in 1901 those historic castles
and gateways had mostly crumbled into ruins or been destroyed in war,
or demolished by the hands of coolies working under the direction of
the Board of Public Works or the Bureau of Street Improvements.

We cannot refrain from referring more particularly to the great
change that has been effected in the whole constitution of Japanese
society. In 1801, below the Court nobles and the feudal lords, there
were four classes of society,—the knight, the farmer, the mechanic,
and the merchant, besides the outcasts. In 1901, below the nobility,
there were only two classes,—the gentry and the common people; and
the distinction between these two is one of name only. In official
records and on certain occasions the registration of the nominal rank
is necessary; but in actual life few questions are asked about a man’s
standing, and merit finds its reward.

[Illustration: FOUR GATES: PALACE, TŌKYŌ; PALACE, KYŌTO; SAKURADA,
TŌKYŌ; NIJŌ CASTLE, KYŌTO]

In 1801 the _samurai_ (knight) was the _beau ideal_ of the Japanese.
His courage was unimpeachable; he was the model, not only of a warrior,
but also of a gentleman, and before him the common people had to bow
their heads to the ground. But now the sword which was his “soul” is a
curio, the bow and arrows are also curiosities, and the panoply either
hangs rusty in a storehouse or is offered for sale by a dealer in
second-hand goods. The _samurai_ is now only an historical character;
and when feudalism was abolished, many an individual of that class
fell into a pauper’s grave, or, forced into unaccustomed manual
labor, learned the culinary art, and entered service in the despised
foreigner’s kitchen!

Indeed, although the soldier is still highly honored, and deeds
worthy of the best of the old _samurai_ are still performed,[174] the
merchant, formerly despised because he bartered for profit, has risen
in esteem and become one of the most important factors in Japanese
society and civilization. The age of 1801 was feudal and æsthetic;
the age of 1901, democratic and commercial. In 1801, the swords;
in 1901, the _soroban_ (abacus): in 1801, the castle; in 1901, the
counting-house: in 1801, _bushi_ (knights); in 1901 budgets.

In 1801 the Japanese wore nothing but their own national costume,
with strictly prescribed uniforms for every occasion. In hot weather
a scarcity or utter lack of clothing was the prevailing style. In
1901 the latter style, though no longer conventional, prevailed
under certain limitations,—when and where the police were not strict
constructionists of the law! And in 1901 there was a great variety of
styles, ranging from pure native to pure foreign, with all kinds of
fits and misfits and ludicrous combinations.

Japanese houses of 1801 and 1901 show some differences. The native
style has been more or less modified by foreign architecture. Glass,
of course, is largely taking the place of paper for doors and windows;
carpeted floors are often preferred to matted floors; stoves, chairs,
tables, lamps, and bedsteads are coming more and more into use; and
brick and stone are more largely employed in the construction of
residences, offices, and stores.

The diet of the Japanese has also changed considerably within 100
years. Whereas in 1801 they were practically vegetarians, in 1901 they
had learned to eat and drink anything and everything. Foreign cooking
had become very popular and also cheap; in many Japanese families
foreign food was eaten at least once a day.

A Japanese student of 1801 was compelled to study at night by the dull
light of a pith wick floating in vegetable oil, or by the fitful flame
of fifty fireflies imprisoned in a small bamboo cage. The student of
1901 burned midnight oil from Russia or America, or studied by the
aid of gas or electric light. The studies in 1801 were confined to
Japanese and Chinese classics. It was considered practically a crime
to seek learning outside of Japan and China, but in 1901 the studies
included the whole range of Oriental and Occidental learning; and one
school in Tōkyō tried to attract students by assuming the name “School
of One Hundred Branches.” And while in 1801 Dutch books were read only
by a very select few, and mostly in secret at the risk of one’s life,
in 1901 it was possible to find readers of Dutch, English, French,
German, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Sanskrit, and
other books. In 1801 education was practically confined to the priestly
and military classes, but in 1901 there were no such limitations, and
elementary education was made free.

In 1801 there were no newspapers in Japan; in 1901 papers and
magazines galore, printed in almost all parts of the empire. Indeed,
in 1801, books were either copied laboriously by hand or printed from
wood-cuts; but in 1901 all the modern improvements in printing were
utilized. Moreover, fonts of type of many languages might be found; and
in fact, anything needed in the printing line could be manufactured at
the Tsukiji Type Foundry, Tōkyō.

The mention of this foundry suggests also the immense number of
manufacturing plants that were to be found in Japan in 1901 against
none in 1801. Cotton, woollen, and paper mills, iron foundries,
electrical apparatus manufactories, engine works, steamships, docks are
only a few examples of the development along this line. And in Tōkyō
the grounds which in 1801 were entirely devoted to the æsthetic gardens
of the Prince of Mito are now partially given over to the practical but
sooty purposes of an arsenal.

There is a great difference also between the Japanese woman of 1801
and her descendant of 1901. The former had practically no rights that
her husband was bound to respect; she must be respectfully obedient to
her husband and his parents, and she could be divorced at will. But,
according to the new codes which went into effect in 1899, “a woman can
now become the head of a family and exercise authority as such; she
can inherit and own property and manage it herself; she can exercise
parental authority; she can act as guardian or executor and has a voice
in family councils.” Thus her legal and social status has greatly
improved.

In 1801 Christianity was under the ban of a strict prohibition,
publicly advertised on the official bulletin-boards; and although
believers in secret were transmitting the faith which had been secretly
handed down to them, it was supposed that “the corrupt sect” had
been wiped out. But in 1901 there were more than 120,000 enrolled
believers, who represented a Christian community of about twice that
number. Christian preachers and churches were all over the empire,
and a Gospel ship was cruising about in the Inland Sea. According to
the Constitution, religious belief is free; so that Christianity was
becoming more and more a power in the land and wielding in society an
influence that cannot be measured. And in 1901 Japanese troops, in
alliance with those of nations of Christendom, had rescued Christian
missionaries and Chinese converts from the fury of mobs and soldiery,
and Christian missionaries, driven out of China, had found safe and
comfortable places of refuge in Japan.

Such comparisons might be carried out with regard to many other
items and in greater detail; but these will, perhaps, suffice as
illustrations of the extent to which Japan was transformed during the
nineteenth century. In some points, of course, especially in modern
inventions, there has been no greater change than in Occidental
nations during the same period. But it should be carefully borne
in mind that these transformations, in geographical, agricultural,
mineral, industrial, commercial, manufacturing, social, economic,
political, legal, educational, moral, and religious affairs, so far as
they have gone, are not temporary or superficial, but permanent and
thorough; there is to be no retrogression. Japan has deliberately and
firmly started out, not only to march along with the other so-called
civilized nations, but also to contribute toward further progress
in civilization. The only question is, What will be the record of
Twentieth Century Japan?

The full answer to this question we must pass on to the man who one
hundred years hence may write on “Japan in 1901 and 2001.” But though
we do not lay claim to any special gift of prophecy, we venture to
indulge in some general predictions which no one, to-day at least,
can challenge. We feel sure, for instance, that Twentieth Century
Japan will keep apace with the progress of the world in material
civilization. We doubt not that during this century the Japanese
people, becoming better fitted, will gradually be admitted to a greater
share in the administration of the government, local and national. We
feel quite certain that the social conditions of Japan will be greatly
ameliorated, and education become very widely diffused, so that an
immense intellectual improvement will be attained during the next
hundred years. We also dare to predict that by 2001 Shintō will have
entirely disappeared as a religion, Buddhism will have lost its hold
upon the people, and Japan will have become _practically_ a Christian
nation.



CHAPTER XXI

THE MISSION OF JAPAN

 OUTLINE OF TOPICS: Aims and ambitions of Japan.—Grand park.—Commercial
 centre.—Advantageous position.—Leader in civilization.—Example
 of civilized nation.—Transmitter of Western civilization.—Japan
 and Korea.—Japan and China.—Fuchow, Yangtse Valley, and
 Manchuria.—Japanese leaders of Chinese.—Dr. Hirth on China and
 Japan.—Japanese invasion of China.—Siam and Japan.—The United States
 a Pacific Power.—A complete Anglo-Japanese Alliance.—Russia and
 Japan.—Two streams of civilization.—New Japan egotistic.—Prospects of
 Japan.—Confidence in Japan.—Bibliography.


It is now appropriate to inquire what is apparently the mission of
Japan in the world. Since even much less powerful nations have played
most important parts on the stage of the world’s history, it is simply
inconceivable that Japan should have attained in so brief a period
such an eminent position as a world-power without having some special
mission to perform and some contribution to make to the sum total of
what is called civilization. And in considering this topic of the
mission of Japan, it may be well to ascertain what are the aims and
aspirations of the Japanese, because it is usually along these lines
that a nation, as well as an individual, achieves success. Let us then
permit Japanese themselves to answer largely our queries concerning the
_rôle_ which is to be theirs “in the great world-drama that continues
unendingly, like a Chinese play, in the Far East.” And the opinions
which are now to be presented, even though the individuals themselves
are not, in every case, the most prominent personages that might have
been selected, nevertheless fairly represent Japanese public opinion.

One[175] says: “Japan is especially favored by nature with beauty
and picturesqueness of scenery and a healthful climate, and has been
appropriately called the ‘Paradise of the East.’ We shall turn this
country into a grand park of the nations, and draw pleasure-seekers
from all parts of the world. We shall build magnificent hotels and
establish excellent clubs, in most splendid style, to receive the
royal visitors of Europe and the millionaires of America.” And while
the objection has been raised that this is not “a very lofty _rôle_
for Japan,” it is claimed that “it is seen to be about the _rôle_
that France, the great nation of artists, is content to play in
Europe—making herself infinitely beautiful and infinitely charming.”
And certainly to minister artistically to the enjoyment of residents
and visitors by making the country as pleasant and delightful as
possible is an aim that accords well with the naturally æsthetic tastes
of the Japanese people. Therefore, concerning success in this endeavor
there cannot be the slightest doubt.

That _rôle_ is not, however, purely æsthetic, because it contemplates
the mercenary advantages to be reaped from the expected throngs of
pleasure-seekers, and is, therefore, also practical. And the same
person makes another suggestion, wholly practical and pecuniary, as
follows:—

 “Japan is geographically situated in an advantageous position, as at
 the centre of the world’s commercial routes. China will be the future
 market of the world, and Japan will receive the mercantile vessels
 fitted to be despatched to all parts of the earth. Japan should
 provide herself with extensive docks at the various ports of the
 island on the route of the mercantile vessels, to give them shelter
 and, if needed, necessary repairs and cleaning, and eventually supply
 fuel and water.”

We have already referred, in the closing paragraphs of the first
chapter, to the physiographical advantages of Japan, but we are
impelled to dwell more at length on the subject. A noted Japanese[176]
has emphasized the point with the following suggestions:

 “To all appearances, the seas about Japan and China will be the
 future theatre of the Far East. The Philippines have been reduced to
 a province of the United States. China, separated from us only by a
 very narrow strip of water, is offering every promise of becoming a
 great resource open to the world of the twentieth century. The Siberia
 railway has been opened to traffic; and the construction of a canal
 across Central America is expected to be finished before long.... As
 for fuel, our supply of coal from the mines of Hokkaidō and Kyūshiu is
 so abundant that the surplus not required for our own consumption is
 exported largely into various parts of the East, where no productive
 coal mines have been found except a very few ones of poor quality....

 “Taking all these [things] into account, it is not too much to say
 that the future situation of Japan will be that of a central station
 of various water passages,—a situation most conducive to the good of
 our country; and that, numerous as the attractive places of historical
 interest and natural beauty are, it is chiefly from our excellently
 advantageous position, a connecting link common to the three chains of
 water passage to and from Europe, America, and Asia, that we shall be
 able to obtain the largest share of the riches of the nations of the
 world.”

With reference to the success of Japan in such a purpose
as this, there can be very little doubt; for the natural advantages are
so great that they require comparatively little improvement.

But, besides this aim of commercial prosperity, there is a higher
ambition. One writer[177] says:—

 “Japan’s mission at this juncture would be to act as the leader to the
 Asiatic countries in introducing modern civilization: China and Korea,
 for instance, can learn about civilization much faster and easier than
 from the countries in Europe and America, for they have common systems
 of letters and to a certain extent of ideas.”

Prof K. Ukita[178] makes the following suggestion:

 “It is the mission of Japan to set up an example of a civilized
 and independent national state for her Asiatic neighbors, and then
 to make a confederation of all the Asiatic nations on the basis of
 international law; just as it is the mission of the United States of
 America to form one vast pan-American Union of all the republics of
 the new hemisphere, and thus to hasten on the progress toward the
 organization of the whole world.”

Again we quote from the editor of the “Taiyō” (Sun), as follows:—

 “It is our duty to transmit the essence of Occidental civilization to
 our neighbors, as better success may be realized by so doing than by
 introducing there the new institutions directly from the West. The
 present state of things in China does not allow her to appreciate
 fully the ideas of Westerners, more so because their fundamental
 conception of morals is at variance with that of Occidentals.
 But Japan has every facility to win the confidence of China, in
 consideration of its geographical situation and of its literary
 affinity. The valor, discipline, and order of our army have already
 gained the confidence and respect of the Chinese, and it now remains
 for us to guide them to higher possibilities with enlightened thoughts
 and ideas. Such a work cannot be accomplished in a day; it will
 require years of perseverance and toil.”

Now, it may be profitable to ascertain to what extent Japan is
fulfilling her self-appointed but natural mission to uplift her
neighbors and kindred in Eastern Asia. In Korea, for instance, what is
the scope of Japanese influence? In that peninsula there are thousands
of Japanese, by whom almost all the important enterprises of the
country are managed. Of the foreign trade of Korea, by far the largest
per cent of both exports and imports is in connection with Japan;
while the trade of Russia with Korea is positively insignificant. The
principal articles of export to Japan are agricultural products, while
the imports from Japan are chiefly manufactured goods. At every open
port of Korea there is a Japanese post and telegraph office, through
which alone can communication be had with foreign countries. As Korea
is almost wholly destitute of shipping, her coasting trade is chiefly
carried on by Japanese vessels, which also furnish almost all the
means of trade and travel abroad. In railways, too, the Japanese have
largest control; and their banks are strong and prosperous. Fisheries
and mining likewise furnish employment for Japanese, who also carry on
numerous miscellaneous business enterprises.

When we pass on to China, we find most astonishing results, a full
treatment of which would require a volume, so that we must be content
with a few typical examples. In Fuchow, for instance, in the six years
since a Japanese consul first landed there, the number of Japanese
residents had increased from 8 to 70, and the number of Formosan
natives, now naturalized Japanese, who were staying there, was more
than 160. The Ōsaka Shōsen Kwaisha[179] has a branch office in Fuchow;
and the Formosan Bank has sent there a special commissioner. In Amoy
also, on account of its proximity to Formosa, Japanese influence is
growing.

The great increase of Japanese enterprise on the Yangtse River during
recent years deserves a paragraph by itself. There are several Japanese
lines of steamers, besides special vessels for the coal and iron
trade. “Side by side with this development of carrying facilities
many Japanese, in the capacity of merchants, Government employes or
projectors, may be seen travelling in the Yangtse Valley; and further
the number of persons engaged in the translation of Japanese books into
Chinese has increased in an extraordinary degree.... Nothing is more
remarkable than the popularity enjoyed by Japanese things and Japanese
subjects.”

In view of the complications with Russia, it is well to call attention
to the fact that Northern China, especially Manchuria, is most
important to Japan from the commercial point of view. The trade with
Dalny alone is from 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 _yen_ per year, and that
with all Manchuria amounts to about 20,000,000 _yen_ annually. It is
perfectly natural, therefore, that Japan should object to continued
Russian occupation, from which she has already suffered by direct and
indirect interference, and that she should demand a fair field with
“open doors.”

From such instances, of which more might be cited, it is apparent that
Japan is doing her duty in the way of helping China to the benefits
of material civilization. But her influence is being exerted for good
on higher planes. For, as the editor of the “Japan Mail” observes,
“every Japanese subject employed in China in whatever capacity will be
a centre for diffusing the light of liberalism”; and “the Chinese are
apparently to be led along their new path by the Japanese,” who “have
some degree of distant kinship with the Chinese.”

The words of Dr. Hirth will add weight because he is, perhaps, the most
eminent Chinese scholar in the country and holds the professorship
of Chinese in Columbia University, New York City. He spoke as
follows:[180]—

 “No capable observer of events in China since the Imperial Court
 returned to Peking can doubt that the government has decided to
 adopt the policy of Japan, which is to take the methods of western
 civilization for their models. In directing the new movement in China,
 Japan is taking the lead over other foreign nations, and this, it is
 asserted, is due to her superior command of the language.

 “Moreover, every educated Japanese is imbued with the ideas prevalent
 in Chinese literature, religious and political, and hence he has a
 different standing in the eyes of the Chinese from that of Americans
 and Europeans. China has thus placed the work of educating the rising
 generation in the hands of the Japanese as being less likely to
 destroy the old knowledge while familiarizing the students with the
 advantages of the new.

 “A National University has been established by the Emperor at Peking,
 which it is calculated will be the model for educational institutions
 all over the country. Recently a Japanese professor has been selected
 to draft a new code of laws for the empire. The reason why a Japanese
 was selected for this work in preference to an equally learned German,
 American, or Englishman, is because men who are both willing and
 capable of making due allowance for traditional prejudices will never
 arise from a country where the study of Chinese institutions is so
 much in its infancy as with all of us, except Japan.”

The present peaceable invasion of China by Japanese, “not this time
with guns for weapons, but with ideas and educational influences,” is
along these seven lines:[181]—

 “1. The Agricultural College, established some years ago at Wuchang by
 the Viceroy Chang Chih-tung, and managed for some time by an expert
 American, has now been given over to Japanese management.

 “2. The military school in Hangchau is taught wholly by Japanese.

 “3. A large amount of translation work is done by the Japanese.

 “4. Many Chinese students have been sent by Chang Chih-tung during
 recent years to be educated in Japanese schools for Chinese government
 service.

 “5. More than one large and influential Chinese newspaper is owned and
 edited by Japanese, one of which is an especially strong advocate of
 closer union between the two great nations of the East.

 “6. Nearly 100 Japanese students are in attendance at school in
 Shanghai, studying Chinese and English with a view to positions of
 usefulness in China.

 “7. A large and increasing number of translation societies are being
 organized in Shanghai, the principal object of which is to get into
 circulation books on Western learning. The significant fact is
 that the large majority of them are translated from the Japanese
 rather than European languages, because, as they say, the Japanese
 have already selected the best, and they wish to profit by their
 experience. Books on Political Economy, General Science, Agriculture,
 Pedagogics, Ancient and Current History are now commonly on sale
 in Chinese bookstores, most of which are advertised as having been
 adapted from the Japanese.”

There is yet another country which is feeling the influence of Japan;
and that is Siam. No doubt much of this increased interest in “things
Japanese” may be attributed to the recent visit of the Siamese Crown
Prince to Japan. He is having a Japanese building constructed for
himself; and the king is to have a Japanese garden and house added to
the grounds of his palace. The trade between Japan and Siam is not
yet very extensive;[182] but it is capable of considerable expansion.
Siamese boys and girls have begun to resort to Japan for educational
advantages; so that, in more senses than one, Japan is coming to be the
teacher and leader of Siam.

But there is another phase of the Far Eastern situation that demands
close attention. The United States has definite and direct interests of
several kinds in Japan, Korea, China, and Siam; and she must maintain
these at all hazards. Through the possession of Hawaii, Guam, and
particularly the Philippines, she has become a Pacific Power, more than
ever concerned, and directly, in Oriental politics. The advent of the
United States into that field was hailed with joy by the Japanese, who
have the utmost confidence in our international policy.

In view of the fact, therefore, that the United States, by virtue
of providential necessity, must be reckoned as a factor in Oriental
politics, and cannot herself ignore such responsibilities, there
is only one course open, only one policy to be pursued. It is most
clearly our duty as a nation (passively, if possible, but actively,
if necessary) to support the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in its efforts
in behalf of the nations of Eastern Asia. The union of the greatest
nations of Europe, America, and Asia in a complete Anglo-Japanese
Alliance would make a “triple alliance” practically invincible.

There are two rival interests contending for mastery on the other
shore of the Pacific Ocean,—Russia and Japan. Toward the former we must
feel gratitude for her attitude toward us when our Union was in utmost
peril; but that sentiment is overbalanced by other considerations.
Toward the latter we have an imperative duty, as toward a _protégé_,
because it was America who started Japan on her present career and
must acknowledge the responsibility to assist her in every laudable
purpose. And certainly her aims in the Far East coincide with ours and
with the dictates of civilization. The supremacy of Japan in Eastern
Asia means far more for America and American institutions than does the
domination of Russia. Japan to-day enjoys rights unknown in Russia:
social freedom, political privileges, representative institutions,
local self-government, intellectual liberty, freedom of assembly and
of the press, and religious liberty. Japan is already far in advance
of Russia and, in many respects abreast of Germany, in civilization.
And, as “Japan holds the key of the Far Eastern position,” she is our
natural ally. _Dai Nippon banzai_—“Long live Great Japan.”

But let us now revert again to the Japanese writer quoted near the
close of the first chapter. With a reminder of the ever westward course
of empire, he pens a paragraph so bold and suggestive that it is worth
transcribing:[183]—

 “Two streams of civilization flowed in opposite directions when
 mankind descended from their primitive homes on the table-land of Iran
 or America. That towards the west passed through Babylon, Phœnicia,
 Greece, Rome, Germany, England, and culminated in America, while
 that through the east travelled through India, Thibet, and China,
 culminating in the Manchoo Court of Peking. The moral world is also
 a magnet with its two opposite poles on the opposite banks of the
 Pacific, the democratic, aggressive, inductive America, and the
 imperial, conservative, and deductive China. There have been constant
 attempts for the union of these magnetic currents.... Grander tasks
 await the young Japan, who has the best of Europe and the best of Asia
 at her command. At her touch the circuit is completed, and the healthy
 fluid shall overflow the earth!”

 In fact, it seems not improbable that the nation which, having from
 ancient times imbibed and assimilated the elements of Oriental
 civilization, has been swallowing and digesting Occidental
 civilization, may produce a new and strong tissue. It is, therefore,
 argued with no little force that “to reconcile the East with the West:
 to be the advocate of the East, and the harbinger of the West: this we
 believe to be the mission which Japan is called upon to fulfil.”

 To most persons, undoubtedly, this conception of the future of Japan
 appears to be teeming with national vanity. And, indeed, it cannot be
 denied that New Japan is extremely egotistic. She views with evident
 self-gratulation the astonishing progress she has made, and believes
 herself capable of even more wonderful transformations. And surely,
 when we contemplate the history of the past fifty years, and consider
 the remarkable facility with which Japan has metamorphosed herself,
 we need not wonder that she is confident or even boastful. To those
 conversant with this people, their capabilities, and possibilities,
 the above forecast of Japan’s future seems to photograph, with some
 exaggerations, the natural and not altogether improper self-confidence
 and reliance of an able, growing, and independent nation, which has
 shown an inexplicable power of assimilating the various and diverse
 elements of civilization. Even a foreigner has so much confidence in
 the grand future of Japan that he expressed himself in the “Atlantic
 Monthly” (June, 1892) in the following strong language:—

 “In bringing to pass the fusion of eastern and western types, which
 ... shall create in both hemispheres a far more rounded civilization
 than either has ever known, Japan has the inestimable privilege
 of becoming our most alert pioneer. Through her temperament, her
 individuality, her deeper insight into the secrets of the East, her
 ready divining of the powers of the West, ... it may be decreed in the
 secret council chambers of destiny that on her shores shall be first
 created that new latter-day type of civilized man which shall prevail
 throughout the world for the next thousand years.”

But while we may not, perhaps, be fully warranted in such sanguine
expectations, we cannot help being impressed with the fact that the
prospects of Japan are unusually bright. She slept for 250 years while
the Occident was moving rapidly onward in the path of civilization, and
she must now hasten to catch up. But she can avoid the pitfalls into
which the others, now and then, here and there, have fallen, and by
which they have been delayed. She can profit by the mistakes, by the
costly experiences, of those who preceded her along the rough road.
She must move quickly to make up for lost time, but not too rapidly;
she must “make haste slowly.” She can never go back, except to ruin
and death. She has stepped into the path of progress forever. She must
discard all things, whether manners, customs, letters, political forms,
superstitions, moulds of thought, or anything else which tends to
retard her onward movements. But it is sincerely to be hoped that even
the demands of modern progress will allow her to retain much of that
grace and charm, of that quaint simplicity, of that light-hearted and
merry nature, all of which characterize the Japanese.

We believe in Japan. We are confident that she has powers, both patent
and latent, which will enable her to achieve still greater successes
than she has yet accomplished. We have had our “blue spells,” when, for
this or that reason, we felt discouraged over the apparent failure of
some movement for reform; but in most instances we have eventually seen
success crown the effort. With reference to political affairs F. V.
Dickins has well expressed it: “There is a silent strength underlying
the sound and fury of Japanese politics which will enable the country
to weather much worse storms than any that threaten it.”[184] Therefore
we reiterate that we have confidence in the future of Japan and the
Japanese. We repeat that their achievements up to date are a guarantee
of continued success in the future. We dare prophesy that they will
yet display wonderful transformations in their development. We feel
perfectly warranted in applying Vergil’s line,—

  _Hos successus alit; possunt, quia posse videntur_,

which Conington translates into two verses,—

  “These bring success their zeal to fan,
  THEY CAN BECAUSE THEY THINK THEY CAN.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  “The Awakening of Japan” (Okakura); “The White Peril in the Far East”
  (Gulick); “Dai Nippon” (Dyer), chap. xix.; “The Spirit of the Orient”
  (Knox); and “The Future of Japan” (Watson).

[Illustration: THE NAVAL HERO OF THE WAR
ADMIRAL TŌGŌ]



THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR


The war between Japan and Russia was inevitable, because, as already
pointed out in this volume,[185] the two countries represented
different and naturally hostile interests. Ever since Russia, shut out
from an open port on the European or Western Asiatic seaboard, began to
spread eastward through Asia to seek an outlet into the Pacific Ocean,
it had been inevitable that the two powers would some day come into
collision. And it can be confidently affirmed that the Russians did
nothing, while Japan had done much, to avert the conflict. Russia not
infrequently committed overt acts to provoke Japan, and had generally
treated the latter in an overbearing and insolent manner.

In 1875, Japan was forced to give up Sakhalin for the bleak and barren
Kurile Islands. It was just twenty years later (1895) that Russia
committed her most unjust act of interference and provocation. Japan,
after her successful conflict with China, by the treaty of Shimonoseki,
had obtained the cession of the Liaotung Peninsula, of which Port
Arthur was then the most important port. “Hardly was the ink dry on
it [treaty] before the three great European powers—Russia, France,
and Germany—stepped in, and, in order to justify their interference,
declared that any holding of Manchurian territory by Japan would
constitute a menace to the peace of Asia.”[186] Japan, exhausted by
her first foreign war under the new _régime_, was in no position to
offer any opposition to three of the greatest World Powers, when
they tendered her kindly(?) advice. The only two powers who might
have assisted her against this combination were neither sufficiently
interested nor far-sighted enough to interfere; and they (Great Britain
and the United States) kept silent. Therefore, Japan had nothing to do
but to submit and accept a monetary consideration for giving up her
claim to the Liaotung Peninsula.

This in itself was not a _casus belli_, but it was enough to arouse
to almost fever-heat the excitement of an intensely patriotic and
naturally militant nation. The Government was able to hold in check
the indignant people; but nothing could prevent the development of a
not unnatural desire for revenge. From that time it was definitely
and positively known that a war with Russia was inevitable in the
not-distant future; and calmly and carefully the Japanese went to work
to prepare themselves for that conflict. It is not necessary to go into
the details of that preparation, the thoroughness of which has been
surprising the civilized world.

But even then war might have been averted, for the spirit of revenge
would have faded away in the multitude of other interests and
sentiments that have been pressing upon Japan’s attention within the
past decade. Indeed, during the Boxer troubles of 1900 and 1901 in
China, when the troops of Japan were marching, in company with those of
Russia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the United States, _et al._, to
the relief of the beleaguered foreigners in Peking, it almost seemed
like a harbinger of continued peace in the Far East. But this harmony
was only apparent, not real,—only temporary, not permanent.

In fact, it was that very campaign which enabled Russia to complete
her practical possession of Manchuria. She had, in the meantime,
obtained from China a lease of that very territory which she had forced
Japan to give up. She had also obtained permission from China to extend
the Siberian Railway through Manchuria to Port Arthur and Dalny, and
thus obtain an outlet to the Pacific Ocean. Measures of material
expansion might not have alarmed Japan, if it had not been that Russia
sought to obtain permanent possession of Manchuria through a military
occupation ostensibly for the purpose of protecting her commercial
interests. She marched her troops in large numbers into Manchuria in
order to protect the railway from the depredations of Chinese bandits;
she fortified Port Arthur and built up Dalny, the great “fiat city,”
and in every way showed no intention of letting Manchuria slip out of
her control. All such acts did not tend to allay the spirit of revenge
in the hearts of the Japanese, but of course made them more and more
indignant.

Nor was this all. Russia began to show most evident signs of
encroaching upon Korea. “Japan watched all these things with profound
anxiety. If there were any reality in the dangers which Russia,
Germany, and France had declared to be incidental to Japanese
occupation of part of Manchuria, the same dangers must be doubly
incidental to Russian occupation of the whole of Manchuria; the
independence of Korea would become illusory ...; an obstacle would be
created to the permanent peace of the East.”[187]

If Russia succeeded in maintaining her position in Manchuria, her
next step would take her into Korea, for whose safety and independence
there would be no guarantee; and still another step would bring her
over against Japan. Thus would be endangered, not only the influence of
Japan on the continent, but even her very existence. She would sink at
least into the position of a third-rate power, and would be completely
isolated from all opportunities for expansion.

But, even in spite of insults and provocations, Japan set herself to
resist the Russian encroachments by peaceable means and measures, in
which she at last had the support of Great Britain and the United
States. It was to be presumed that Russia would keep her promise to
give up her military occupation of Manchuria and restore to China the
administration of the “Three Provinces” on the dates specified in a
convention with China signed April 8, 1902. According to this, Russia
agreed to withdraw her troops gradually from Manchuria and entirely
resign her control thereof within one year.

But when the time came for the final evacuation, Russia showed no sign
of intending to carry out her agreement. After futile protests from
Japan, Great Britain, and the United States, Japan suggested to Russia
to open up negotiations concerning their respective interests in the
Far East; and to this Russia assented. It is scarcely profitable to
follow the devious windings of these negotiations, which were delayed
by Russia on one pretext or another. It is sufficient to state that
Japan invited Russia to nothing more than “to subscribe to the policy
enunciated by the United States and Great Britain,—the policy of the
‘open door’ and of the integrity of the Chinese and [the] Korean
Empires.”

During the course of the prolonged negotiations, Russia was moving
troops to the scene of action and making other military preparations.
These did not necessarily mean that she anticipated war, but that she
at least expected to overawe little Japan and thus obtain her desires.

“The only alternatives for Japan were war or total and permanent
effacement in Asia. She chose war, and in fighting, she is fighting
the battle of Anglo-Saxondom as well as of herself,—the battle of free
and equal opportunities for all without undue encroachment upon the
sovereign rights or territorial integrity of China or Korea, against
a military dictatorship, against a programme of ruthless territorial
aggrandizement, and against a policy of selfish restrictions.”[188]

[Illustration: DISTINGUISHED NAVAL COMMANDERS

ADMIRAL URIU

ADMIRAL KAMIMURA

COMMANDER HIROSE]

But it was not till after six months of negotiations that the Japanese
Government, on February 5, 1904, “having exhausted without effect every
means of conciliation,” and “finding that their just representations
and moderate and unselfish proposals in the interest of a firm and
lasting peace in the extreme East are not receiving the consideration
which is their due,” officially announced to the Russian Government
that they would not only “terminate the present futile negotiations,”
but also “sever their diplomatic relations with the Imperial Russian
Government,” and “reserve to themselves the right to take _such
independent action as they may deem best_.”[189] This was tantamount to
a declaration of war.

On February 6, Admiral Togo left Sasebo under official instructions,
and about midnight of February 8 struck the first blow of the war.
Six of his torpedo-boats attacked the Russian squadron in the harbor
of Port Arthur, inflicted serious damage upon the enemy, and retired
without much loss. On the following day a detachment of the fleet under
Admiral Uriu defeated two Russian cruisers in the harbor of Chemulpo,
Korea. Thus within a few hours the Japanese gained control of the sea,
and landed troops, who soon entered Seoul.

The formal declaration of war was made by Russia on February 9,
and by Japan on February 10, for publication in the newspapers of
the following day, which was the anniversary of the founding of
the Japanese Empire in 660 B. C. and of the promulgation of the
Constitution in 1889.

On February 23, a treaty of alliance between Japan and Korea was
formally signed at Seoul.[190] On the next night began a series of
attempts on the part of the Japanese squadron to block the mouth of the
harbor of Port Arthur. After several essays, in one of which Commander
Hirose met his heroic end, the Japanese so far succeeded that the
Russian war vessels were shut up in the harbor for a long period. This
enabled Japan to land troops with perfect immunity at several points on
the coast of Manchuria.

In the meantime, the First Army, under General Kuroki, was marching
across Korea without encountering much opposition, and, by brilliant
strategy, succeeded in crossing the Yalu River in the face of a
well-fortified Russian army. The Second Army, under General Oku, landed
at Kinchow, and after bloody contests, especially at Nanshan, was able
to get possession of Dalny, and sever connections between the Russians
in Port Arthur and their main force under General Kuropatkin. The Third
Army, under General Nodzu, having landed at Takushan, soon got into
touch with the First Army; and together they continued their march
northward in the face of constant opposition.

When Port Arthur was isolated from the rest of the Russian forces,
still another army was sent out, under General Nogi, to carry on the
investment of that place, so that the former armies might be free to
give undivided attention to General Kuropatkin’s force. The attempt of
the latter to relieve Port Arthur was checked by the Japanese in bloody
battles at Telissu and Kaiping, after which they advanced northward
toward Liaoyang.

In the meantime, in March, the Imperial Diet had met and voted
unanimously the Government’s proposals to raise from various sources
a special war fund of _yen_ 576,000,000. Indeed, in every possible
way, the Japanese people, as a unit, supported the Government in the
carrying on of war, even to undergoing many hardships. All domestic
loans thus far issued have been over-subscribed three or four times.

Moreover, on the last day of March, the fiftieth anniversary of
Commodore Perry’s treaty with Japan, a memorable meeting to celebrate
the event was held in the Y. M. C. A. Hall, Tōkyō. It was attended by a
large number of both Japanese and foreigners, and, after listening to
eloquent speeches, unanimously adopted a resolution to raise a Perry
Memorial Relief Fund for the destitute families of Japanese soldiers
and sailors. The subscription of over 60,000 _yen_ on the spot has
since been increased to about 100,000 _yen_.

The events off Port Arthur were colored still more tragically on April
13, when the Russian flagship “Petropavlovsk” of Admiral Makaroff was
sunk, and almost all on board, including the admiral and the famous
painter Verestchagin, perished. In May, the Japanese suffered their
first heavy losses in the sinking of the “Hatsuse” and the “Yoshino.”

In April the Russian Vladivostok squadron had taken the offensive
and sunk a Japanese transport with a few troops on board. After that
it made occasional sorties toward the Korean Straits in the hope
of creating a diversion from Port Arthur, and in one instance sunk
the “Hitachi Maru” with a large number of Japanese troops on board.
Moreover, in July this squadron succeeded in getting through the
Tsugaru Straits to the eastern coast of Japan, where it committed
depredations, even just off the entrance of Tōkyō Bay. But later it was
met in the Korean Straits by Admiral Kamimura’s squadron and defeated
with the loss of the “Rurik.”

By the early part of August the army investing Port Arthur had made
such progress, in spite of severe opposition, that it became extremely
dangerous for the Russian fleet to remain there longer. Therefore,
on August 10, they made a sortie with the intention of escaping to
Vladivostok. But Admiral Togo was not to be caught napping, and engaged
in battle with the squadron. A few vessels, badly damaged, regained
Port Arthur; others, some of which were severely injured, escaped to
neutral ports, where they had to be dismantled; the “Novik” eluded
its pursuers for a short time, but was finally overtaken and sunk in
Korsakoff Harbor, Sakhalin.

On August 23 began the great battle of Liaoyang, which continued for
over a week, and deserves to go down on the pages of history as one
of the severest, bloodiest, and probably most decisive battles ever
fought. It was only by the most tremendous exertions that General
Kuropatkin was enabled to save his army from having its retreat cut off
by the flanking movement of Kuroki, while Oku and Nodzu were pounding
away from other directions.

The attempt of Kuropatkin to retrieve his fortunes by advancing with
heavy reënforcements to retake Liaoyang met with another disastrous
defeat in the battle of the Shaho River, October 10-15. After that, the
two armies practically went into Winter quarters and engaged in nothing
more than skirmishes until January, 1905, when Mitschenko’s cavalry
made an unsuccessful raid upon Newchang and Yinkow, and Kuropatkin’s
army, apparently urged on by the political exigencies caused by
discontent at home, attempted a flanking movement on Liaoyang, but was
repulsed in the battle of Heikeutai.

In view of the lull in hostilities along at the front, popular
interest was once more directed toward Port Arthur. The Japanese navy
continued faithfully its task of watching the harbor; and, although it
could not maintain an absolutely complete blockade, it was nevertheless
able to prevent exit and entrance, except in the case of Chinese
junks and small steamers, which occasionally succeeded in running
the blockade under cover of night or stormy weather. The navy also
coöperated with the army by means of frequent bombardments of the
harbor, in which the remnants of the Russian fleet had sought refuge,
and even of the city of Port Arthur.

The Japanese army persistently pushed the attack from the land side;
and the Russians stubbornly resisted every step of the advance. The
former employed both direct and flanking attacks, and utilized every
device known in engineering to overcome the “impregnable” fortress,
so well fortified both by nature and by art. Slowly but steadily
the besiegers pressed on and obtained possession of various forts.
On October 30 they made a general assault, in which they succeeded
in capturing several important positions. Just one month later, the
“203-metre Hill” fell into the hands of the Japanese and gave them
the command of the inner harbor. In a few days they had succeeded in
completely disabling the remnants of the Russian squadron, so that
the greater portion of their own fleet was released from its long and
arduous blockade, and enabled to undergo a thorough overhauling in the
docks. A portion of it, under Vice-Admiral Uriu, was despatched to
watch the course of the Baltic fleet, and every preparation was made to
accord to these visitors as warm a reception as possible.

Admirals Togo and Kamimura, with their suites, returned, for a short
period, to Tōkyō, where they were greeted on December 30 with an
enthusiastic welcome. And, when the eventful year 1904 passed away,
it was generally thought that Port Arthur might be able to hold out a
month longer.

It may, therefore, be easily imagined with what complete surprise
came the news that on January 1 General Stoessel had opened
negotiations with General Nogi concerning surrender. “Hope deferred
maketh the heart sick”: but the relief from the long suspense showed
itself in a kind of prolonged _banzai_ and a series of celebrations
which lasted through the month. The stubborn defence and the bravery
of the defenders had awakened in every Japanese heart a feeling of
admiration; so that the chivalrous treatment of the garrison found a
ready response on all sides.

[Illustration: DISTINGUISHED LAND COMMANDERS

GENERAL BARON KODAMA

GENERAL COUNT NOGI

ADMIRAL PRINCE ITŌ]

During most of the month of February, the two armies confronting
each other along the banks of the Shaho River remained in apparent
inactivity, except for occasional skirmishes, but in real preparation
for another battle. Just when this began it is a little difficult to
state precisely, because some of the earlier operations were only
feints to disguise the real purpose. On February 24, the Japanese
gained a point by the capture of Ching-ho-cheng after two days of hard
fighting. And from this time the struggle went on practically without
cessation for two or three weeks. Within a few days the Japanese had
turned both flanks of the Russian army, which was compelled to beat
a precipitate retreat in great confusion and barely escaped complete
annihilation. The Japanese pushed on in hot pursuit, and occupied
Fushun, Mukden, Tiehling, Kaiyuan, and Changtu. This was the result
of the great battle of Mukden, which was much more decisive than even
Liaoyang, and ended the military activity in Manchuria for several
months.

In the meantime the Baltic fleet had been leisurely making its way
eastward, and, apparently regardless of international law, had been
enjoying the hospitality of neutral waters, especially those of
Madagascar and Annam. But, although Japan, supported by Great Britain
and the United States, vigorously protested against the flagrant
violations of international law in the abuse of French hospitality, yet
she did not allow herself to swerve from her original plan concerning
the Baltic fleet, or to be lured away from her own strategic position
to a battlefield of Russia’s choosing. The Japanese fleet, under the
indomitable Togo, was watching and waiting in the waters between Japan
and Korea; and, as all things come to those who wait, to the Japanese
came finally the Russian fleet, steering boldly through the Tsushima
channel for Vladivostok. May 27 and 28 (the latter the birthday of the
Empress of Japan) are the red-letter dates of the great naval battle,
which resulted in the practical annihilation of the Baltic fleet, with
tremendous loss to the Russians and only slight damage to the Japanese.
The Battle of the Sea of Japan, as it is officially designated, was the
decisive conflict of the war; and it deserves also to rank among the
decisive battles of the world’s history. If Togo had been defeated,
the communications of the immense Japanese army in Manchuria would
have been severed, and Japan itself would have been at the mercy of
the depredations of the Russian fleet. But the destruction of the
latter was so complete, that it is not strange that Russia was willing
at last to listen to the tactful intervention of President Roosevelt.
Peace commissioners were appointed by both combatants to meet in some
suitable place in the United States about August 1. The Japanese
representatives were Baron Komura, Minister of Foreign Affairs,
and Mr. Takahira, Minister to the United States; and the Russian
representatives were Count Sergius Witte, President of the Imperial
Committee of Ministers, and Baron Rosen, Minister to the United States.

[Illustration: COUNT KOMURA

MINISTER TAKAHIRA

THE JAPANESE PEACE ENVOYS]

Accordingly, avoiding the heat of Washington, the peace envoys
convened at Portsmouth, N. H., on August 9, after paying their respects
to President Roosevelt. The Japanese presented the following twelve
articles for the consideration of their opponents:

 1. That Russia recognize Japan’s preponderating influence in Korea.

 2. That Russia and Japan evacuate Manchuria.

 3. That Japan restore Chinese sovereignty and civil government in
 Manchuria.

 4. That both powers respect Chinese sovereignty in Manchuria and the
 principle of equal commercial opportunity there for all nations.

 5. That the island of Sakhalin be ceded to Japan.

 6. That Russia surrender to Japan all rights accruing under Chinese
 leases of the Liaotung peninsula, including Port Arthur, Dalny, and
 the Blonde and Elliott islands.

 7. That Russia surrender to China by arrangement with Japan the
 branch of the Chinese Eastern railway from Harbin to Port Arthur and
 Newchwang, with retrocession of all privileges under the concession of
 1898.

 8. That the Russian concessions obtained in 1896 by which the short
 route connecting the Trans-Siberian and Ussuri railways in northern
 Manchuria be given to the Chinese Eastern railway, Chinese imperial
 police to be substituted for the Russian guards.

 9. That Russia pay Japan the substantial costs of the war.

 10. That Russia surrender to Japan all warships interned in far
 Asiatic waters.

 11. That Russia limit strictly the naval establishment maintained in
 neutral waters of the far East.

 12. That Russia grant fishing rights to Japan along the Russian
 littoral in Siberia.

After the agreement by Russia to certain of these articles, and
skilful manœuvring by the Russian envoys until the demand by Japan
for an indemnity was practically the one remaining cause for dispute
between them, the world was startled on August 29 by the surrender
of the Japanese of all demand for indemnification and the consequent
declaration of peace. As amended the treaty grants to Japan all
that Japan contended for before the declaration of war except the
maintenance of the territorial integrity of China, with the addition of
the valuable fishing rights along the Siberian coast and the right to
establish a consular service throughout eastern Russia.

The two powers mutually obligate themselves not to fortify the
Russo-Korean frontier nor to erect fortifications on the island of
Sakhalin, the more valuable portion of which, situated below the
fiftieth meridian, is ceded to Japan. Japan obtains the Chinese Eastern
railway and the right to build a branch line to Kirin, while the South
Manchuria railway is to be used for commercial purposes only, both
powers maintaining guards along its right of way. Korea, Manchuria,
and Siberia are opened to trade on the most favored nation basis, and
Manchuria is given the “open door” for all the world to enter.

Japan finds herself in possession of the sea and land routes to Peking
through the ownership of Port Arthur, and her influence in China has
waxed as that of Russia has waned, the subjects of the czar standing
now in the territorial position they occupied in 1890, with every
diplomatic advantage then held at the Chinese capital practically
annihilated.

By the surrender of all claim for compensation, except that for the
care of Russian prisoners of war, and by the return of the warships
interned in far Eastern waters, Japan has shown herself as magnanimous
as brave, as thoughtful for the peace of the world as for the details
which have brought her such success. Scrupulously respecting all the
rules of war, Japan has also set the world a new standard of hygienic
efficiency in the care of the wounded and especially in the prevention
of disease among her soldiers in the field.

       *       *       *       *       *

Space fails to tell of innumerable deeds of Spartan heroism at the
front; of the calmness and dignity of the Japanese people in the time
of war, which they do not allow to interfere with their usual daily
duties; of working overtime to increase the productive wealth of the
country in this crisis; of the extra labor performed, even at night,
that a neighbor’s field or business may not suffer loss during his
absence from home to fight his country’s battles; of the work of women,
young and old, to provide necessary clothing and “comfort bags” for
those at the front; of the suffering and self-sacrifice of many at home
that loved ones may serve the country on the battlefield; of the kindly
care of Russian prisoners, who are “treated more like guests”; of the
work of the Red Cross Society, and its abundant labors both at home and
at the front. The Japanese are truly heroic in every sense of the word.

Two features have already stood out prominently in this war,—the
“splendid tenacity” of the Japanese soldiery, and the coördination of
the movements of their armies and navy. The strategic phase of the war
reflects the utmost credit upon Yamagata, Ōyama, Kodama, and the others
who planned the campaigns.

It ought not to be necessary to consider seriously the so-called
“Yellow Peril,” but it may be well to refer briefly to this bogy. For
such an idea there is not an iota of a reason. It is true that the
Japanese are ambitious to become the leaders and teachers of Korea,
China, and Siam;[191] but it is for the purpose of leading and teaching
them in civilization. Japan has turned her back, whether for good or
for ill, upon Oriental civilization, and has turned her face, whether
for good or ill, toward Occidental civilization. By this is not meant,
either that she will throw away all things Oriental, or that she will
accept all things Occidental. But it is simply meant, as before pointed
out,[192] that she will be the true reconciler between East and West,
and will develop that which is good and useful in both civilizations.
It is her purpose, therefore, not to array the East against the West,
but to bring them closer together in various bonds of unity. It would
be absolutely impossible for her to take any backward step in the path
which she has begun to tread, and in which she is striving earnestly
and succeeding rapidly in catching up with Western nations. Japan
represents in the Far East the ideals of Western civilization more than
does Russia. The immense empire of China with its teeming population
under Russian domination or only under Russian influence would
constitute a real “Yellow Peril,” or “Muscovite Menace,” terrible to
contemplate. But Japanese leadership or hegemony in Korean and Chinese
affairs constitutes a guarantee of peace and prosperity, of the “open
door,” of the spread of true civilization, in the Far East.

The real policy of Japan in this war has been clearly set forth in
various ways, of which one case follows:

On May 16 there was held in Tōkyō a most significant mass meeting of
representatives of all kinds and shades of philosophies, cults, and
religions. The thousand persons present included foreign missionaries,
American and British, and Japanese Shintōists, Buddhists, Roman
Catholics, Greek Catholics, and Protestants of various denominations,
besides probably many free-thinkers. There was a small number of women,
both Japanese and foreign, in attendance.

There were several speakers, all of whom dwelt upon the necessity of
union in the present crisis in the history of Japan. From the “Japan
Mail” we extract the following paragraphs in summary of some of the
addresses:—

“Mr. Ōuchi, the representative of Buddhism, declared that the Japanese
do not constitute the Yellow Peril. The Mongols constitute it, and,
above all, the Russians, who are Mongols. Napoleon had well said that
a Russian has a white skin over a yellow heart. Japan has a yellow
skin over a white heart. The whole practice of Russia, her boundless
aggressions, her despotism and intolerance, mark her as the true Yellow
Peril of the era.”

“Mr. Shibata, representing Shintō, said that the pity of Buddhism, the
charity (love) of Christianity, and the pure heart of Shintō are all
one and the same thing under different names.”

“Dr. Imbrie (representative of Christianity) adduced as proofs that
religion and race have nothing to do with the present war: first,
the fact that one of the belligerents, Japan, has a constitution
guaranteeing freedom of conscience; secondly, the meeting now
assembled, where all creeds and all races united in a common cause. He
believed that the heart of the nation was with them in this matter,
and that such an assembly might be convened in any part of Japan. He
believed also that the victory in the war would be with Japan for the
sake of the principles she represented.”

The meeting unanimously adopted the following resolution:—

“The war now existing between Japan and Russia has for its object, on
the part of Japan, the security of the empire and the permanent peace
of the East. It is carried on in the interests of justice, humanity,
and the civilization of the world. With differences between races
or religions it has nothing whatever to do. We, therefore, meeting
together without distinction of race or religion, agree that we will
endeavor to publish to the world, each in a manner accordant with the
methods observed in the religious body to which he belongs, the real
purpose of the present war, as now described. We also express a most
earnest desire for the speedy accomplishment of an honorable peace.”

The significance of this meeting can scarcely be overestimated. It
is a perfectly conclusive answer to the attempts made in various
quarters “to foment an anti-Japanese crusade on the ground of racial
and religious prejudices.” Japan stands before the world as a champion
of “the equality and fraternity of all races.” The so-called “Yellow
Peril” is a myth, a fantasy, a delusion; the reality is to be found in
the “Golden Opportunity” to win the Orient for Christ through Japan’s
leadership.

H. E. Count Katsura, in his official capacity as Prime Minister and
speaking in the name of His Majesty the Emperor, has given assurances
that the “Yellow Peril” is a myth, and that the religious liberty
guaranteed in the Japanese constitution is to be enforced. He has
stated most emphatically that “Japan stands for religious freedom.”
The leading statesmen of Japan, whether in or out of office, assert
most positively that Japan’s interests in the Far East are practically
identical with those of Great Britain and the United States, and that
she desires to work in harmony with those nations.[193]

The cause of Christian civilization in Japan has been indirectly
benefited by this war. The people, with minds broadened by the
responsibilities of their country, and with hearts touched by the
practical sympathy of Christian nations, are listening with deeper
interest to the presentation of Christian truths. The noble work of
the Young Men’s Christian Association at Antung proved so successful
that the military authorities soon requested its extension to other
portions of Manchuria. The Japanese have felt that though their nation
is nominally non-Christian, yet it is fighting the battle of Christian
civilization against a nation nominally Christian. The war has been
one of the most momentous in history, and decides whether the Far East
is to be dominated by conservative, despotic Russia or directed by
progressive, liberal Japan.


CHRONOLOGY OF THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

  Feb.   5, 1904.   Severance of diplomatic relations.

         8-9.       Japanese naval victories at Fort Arthur and
                      Chemulpo.

         9.         Russian declaration of war.

        10.         Japanese declaration of war.

        23.         Treaty of Japan with Korea.

        24.         First attempt to block Port Arthur.

  March 13.         Marquis Ito starts on special mission to Korea.

        27.         Imperial Diet passed War Budget. Second attempt to
                      block Port Arthur.

        31.         Fiftieth anniversary of Perry’s treaty with Japan.

  April 13.         “Petropavlovsk” sunk by Japanese mine.

        25.          Transport “Kinshiu Maru” sunk by Russians.

  May    1.          Battle of the Yalu River.

         3.          Third attempt to block Port Arthur.

        15.          “Hatsuse” and “Yoshino” sunk.

        16.          Pan-Religion Mass Meeting, Tōkyō.

        25, 26.      Battle of Nanshan.

        27.          Occupation of Dalny.

  June  15.          “Hitachi Maru” (transport) sunk. Battle of Telissu.

        23.          Naval battle off Port Arthur.

        27.          Japanese capture Ta, Motien, and Fenshui Passes.

  July   6-9.        Battle of Kaiping.

        21-30.       Vladivostok Squadron in Pacific Ocean.

        24.          Battle of Tashikiao.

        31.          Japanese capture Simucheng.

  Aug.  10.          Russian fleet made unsuccessful sortie from Fort
                       Arthur.

        14.          Vladivostok fleet defeated.

        20.          “Novik” sunk in Korsakoff Harbor.

  Aug. 23-Sept. 4.  Battle of Liaoyang.

  Oct.  10-15.       Battle of the Shaho River.

        30.          General assault on Port Arthur.

  Nov.  30.         Japanese capture 203-metre Hill, P. A.

  Dec.   3-11.      Destruction Port Arthur Squadron.

        30.         Togo and Kamimura reach Tōkyō.

  Jan.   1, 1905.   Surrender of Port Arthur.

        25-29.      Battle of Heikeutai.

  Feb.  24-March 10. Battle of Mukden.

  Feb.  24.         Japanese occupied Ching-ho-cheng.

  March  9.         Japanese occupied Fushun.

        10.         Japanese occupied Mukden.

        16.         Japanese occupied Tiehling.

        19.         Japanese occupied Kaiyuan.

        20.         Japanese occupied Fakuman.

        21.         Japanese occupied Changtu.

  May 27, 28.       Battle of the Japan Sea.

  June   2.         President Roosevelt broached subject of peace.

        16.         Japanese occupied Kangping.

        18.         Japanese occupied Liaoyangwopeng.

  July   8.         Sakhalin in hands of Japanese.

        18.         Vladivostok isolated.

  Aug.   9.         Peace envoys convene at Portsmouth, N. H.

        29.         Terms of treaty of peace settled.


SUMMARY

  A brief summary of the war shows that at the close of the 570 days
  which it lasted Russia had 629,614 men in the field in Manchuria, to
  which Japan was able to oppose 912,730, with 1116 Russian cannon to
  1030 Japanese. The Japanese captured 67,701 Russians, losing only
  646 prisoners themselves. The total casualty list on land shows
  294,779 Russians killed and wounded to 113,086 Japanese. The total
  loss to Russia in ships is estimated at $155,560,000, including
  twelve battleships, five armored cruisers, one coast defense vessel,
  six cruisers, fourteen converted cruisers, and nineteen destroyers
  sunk, and two battleships, two coast defense vessels, one converted
  cruiser, and two destroyers captured, nineteen other naval vessels
  being driven into internment. Japan’s naval loss includes two
  battleships, four cruisers, as many converted cruisers, and two
  torpedo boat destroyers sunk, which were valued at $24,720,000, none
  being captured or interned. On the sea Russia lost 8100 in killed
  and wounded to Japan’s 3670. The total cost of war is figured at
  $2,000,000,000, of which Russia spent $1,200,000,000, borrowing
  $870,000,000, and Japan spent $800,000,000, borrowing $650,000,000.


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  George Kennan’s articles in “The Outlook” are superior. Of the books
  which have been issued, the best are “With Kuroki in Manchuria,”
  by Frederick Palmer, and “From Tōkyō through Manchuria with the
  Japanese,” by Major Louis L. Seaman. A very thorough, scholarly, and
  quite impartial presentation of the causes and issues of the war is
  found in “The Russo-Japanese Conflict” (Asakawa), from which one can
  understand completely the situation in the Far East. “The White Peril
  in the Far East” (Gulick) is also valuable in this connection; and
  “The Awakening of Japan” (Okakura) throws light on Japan’s aims and
  ideals. “As the Hague Ordains” (Miss Scidmore) throws a great deal
  of light upon the ideas of many of the chief actors in the bloody
  drama. “Human Bullets” (Sakurai) relates most simply but vividly the
  experiences of a Japanese officer, especially at the terrible siege
  of Port Arthur. “The Tragedy of Russia” (McCormick) is most valuable.



GREATER JAPAN


[Illustration: H. I. M. THE EMPEROR]


The Treaty of Portsmouth, which closed the Russo-Japanese War, made
Japan one of the great powers of the world; therefore, this chapter
is entitled “Greater Japan.” This is not so much because Japan became
larger, although she added half of Sakhalin, obtained Russia’s lease
of part of Manchuria, and has annexed Korea, but it is because she has
become truly greater in many senses of the word. This will appear more
evident as one reads carefully the following record of the principal
events of the past seven years (1905-1912).

It is, perhaps, not strange that the Japanese nation was, on the
whole, disappointed with the terms of the Treaty of Portsmouth. They
had borne heavy financial burdens, and had confidently anticipated
at least a partial compensation in the shape of an indemnity and the
re-acquisition of Sakhalin, of which they considered themselves cheated
by Russia, in 1875. To get only half of Sakhalin was not so much of
a loss, because it was the better half; but to get not a single sen
of indemnity was the bitterest kind of a pill, without even a coat of
sugar. And, although most of the Japanese people, as is usual, quickly
swallowed their disappointment, it is not strange that agitators
utilized the occasion to stir up the rowdy element to break out in
riots in Tōkyō early in September, 1905. And, after the destruction of
considerable property, the city was placed under martial law until the
excitement subsided.

The wisdom of the Japanese envoys in bringing the war to a close,
even on unpopular terms, was fully justified when it soon became
evident that the northern section of the main island, in the region
about Sendai, was threatened with a famine, due to the partial or
entire failure of crops. But the energy which had been spent on the
prosecution of the war was at once transferred to the task of relieving
the suffering. To the appeals for assistance a hearty response was
made, not only by Japanese and foreigners in Japan, but also by other
peoples, East and West.

Another compensation for the unpopular peace was found in September,
1905, when it became known that, in August, even before the Treaty
of Portsmouth had been signed, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance had been
renewed for a term of ten years.

Therefore, by the beginning of November, the feeling of disappointment
had so far subsided that the Emperor’s birthday (November 3) was
celebrated in Tōkyō with unusual _éclat_ by a grand triumphal military
review, followed later by a grand triumphal naval review at Yokosuka.

The Katsura Ministry, however, being held responsible for the unpopular
terms of peace, resigned in December,[194] and was succeeded in
January, 1906, by a Cabinet under Marquis Saionji, the leader of the
Seiyukwai, without special change of policy.

In the meantime, in accordance with a Convention between Japan and
Korea, the former established in the latter a Residency-General in
Seoul, with Residencies in several parts of the country. And to the
most important post of Resident-General the Emperor of Japan appointed
[then] Marquis Ito. And by this Convention the control of Korea’s
foreign affairs passed to the Residency-General.

[Illustration: MARQUIS SAIONJI]

The Twenty-second Session of the Imperial Diet (December 28, 1905-March
27, 1906) is worthy of special notice because it passed, with slight
amendments, the government bill for the nationalization of the railways
of the Empire. The original bill contemplated the purchase by the
government of all the railroads: but the Diet amended the bill, while
accepting the principle, by exempting a few small railways of no great
strategic importance, and applying the principle to seventeen large and
important lines. In the same year, the railways in Korea passed under
the management of the Japanese Government.

Another event worthy of notice is the organization in 1906 of the Japan
Peace Society, composed of men and women of several nationalities and
of many shades of political and religious belief. And in 1909 this
society was honored and strengthened by Count Okuma’s acceptance of the
position of President.

The year 1907 was marked by the negotiation of several “Agreements”
of prime importance in the maintenance of peace in the Far East. In
the first place, the Russo-Japanese Convention (July) “consolidating
peace and good neighborly relations,” proved that the Portsmouth
Treaty was not merely a sort of truce but a desire to “preserve the
peace permanently.” The Franco-Japanese Agreement (June) evinced the
strong “desire to strengthen the relations of amity existing between”
the two peoples. A new Japan-Korea Agreement (July) gave Japan the
control of the internal administrative affairs of Korea and especially
established a “clear differentiation” of the Executive and Judicial
departments of State. This separation of the judiciary from executive
and official interference was further emphasized by the appointment of
an earnest Japanese Christian, Judge Watanabe, as Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court in Korea. Meantime, the Emperor, whose corrupt rule had
brought his country to its deplorable condition, abdicated, and his son
succeeded to the throne, while the new Crown Prince went over to Japan
to be educated and was granted a suitable domicile in Tōkyō. Moreover,
the Crown Prince of Japan made a visit to Korea—the first instance
of a Japanese Crown Prince leaving his native land—and succeeded in
conquering prejudices and winning hearts.

The year 1907 was also memorable for some important events in the
Christian movement in Japan. In April, the World’s Student Christian
Federation, composed of 625 delegates from 25 nations, in all parts of
the world, convened in Tōkyō, and, in an inspiring session of several
days, exemplified the practical application of their motto, _ut omnes
unum sint_.

The late General Booth, of the Salvation Army, made a visit to Japan
(April 16-May 24), received a most cordial welcome, was honored by an
audience with the Emperor, and held a remarkable series of meetings in
the principal cities.

The National Sunday-school Association, which was organized in May,
was another application of the principle of Christian unity. And the
First Conference of the (union) Methodist Church of Japan, meeting in
Tōkyō (May 22-June 7), on June 1, elected as its first bishop Rev.
Y. Honda, D.D., the first native to be elected to such an important
ecclesiastical position in the Far East.

The short stop-over made in Japan by Hon. William H. Taft, then United
States Secretary of War, on his way to Manila, was one which truly
warranted his additional title of “Secretary of Peace.” In a speech on
October 1, at a banquet given in his honor in Tōkyō, he made a profound
impression when he said: “War between Japan and the United States
would be a crime against modern civilization.” And 116 representative
missionaries, residing in all sections of Japan, and representing
20 American Christian organizations, besides Independents, signed a
series of resolutions expressing their hope “that local and spasmodic
misunderstandings may not be allowed to affect in the slightest degree
the natural and historic friendship of the two neighbors on opposite
sides of the Pacific,” and that all “efforts to maintain peace and
good-will may be supported by all patriotic citizens and may be crowned
with success.”

And, although the immigration question at one time was a fruitful
source of agitation, yet the authorities in Japan, Canada, and
the United States dealt with the question in a considerate and
statesmanlike manner and came to a satisfactory settlement.

The friendly relations between Japan and the United States were further
consolidated, on May 5, 1908, by an Arbitration Treaty, the first which
Japan had ever negotiated. This was only one more strong evidence that
the two countries do not wish to find a _casus belli_.

In October of the same year came the first visit of a company of
American business men to Japan and the visit of the American fleet,
both of which received a most cordial welcome. The business men were
given every opportunity to ascertain industrial conditions in Japan,
and acknowledged that the visit was an eye-opener. In welcoming
the fleet, the “Kokumin Shimbun” said, among other good things,
“The sixteen battleships, representative of the noble traditions of
American justice, come to our shores as heralds of peace.” And, most
significantly, it added that “the time was ripe for an Americo-Japanese
_camaraderie_, which is already so strong as to be tantamount to an
unwritten alliance.” This utterance was significant because it was
followed so closely by the Americo-Japanese Entente, dated November 30,
1908. This is a document[195] of immense importance, which must stand
as a perpetual reminder that a war between Japan and the United States
would be a crime.

In July, 1908, the Saionji Ministry resigned, ostensibly on account of
the Premier’s illness, and Marquis Katsura was again called upon to
form a Cabinet.

Inasmuch as the great prosperity which immediately followed the
Russo-Japanese War had led to some extravagance and reckless
speculation, the Emperor felt impelled to issue in October, 1908, an
edict of warning to the people.

One more important event of this year should be chronicled—the
completion of the railway which runs the length of the island of
Formosa. This is facilitating greatly the development of the resources
of that “Beautiful Isle.”

In June, 1909, Prince Itō resigned his position as Resident-General
in Korea, and was succeeded by Viscount Sone, who had been
Vice-Resident-General. In July, the administration of justice and
prisons was transferred to the Resident-General. In October, Prince
Itō was assassinated at Harbin by a Korean fanatic; and, in December,
an unsuccessful attempt was made at Seoul upon the life of the Korean
Prime Minister by another fanatic. Prince Itō, as the greatest
statesman of Modern Japan, was especially honored with a most elaborate
state funeral.

The year 1909 was also marked by a Semi-Centennial Conference, held
in Tōkyō, October 5-10, to commemorate the beginning of Christian
missions in New Japan. It was “the first national conference in which
the Japanese and missionaries coöperated on an equal footing”; it
marked “the emergence of the Japanese Church from infancy to youth;
from the stigma of being an alien parasite to the acknowledged status
of an indigenous institution”; and marked the waning of missionary
domination and the rapid assumption of control by Japanese Christians.
Thus it was a real epoch-making event in the history of the Christian
movement in Japan.

[Illustration: STATESMEN OF NEW JAPAN

MARQUIS KATSURA AND PRINCE ITŌ]

A large party of representative Japanese business men started in the
fall of 1909 for a trip to the United States, and returned in the
spring of 1910. The courteous treatment and generous hospitality
extended to them in their hurried tour across the country were highly
appreciated. The trip afforded an excellent opportunity to ascertain
that the true sentiments of the best Americans are friendly to Japan.

Viscount Sone, Resident-General in Korea, having been compelled, on
account of dangerous illness, to return to Japan, resigned his post,
and died September 13, 1910. He was succeeded by General Viscount
Terauchi, Minister of War, who carried through the plan of annexation,
which was formally announced on August 29, 1910. This “passing of
Korea” is a truly unfortunate but inevitable occurrence. It was a
practical impossibility for Korea, in her peculiar geographical
position, to maintain political independence. The “Poland of the Far
East” was destined, not to partition, but to absorption by Russia, or
China, or Japan; and she has fallen to the lot of the one best able to
improve her condition.

The year 1910 was also marked by the discovery of an anarchist plot
against the sacred person of the Emperor. Several were arrested as
conspirators, of whom a few were acquitted, a few were condemned to
imprisonment for terms of years, but twelve were condemned to death and
executed (in 1911).

It was in July, 1911, that the term of the revised treaties (which
had gone into effect in 1899) expired, and entirely new treaties
were negotiated with all the powers. As these treaties included no
limitations upon the commercial autonomy of Japan, they marked the
“end of her extra-territorial embarrassments.” And, in particular, the
new treaty with the United States omitted the objectionable provision
of the old treaty (see Appendix), in accordance with which it was
permissible for the United States to limit the immigration of Japanese.
This delicate question was left to a “gentleman’s agreement,” whereby
the Japanese Government would exercise the utmost care concerning
granting passports to Japanese to travel to the United States.

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was again revised in 1911 and renewed
for a term of ten years. The most significant point in this revision
was a provision inserted, in view of the probability at that time
of an Anglo-American Arbitration Treaty, that nothing should entail
upon either “contracting party an obligation to go to war with the
Power with whom such treaty of arbitration is in force.” This was
accomplished before the death of Marquis Komura, who thus lived long
enough to see this increased influence of that alliance in the original
negotiation of which he played a most important part.

That year was also distinguished by the generous Imperial donation
of 1,500,000 _yen_ to start a fund for the relief of the sick poor.
This contribution was supplemented by gifts from all over the Empire,
until the fund has reached a total of about 25,000,000 _yen_. And to
administer properly this large amount, a society called “Saiseikwai”
has been organized, with an Imperial Prince as Honorary President.

The year 1911 is likewise a red-letter year in the political history
of Japan, because, when the Katsura Cabinet resigned, the duty of
organizing a new Ministry was bestowed upon Marquis Saionji (the
leader of the Seiyukai), who made up what is practically a party
administration.

[Illustration: VISCOUNT SONE]

One of the most significant events of the year 1912 was what is
known as the “Tri-Religion Conference” (in March). It was called by Mr.
Tokonami, Vice-Minister of Home Affairs, and consisted of about fifty
Shinto, Buddhist, and Christian representatives. It was no attempt to
amalgamate the three faiths; it was merely a means of bringing those
representatives together for better acquaintance with each other,
for more earnest work in behalf of social and moral amelioration,
and for greater emphasis upon the spiritual needs of the nation. The
most significant point, however, was the fact that the conference was
practically an official recognition of Christianity on the same footing
with Shinto and Buddhism.

As the trial of a large number of Korean Christians on a charge of
conspiring to assassinate Governor-General Terauchi is still _sub
judice_, it is proper at present merely to mention the fact. It is,
however, only right to add, that much of the criticism of the case
arises from the fact that Japanese judicial processes follow European
rather than American models and are not in accord with Anglo-Saxon
ideas of justice.

The most prominent events of 1912 were, of course, the death of the
Emperor Mutsuhito, the accession of the Crown Prince Yoshihito, and
the close of the marvellous Meiji Era with the beginning of a new era,
called Taisho (Great Righteousness). The limits of space forbid more
than the mention of the wonderful scenes, especially in front of the
Palace, when the prayers of all classes of people, of all religious
beliefs and of no belief, were mingled together during the days just
preceding July 30. Mutsuhito and Meiji: these two names are practically
synchronous and synonymous; the reign of Mutsuhito was the Enlightened
Rule of Meiji.[196] It was, therefore, most appropriate that the
deceased Emperor was given the posthumous title of Meiji Tenno. And
the Imperial funeral was a most elaborate affair, an interesting
combination of the Old and the New, in which the former predominated;
for it was a Shinto ceremony with some modern Occidental attachments.
And the tragic suicide of General Count Nogi and the Countess at
eight o’clock in the evening of September 13, just as the Imperial
cortège was leaving the Palace, was in accordance with the old idea of
following one’s master in death. But, while it was not in accord with
Christian ideas of life and duty, my tongue of criticism is silenced.

A governmental crisis led to the resignation of Premier Saionji and
his cabinet in December, and Prince Katsura for the third time was
called to the place. Popular opposition to an increase of the army
and military expenses, demand for reduction of taxes, belief that
Premier Katsura was in sympathy with the military party, that he might
influence the Emperor, and that democratic tendencies were likely to
be checked, led to an uprising in opposition to him and his ministry.
February 5, 1913, a resolution was adopted in Parliament expressing
lack of confidence. Rioting in Tōkyō and elsewhere was followed by the
resignation of Prince Katsura and his cabinet February 11, and on the
12th, by the direction of the Emperor, Count Yamamoto formed a new
ministry.

Mention should be made of some matters which do not fit well into
these chronological annals. The fact that Japanese educational
authorities are obtaining Christian young men as English teachers
through the Young Men’s Christian Association is interesting. It should
also be noted that the number of Chinese students resorting to Japan
for education increased rapidly, until it was estimated at 15,000 to
20,000. But, as the great mass of these were mere adventurers, there
came a natural but heavy reduction, so that only about 5,000 remained
by 1910. And, in that year, almost all of these returned to China to
participate in the Revolution. There are also several hundred Korean
students, whose numbers will probably increase, besides many Indians
and a few Siamese and Philippinos. And these Oriental students return
home imbued with progressive ideas.

This is a summary of the principal events which have made a “Greater
Japan.” Dai Nippon (Great Japan) has been enlarged in seven years by
the acquisition of considerable territory. She is no longer merely
insular, but continental. She is greater in her resources and in
her potentialities. She has increased her wealth and her productive
capacity; she has enlarged her industrial enterprise; she has expanded
her trade and commerce. She has a bigger army and navy to protect
herself from aggression. Her educational facilities are greater,
and her moral and spiritual development has been enhanced through
Christianity. Japan enjoys greater power and influence in the world’s
councils, and she is also weighted with much greater responsibilities.
New Japan, in 1913 sixty years old, is a truly “Greater Japan.”


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

  “Corea, the Hermit Nation” (7th edition) (Griffis); “Korea and her
  Neighbors” (Mrs. Bird-Bishop); “Korean Sketches” and “Korea in
  Transition” (Gale); “The Passing of Korea” (Hulbert); “The Tragedy of
  Korea” (McKenzie); “With Marquis Itō in Korea” (Ladd); “China and the
  Far East” (Clark University Lectures); “American Japanese Relations”
  (Kawakami); “The Japanese Nation” (Nitobe).

[Illustration: JAPAN

MAIN ISLANDS.]



APPENDIX [Illustration: GENERAL VISCOUNT TERAUCHI.]



APPENDIX


PROVINCES AND PREFECTURES

The following list gives in detail the divisions of Japan into
Provinces (_Kuni_), according to “Circuits”:—

 _Go-Kinai_ (Five Home Provinces). Yamashiro, Yamato, Kawachi, Izumi
 (or Senshiu), Settsu (or Sesshiu).

 _Tōkaidō_ (Eastern Sea Road). Iga, Ise, Shima, Owari, Mikawa, Tōtōmi,
 Suruga, Kai, Izu, Sagami, Musashi, Awa (or Bōshiu), Kazusa, Shimōsa,
 Hitachi.

 _Tōsandō_ (Eastern Mountain Road). Ōmi, Mino, Hida, Shinano (or
 Shinshiu), Kōzuke (or Jōshiu), Shimozuke, Iwaki, Iwashiro, Rikuzen,
 Rikuchū, Mutsu, Uzen, Ugo.

 _Hokurikudō_ (North Land Road). Wakasa, Echizen, Kaga, Noto, Etchū,
 Echigo, Sado Island.

 _Sanindō_ (Mountain Shade Road). Tamba, Tango, Tajima, Inaba, Hōki,
 Izumo, Iwami, Oki Islands.

 _Sanyōdō_ (Mountain Sunlight Road). Harima (or Banshiu), Mimasaka,
 Bizen, Bitchū, Bingo, Aki, Suwō, Nagata (or Chōshiu).

 _Nankaidō_ (Southern Sea Road). Kii (or Kishiu), Awaji Island, Awa,
 Sanuki, Iyo, Tosa (or Toshiu), of which the last four are in the
 island of Shikoku.

 _Saikaidō_ (Western Sea Road). Chikuzen, Chikugo, Buzen, Bungo,
 Hizen, Higo, Hyūga, Ōsumi, Satsuma (or Sasshiu), Iki Island, Tsushima
 Island, of which all except the last two are on the island of Kyūshiu.


METEOROLOGICAL TABLE OF JAPAN[197]

(25 YEARS) CENTRAL METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY (1876-1900)

  35° 41´ N. Lat., 139° 46´ E. Long.
  Height, 70 feet.
  Inches and Fahrenheit degrees.

  =====================================+=========+=========+========+=========
                                       |  JAN.   |  FEB.   |  MAR.  |  APRIL.
  -------------------------------------+---------+---------+--------+---------
  Mean temperature                     |  36.9   |  38.4   |  44.2  |  54.3
  Mean max. temperature                |  46.8   |  47.5   |  53.4  |  62.9
  Mean min. temperature                |  28.6   |  30.4   |  35.3  |  45.6
  Absolute max. temp.                  |    97.9 (July 14, 1891)    |
  Absolute min. temp.                  |    15.4 (Jan. 13, 1876)    |
  Mean rainfall                        |   2.14  |   3.03  |   4.32 |   5.04
  No. rainy days                       |   7.2   |   9.1   |  12.4  |  14.8
  Days with snow                       |   4.0   |   4.5   |   2.8  |   0.1
  Mean barometer (reduced freez. point)|  29.96  |  29.97  |  29.95 |  29.94
  Mean direction of wind               | N.22°W. | N.16°W. | N.8°W. | N.51°E.
  =====================================+=========+=========+========+=========

  =====================================+=========+=========+=========+=========
                                       |  MAY.   |  JUNE.  |  JULY.  |  AUG.
  -------------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
  Mean temperature                     |  61.9   |  68.8   |  75.8   |  78.2
  Mean max. temperature                |  70.2   |  76.1   |  83.0   |  86.0
  Mean min. temperature                |  53.5   |  62.2   |  69.6   |  71.8
  Absolute max. temp.                  |         |         |         |
  Absolute min. temp.                  |         |         |         |
  Mean rainfall                        |   5.91  |   6.52  |   5.01  |   4.37
  No. rainy days                       |  13.3   |  14.4   |  14.1   |  11.8
  Days with snow                       |   ...   |   ...   |  ...    |   ...
  Mean barometer (reduced freez. point)|  29.84  |  29.77  |  29.77  |  29.79
  Mean direction of wind               | S.44°E. | S.39°E. | S.20°E. | S.21°E.
  =====================================+=========+=========+=========+=========

  =====================================+=========+========+=========+=========
                                       |  SEPT.  |  OCT.  |  NOV.   |  DEC.
  -------------------------------------+---------+--------+---------+---------
  Mean temperature                     |  71.6   |  60.3  |  50.1   |  41.3
  Mean max. temperature                |  78.9   |  68.9  |  60.1   |  52.0
  Mean min. temperature                |  65.5   |  53.1  |  41.7   |  32.4
  Absolute max. temp.                  |         |        |         |
  Absolute min. temp.                  |         |        |         |
  Mean rainfall                        |   8.12  |   7.07 |   4.35  |   2.02
  No. rainy days                       |  16.2   |  13.1  |   9.0   |   6.3
  Days with snow                       |   ...   |   ...  |   0.2   |   1.2
  Mean barometer (reduced freez. point)|  29.87  |  29.98 |  29.99  |  29.95
  Mean direction of wind               | N.47°E. | N.4°W. | N.14°W. | N.25°W.
  =====================================+=========+========+=========+=========

  ======================================+========
                                        | YEAR.
  --------------------------------------+--------
  Mean temperature                      |  56.8
  Mean max. temperature                 |  65.5
  Mean min. temperature                 |  49.1
  Absolute max. temp.                   |
  Absolute min. temp.                   |
  Mean rainfall                         |  57.90
  No. rainy days                        | 141.6
  Days with snow                        |  12.8
  Mean barometer (reduced freez. point) |  29.90
  Mean direction of wind                | N.1°W.
  ======================================+========

 _Hokkaidō_ (Northern Sea Road). Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari,
 Hitaka, Tokachi, Teshiwo, Kushiro, Nemuro, Kitami (all on the island
 of Yezo), and Chishima, or the Kurile Islands.

 _Ryūkyū_ (Loo Choo) Islands. This group constituted one, the 85th,
 _Kuni_.

The following is the list of Japanese Prefectures (_Ken_ and _Fu_):—

 The _Fu_ number three: Tōkyō, Kyōto, and Ōsaka.

 The _Ken_ number forty-three: Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, Ibaraki,
 Tochigi, Gumma, Nagano, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Aichi, Miye, Gifu, Shiga,
 Fukui, Ishikawa, Toyama, Niigata, Fukushima, Miyagi, Yamagata, Akita,
 Iwate, Aomori, Nara, Wakayama, Hyōgo, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi,
 Shimane, Tottori, Tokushima, Kagawa, Ehime, Kōchi, Nagasaki, Saga,
 Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Ōita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, and Okinawa (Ryūkyū
 Islands).

Hokkaidō and Formosa are at present administered as “territories” by
the Imperial Government, although the former has recently been granted
a small measure of local self-government.


TABLES OF JAPANESE MONEY, WEIGHT, AND MEASURE[198]


_Length (Sashi). Japanese Weights and Measures._

As the use of the Japanese weights and measures is becoming more and
more frequent in reports and books from the Far East, the following
tables will be found useful to all persons who wish to ascertain the
equivalents of the Japanese terms in similar terms in use in the United
States and in England:—


LONG MEASURE (_SASHI_)

  1 _Mō_ (0.0001 _Shaku_)         0.000099 foot.
  1 _Rin_ (10 _Mō_)               0.00099 foot.
  1 _Bu_ (10 _Rin_)                  1.4317 lines.
  1 _Sun_ (10 _Bu_)                  1.1931 inches.
  1 _Shaku_ (10 _Sun_)               11.9305 inches.
  1 _Ken_ (6 _Shaku_)                1.9884 yards.
  1 _Jō_ (10 _Shaku_)             3.3140 yards.
  1 _Chō_ (60 _Ken_)              5.4229 chains (1.15 m.).
  1 _Ri_ (36 _Chō_)               2.4403 miles (2-1/2 m.).
  1 _Kai-Ri_ (Marine _Ri_)           1.1507 miles.


DRY GOODS MEASURE (_KUJIRA-JAKU_)

  1 _Sun_ (0.1 _Shaku_)              1.4913 inches.
  1 _Shaku_ (10 _Sun_)               14.9130 inches.
  1 _Tan_                            (about) 11 yards.
  1 _Hiki_                           (about) 22 yards.


WEIGHT (_HAKARI_)

  1 _Mō_                              0.000008 pound (avoirdupois).
  1 _Rin_ (10 _Mō_)                   0.000083 pound      „
  1 _Fun_ (10 _Rin_)                  5.7972 grains       „
  1 _Momme_ (10 _Fun_)                   2.12 drams       „
  1 _Kin_ (160 _Momme_)               1.3251 pounds       „
  1 _Kwan_ (1,000 _Momme_)            8.2817 pounds       „


CAPACITY (_MASU_)

  1 _Shaku_ (10 _Sai_)               0.00397 gallon.
  1 _Gō_ (10 _Shaku_)             1.2706 gills; 0.0199 peck.
  1 _Shō_ (10 _Gō_)            1.5881 quarts; 0.1985 peck.
  1 _To_ (10 _Shō_)               3.9703 gallons; 1.9851 pecks.
  1 _Koku_ (10 _To_)                 39.7033 gallons; 4.9629 bushels.


SUPERFICIAL MEASURE (TANBETSU)

  1 Square _Shaku_                   about 1 square foot.
  1 _Tsubo_ (36 Square _Shaku_)      3.9538 square yards.
  1 _Se_ (30 _Tsubo_)                about 119 square yards.
  1 _Tan_ (10 _Se_)                  0.2451 acre.
  1  _Chō_ (10 _Tan_)             2.4507 acres.
  1 Square _Ki_                      5.9552 square miles.


MONEY

  1 _yen_                            $0.4935
  1 _sen_                            one-half cent.


_Money, Weight, and Measure of Various Countries in Terms of those of
Japanese_


MONEY

  English pound (20 shillings)      9.763 _yen_.
  Shilling (12 pennies)             0.4881  „
  Penny (4 farthings)               0.0407  „
  Hong Kong dollar                  0.949   „
  American dollar (100 cents)       2.006   „
  Cent                              0.02    „
  German mark                       0.478   „
  French franc                      0.387   „
  Chinese tael                      1.298   „
  Manila dollar                     0.985   „
  Mexican dollar                    0.965   „


ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LENGTH

  Mile (1,760 yards)      14 _chō_ and 49 _ken_.
  Yard (3 feet)           3 _shaku_.
  Foot (12 inches)        1 _shaku_.
  Inch                    8 _bu_ and 4 _rin_.


GERMAN, FRENCH, AUSTRIAN, AND ITALIAN LENGTH

  Metre                          3 _shaku_ and 3 _sun_.
  Centimetre (1-100 metre)       3 _bu_ and 3 _rin_.
  Millimetre (1-1000 metre)      3 _rin_ and 3 _mō_.


ENGLISH CAPACITY

  Gallon (liquid)      2 _shō_, 5 _gō_, and 2 _shaku_.
  Bushel (wheat)       2 _to_ and 1 _gō_.


AMERICAN CAPACITY

  Gallon (liquid)      2_shō_ and 1 _gō_.
  Bushel (wheat)       1 _to_, 9 _shō_, and 5 _gō_.


_Weight_


ENGLISH AND AMERICAN (HEAVYWEIGHTS)

  Ton (20 hundredweight, or 2,240 pounds)      about 270 _kwan_ and 946 _momme_.
  Short ton (2,000 pounds)                     241 _kwan_ and 916 _momme_.
  Hundredweight (112 pounds)                   13 _kwan_ and 547 _momme_.
  Pound (16 ounces)                            121 _momme_.
  Ounce                                        about 8 _momme_.


LIGHT WEIGHT

  Pound      99 _momme_ and 5 _bu_.
  Ounce      8 _momme_ and 3 _bu_.
  Grain      1 _rin_ and 7 _mō_.


_Area_


AMERICAN AND ENGLISH

  Acre       4 _tan_ and 24 _ho_.


ARABLE LAND IN JAPAN[199]

The “Nichi Nichi Shimbun” argues that the real question for the
Japanese to consider is development of agriculture, not a paltry
lightening of the fiscal burden now imposed on agriculturists. When
the area of cultivated land in the various countries of the world is
compared with the total areas of those countries, startling figures
result.


_Ratio of Area of Cultivated Land to Total Area of Country_

  Belgium              53.9
  Prussia              50.3
  France               50.2
  Germany              43.4
  Denmark              42.5
  Italy                39.9
  Hungary              37.7
  Austria              36.7
  Spain                35.7
  Holland              27.3
  England              27.9
  Portugal             24.9
  European Russia      16.4
  Japan                13.8

Japanese habitually plead that their extraordinarily
low place on this list is the result, not of want of industry, but of
natural obstacles, much of the surface of their islands consisting of
mountains and hills which cannot be made arable. The “Nichi Nichi”
alleges that such an excuse is merely partial, and that a little energy
and resolution would soon change the situation. At any rate, the
opposition offered by politicians to the present land tax is not in the
genuine interests of agriculture, but in the interests of political
popularity.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Megata, an official of the Finance Department and an expert
statistician, has figured out that in 1901 more than 15,000,000 acres
were in cultivation.

       *       *       *       *       *

The actual yield of rice for ten years (1900-1909) is indicated in the
following table:—

                   KOKU.
  1900           41,466,422
  1901           46,914,434
  1902           36,932,266
  1903           46,473,298
  1904           51,430,321
  1905           38,172,560
  1906           46,302,530
  1907           49,052,065
  1908           51,932,893
  1909           52,437,662
    Average      46,114,451


FRUIT-GROWING IN JAPAN[200]

Fruits originally cultivated, and probably native in Japan, include
the orange, pear, peach, sour plum, almond, grape, persimmon, loquat,
pomegranate, ginko or salisburia, and fig. The mikan, or Japanese sweet
orange, is smaller, sweeter, and less juicy than the oranges raised in
America, and the thin membrane separating the sections of the fruit is
tougher; it has a very pleasant flavor, and is much used for food by
both natives and foreigners. It is cultivated all through the warmer
regions of Japan, and is the most plentiful of the fruits raised there,
being found in the markets from early autumn until late the following
spring. The persimmon comes next to the orange in the number produced,
and is a favorite with the natives, but its season is comparatively
short. It closely resembles the persimmon of America’s Southern States.
The sour plum is extensively cultivated and yields a good crop, but
the other fruits named above, though more or less widely grown, are
produced in much smaller quantities—the fig being most abundant and
most valued of the less important fruits. The government has introduced
peaches, pears, and grapes from Europe and America, and has found the
soil and climate well adapted to their production, so that these are
now cultivated in addition to the native varieties of the same fruits.
Of the fruits wholly unknown in Japan until introduced from abroad, the
apple has proved most successful, and it has become a chief product of
some districts in the Hokkaidō, or northern island. The apples are of
fine appearance and excellent flavor, and the trees yield a profit very
encouraging to the cultivator, so that the area of their production is
being increased. The natives eat fruit chiefly fresh, and its use as a
table diet is not general, although increasing. The processes of drying
and canning fruits are beginning to come into use, but only as a means
of preserving the fruit for home consumption, not for export.

FACTORIES IN JAPAN[201]

  ======+============+==============+======================
        |   NO. OF   |  AGGREGATE   |   NO. OF FACTORIES
        | FACTORIES. | HORSE POWER. | WITHOUT MOTOR POWER.
  ------+------------+--------------+----------------------
   1895 |    2,758   |    61,252    |       4,396
   1896 |    3,037   |    64,429    |       4,603
   1897 |    2,910   |    63,434    |       4,377
   1898 |    2,964   |    79,016    |       4,131
   1899 |    2,305   |    76,885    |       4,394
   1900 |    2,388   |    95,392    |       4,896
   1909 |    6,723   |   554,571    |       8,703
  ======+============+==============+======================


_Factories with Motor Power_

  ==========================+============+========+=============
                            |   NO. OF   | HORSE  |    NO. OF
                            | FACTORIES. | POWER. | OPERATIVES.
  --------------------------+------------+--------+-------------
  Silk reeling              |  { 1,046   |  9,362 |  112,887[202]
                            |  { 1,722   |  6,631 |  102,071
                            |            |        |
  Cotton and silk spinning  |  {   117   | 12,523 |   56,417
                            |  {   112   | 20,463 |   80,107
                            |            |        |
  Ships, machines, etc.     |  {   155   |  2,577 |   16,654
                            |  {   198   |  4,190 |   18,131
                            |            |        |
  Weaving                   |  {   25    |  3,005 |    7,924
                            |  {   56    |  2,596 |    9,588
                            |            |        |
  Cement                    |  {   251   |  1,099 |    2,712
                            |  {   37    |  1,825 |    3,554
                            |            |        |
  Printing                  |  {   30    |    246 |    3,233
                            |  {   15    |    531 |    5,224
                            |            |        |
  Paper-mills               |  {   11    |  3,097 |    1,761
                            |  {   18    |  3,398 |    2,909
  ==========================+============+========+=============


_Factories without Motor Power_

  ==========================+===================+====================
                            | NO. OF FACTORIES. | NO. OF OPERATIVES.
  --------------------------+-------------------+--------------------
  Silk reeling              |       {  636      |        17,614
                            |       {  496      |        14,077
                            |                   |
  Cotton and silk spinning  |       {    2      |            38
                            |       {   21      |           542
                            |                   |
  Ships, machines, etc.     |       {  188      |         4,512
                            |       {   99      |         3,195
                            |                   |
  Weaving                   |       {1,025      |        28,900
                            |       {1,245      |        34,965
                            |                   |
  Cement                    |       {  136      |         5,099
                            |       {  119      |         2,870
                            |                   |
  Printing                  |       {  103      |         2,784
                            |       {   95      |         2,617
  ==========================+===================+====================


CLEARING-HOUSES OF JAPAN

The following table shows the development of the clearing-house
business in the two largest centres:—

  ==================+=================+=================
                    | TOTAL OF CHECKS AND BILLS CLEARED.
  FIRST HALF-YEAR   +-----------------+-----------------
  OF                |   TŌKYŌ   |    ŌSAKA.
                    |     _Yen._      |      _Yen._
  ------------------+-----------------+-----------------
  1895              |    131,600,000  |     34,500,000
  1896              |    184,800,000  |     65,700,000
  1897              |    250,300,000  |     72,200,000
  1898              |    383,400,000  |     97,300,000
  1899              |    433,800,000  |    161,600,000
  1900              |    675,400,000  |    255,500,000
  1901              |    565,000,000  |    263,700,000
  1902              |    614,700,000  |    298,700,000
  1903              |    756,100,000  |    395,900,000
  1908 (whole year) |  2,962,973,000  |  1,418,941,000
  1910 (whole year) |  3,841,380,000  |  2,028,605,000
  ==================+=================+=================


SHIP-BUILDING IN JAPAN[203]

Recent orders which have been placed in the hands of the Nagasaki
Dockyard and Engine Works and the Kawasaki Dockyard Company, Limited,
by the Nippon Yūsen Kaisha and the Ōsaka Shōsen Kaisha, serve to remind
the resident of the rapid development of the ship-building industry
in this country, while at the same time affording evidence of the
growth of the country’s mercantile marine. The order placed with the
first-named yard is for four large steamers of 6,000, 5,400, 2,500,
and 1,900 tons, respectively, the largest vessels being intended for
the Japan Mail Steamship Company’s European and Australian lines. Nor
is the Ōsaka Shōsen Kaisha in a different position. This enterprising
company also has found it necessary to order new vessels, and has
found it economical to order them in Japan instead of from abroad. The
fact is worthy of note, for it is the first time in the history of the
country that orders for eight ocean-going steamers have been in hand at
one time. This may, we trust, be held to indicate that the shipping and
ship-building industries are in a healthy and prosperous state.

The contrast between the condition of the local ship-building trade
now and that of a few years back is a striking one. Perhaps the first
real impetus given to private ship-building here was due to the
enterprise of the late Mr. E. C. Kirby, at whose yard at Onohama—the
plant of which was subsequently removed to Kure—one large cruiser and
several smaller gunboats and steamers were successfully launched.
Since then, the yards at Kawasaki, Ōsaka, Ishikawajima, Uraga, and
Nagasaki have taken up the work vigorously, and demonstrated beyond
possibility of cavil their ability to turn out ocean-going craft, and
large river steamers of the highest standard. With the productions of
Ōsaka and Kōbe ship-building establishments trading regularly on the
Yangtze, and 6,000-ton liners from the Nagasaki Shipbuilding Engine
Works, making record voyages between Seattle and the Orient, and others
running regularly between home ports and London, there is no longer
room for surprise in viewing Japan-built steamers. There is no doubt
that with the opening up of additional lines in the China and Japan
seas, sufficient work for local ship-builders will be forthcoming for
some years to come, and it is therefore unlikely that they will enter
into serious competition in the near future with ship-building yards
in Shanghai, Hongkong, and Singapore. The home demand seems likely to
engage their activities for some years yet, though the presence of a
700-ton steamer for the Shanghai customs on the stocks at Kawasaki may
be held to belie the prediction.... Although Japanese ship-builders may
have quite enough to do in the near future to meet the home demand,
a young rival has entered the lists against the great ship-building
concerns of the West; and this in itself is no small credit to the
nation, which is already able to plume itself upon having accomplished
more in a generation than any other people in Asia or in the South
Seas, and as much, relatively, as the American and English peoples
whose homes are on the Pacific slope.


THE ŌSAKA EXHIBITION[204]

Considering that as recently as 1873 Japan had no such institution
as a factory, and knew nothing whatever of iron foundries or machine
shops, the Japanese-made machinery display at the exhibition at Ōsaka
was astonishing. There we found silk-weaving and mat-making machines,
electrical motors and generators, gas and oil engines, locomotives,
electrical fittings, tools, beltings, match-making machine,
lemonade-making machine, distilling machine, fire-brigade appliances,
rice-cleaning machines, huge steam navvy, oil tanks, soap-making
machines, printing machines, massive hoisting engine, tea-refining
machinery, heavy mining machinery, and many other smaller machines, all
of Japanese manufacture, admirably made and efficient.

In general manufactures the empire made a good showing. Straw braid;
_shibori_, a beautiful stuff, making pretty dress material; woollen
serges and woven silks, particularly a delicate fabric of mixed silk
and cotton (the output of this fabric exceeding $1,500,000 per annum);
cheap and good cotton blankets, Japanese towels, artistic designs
in tiles and roofing materials, drainpipes, fireproof bricks. In
drinkables, also of home manufacture, there was beer by the carload;
_sake_, the famous native drink, enough to quench the thirst of an army.

One of the best exhibits was in clocks; some of them very handsome
and very cheap, made by one or other of the twelve Japanese clock
companies. The porcelain exhibition was good, consisting of beautiful
vases, artistic porcelain trays, basins, teacups, etc. The exhibit of
Japanese-made shoes was quite creditable. Other native manufactures
exhibited were bamboo furniture, whatnots, over-mantels, fire screens,
shell buttons, paper lanterns, fine silken rugs, shawls, paper,
camphor, oils, soap, all kinds of sauces and relishes, silks of every
hue and description, silk lace, gold and silver thread, linen, duck,
tent cloths, ivory work, bronzes, lacquer and silver work, surgical
instruments, pianos, organs, and other musical instruments, bicycles,
gymnastic and athletic goods, microscopes, cameras, barometers, and
almost every kind of educational apparatus.

The natural products of the country were exhibited to good advantage.
Rice, tobacco (manufactured and un-manufactured), silkworms, various
varieties of silk cocoons, tea, huge oranges, sugar, furs, woods,
pearls, coral, fish (dried and salted). Mushrooms were a special
exhibit of one prefecture, tea of another, and so on. The whole section
of the agricultural experiment station was complete and admirable in
every way.

In the foreign section we found weaving-machines (only introduced
October, 1902, and already largely sold), German shoe-making and
cigarette-making machines, and searchlights from Nuremberg, match and
matchbox-making machines, rifles, wire samples, chemicals, perfumes,
British-made electrical appliances, timber, paints, varnishes, gas and
oil engines, steam-engines (British), a turbo-alternator (electric)
from Newcastle-on-Tyne, rubber and steel goods from England, Maxim’s
famous guns, fountain pens, typewriters, Indian cotton, American bone
goods, American motor cars and bicycles, meat extracts, American
provisions, American lighting and heating apparatus for railway
carriages and street cars, refrigerator cars, Boston pile-sinking
outfits, New York pumps, marine gasolene engine, and sewing-machines.

Canada also made a good exhibit of the cereals and food products of the
Dominion, with the Canadian system of cold storage, and of pulp woods,
furniture, and iron work.


COST OF LIVING IN JAPAN


_How Laborers Live_

The following tables are from “The Labor World” for July 1, 1898. The
editor sent a form to be filled out by the laborers themselves, to get
accurate statistics of their lives and work. A few samples throw light
upon the inner life of Japanese laborers:—

 No. 1.—House, two rooms; a family,—man (30), wife (23), mother (53),
 two sisters (14 and 11); occupation, blacksmith.

  Working days in a month              26
  Working hours in a day               12
  Daily wages                       $0.52
  Monthly income                    13.83
  Monthly expenses                  13.65
  House rent, one month              0.96
  Rice                               5.76
  Fuel and light                     1.08
  Vegetables.                        0.87
  Fish                               0.96
  _Sake_ (rice beer)                 0.24
  _Soy_ (Japanese sauce)             0.73
  Tobacco                            0.20
  Hair cutting and dressing          0.83
  Bath                               0.88
  Pin money                          0.25
  Sundries                           0.89

 No. 55.—House, two rooms, with kitchen; a family,—man (27), wife (25),
 boy (6), girl (2); business, iron worker.

  Daily wages                              $0.25
  Overtime income for one month             1.50
  Monthly income                            8.28
  Monthly income                            8.28
  Monthly expense                           9.44
  House rent                                0.75
  Rice                                      3.25
  Fuel and light                            0.41
  Vegetables                                0.60
  Fish                                      0.60
  _Soy_ and _miso_                          0.23
  Tobacco                                   0.25
  Hair cutting and dressing                 0.18
  Bath                                      0.20
  Pin money                                 0.60
  Sundries, including interest on debt      2.37


_Increase in Living Expense_

The following interesting comparison between the cost of living in 1889
and 1899 is from “The Miyako”:

 (Calculated monthly expenditure of a family of six members—a married
 couple, a parent, two children, and one servant—living with strict
 economy.)

                                        1889.             1899.
                                        _yen._            _yen._

  House rent (a house containing the
    furnished rooms of 6, 4-1/2, and
    2 _mats_, respectively              2.50              5.00

  Cleaned rice (at the rate of
    2 _shō_ per day)                    4.50              7.00
                                      1 _to_ 3 _shō_  (8 _shō_ 5 _gō_
                                       per _yen_.)      per _yen_.)

  _Soy_                                 0.45              0.75
  Salt and _miso_ (including 1-1/2
    _gō_ of salt and some _miso_)       0.40              0.70
  Oils (3 _shō_ of kerosene and 5
    _gō_ of vegetable oil)              0.45              0.69
  Sugar                                 0.60              0.90
  Milk (1 _gō_ per day)                 0.90              1.10
  Newspaper (only 1)                    0.25              0.35
  School expenses (for 2 children)      0.80              0.90
  Stationery expenditure
    (for the children)                  0.60              0.90
  Hair dressing                         0.34              0.69
  Price of bath (every other day for
    the family)                         0.90              1.50
  Vegetables                            0.90              1.50
  Fish food (9 messes for the family)   1.08              1.80
  Beef (6 messes for the family,
    about 2/3 of 1 pound)               0.60              1.20
  Tsukudani and other auxiliary foods
    (6 messes)                          0.24              0.42
  Tea                                   0.40              0.50
  Fuel                                  1.00              1.80
                                       -----             -----
        Total                          17.21             28.20
  Security money for rent               7.00             15.00

These include necessaries, but if other petty expenses are taken into
calculation, a family of 6 members as mentioned above will require a
monthly income of at least 35 _yen_ on which to maintain themselves
decently.


_Wages of Japanese Workmen_

Following is a table of the average wages:—

                                         1902.     1911.
                                        _Yen._    _Yen._
  Carpenter                 per day       .775     1.063
  Plasterer                     „         .863     1.150
  Painter                       „         .860     1.238
  Tile Roofer                   „         .613     1.225
  Roofer                        „         .913     1.213
  Bricklayer                    „         .900     1.250
  Furniture Maker               „         .800      .988
  Stone Mason                   „         .925     1.250
  Gardener                      „         .600      .838
  Paper Hanger                  „         .825     1.025
  Matting Setter                „         .900     1.175
  Sawyer                        „         .863     1.088
  Compositor                    „         .575      .750
  Printer                       „         .400      .650
  Wooden Clog Maker             „         .638      .625
  Cooper                        „         .700      .528
  Fireman                       „         .550      .813
  Coolie                        „         .450      .575
  Jeweller                      „         .650      .650
  Tailor, Jap. clothes          „         .688      .738
  [205]Cabinet Maker            „         .550      .888
  [205]Lacquerer                „         .513      .600
  [205]Shoemaker                „         .750     1.038
  [205]Harness Maker            „         .675     1.038
  [205]Cart Maker               „         .550      .588
  [205]Founder                  „         .813      .700
  [205]Blacksmith               „         .813     1.075
  [205]Rice Pounder             „         .375      .483
  [205]Dyer                per month     8.875     8.375
  [205]Washerman                „       10.000     7.750
  [205]Jap. Sock Maker          „        6.000     9.500
  [205]Eur. Confectioner        „        9.750    13.000
  [205]Male Servant             „        2.625     4.000
  [205]Female Servant           „        2.000     3.250
  [205]Tailor, Eur. clothes     „       17.625    30.000


RAILWAYS IN JAPAN

The report on railway development shows that since the government
constructed its first line of eighteen miles from Yokohama to Tōkyō
in 1872, a great trunk line of 1,200 miles has been built, and the
total mileage in the country increased to 6,042, which in 1910 handled
153,088,066 passengers and 25,815,000 tons of freight. Of this entire
mileage, 506 miles are owned by private corporations, and 5,536 by the
government, which was the pioneer in the movement to give the country
modern land transportation. No private construction was done until
1883, when the government had 181 miles of railway under operation;
and it was not until 1889 that private enterprise for a time led the
governmental effort. The state railways to August, 1905, cost the sum
of 85,573,511 _yen_, while the private systems represented a cost for
construction to the same date of 191,230,291 _yen_. In 1910 the grand
total had reached almost 577,000,000 _yen_.

[Illustration: MILITARY REVIEW, HIMEJI]

According to the reports made on the railways at the end of the year
1910 the gross earnings of both state and private railways for that
year were 89,000,000 _yen_, the gross expenditures 46,796,000 _yen_,
and the net profit over 43,700,000 _yen_.

The government has arranged plans for railway construction and
development which involve an outlay of 174,523,365 _yen_, the
construction to extend through eight years, and the improvements
through twelve.

The line from Nagoya to Haichioji, near Tōkyō, opened to traffic in
1911, is about 224 miles long. The construction represents the best
engineering skill, and an outlay of $17,500,000. It has ninety-five
tunnels and 350 bridges.

The people of the country opposed the construction of the first line
from Yokohama to Tokyo as a dangerous thing, and it was several years
before public opposition to the innovation was entirely removed. Bond
issues for railway construction were opposed, but the government
insisted on its policy and finally won the people to its general
support, so that by the end of the year 1908 on all lines there were
2,156 locomotives, 5,951 passenger coaches, and 34,045 freight cars in
use.


POSTAL SAVINGS IN JAPAN[206]

It must be admitted at the outset that the system of postal savings
in Japan cannot boast of any particularly brilliant record. The study
of it reveals, however, a state of things which is not without some
encouraging features. We give below the amounts of the deposits and
some other items for every third year since the inauguration of the
institution:—

  ======+==================+====================+============
        | DEPOSITS AT THE  |                    | AMOUNT PER
  YEAR. | END OF THE YEAR. | NO. OF DEPOSITORS. | DEPOSITOR.
        |     _Yen._       |                    |   _Yen._
  ------+------------------+--------------------+------------
  1875  |         15,000   |          1,800     |      8
  1878  |        286,000   |         14,100     |     20
  1881  |        821,000   |         38,900     |     21
  1884  |      5,260,000   |        141,200     |     37
  1887  |     18,213,000   |        568,800     |     31
  1890  |     19,197,000   |        833,700     |     25
  1893  |     26,155,000   |      1,060,200     |     24
  1896  |     28,251,000   |      1,273,300     |     21
  1899  |     23,455,000   |      1,397,600     |     16
  1902  |     28,536,000   |      2,707,500     |     10
  1905  |     54,754,096   |      5,858,560     |      9
  1908  |     92,389,473   |      7,886,279     |     12
  1911  |    200,000,000   |     12,000,000     |     17
  ======+==================+====================+============

The sudden drop between the years 1896 and 1902 is
owing to the fact that the extraordinarily high interest offered by
the ordinary banks during that period of monetary stringency diverted
deposits from the Post Offices. The gradual fall in the general rates
of interest since then has already begun to turn the tide back in
favor of the Post Offices, as shown by the figures for late years.
What is particularly satisfactory is the increase in the number of
depositors, the increase in this respect being far more remarkable
than the increase in the amount of the deposits, as shown by the
decreasing amount per depositor. This means, if it means anything, that
the advantages offered by the Postal Savings Bank are more and more
extensively appreciated by the poorer classes.

The amount of deposits at the Postal Savings Bank seems to be steadily
increasing, as is shown by the table. The figures for 1909, not given
there, show 9,717,236 depositors, and 122,098,101 _yen_ deposits.

Not altogether unsatisfactory as is this result of the official efforts
to encourage the saving habit among the people, it must be noted that
we are in this respect far behind some of the European countries.
Consulting the statistics for the year 1898, we find the postal savings
reached in that year to £120,000,000 in England, £33,000,000 in France,
£21,000,000 in Belgium, £4,800,000 in Austria, £1,000,000 in Hungary,
£2,700,000 in Holland, and £3,400,000 in Sweden. In spite of the great
improvement effected in the system of late years, especially in the way
of simplifying the official procedure connected with the acceptance
and repayment of the deposits, much still remains to be done in order
to bring the facilities provided by it within easy reach of the people
by increasing the number of the Post Offices authorized to receive
deposits throughout the country.

While speaking of savings, it may not be uninteresting to mention a
few figures on the state of the deposits at the ordinary banks. We do
not happen to have at hand the statistics covering all the banking
concerns in the country. The “Ginkō Tsushin-Roku,” however, supplies us
with reliable statistics up to February, 1902, so far as the principal
banking centres are concerned. We find, then, that the total amount of
deposits at the banks belonging to the clearing-houses of Tōkyō, Ōsaka,
Kyōto, Nagoya, Yokohama, and Kōbe, stood at the end of February at
308,289,000 yen, made up as follows, not including the deposits at the
Bank of Japan:

                           _Yen._
  Tōkyō               119,268,000
  Ōsaka                75,824,000
  Yokohama             49,280,000
  Kōbe                 23,423,000
  Kyōto                22,616,000
  Nagoya               17,878,000

In June, 1910, the Bank of Japan had a paid-up capital of 37,600,000
_yen_; in 1909 the deposits were 220,101,784 _yen_. At that time the
Industrial Bank of Japan had deposits of 8,930,050 _yen_. The deposits
in all the Japanese banks in 1909 amounted to 1,617,873,711 _yen_.


THE OIL INDUSTRY IN JAPAN[207]

Japan’s oil industry has a brilliant future before it. The use of
kerosene in the country has grown at a wonderfully rapid pace. In the
first year of _Meiji_ the amount of oil imported was 639 _koku_. In
1901 it had reached 1,300,000 _koku_. The value of the oil imported
in 1868 was only 7,236 _yen_; that imported in 1901 was 14 million
_yen_.[208] The following table shows the rate at which the import of
kerosene into Japan increased:—

  =======+===========+============
         |           |   VALUE.
  YEARS. |  _Koku._  |   _Yen._
  -------+-----------+------------
  1868   |       639 |      7,236
  1872   |     8,936 |    160,608
  1877   |    53,645 |    605,598
  1882   |   413,644 |  2,320,905
  1887   |   421,177 |  1,871,428
  1892   |   653,785 |  3,328,398
  1897   | 1,221,164 |  7,667,350
  1900   | 1,356,846 | 14,162,652
  1901   | 1,379,927 | 14,943,400
  =======+===========+============

Notwithstanding the large supply that has come from abroad, of late
years the demand for the Echigo oil has gone on increasing, as shown in
the subjoined table, which covers seven years.

  =======+=================+===========
         | _Koku_ OF CRUDE |  VALUE.
  YEARS. |    PETROLEUM.   |  _Yen._
  -------+-----------------+-----------
  1895   |      158,334    |   526,976
  1896   |      207,470    |   619,333
  1897   |      257,614    |   668,677
  1898   |      355,006    |   670,308
  1899   |      544,583    | 1,450,904
  1900   |      836,628    | 2,142,003
  1901   |    1,115,807    | 2,345,916
  =======+=================+===========

It is calculated that about 5/10 of the total quantity of this crude
petroleum was used for lighting purposes. It would seem, then, that
Echigo supplied 3/10 of the total amount of oil used for lighting in
Japan during the seven years, and that the remaining 7/10 came from
abroad. Taking the year 1901, the value of the crude petroleum being
2,345,916 _yen_, it is estimated that when refined this amount of
petroleum would fetch not less than 4 million _yen_. But the fact
remains that the proportion of oil imported is still very large, so
that there is room for a further great development of the business.

In 1908 Japan’s output of petroleum was 1,872,592 U. S. barrels.
Echigo is by no means worked out: new fields are constantly being
discovered in that province. Then petroleum has been found in Hokkaidō
and in the Yamagata and Shizuoka prefectures. So that among Japan’s
modern industries her oil trade may be pronounced to be full of
promise. How the quality of the Japanese oil compares with the American
and Russian brands, we are not told by the _Jiji_, but from other
sources we gather that when properly refined Japanese petroleum is
equal to the best American and Russian oils.


NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

The following table shows the national development in population,
finance, trade, railway, vessels, telegraphs, savings, and currency,
during the 30 years from 1872 to 1902.

  ========+===============+==============+=============+==========
          |               |    STATE     |             | RAILWAY.
    YEAR. |  POPULATION.  | EXPENDITURE. |   TRADE.    |  MILES.
          | (IN THOUSAND) |    _Yen._    |   _Yen._    |
  --------+---------------+--------------+-------------+----------
    1872  |     33,210    |   57,730,025 |  43,204,462 |      18
    1873  |     33,300    |   62,678,601 |  49,742,830 |      18
    1874  |     33,625    |   82,269,528 |  42,779,120 |      38
    1875  |     33,997    |   69,203,242 |  48,586,738 |      38
    1876  |     34,338    |   59,308,956 |  51,676,296 |      65
    1877  |   (unknown)   |   48,428,324 |  50,769,424 |      66
    1878  |       „       |   60,911,336 |  58,862,974 |      68
    1879  |     35,768    |   60,317,578 |  61,128,772 |      73
    1880  |     35,929    |   63,140,896 |  65,021,987 |      98
    1881  |     36,358    |   71,460,321 |  62,250,133 |     122
    1882  |     36,700    |   73,480,667 |  67,168,344 |     170
    1883  |     37,017    |   83,106,859 |  64,712,861 |     244
    1884  |     37,451    |   76,663,108 |  63,544,112 |     262
    1885  |     37,868    |   61,115,313 |  66,503,659 |     353
    1886  |     38,507    |   83,223,960 |  84,044,745 |     430
    1887  |     39,069    |   79,453,036 |  96,711,932 |     593
    1888  |     39,607    |   81,504,024 | 131,160,744 |     912
    1889  |     40,072    |   79,713,671 | 136,164,472 |   1,136
    1890  |     40,453    |   82,125,403 | 138,332,086 |   1,339
    1891  |     40,718    |   83,558,891 | 142,454,540 |   1,716
    1892  |     41,089    |   76,734,740 | 162,428,833 |   1,870
    1893  |     41,388    |   84,581,872 | 177,970,036 |   1,938
    1894  |     41,813    |   78,128,643 | 230,028,141 |   2,118
    1895  |     42,270    |   85,317,179 | 265,372,756 |   2,290
    1896  |     42,706    |  168,856,509 | 289,517,234 |   2,507
    1897  |     43,228    |  223,678,844 | 382,435,848 |   2,948
    1898  |     43,763    |  219,757,568 | 443,255,909 |   3,120
    1899  |     44,260    |  254,165,537 | 435,331,802 |   3,638
    1900  |      ....     |  292,726,996 | 491,691,839 |   3,855
    1901  |      ....     |  266,856,824 | 508,166,187 |   4,026
    1902  |      ....     |  275,751,194 |             |
  --------+---------------+--------------+-------------+----------

  ========+==============+=============+============+=============
          |    VESSELS.  | TELEGRAPHIC |            |   MONEY IN
    YEAR. |      TON.    |    LINES.   |  SAVINGS.  | CIRCULATION.
          |              |    _Ri._    |   _Yen._   |    _Yen._
  --------+--------------+-------------+------------+-------------
    1872  |     22,364   |        87   |    ....    | 132,611,498
    1873  |     26,988   |       806   |    ....    | 159,423,361
    1874  |     26,120   |     1,758   |    ....    | 157,660,830
    1875  |     42,304   |     1,833   |     15,224 | 154,931,596
    1876  |     40,248   |     2,156   |     41,845 | 163,692,344
    1877  |     49,105   |     2,876   |    100,138 | 175,432,023
    1878  |     43,899   |     3,512   |    286,289 | 221,994,874
    1879  |     42,763   |     3,842   |    494,114 | 215,912,239
    1880  |     41,215   |     4,489   |    662,091 | 203,994,171
    1881  |     41,044   |     5,078   |    821,938 | 195,742,688
    1882  |     42,107   |     5,477   |  1,058,225 | 186,376,681
    1883  |     45,350   |     5,871   |  2,298,502 | 182,625,317
    1884  |     49,845   |     6,122   |  5,260,484 | 177,978,053
    1885  |     59,613   |     6,283   |  9,050,255 | 181,433,916
    1886  |     63,314   |     6,353   | 15,462,054 | 198,557,838
    1887  |     72,322   |     6,818   | 18,417,022 | 200,157,163
    1888  |     81,066   |     7,588   | 20,142,169 | 207,825,609
    1889  |     88,816   |     8,191   | 19,976,419 | 220,748,343
    1890  |     93,812   |     9,250   | 19,197,942 | 205,408,438
    1891  |     95,588   |     9,113   | 26,424,174 | 210,872,584
    1892  |    102,301   |     9,920   | 30,031,483 | 219,848,385
    1893  |    110,205   |    10,230   | 32,199.954 | 244,847,437
    1894  |    169,414   |    11,502   | 32,772,652 | 256,088,534
    1895  |    213,221   |    12,212   | 41,143,695 | 291,665,016
    1896  |    227,841   |    15,431   | 46,693,884 | 307,461,803
    1897  |    426,624   |    18,360   | 51,550,536 | 330,470,142
    1898  |    464,246   |    20,561   | 52,532,992 | 285,589,698
    1899  |    498,376   |    24,342   | 68,829,712 | 332,702,090
    1900  |    534,239   |    27,390   | 72,897,286 | 318,280,814
    1901  |      ....    |     ....    |    ....    | 306,315,006
    1902  |              |             |            |
  --------+--------------+-------------+------------+-------------

  NOTE.—In expenditure, the figures from 1872 up to 1898 are taken
  from the settled account, and those of 1899, 1900, and 1901 from the
  actual account. 1902 is from the Budget. In railways, the figures
  show the mileages of the lines belonging to the government as well
  as those belonging to private firms opened to traffic at the end of
  the respective years. The tonnage of vessels shown in the table is
  that of steamers. Before 1896, the figures represented the aggregate
  amount of both registered and unregistered tonnage, while from that
  year up to 1902, the figures only represented registered tonnage. In
  savings, the figures show the total amount saved in the post offices
  as well in the savings banks at the end of the respective years.
  The figures from 1890 to 1900 indicate, however, the amounts of the
  postal savings only.

  From the “Tōyō Keizai Shimpō” (Oriental Economist).


DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOREIGN TRADE OF JAPAN

From the official statistics we give a table of Japan’s foreign trade
each year from 1868 to 1901, and for 1909.

  =======+====================+=====================+===================
         |                    |                     |
         |     EXPORTS.       |      IMPORTS.       |       TOTAL.
         |      _Yen._        |       _Yen._        |       _Yen._
         |                    |                     |
  -------+-------------+------+--------------+------+--------------+----
  1868   |  15,553,472 | 870  |   10,693,071 | 790  |   26,246,544 | 660
  1869   |  12,908,977 | 990  |   20,783,633 | 090  |   33,692,611 | 080
  1870   |  14,543,012 | 510  |   33,741,637 | 360  |   48,284,649 | 870
  1871   |  17,968,608 | 660  |   21,916,727 | 650  |   39,885,336 | 310
  1872   |  17,026,647 | 220  |   26,174,814 | 930  |   43,201,462 | 150
  1873   |  21,635,440 | 850  |   28,107,390 | 030  |   49,742,830 | 880
  1874   |  19,317,306 | 090  |   23,461,814 | 400  |   42,779,120 | 490
  1875   |  18,611,110 | 610  |   29,975,627 | 620  |   48,586,738 | 230
  1876   |  27,711,527 | 500  |   29,964,678 | 960  |   51,676,206 | 460
  1877   |  23,348,521 | 600  |   27,420,902 | 950  |   50,769,424 | 650
  1878   |  25,988,140 | 280  |   32,874,834 | 170  |   58,862,974 | 450
  1879   |  28,175,770 | 190  |   32,953,002 | 390  |   61,128,772 | 580
  1880   |  28,395,386 | 660  |   36,626,601 | 000  |   65,021,987 | 660
  1881   |  31,058,887 | 930  |   31,191,246 | 020  |   62,250,133 | 950
  1882   |  37,721,750 | 570  |   29,446,593 | 980  |   67,168,344 | 550
  1883   |  36,268,019 | 590  |   28,444,841 | 780  |   64,712,861 | 370
  1884   |  33,871,465 | 500  |   29,672,647 | 450  |   63,544,112 | 950
  1885   |  37,146,691 | 430  |   29,356,967 | 920  |   66,503,659 | 350
  1886   |  48,876,312 | 790  |   32,168,432 | 260  |   81,044,745 | 050
  1887   |  52,407,681 | 150  |   44,304,251 | 690  |   96,711,932 | 840
  1888   |  65,705,510 | 210  |   65,455,234 | 010  |  131,160,744 | 220
  1889   |  70,060,705 | 820  |   66,103,766 | 600  |  136,164,472 | 420
  1890   |  56,603,506 | 030  |   81,728,580 | 500  |  138,332,086 | 530
  1891   |  79,527,272 | 340  |   62,927,268 | 380  |  142,454,540 | 720
  1892   |  91,102,753 | 630  |   71,326,079 | 500  |  162,428,833 | 130
  1893   |  89,712,864 | 590  |   88,257,171 | 710  |  177,970,036 | 300
  1894   | 113,246,086 | 150  |  117,481,955 | 460  |  230,728,041 | 610
  1895   | 136,112,177 | 920  |  129,260,578 | 280  |  265,372,756 | 200
  1896   | 177,842,700 | 620  |  171,674,474 | 250  |  289,517,234 | 870
  1897   | 163,135,077 | 320  |  219,300,771 | 640  |  382,435,848 | 960
  1898   | 165,753,752 | 880  |  277,502,156 | 510  |  443,255,909 | 390
  1899   | 214,929,894 | 310  |  220,401,925 | 990  |  435,331,820 | 300
  1900   | 204,429,998 | 980  |  287,261,845 | 680  |  491,691,839 | 560
  1901   | 252,349,542 | 100  |  255,816,644 | 700  |  508,166,187 | 800
  =1909= |=413,112,511=|  ..  | =394,198,843=|  ..  | =807,311,354=|

  =======+=======================================
         |      IMPORTS COMPARED WITH EXPORTS.
         +--------------------+------------------
         |      INCREASE.     |     Decrease.
         |       _Yen._       |       _Yen._
  -------+-------------+------+-------------+----
  1868   |    .......  |  ..  |   4,860,401 | 080
  1869   |   7,874,655 |      |             |
  1870   |  19,198,624 | 850  |             |
  1871   |   3,948,118 | 990  |             |
  1872   |   9,148,167 | 710  |             |
  1873   |   6,471,949 | 180  |             |
  1874   |   4,144,508 | 310  |             |
  1875   |  11,364,517 | 010  |             |
  1876   |    .......  |  ..  |   3,746,848 | 540
  1877   |   4,072,381 | 850  |             |
  1878   |   6,886,693 | 890  |             |
  1879   |   4,777,232 | 200  |             |
  1880   |   8,231,214 | 340  |             |
  1881   |     132,358 | 090  |             |
  1882   |    ......   |  ..  |   8,275,156 | 590
  1883   |    ......   |  ..  |   7,823,177 | 810
  1884   |    ......   |  ..  |   4,198,818 | 050
  1885   |    ......   |  ..  |   7,789,723 | 510
  1886   |    ......   |  ..  |  16,707,880 | 530
  1887   |    ......   |  ..  |   8,103,429 | 460
  1888   |    ......   |  ..  |     250,276 | 200
  1889   |    ......   |  ..  |   3,966,939 | 220
  1890   |  25,125,074 | 470  |             |
  1891   |    ......   |  ..  |  16,600,003 | 960
  1892   |    ......   |  ..  |  19,776,674 | 130
  1893   |    ......   |  ..  |   1,455,692 | 880
  1894   |   4,235,869 | 310  |             |
  1895   |    ......   |  ..  |   6,851,599 | 640
  1896   |  53,831,713 | 680  |             |
  1897   |  56,165,694 | 320  |             |
  1898   | 111,748,403 | 630  |             |
  1899   |   5,472,031 | 680  |             |
  1900   |  82,831,851 | 600  |             |
  1901   |   3,467,101 | 600  |             |
  =1909= |             |      |             |


THE WEALTH OF JAPAN

The following estimate gives an idea of the wealth of Japan and its
distribution:—

  Land                            7,000 millions _yen_.
  Mines                             500    „       „
  Live-stock                         80    „       „
  Buildings                       1,900    „       „
  Furniture                         400    „       „
  Railroads                         350    „       „
  Warships and merchant-ships       250    „       „
  Specie                            200    „       „
  Miscellaneous                     300    „       „
  Goods and other products          800    „       „
                                 ------
      Total                      11,080    „       „

       *       *       *       *       *

The output of gold in 1908 was 168,883 ounces.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the position Japanese occupy as regards the acquisition of wealth
Mr. Kure Bunso, the well-known statistician, writes in the “Shakaigaku
Zasshi” as follows: There are only two men in Japan who pay an income
tax on over 250,000 _yen_. There are only 13 men in the whole country
who pay on 39,000 _yen_, being in the proportion of 4 persons to every
100,000 inhabitants; only 67 who pay on 24,000 _yen_, being in the
proportion of 2 persons to every 10,000 inhabitants; 96 persons who
pay on 17,000 _yen_, being in the proportion of 2.8 persons to every
10,000 inhabitants; those who pay on 11,000 _yen_ number 140, being in
the proportion of 4 persons to every 10,000 inhabitants. Out of every
1,000 inhabitants there are only 7 persons who make 2,700 _yen_ a year.
Thus it is seen that when compared with the French and the English
the Japanese are extremely poor. The Germans seem to be rich to the
Japanese, though when compared with the French and English they are
poor. General Grant, when in Japan nearly twenty years ago, remarked
that Japan was fortunate in having such an equality among all classes
of the people. He said that the gulf between the rich and the poor did
not exist here. Equality may be all very well in its way, but, says
Mr. Kure, a state of equality in which most of the people hardly have
enough to live on is anything but desirable.[209]

       *       *       *       *       *

The new building of the Mitsui Company in Tōkyō is constructed upon
steel frames, and is the only one of its kind in the East. The Mitsui
Bank is the oldest banking establishment in Japan, more than 200 years
old. The building area is 2,600 square yards on a site covering 2-1/2
acres.


JAPANESE YEAR PERIODS

It should be borne in mind that the Japanese year periods do not
regularly correspond with the reigns of the Emperors, because “a new
one was chosen whenever it was deemed necessary to commemorate an
auspicious or ward off a malign event.” But hereafter the era will
correspond with the reign of an Emperor. The names of some of these
eras are quite famous, like the Elizabethan or the Victorian Era in
English history. As the first era was a time of great reforms, it is
known as the Taikwa Reformation; the Engi Era, in the tenth century,
is celebrated for important legislation; the Genroku Era, in the
seventeenth century, was “a period of great activity in various arts”;
and the Tempō Era, of recent days, was “the last brilliant period of
feudalism before its fall.” This name was also given to the large
8 _rin_ piece coined in that era. The Wadō Era, in the fourteenth
century, was so named on account of the discovery of copper; and the
second era, Hakuchi, commemorates a “white pheasant,” presented to the
Emperor.


LIST OF JAPANESE YEAR PERIODS.[210]

    ===========================+===========+===========
    NAME.                      | JAPANESE  | CHRISTIAN
                               | ERA.[211] |    ERA.
    ---------------------------+-----------+-----------
    Taikwa                     |    1305   |    645
    Hakuchi                    |    1310   |    650
    (Blank)                    | 1315-1331 |  655-671
    Sujaku                     |    1332   |    672
    Hakuhō                     |    1332   |    672
    Shuchō                     |    1346   |    686
    (Blank)                    | 1347-1360 |  687-700
    Daihō [Taihō]              |    1361   |    701
    Keiun                      |    1364   |    704
    Wadō                       |    1368   |    708
    Reiki                      |    1375   |    715
    Yōrō                       |    1377   |    717
    Jinki [Shinki]             |    1384   |    724
    Tembiō                     |    1389   |    729
    Tembiō shōhō               |    1409   |    749
    Tembiō hoji                |    1417   |    757
    Tembiō jingo               |    1425   |    765
    Jingo keiun                |    1427   |    767
    Hōki                       |    1430   |    770
    Tenō                       |    1441   |    781
    Enriaku                    |    1442   |    782
    Daidō                      |    1466   |    806
    Kōnin                      |    1470   |    810
    Tenchō                     |    1484   |    824
    Jōwa [Shōwa]               |    1494   |    834
    Kajō [Kashō]               |    1508   |    848
    Ninju                      |    1511   |    851
    Saikō                      |    1514   |    854
    Tenan                      |    1517   |    857
    Jōgwan [Jōkwan]            |    1519   |    859
    Gwangiō [Genkei]           |    1537   |    877
    Ninna [Ninwa]              |    1545   |    885
    Kwampei                    |    1549   |    889
    Shōtai                     |    1558   |    898
    Engi                       |    1561   |    901
    Enchō                      |    1583   |    923
    Jōhei [Shōhei]             |    1591   |    931
    Tengiō [Tenkei]            |    1598   |    938
    Tenriaku                   |    1607   |    947
    Tentoku                    |    1617   |    957
    Ōwa                        |    1621   |    961
    Kōhō                       |    1624   |    964
    Anna                       |    1628   |    968
    Tenroku                    |    1630   |    970
    Ten-en                     |    1633   |    973
    Jōgen                      |    1636   |    976
    Tengen                     |    1638   |    978
    Eikwan                     |    1643   |    983
    Kwanna                     |    1645   |    985
    Eien                       |    1647   |    987
    Eiso [Eisho]               |    1649   |    989
    Shōriaku                   |    1650   |    990
    Chōtoku                    |    1655   |    995
    Chōhō                      |    1659   |    999
    Kwankō                     |    1664   |   1004
    Chōwa                      |    1672   |   1012
    Kwannin                    |    1677   |   1017
    Ji-an                      |    1681   |   1021
    Manju                      |    1684   |   1024
    Chōgen                     |    1688   |   1028
    Chōriaku                   |    1697   |   1037
    Chōkiū                     |    1700   |   1040
    Kwantoku                   |    1704   |   1044
    Eijō [Eishō]               |    1706   |   1046
    Tengi [Tenki]              |    1713   |   1053
    Kōhei                      |    1718   |   1058
    Jiriaku                    |    1725   |   1065
    Enkiū                      |    1729   |   1069
    Jōhō [Shōhō]               |    1734   |   1074
    Jōriaku [Shōreki]          |    1737   |   1077
    Eiho                       |    1741   |   1081
    Otoku                      |    1744   |   1084
    Kwanji                     |    1747   |   1087
    Kahō                       |    1754   |   1094
    Eichō                      |    1756   |   1096
    Jōtoku [Shōtoku]           |    1757   |   1097
    Kōwa                       |    1759   |   1099
    Chōji                      |    1764   |   1104
    Kajō [Kashō]               |    1766   |   1106
    Tennin                     |    1768   |   1108
    Tenei                      |    1770   |   1110
    Eikiū                      |    1773   |   1113
    Genei                      |    1778   |   1118
    Hōan                       |    1780   |   1120
    Tenji                      |    1784   |   1124
    Daiji                      |    1786   |   1126
    Tenjō [Tenshō]             |    1791   |   1131
    Chōjō [Chōshō]             |    1792   |   1132
    Hōen                       |    1795   |   1135
    Eiji                       |    1801   |   1141
    Kōji                       |    1802   |   1142
    Tenyō                      |    1804   |   1144
    Kiū-an                     |    1805   |   1145
    Nimbiō                     |    1811   |   1151
    Kiūju                      |    1814   |   1154
    Hōgen                      |    1816   |   1156
    Heiji                      |    1819   |   1159
    Eiriaku                    |    1820   |   1160
    Ōhō                        |    1821   |   1161
    Chōkwan                    |    1823   |   1163
    Eiman                      |    1825   |   1165
    Ninan                      |    1826   |   1166
    Ka-ō                       |    1829   |   1169
    Jō-an [Shōan]              |    1831   |   1171
    Angen                      |    1835   |   1175
    Jishō                      |    1837   |   1177
    Yōwa                       |    1841   |   1181
    Ju-ei                      |    1842   |   1182
    Genriaku                   |    1844   |   1184
    Bunji                      |    1845   |   1185
    Kenkiū                     |    1850   |   1190
    Shōji                      |    1859   |   1199
    Kennin                     |    1861   |   1201
    Genkiū                     |    1864   |   1204
    Kenei                      |    1866   |   1206
    Jōgen [Shōgen]             |    1867   |   1207
    Kenriaku                   |    1871   |   1211
    Kempō                      |    1873   |   1213
    Jōkiū [Shōkiū]             |    1879   |   1219
    Jō-ō                       |    1882   |   1222
    Gennin                     |    1884   |   1224
    Karoku                     |    1885   |   1225
    Antei                      |    1887   |   1227
    Kwangi                     |    1889   |   1229
    Jō-ei                      |    1892   |   1232
    Tempuku                    |    1893   |   1233
    Bunriaku                   |    1894   |   1234
    Katei                      |    1895   |   1235
    Riakunin                   |    1898   |   1238
    En-o                       |    1899   |   1239
    Ninji                      |    1900   |   1240
    Kwangen                    |    1903   |   1243
    Hōji                       |    1907   |   1247
    Kenchō                     |    1909   |   1249
    Kōgen                      |    1916   |   1256
    Shōka                      |    1917   |   1257
    Shōgen                     |    1919   |   1259
    Bunō                       |    1920   |   1260
    Kōchō                      |    1921   |   1261
    Bunei                      |    1924   |   1264
    Kenji                      |    1935   |   1275
    Kōan                       |    1938   |   1278
    Shō-ō                      |    1948   |   1288
    Einin                      |    1953   |   1293
    Shōan                      |    1959   |   1299
    Kengen                     |    1962   |   1302
    Kagen                      |    1963   |   1303
    Tokuji                     |    1966   |   1306
    Enkiō [En-kei]             |    1968   |   1308
    Ōchō                       |    1971   |   1311
    Shōwa                      |    1972   |   1312
    Bumpō                      |    1977   |   1317
    Gen-ō                      |    1979   |   1319
    Genkō                      |    1981   |   1321
    Shōchū                     |    1984   |   1324
    Kariaku                    |    1986   |   1326
    Gentoku                    |    1989   |   1329
    Shōkiō [Shōkei]            |    1992   |   1332
    Kemmu                      |    1994   |   1334
    Rekiō                      |    1998   |   1338[212]
    Kōei                       |    2002   |   1342[212]
    Jōwa                       |    2005   |   1345[212]
    Kwanō                      |    2010   |   1350[212]
    Bunna                      |    2012   |   1352[212]
    Embun                      |    2016   |   1356[212]
    Kōan                       |    2021   |   1361[212]
    Jōji                       |    2022   |   1362[212]
    Ōan                        |    2028   |   1368[212]
    Eiwa                       |    2035   |   1375[212]
    Kōreki                     |    2039   |   1379[212]
    Eitoku                     |    2041   |   1381[212]
    Shitoku                    |    2044   |   1384[212]
    Kakei                      |    2047   |   1387[212]
    Koō                        |    2049   |   1389[212]
    Engen                      |    1996   |   1336[213]
    Kōkoku                     |    2000   |   1340[213]
    Shōhei                     |    2006   |   1346[213]
    Kentoku                    |    2030   |   1370[213]
    Bunchū                     |    2032   |   1372[213]
    Tenju                      |    2035   |   1375[213]
    Kōwa                       |    2041   |   1381[213]
    Genchū                     |    2044   |   1384[213]
    Meitoku                    |    2050   |   1390
    Ō-ei                       |    2054   |   1394
    Shōchō                     |    2088   |   1428
    Eikiō                      |    2089   |   1429
    Kakitsu                    |    2101   |   1441
    Bunan                      |    2104   |   1444
    Hōtoku                     |    2109   |   1449
    Kōtoku                     |    2112   |   1452
    Kōshō                      |    2115   |   1455
    Chōroku                    |    2117   |   1457
    Kwanshō                    |    2120   |   1460
    Bunshō                     |    2126   |   1466
    Ōnin                       |    2127   |   1467
    Bummei                     |    2129   |   1469
    Chōkō                      |    2147   |   1487
    Entoku                     |    2149   |   1489
    Mei-ō                      |    2152   |   1492
    Bunki                      |    2161   |   1501
    Eishō                      |    2164   |   1504
    Dai-ei [Taiei]             |    2181   |   1521
    Kōroku                     |    2188   |   1528
    Tembun                     |    2192   |   1532
    Kōji                       |    2215   |   1555
    Eiroku                     |    2218   |   1558
    Genki                      |    2230   |   1570
    Tenshō                     |    2233   |   1573
    Bunroku                    |    2252   |   1592
    Keichō                     |    2256   |   1596
    Genna                      |    2275   |   1615
    Kwanei                     |    2284   |   1624
    Shōhō                      |    2304   |   1644
    Kei-an                     |    2308   |   1648
    Jō-ō [Shō-ō]               |    2312   |   1652
    Meireki                    |    2315   |   1655
    Manji                      |    2318   |   1658
    Kwambun                    |    2321   |   1661
    Empō                       |    2333   |   1673
    Tenna                      |    2341   |   1681
    Jōkiō                      |    2344   |   1684
    Genroku                    |    2348   |   1688
    Hō-ei                      |    2364   |   1704
    Shōtōku                    |    2371   |   1711
    Kiōhō                      |    2376   |   1716
    Gembun                     |    2396   |   1736
    Kwampō                     |    2401   |   1741
    Enkiō                      |    2404   |   1744
    Kwannen                    |    2408   |   1748
    Hōreki                     |    2411   |   1751
    Meiwa                      |    2424   |   1764
    Anei                       |    2432   |   1772
    Temmei                     |    2441   |   1781
    Kwansei                    |    2449   |   1789
    Kiōwa                      |    2461   |   1801
    Bunkwa                     |    2464   |   1804
    Bunsei                     |    2478   |   1818
    Tempō                      |    2490   |   1830
    Kōkwa                      |    2504   |   1844
    Ka-ei                      |    2508   |   1848
    Ansei                      |    2514   |   1854
    Manen                      |    2520   |   1860
    Bunkiū                     |    2521   |   1861
    Genji                      |    2524   |   1864
    Kei-ō                      |    2525   |   1865
    Meiji                      |    2528   |   1868
    Taishō                     |    2572   |   1912
    ---------------------------+-----------+----------

    The names of these periods are made by the various combinations of
    68 Chinese words of good omen.
    ===================================================

There are, moreover, other expressions which more closely resemble
such common Occidental phrases as the Victorian Era, the Elizabethan
Era, the Age of Pericles, except that in the impersonal Orient such
expressions are named more often from places. In Japanese history,
for instance, it is very common to read of the Nara Epoch, the Heian
Epoch, the Muromachi Period, the Kamakura Period, the Yedo Era, the
Tōkyō Period (Modern Japan). Personal names are applied, however, in
such cases as the Hōjō Era, the Ashikaga Period, the Tokugawa Era, the
Fujiwara Period.


CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF EMPERORS AND EMPRESSES.[214]

  1. Jimmu (660-585 B. C.)
  2. Suizei (581-549)
  3. Annei (548-511)
  4. Itoku (510-477)
  5. Kōshō (475-393)
  6. Kōan (392-291)
  7. Kōrei (290-215)
  8. Kōgen (214-158)
  9. Kaikwa (157-98)
  10. Sujin (97-30)
  11. Suinin (29 B. C.-70 A. D.)
  12. Keikō (71-130 A. D.)
  13. Seimu (131-190)
  14. Chūai-(192-200)
  [15. _Jingō_[214] (201-269)]
  16. Ōjin (270-310)
  17. Nintoku (313-399)
  18. Richū (400-405)
  19. Hanzei (406-411)
  20. Ingyō (412-453)
  21. Ankō (454-456)
  22. Yūryaku (457-479)
  23. Seinei (480-484)
  24. Kensō (485-487)
  25. Ninken (488-498)
  26. Muretsu (499-506)
  27. Keitai (507-531)
  28. Ankan (534-535)
  29. Senkwa (536-539)
  30. Kimmei (540-571)
  31. Bidatsu (572-585)
  32. Yōmei (586-587)
  33. Sujun (588-592)
  34. _Suiko_ (593-628)
  35. Jomei (629-641)
  36. _Kōgyoku_ (642-645)
  37. Kōtoku (645-654)
  38. _Saimei_ (655-661)
  39. Tenchi (668-671)
  40. Kōbun (672)
  41. Temmu (673-686)
  42. _Jitō_ (690-696)
  43. Mommu (697-707)
  44. _Gemmyō_ (708-715)
  45. _Genshō_ (715-723)
  46. Shōmu (724-748)
  47. _Kōken_ (749-758)
  48. Junnin (758-764)
  49. _Shōtoku_ (765-770)
  50. Kōnin (770-781)
  51. Kwammu (782-806)
  52. Heizei (806-809)
  53. Saga (809-823)
  54. Junna (823-833)
  55. Nimmyō (833-850)
  56. Montoku (850-858)
  57. Seiwa (859-876)
  58. Yōzei (877-884)
  59. Kōkō (884-887)
  60. Uda (888-897)
  61. Daigo (897-930)
  62. Sujaku (931-946)
  63. Murakami (946-967)
  64. Reizei (968-969)
  65. Enyū (970-984)
  66. Kwazan (985-986)
  67. Ichijō (987-1011)
  68. Sanjō (1012-1016)
  69. Go-Ichijō[215] (1016-1036)
  70. Go-Sujaku (1037-1045)
  71. Go-Reizei (1045-1068)
  72. Go-Sanjō (1068-1072)
  73. Shirakawa (1073-10861
  74. Horikawa (1087-1107)
  75. Toba (1108-1123)
  76. Sutoku (1123-1141)
  77. Konoye (1142-1155)
  78. Go-Shirakawa (1155-1158)
  79. Nijō (1159-1165)
  80. Rokujō (1165-1168)
  81. Takakura (1168-1180)
  82. Antoku (1180-1185)
  83. Go-Toba (1186-1198)
  84. Tsuchimikado (1198-1210)
  85. Juntoku (1211-1221)
  86. Chūkyō (1221)
  87. Go-Horikawa (1221-1232)
  88. Shijō (1233-1242)
  89. Go-Saga (1242-1246)
  90. Go-Fukakusa (1246-1259)
  91. Kameyama (1260-1274)
  92. Go-Uda (1274-1287)
  93. Fushimi (1288-1298)
  94. Go-Fushimi (1298-1301)
  95. Go-Nijo (1301-1308)
  96. Hanazono (1308-1318)
  97. Go-Daigo (1318-1338)
  98. Go-Murakami (1339-1368)
  [99. Chōkei (1368-1372)]
  100. Go-Kameyama (1373-1392)
  101. Go-Komatsu (1392-1412)
  102. Shōkō (1412-1428)
  103. Go-Hanazono (1428-1464)
  104. Go-Tsuchimikado (1464-1500)
  105. Go-Kashiwabara (1500-1526)
  106. Go-Nara (1526-1557)
  107. Ogimachi (1567-1586)
  108. Go-Yōzei (1587-1611)
  109. Go-Mizuno-o (1612-1629)
  110. _Myōshō_ (1630-1643)
  111. Go-Kōmyō (1643-1654)
  112. Go-Saiin (1655-1663)
  113. Reigen (1663-1687)
  114. Higashiyama (1687-1709)
  115. Nakano-mikado (1709-1735)
  116. Sakuramachi (1735-1747)
  117. Momozono (1747-1762)
  118. _Go-Sakuramachi_ (1762-1770)
  119. Go-Momozono (1771-1779)
  120. Kōkaku (1779-1817)
  121. Ninkō (1817-1846)
  122. Kōmei (1846-1867)
  123. Mutsuhito (1867-1912)
  124. Yoshihito (1912- )

N.B.—Nos. 36 and 38 were the same empress; likewise Nos. 47 and 49.

We append also a list of the sovereigns of the “Northern Court” during
the separation, as follows:

  1. Kōgon (1331-1333)
  2. Kōmyō (1336-1348)
  3. Sukō (1349-1352)
  4. Go-Kōgon (1352-1371)
  5. Go-Enyu (1371-1382)
  6. Go-Komatsu (1383-1392)

In 1392 Go-Komatsu became emperor over the reunited empire.


MINISTERIAL CHANGES IN JAPAN

The following table shows the Cabinet changes that have taken place
since constitutional government was instituted:

  ==============+====================+============
  PREMIER.      |  TERM OF OFFICE.   | YRS.  MOS.
  --------------+--------------------+------------
  Yamagata      | Dec. ’89-Apr. ’91  |   1     4
  Matsukata     | May ’91-July ’92   |   1     2
  Itō           | Aug. ’92-Aug. ’96  |   4     0
  Matsukata     | Sept. ’96-Dec. ’97 |   1     3
  Ito           | Jan. ’98-June ’98  |   0     5
  Okuma-Itagaki | June ’98-Oct. ’98  |   0     4
  Yamagata      | Nov. ’98-Sept. ’00 |   1    10
  Itō           | Oct. ’00-May ’01   |   0     7
  Katsura       | June ’01-Dec. ’05  |   4     6
  Saionji       | Jan. ’06-July ’08  |   2     6
  Katsura       | July ’08-Aug. ’11  |   3     2
  Saionji       | Sept. ’11-Dec. ’12 |   1     3
  Katsura       | Dec. ’12-Feb. ’13  |   0     2
  Yamamoto      | Feb. ’13-          |
  ==============+====================+============

In connection with this table, we wish to call attention to the fact
that the average duration of eleven Ministries is less than two years;
and that the average was considerably raised by the unusual length of
the two Ministries which covered the periods of the wars with China
and Russia, when political rivalries were buried. It is quite probable
that, if foreign wars had not occurred to unify the nation, those
Ministries would not have had a duration so greatly in excess of the
average, especially as, at the outbreak of the wars, party feeling
was running very high. In that case the general average would have
been reduced by an increase in the number of cabinets. It should also
be noticed that three of these Ministries (both Matsukata and the
second Itō) came to an end on account of collision with the Diet, and
that four Ministries (the Kuroda, the first and third Itō, and the
first party Cabinet of Ōkuma and Itagaki) were broken up by internal
dissensions; and the last Katsura (February, 1913) was forced out by
popular revolt.


JAPAN’S HOUSE OF PEERS

Among its 373 members only 57 sit by hereditary right; namely, 14
Princes of the Blood, 13 Princes, and 30 Marquises. Among the remaining
members, 150 are elected by the Counts, Viscounts, and Barons, 121 are
Imperial nominees,—that is to say, men who have earned distinction
by eminent services or attainments,—and 45 represent the highest
tax-payers in the prefectures.


THE POLITICAL PARTIES OF JAPAN[216]

The idea of popular representation in the government of Japan may
be said to have had its birth with the Restoration, although some
thoughtful men had been turning their minds in that direction at
an earlier date. His Imperial Majesty the present Emperor, in his
oath on the occasion of his succession to the throne, made known his
enlightened desire that men should meet in council from all parts
of the country and all affairs of state be determined in accordance
with public opinion. This pronouncement may be regarded as the
starting-point of the movement for parliamentary representation.
The germ of the present House of Peers and House of Representatives
is found in the _Gi-sei_, a department of the government which was
organized as early as June, 1868. The _Kō-gi-jō_, which was opened in
the following year, was representative, not of the people, but of the
governing authorities in the various localities. The members of the
_Sa-In_, which replaced the _Kō-gi-jō_ (or _Shūgi-in_) in September,
1871, were nominated by the Emperor and the council of state.

The history of political parties in Japan may conveniently be divided
into four periods: (1) From the Restoration up to 1882, while as
yet they were in embryo; (2) from the year 1882, when they for the
first time took actual shape, until 1888; (3) from the organization
of the _Daidō-Danketsu_ in 1887 until 1898; (4) the period since the
amalgamation of the two strongest parties to form the constitutional
party in 1898.

During the early seventies discussion went on regarding the
advisability of the formation of a popular assembly. In 1874 was formed
the first political society, the _Aikoku-tō_, or patriotic society,
from which later sprang the Liberal Party (_Jiyu-tō_). In the previous
year a division had taken place in the ranks of the higher officials of
the government. The one party was composed of those who desired rapid
progress in domestic matters and a vigorous foreign policy; the other
desired steady progress at home and conciliation abroad. The latter
party retained control of the government, and the former went into
opposition. Among the most important of the radical party was Itagaki
of Kōchi Prefecture. He organized the first local society, and devoted
himself constantly to the attainment of his end of bringing about
parliamentary institutions in the country. We thus have Kōchi, and
later on Hizen, working for the extension of the power of the people,
while the government was in the main conducted by Satsuma and Chōshū
men.

The agitation for popular representation, although checked for a time
by the Satsuma Rebellion, gained strength in 1879 and 1880, and the
government became convinced that the question could not longer be
postponed. On the 12th of October, 1881, the Emperor promulgated the
famous ordinance in which the promise was given that a parliament
should actually be established in 1890. As a preparatory measure, Itō,
in company with a number of junior officials, was despatched to Europe
early in 1882 to study the political systems of the West. The promise
of a parliament served to give a more definite purpose to the various
political associations, and the year 1882 saw the formal organization
of the three parties which, under various names, have continued
almost uninterruptedly to occupy the field until the present time.
The _Jiyu-tō_ was the first organized, although not the first to be
properly registered as a political association.

It is noticeable that the utterances of the various political parties
when they first came into existence present in the main no features of
a distinctive nature. All put forth excellent doctrines, but usually
of extreme vagueness. The same characteristic has been noticeable
throughout their history except when some temporary question of urgency
has arisen. This is no doubt the reason why the grouping has constantly
changed, one merging into another, and secessions occurring without
apparent cause. 1883 and the following years saw a falling off in the
interest in political parties,—doubtless a natural result of the over
excitement which had just preceded, and of the apparent certainty of a
parliament after 1890. The interest in politics and in parties revived,
however, as the date assigned for the granting of the constitution
approached.

Since the opening of the first Diet, the efforts of the parties have
in general been directed towards the securing of control of the
administration,—the establishment of parliamentary government. Except
during the period of the war with China, when all party differences
were for the time set aside, the parties have all been in more or
less constant opposition to the government. Until within the last
year or two, however, no party has possessed for any considerable
length of time an absolute majority of the membership of the Lower
House, sufficient to enable it to control the votes of that body.
Political parties have now become a distinct power in the land which
no statesman can afford entirely to neglect. From small and unruly
beginnings, they have gradually progressed in influence and in
organization. As by degrees they have been getting rid of their unruly
and dangerous elements, and learning to a greater extent the lesson of
responsibility, they have more and more gained the popular confidence.
Possessing practically the power of the purse,—for in the Diet the
House of Representatives has the first say as to the details of the
budget presented by the government,—they have always to be reckoned
with....

That there have been no distinct and well-defined party issues may be
traced to the fact that feudalism gave place so suddenly to a modern
state of society. The leaders of thought and those who have taken up
the work of national rejuvenation have all been men of progressive
tendencies. That the parties have frequently opposed the government in
cases where opposition for its own sake has been the only recognizable
principle cannot be denied. It must be remembered that they have all
along been struggling for a share in the administration. The political
parties have well illustrated the intensely democratic character of the
Japanese people side by side with marked reverence for the Emperor. The
desire for equality and the revolt against the controlling influence of
a narrow coterie has all along been exhibited....

I[217] may perhaps take this opportunity to mention two characteristics
of Japanese political parties which have impressed themselves upon me
in the course of my own, as yet comparatively slight, study of the
politics of this country. As in so many other aspects of Japanese life,
so also in politics, I think we can see a curious blending of Old Japan
with the very latest and most advanced which the West has to offer.
It was a remark of the most influential, if not the greatest, English
political philosopher of the nineteenth century, John Stuart Mill,
that, even if we could be assured that an autocrat, an all-powerful
individual ruler, would govern more wisely than a popular government,
we ought, nevertheless, to prefer the popular government for the
educative effect which the effort to govern produces upon the people.

Now it will be found that there has been very much conscious or
unconscious following of this idea in the progress of popular
government in Japan. In marked contrast to the history of popular
government in the West, where parliaments have been forced on the
government from below for the protection of popular rights, popular
representation has been granted from above in this country, and the
people have grown up to it, or are in process of growing. The truth of
this is not affected by the fact that contest between rival clans has
been an ever controlling factor in the domestic politics of the country
since Restoration days. The agitation of the parties has been not so
much directed against the measures of the government as against the
fact that the government is not controlled by the representatives of
the people.

The element of Old Japan in the political parties is seen in the nature
of political allegiance. What holds the parties together is men rather
than measures. In Old Japan personal allegiance to one’s feudal lord
was one of the strongest feelings of the individual, and sufficed to
give a distinct character to the life of the time. The most important
elements of feudalism, the political and economic organization of
the society which was founded upon it, have passed away, but the
sentimental part remains in the personal allegiance of men to their
party leaders of to-day. What would the _Seiyukai_ have been without
Prince Itō, or the Progressive party without Count Ōkuma? No doubt
other leaders would be forthcoming if these were not present, the names
of the parties might be retained, but the membership would almost
certainly undergo enormous changes.


ARMY STATISTICS OF JAPAN[218]

Surgeon-Major Koike, in a lecture delivered before the Medical Union
in the salon of the Musical College in Uyeno, gave some interesting
figures relating to the casualties in the North-China campaign as
compared with the China-Japan war of 1894-1895. These will be most
easily understood by putting them into tabular form.

  Total number of patients in the North-China campaign     22,080
  Total number of deaths out of the above aggregate         1,137

(This, of course, is exclusive of those killed in the field; it shows
only the sick and wounded.)

  =============================================+=============+============
                                               | NORTH-CHINA | CHINA-JAPAN
                                               |  CAMPAIGN.  |    WAR.
  ---------------------------------------------+-------------+------------
  Percentage of deaths                         |     5.1     |    8.1
  Number of sick to each wounded man           |     5.5     |    4.1
  Number of deaths from sickness to each death |             |
    from wounds                                |     2.3     |    9.7
  Percentage of deaths among wounded men       |     3.2     |    3.9
  Percentage of deaths among diseased men      |     4.2     |    8.4
  =============================================+=============+============


_Return of the Hiroshima Reserve Hospital_

                                              NORTH-CHINA
                                                CAMPAIGN.
  Percentage of deaths among wounded men          2.1
  Percentage of deaths among sick men             3.3


_Comparative Figures (General)_

Total percentage of deaths among wounded men:

  Satsuma Rebellion         17.0
  China-Japan War            9.7
  North-China Campaign       4.6


_Comparative Figures Showing the Percentage of Sick during the
Occupation of Peking in the Winter_

  Russian troops        8.75 (typhoid, dysentery, syphilis).
  French troops         5.42 (typhoid, syphilis).
  German troops         5.33 (typhoid, syphilis, dysentery).
  British troops        5.22 (sunstroke, diarrhœa, dysentery, and
                               typhoid).
  American troops       4.18 (dysentery, sunstroke, and syphilis).
  Japanese troops       2.51 (kakke and typhoid).


STATISTICS OF RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR.[219]

(Feb., 1904—May, 1905.)

  Killed on field                                43,892
  Wounded with colors                           145,527
  Died of those wounds                            9,054
  Sick, including wounds, accidents, etc.,
    not received on firing-line                 162,556
  Died of sickness and disease                    7,433
  Contagious diseases                            10,565
  Died of contagious diseases                     4,557
  Killed and died from wounds                    52,946
  Died from all diseases                         11,992


JAPANESE NAVAL INCREMENT[220]

Writing about naval increment, the “Nichi Nichi Shimbun” notes the
increase of the Japanese Navy during recent years as follows:—

               TOTAL TONNAGE.
  1897            100,000
  1898            134,000
  1899            154,000
  1900            204,000
  1901            232,000

In the immediate future, the total tonnage will be raised
to the _post-bellum_ figure of 250,000 tons.[221] Everybody agrees that
Japan must not rest there. She has to keep up with the rapid additions
made by other countries to their naval forces. That is not a matter of
serious difficulty so far as ships are concerned: they can always be
bought with money. But the men to man them is another problem. After
the Restoration any number of recruits were obtainable for the army,
as was natural in a country where a military feudalism had existed for
centuries. The navy, however, could not be so easily supplied, maritime
enterprise having been effectually checked under the Tokugawa rule.
Difficulties about seamen may now be said to have been overcome. But
that is not true of officers. Our contemporary here gives the following
table:—

           NUMBER OF OFFICERS AND       TOTAL FORCE,
  YEAR.     MEN ACTUALLY SERVING.    INCLUDING RESERVES.
  1895             14,463                   17,140
  1900             28,308                   32,981

This shows an increment of only 100 per cent, whereas
the increase of tonnage in the same time was 400 per cent.[222]
The great difficulty is to get a supply of officers for the lower
ranks—midshipmen and lieutenants. The only college for educating
these officers is at Edajima, where not more than 600 cadets can be
accommodated. There, then, a change must be effected. It will probably
take the form of organizing another naval college at Yokosuka, and
making arrangements that the preliminary education of candidates shall
be effected in the middle schools.


JAPAN’S MERCANTILE MARINE[223]

The “Tōkyō Keizai” publishes some interesting statistics bearing on the
development of our mercantile marine. It was 1870 or thereabouts that
the Japanese began to turn their attention to the carrying trade in the
modern sense of the term, but its growth was slow until the Chinese
War of 1894-1895. The following table gives the figures for the eleven
years from 1892 to 1902 inclusive:

  YEAR.       TONS.
  1892       214,000
  1893       325,000
  1894       320,000
  1895       386,000
  1896       417,000
  1897       486,000
  1898       648,000
  1899       796,000
  1900       863,000
  1901       917,000
  1902       934,000[224]

From the comparative statistics published by our contemporary, it
is noticed that, while in 1892 our mercantile fleet was the thirteenth
in the world in point of tonnage, it had risen by 1901 to the eighth
position. It is interesting to observe that it is rapidly coming up
to the same relative status as that occupied by our naval fleet whose
position is the seventh among the navies of the world.[225]

[Illustration: “SHIKISHIMA” IN NAVAL REVIEW, KŌBE]

TREATY OF COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA

 Signed at Washington, 22nd day of the 11th month, 27th year of Meiji.
 Ratifications exchanged at that City, 21st day of the 3rd month, 28th
 year of Meiji.

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and the President of the United
States of America being equally desirous of maintaining the relations
of good understanding which happily exist between them, by extending
and increasing the intercourse between their respective States, and
being convinced that this object cannot better be accomplished than
by revising the Treaties hitherto existing between the two countries,
have resolved to complete such a revision, based upon principles of
equity and mutual benefit, and, for that purpose, have named as their
Plenipotentiaries, that is to say: His Majesty the Emperor of Japan,
Jushii Shinichiro Kurino, of the Order of the Sacred Treasure of the
Fourth Class, and the President of the United States of America, Walter
Q. Gresham, Secretary of State of the United States; who, after having
communicated to each other their full powers, found to be in good and
due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles:—

ART. I.—The subjects or citizens of each of the two High Contracting
Parties shall have full liberty to enter, travel, or reside in any part
of the territories of the other Contracting Party, and shall enjoy full
and perfect protection for their persons and property.

They shall have free access to the Courts of Justice in pursuit and
defence of their rights; they shall be at liberty equally with native
subjects or citizens to choose and employ lawyers, advocates, and
representatives to pursue and defend their rights before such Courts,
and in all other matters connected with the administration of justice
they shall enjoy all the rights and privileges enjoyed by native
subjects or citizens.

In whatever relates to rights of residence and travel; to the
possession of goods and effects of any kind; to the succession to
personal estate, by will or otherwise, and the disposal of property of
any sort and in any manner whatsoever which they may lawfully acquire,
the subjects or citizens of each Contracting Party shall enjoy in the
territories of the other the same privileges, liberties, and rights,
and shall be subject to no higher imposts or charges in those respects
than native subjects or citizens, or subjects or citizens of the most
favoured nation. The subjects or citizens of each of the Contracting
Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other entire liberty of
conscience, and, subject to the laws, ordinances, and regulations,
shall enjoy the right of private or public exercise of their worship,
and also the right of burying their respective countrymen according to
their religious customs, in such suitable and convenient places as may
be established and maintained for that purpose.

They shall not be compelled, under any pretext whatsoever, to pay any
charges or taxes other or higher than those that are, or may be, paid
by native subjects or citizens, or subjects or citizens of the most
favoured nation.

The subjects or citizens of either of the Contracting Parties residing
in the territories of the other shall be exempted from all compulsory
military service whatsoever, whether in the army, navy, national guard,
or militia; from all contribution imposed in lieu of personal service;
and from all forced loans or military exactions or contributions.

ART. II.—There shall be reciprocal freedom of commerce and navigation
between the territories of the two High Contracting Parties.

The subjects or citizens of each of the Contracting Parties may trade
in any part of the territories of the other by wholesale or retail
in all kinds of produce, manufactures, and merchandize of lawful
commerce, either in person or by agents, singly or in partnerships with
foreigners or native subjects or citizens; and they may there own or
hire and occupy houses, manufactories, warehouses, shops, and premises
which may be necessary for them, and lease land for residential and
commercial purposes, conforming themselves to the laws, police and
customs regulations of the country like native subjects or citizens.

They shall have liberty freely to come with their ships and cargoes
to all places, ports, and rivers in the territories of the other,
which are or may be opened to foreign commerce, and shall enjoy,
respectively, the same treatment in matters of commerce and navigation
as native subjects or citizens, or subjects or citizens of the most
favoured nation without having to pay taxes, imposts, or duties, of
whatever nature or under whatever denomination levied in the name
or for the profit of the Government, public functionaries, private
individuals, corporations, or establishments of any kind, other or
greater than those paid by native subjects or citizens or subjects or
citizens of the most favoured nation.

It is, however, understood that the stipulations contained in this and
the preceding Article do not in any way affect the laws, ordinances,
and regulations with regard to trade, the immigration of labourers,
police and public security which are in force or which may hereafter be
enacted in either of the two countries.

ART. III.—The dwellings, manufactories, warehouses, and shops of
the subjects or citizens of each of the High Contracting Parties in
the territories of the other, and all premises appertaining thereto
destined for purposes of residence or commerce, shall be respected.

It shall not be allowable to proceed to make a search of, or a
domiciliary visit to, such dwellings and premises, or to examine or
inspect books, papers, or accounts, except under the conditions and
with the forms prescribed by the laws, ordinances, and regulations for
subjects or citizens of the country.

ART. IV.—No other or higher duties shall be imposed on the importation
into the territories of the United States of any article, the produce
or manufacture of the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan,
from whatever place arriving; and no other or higher duties shall be
imposed on the importation into the territories of His Majesty the
Emperor of Japan of any article, the produce or manufacture of the
United States, from whatever place arriving than on the like article
produced or manufactured in any other foreign country; nor shall any
prohibition be maintained or imposed on the importation of any article,
the produce or manufacture of the territories of either of the High
Contracting Parties, into the territories of the other, from whatever
place arriving, which shall not equally extend to the importation
of the like article, being the produce or manufacture of any other
country. This last provision is not applicable to the sanitary and
other prohibitions occasioned by the necessity of protecting the safety
of persons, or of cattle, or plants useful to agriculture.

ART. V.—No other or higher duties or charges shall be imposed in
the territories of either of the High Contracting Parties on the
exportation of any article to the territories of the other than such
as are, or may be, payable on the exportation of the like article to
any other foreign country; nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the
exportation of any article from the territories of either of the two
High Contracting Parties to the territories of the other which shall
not equally extend to the exportation of the like article to any other
country.

ART. VI.—The subjects or citizens of each of the High Contracting
Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other exemption from
all transit duties, and a perfect equality of treatment with native
subjects or citizens in all that relates to warehousing, bounties, and
drawbacks.

ART. VII.—All articles which are or may be legally imported into
the ports of the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan in
Japanese vessels may likewise be imported into those ports in vessels
of the United States, without being liable to any other or higher
duties or charges of whatever denomination than if such articles were
imported in Japanese vessels; and, reciprocally, all articles which
are, or may be, legally imported into the ports of the territories
of the United States in vessels of the United States may likewise be
imported into those ports in Japanese vessels, without being liable to
any other or higher duties or charges of whatever denomination than
if such articles were imported in vessels of the United States. Such
reciprocal equality of treatment shall take effect without distinction,
whether such articles come directly from the place of origin or from
any other place.

In the same manner, there shall be perfect equality of treatment in
regard to exportation, so that the same export duties shall be paid,
and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, in the territories of
either of the High Contracting Parties on the exportation of any
article which is or may be legally exported therefrom, whether such
exportation shall take place in Japanese vessels or in vessels of the
United States, and whatever may be the place of destination, whether a
port of either of the High Contracting Parties or of any third Power.

ART. VIII.—No duties of tonnage, harbour, pilotage, lighthouse,
quarantine, or other similar or corresponding duties of whatever
nature, or under whatever denomination levied in the name or for the
profit of Government, public functionaries, private individuals,
corporations, or establishments of any kind, shall be imposed in the
ports of the territories of either country upon the vessels of the
other country which shall not equally and under the same conditions be
imposed in the like cases on national vessels in general or vessels
of the most favoured nation. Such equality of treatment shall apply
reciprocally to the respective vessels, from whatever port or place
they may arrive, and whatever may be their place of destination.

ART. IX.—In all that regards the stationing, loading, and unloading of
vessels in the ports, basins, docks, roadsteads, harbours, or rivers of
the territories of the two countries, no privilege shall be granted to
national vessels which shall not be equally granted to vessels of the
other country; the intention of the High Contracting Parties being that
in this respect also the respective vessels shall be treated on the
footing of perfect equality.

ART. X.—The coasting trade of both the High Contracting Parties is
excepted from the provisions of the present Treaty, and shall be
regulated according to the laws, ordinances, and regulations of Japan
and of the United States, respectively. It is, however, understood that
Japanese subjects in the territories of the United States and citizens
of the United States in the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of
Japan shall enjoy in this respect the rights which are, or may be,
granted under such laws, ordinances, and regulations to the subjects or
citizens of any other country.

A Japanese vessel laden in a foreign country with cargo destined for
two or more ports in the territories of the United States and a vessel
of the United States laden in a foreign country with cargo destined
for two or more ports in the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of
Japan, may discharge a portion of her cargo at one port, and continue
her voyage to the other port or ports of destination where foreign
trade is permitted, for the purpose of landing the remainder of her
original cargo there, subject always to the laws and custom-house
regulations of the two countries.

The Japanese Government, however, agrees to allow vessels of the United
States to continue, as heretofore, for the period of the duration
of this Treaty, to carry cargo between the existing open ports of
the Empire, excepting to or from the ports of Ōsaka, Niigata, and
Ebisuminato.

ART. XI.—Any ship-of-war or merchant vessel of either of the High
Contracting Parties which may be compelled by stress of weather, or
by reason of any other distress, to take shelter in a port of the
other, shall be at liberty to refit therein, to procure all necessary
supplies, and to put to sea again, without paying any dues other than
such as would be payable by national vessels. In case, however, the
master of a merchant vessel should be under the necessity of disposing
of a part of his cargo in order to defray the expenses, she shall be
bound to conform to the regulations and tariffs of the place to which
he may have come.

If any ship-of-war or merchant vessel of one of the High Contracting
Parties should run aground or be wrecked upon the coasts of the
other, the local authorities shall inform the Consul-General, Consul,
Vice-Consul, or Consular Agent of the district of occurrence,
or, if there be no such Consular officers, they shall inform the
Consul-General, Consul, Vice-Consul, or Consular Agent of the nearest
district.

All proceedings relative to the salvage of Japanese vessels wrecked
or cast on shore in the territorial waters of the United States shall
take place in accordance with the laws of the United States; and,
reciprocally, all measures of salvage relative to vessels of the United
States wrecked or cast on shore in the territorial waters of His
Majesty the Emperor of Japan shall take place in accordance with the
laws, ordinances, and regulations of Japan.

Such stranded or wrecked ship or vessel, and all parts thereof, and
all furnitures and appurtenances belonging thereunto, and all goods
and merchandize saved therefrom, including those which may have been
cast into the sea, or the proceeds thereof, if sold, as well as all
papers found on board such stranded or wrecked ship or vessel, shall
be given up to the owners or their agents, when claimed by them. If
such owners or agents are not on the spot, the same shall be delivered
to the respective Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, or Consular
Agents upon being claimed by them within the period fixed by the
laws, ordinances, and regulations of the country, and such Consular
officers, owners, or agents shall pay only the expenses incurred in
the preservation of the property, together with the salvage or other
expenses which would have been payable in the case of a wreck of a
national vessel.

The goods and merchandize saved from the wreck shall be exempt from all
the duties of the Customs unless cleared for consumption, in which case
they shall pay the ordinary duties.

When a ship or vessel belonging to the subjects or citizens of one of
the High Contracting Parties is stranded or wrecked in the territories
of the other, the respective Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls,
and Consular Agents shall be authorized, in case the owner or master,
or other agent of the owner, is not present, to lend their official
assistance in order to afford the necessary assistance to the subjects
or citizens of the respective States. The same rule shall apply in
case the owner, master, or other agent is present, but requires such
assistance to be given.

ART. XII.—All vessels which, according to Japanese law, are to be
deemed Japanese vessels, and all vessels which, according to United
States law, are to be deemed vessels of the United States, shall, for
the purposes of this Treaty, be deemed Japanese vessels and vessels of
the United States, respectively.

ART. XIII.—The Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consular Agents of each
of the High Contracting Parties, residing in the territories of the
other, shall receive from the local authorities such assistance as can
by law be given to them for the recovery of deserters from the vessels
of their respective countries.

It is understood that this stipulation shall not apply to the subjects
or citizens of the country where the desertion takes place.

ART. XIV.—The High Contracting Parties agree that, in all that concerns
commerce and navigation any privilege, favour, or immunity which either
High Contracting Party has actually granted, or may hereafter grant,
to the Government, ships, subjects, or citizens of any other State,
shall be extended to the Government, ships, subjects, or citizens of
the other High Contracting Party, gratuitously, if the concession in
favour of that other State shall have been gratuitous, and on the same
or equivalent conditions if the concession shall have been conditional;
it being their intention that the trade and navigation of each country
shall be placed, in all respects, by the other on the footing of the
most favoured nation.

ART. XV.—Each of the High Contracting Parties may appoint
Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, Pro-Consuls, and Consular
Agents, in all the ports, cities, and places of the other except in
those where it may not be convenient to recognize such officers.

This exception, however, shall not be made in regard to one of the High
Contracting Parties without being made likewise in regard to every
other Power.

The Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, Pro-Consuls, and Consular
Agents may exercise all functions, and shall enjoy all privileges,
exemptions, and immunities which are, or may hereafter be, granted to
Consular officers of the most favoured nation.

ART. XVI.—The subjects or citizens of each of the High Contracting
Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other the same protection
as native subjects or citizens in regard to patents, trademarks, and
designs, upon fulfilment of the formalities prescribed by law.

ART. XVII.—The High Contracting Parties agree to the following
arrangement:—

The several Foreign Settlements in Japan shall, from the date this
Treaty comes into force, be incorporated with the respective Japanese
communes, and shall thenceforth form part of the general municipal
system of Japan. The competent Japanese authorities shall thereupon
assume all municipal obligations and duties in respect thereof, and the
common funds and property, if any, belonging to such Settlements shall
at the same time be transferred to the said Japanese authorities.

When such incorporation takes place, existing leases in perpetuity
upon which property is now held in the said Settlements shall be
confirmed, and no conditions whatever other than those contained in
such existing leases shall be imposed in respect of such property. It
is, however, understood that the Consular Authorities mentioned in the
same are in all cases to be replaced by the Japanese Authorities. All
lands which may previously have been granted by the Japanese Government
free of rent for the public purposes of the said Settlements shall,
subject to the right of eminent domain, be permanently reserved free
of all taxes and charges for the public purposes for which they were
originally set apart.

ART. XVIII.—The present Treaty shall, from the date it comes into
force, be substituted in place of the Treaty of Peace and Amity
concluded on the 3rd day of the 3rd month of the 7th year of Kayei
corresponding to the 31st day of March, 1854; the Treaty of Amity and
Commerce concluded on the 19th day of the 6th month of the 5th year
of Ansei, corresponding to the 29th day of July, 1858; the Tariff
Convention concluded on the 13th day of the 5th month of the 2nd year
of Keio, corresponding to the 25th day of June, 1866; the Convention
concluded on the 25th day of the 7th month of the 11th year of Meiji,
corresponding to the 25th day of July, 1878, and all Arrangements
and Agreements subsidiary thereto concluded or existing between the
High Contracting Parties, and from the same date such Treaties,
Conventions, Arrangements, and Agreements shall cease to be binding,
and in consequence, the jurisdiction then exercised by Courts of the
United States in Japan and all the exceptional privileges, exemptions,
and immunities then enjoyed by citizens of the United States as a part
of, or appurtenant to, such jurisdiction, shall absolutely and without
notice cease and determine, and thereafter all such jurisdiction shall
be assumed and exercised by Japanese Courts.

ART. XIX.—This Treaty shall go into operation on the 17th day of July,
1899, and shall remain in force for the period of twelve years from
that date.

Either High Contracting Party shall have the right, at any time after
eleven years shall have elapsed from the date it goes into operation,
to give notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same,
and at the expiration of twelve months after such notice is given this
Treaty shall wholly cease and determine.

ART. XX.—This Treaty shall be ratified and the ratifications thereof
shall be exchanged at Tokyo or Washington as soon as possible, and not
later than six months after its signature.

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the
present Treaty in duplicate and have thereunto affixed their seals.

Done at the City of Washington the 22nd day of the 11th month of the
27th year of Meiji, corresponding to the 22nd day of November in the
eighteen hundred and ninety-fourth year of the Christian era.

  (Signed)      SHINICHIRO KURINO. (L. S.)

  WALTER Q. GRESHAM. (L. S.)

 [Amendment to the Foregoing Treaty Proposed by the Government of the
 United States of America and Ratified with the Treaty.]

ART. XIX.—Clause 2, after the word “time” insert the word “thereafter”
and strike out all after the word “time” down to and including the word
“operation,” so that the clause will read: “Either High Contracting
Party shall have the right, at any time thereafter, to give notice to
the other of its intention to terminate the same, and at the expiration
of twelve months after such notice is given this Treaty shall wholly
cease and determine.”


_Protocol_

The Government of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and the Government
of the United States of America, deeming it advisable in the interests
of both Countries to regulate certain special matters of mutual
concern, apart from the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation signed this
day, have, through their respective Plenipotentiaries, agreed upon the
following stipulations:—

1.—It is agreed by the Contracting Parties that one month after the
exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
signed this day, the Import Tariff now in operation in Japan in respect
of goods and merchandize imported into Japan by the citizens of the
United States shall cease to be binding. From the same date the General
Statutory Tariff of Japan, shall, subject to the provisions of Article
IX. of the Treaty of March 31, 1854, at present subsisting between
the Contracting Parties, so long as said Treaty remains in force, and
thereafter, subject to the provisions of Article IV. and Article XIV.,
of the Treaty signed this day, be applicable to goods and merchandize,
being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the
United States upon importation into Japan.

But nothing contained in this Protocol shall be held to limit or
qualify the right of the Japanese Government to restrict or to prohibit
the importation of adulterated drugs, medicines, food, or beverages;
indecent or obscene prints, paintings, books, cards, lithographic
or other engravings, photographs or any other indecent or obscene
articles; articles in violation of patent, trademark, or copyright laws
of Japan; or any other article which for sanitary reasons or in view of
public security or morals, might offer any danger.

2.—The Japanese Government, pending the opening of the country
to citizens of the United States, agrees to extend the existing
passport system in such a manner as to allow citizens of the United
States, on the production of a certificate of recommendation from
the Representative of the United States at Tōkiō, or from any of the
Consuls of the United States at the open ports in Japan, to obtain upon
application passports available for any part of the country and for any
period not exceeding twelve months, from the Imperial Japanese Foreign
Office in Tōkiō, or from the Chief Authorities in the Prefecture in
which an open port is situated, it being understood that the existing
Rules and Regulations governing citizens of the United States who visit
the interior of the Empire are to be maintained.

3.—The undersigned Plenipotentiaries have agreed that this Protocol
shall be submitted to the two High Contracting Parties at the same time
as the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation signed this day, and that when
the said Treaty is ratified the agreements contained in the Protocol
shall also equally be considered as approved, without the necessity of
a further formal ratification.

It is agreed that this Protocol shall terminate at the same time the
said Treaty ceases to be binding.

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the
same and have affixed thereto their seals.

Done at Washington the 22nd day of the 11th month of the 27th year of
_Meiji_, corresponding to the 22nd November, in the eighteen hundred
and ninety-fourth year of the Christian era.

  (Signed)      SHINICHIRO KURINO. (L. S.)

  WALTER Q. GRESHAM. (L. S.)


IMPERIAL RESCRIPT ON THE NEW TREATIES

Governing Our realm by the abiding aid of Our ancestors’ achievements,
which have enabled Us to secure the prosperity of Our people at home
and to establish relations of close amity with the nations abroad, it
is a source of heartfelt gratification to Us that, in the sequel of
exhaustive planning and repeated negotiations, an agreement has been
come to with the Powers, and the revision of the Treaties, Our long
cherished aim, is to-day on the eve of becoming an accomplished fact;
a result which, while it adds materially to the responsibilities of
Our empire, will greatly strengthen the basis of Our friendship with
foreign countries.

It is Our earnest wish that Our subjects, whose devoted loyalty in the
discharge of their duties is conspicuous, should enter earnestly into
Our sentiments in this matter, and, in compliance with the great policy
of opening the country, should all unite with one heart to associate
cordially with the peoples from afar, thus maintaining the character of
the nation and enhancing the prestige of the empire.

In view of the responsibilities that devolve upon Us in giving effect
to the new Treaties, it is Our will that Our Ministers of State, acting
on Our behalf, should instruct Our officials of all classes to observe
the utmost circumspection in the management of affairs, to the end that
subjects and strangers alike may enjoy equal privileges and advantages,
and that, every source of dissatisfaction being avoided, relations of
peace and amity with all nations may be strengthened and consolidated
in perpetuity.

  (Imperial Sign Manual.)

  (Signatures of all the Cabinet Ministers.)

  (Dated) June 30th, 1899.


SCHOOLS IN JAPAN[226]

The latest returns compiled by the educational authorities show that
education in Japan is in a satisfactory condition. For instance the
percentage of the children newly admitted to primary schools throughout
the country out of every 100 of those who had attained the school-going
age last month [March, 1903] was 93.78 for boys, 81.08 for girls, and
88.05 for boys and girls together, which show respectively an increase
of 3.23, 9.18, and 6.38 against the figures for last year. Again, the
different schools throughout the country totalled 29,335, while the
teachers totalled 110,104, the attendance 5,265,006, and the graduates
911,621, representing respectively an increase of 473; 11,977; 339,333;
and 112,737 as compared with the figures for the preceding year. [In
1909-10, these totals were 34,659; 172,228; 7,170,470; and 899,288.]


NUMBER OF SCHOOLS, ETC. IN JAPAN IN 1900-1901.[227]

By the government establishments are meant all institutions under the
control of the Department of Education.

Statistical items relating to the Higher Normal School for Females are
included among those for the Higher Normal School, and those relating
to the three institutes for the training of technical teachers among
those for technical schools.


  =======================+===============================+
                         |        NO. OF SCHOOLS.        |
                         +----+--------+--------+--------+
                         |GOV.|PUBLIC. |PRIVATE.| TOTAL. |
  -----------------------+----+--------+--------+--------+
  Elementary schools     |  2 | 26,485 |    369 | 26,856 |
  Blind and dumb schools |  1 |      1 |      9 |     11 |
  Normal schools         | .. |     52 |    ... |     52 |
  Higher normal schools  |  2 |    ... |    ... |      2 |
  Middle schools         |  1 |    183 |     34 |    218 |
  Higher female schools  |  1 |     44 |      7 |     52 |
  Higher schools         |  7 |    ... |    ... |      7 |
  Imperial universities  |  2 |    ... |    ... |      2 |
  Special schools        |  3 |      4 |     41 |     48 |
  Technical schools      |  9 |    265 |     23 |    297 |
  Miscellaneous schools  | .. |    122 |  1,195 |  1,317 |
  -----------------------+----+--------+--------+--------+
      Total              | 28 | 27,156 |  1,678 | 28,862 |
  =======================+====+========+========+========+
                     1899| 27 | 27,051 |  1,639 | 28,717 |
                     1898| 22 | 26,799 |  1,600 | 28,421 |
                     1897| 22 | 26,753 |  1,677 | 28,452 |
                     1896| 21 | 26,621 |  1,762 | 28,404 |
  =======================+====+========+========+========+

  =======================+====================================+
                         |     INSTRUCTORS AND TEACHERS.      |
                         +-------+--------+---------+---------+
                         | GOV.  |PUBLIC. | PRIVATE.|  TOTAL. |
  -----------------------+-------+--------+---------+---------+
  Elementary schools     |    31 | 91,767 | 1,101   |  92,899 |
  Blind and dumb schools |    15 |     15 |    25   |      55 |
  Normal schools         |   ... |    958 |   ...   |     958 |
  Higher normal schools  |   110 |    ... |   ...   |     110 |
  Middle schools         |    22 |  3,067 |   659   |   3,748 |
  Higher female schools  |    19 |    525 |   114   |     658 |
  Higher schools         |   345 |    ... |   ...   |     345 |
  Imperial universities  |   291 |    ... |   ...   |     291 |
  Special schools        |   128 |     81 |   734   |     943 |
  Technical schools      |   238 |  1,382 |   137   |   1,757 |
  Miscellaneous schools  |   ... |     90 | 4,273   |   4,363 |
  -----------------------+-------+--------+---------+---------+
      Total              | 1,199 | 97,885 | 7,043   | 106,127 |
  =======================+=======+========+=========+---------+
                     1899| 1,128 | 92,286 | 6,692   | 100,106 |
                     1898|   983 | 86,634 | 5,346   |  92,963 |
                     1897|   913 | 81,632 | 5,310   |  87,855 |
                     1896|   785 | 77,720 | 5,509   |  84,014 |
  =======================+=======+========+=========+=========+

  =======================+==========================================+
                         |          STUDENTS AND PUPILS.            |
                         +--------+-----------+---------+-----------+
                         |  GOV.  |  PUBLIC.  | PRIVATE.|   TOTAL.  |
  -----------------------+--------+-----------+---------+-----------+
  Elementary schools     |  1,124 | 4,622,930 |  59,544 | 4,683,598 |
  Blind and dumb schools |    231 |       196 |     194 |       621 |
  Normal schools         |    ... |    15,639 |     ... |    15,639 |
  Higher normal schools  |    803 |       ... |     ... |       803 |
  Middle schools         |    321 |    64,051 |  13,943 |    78,315 |
  Higher female schools  |    306 |     9,746 |   1,932 |    11,984 |
  Higher schools         |  5,684 |       ... |     ... |     5,684 |
  Imperial universities  |  3,240 |       ... |     ... |     3,240 |
  Special schools        |    968 |     1,447 |  10,985 |    13,400 |
  Technical schools      |  1,730 |    23,599 |   2,126 |    27,455 |
  Miscellaneous schools  |    ... |     4,817 |  80,117 |    84,934 |
  -----------------------+--------+-----------+---------+-----------+
      Total              | 14,407 | 4,742,425 | 168,841 | 4,925,673 |
  =======================+--------+-----------+---------+-----------+
                     1899| 13,230 | 4,339,490 | 160,614 | 4,513,334 |
                     1898| 11,788 | 4,086,323 | 149,230 | 4,247,341 |
                     1897| 10,839 | 4,005,164 | 152,714 | 4,168,717 |
                     1896|  9,321 | 3,872,794 | 148,858 | 4,030,973 |
  =======================+========+===========+=========+===========+

  =======================+====================================+
                         |             GRADUATES.             |
                         +-------+---------+--------+---------+
                         |  GOV. | PUBLIC. |PRIVATE.|  TOTAL. |
  -----------------------+-------+---------+--------+---------+
  Elementary schools     |   318 | 736,907 |  8,580 | 745,805 |
  Blind and dumb schools |    14 |       8 |     12 |      34 |
  Normal schools         |   ... |   7,323 |    ... |   7,323 |
  Higher normal schools  |   180 |     ... |    ... |     180 |
  Middle schools         |    40 |   5,584 |  2,163 |   7,787 |
  Higher female schools  |    91 |   1,832 |    637 |   2,560 |
  Higher schools         | 1,019 |     ... |    ... |   1,019 |
  Imperial universities  |   633 |     ... |    ... |     633 |
  Special schools        |   138 |     210 |  1,687 |   2,035 |
  Technical schools      |   349 |   4,406 |    249 |   5,004 |
  Miscellaneous schools  |   ... |     721 | 15,783 |  16,504 |
  -----------------------+-------+---------+--------+---------+
      Total              | 2,782 | 756,991 | 29,111 | 788,884 |
  =======================+-------+---------+--------+---------+
                     1899| 2,454 | 655,112 | 27,201 | 684,767 |
                     1898| 2,129 | 600,528 | 23,486 | 626,143 |
                     1897| 2,146 | 550,738 | 20,912 | 573,796 |
                     1896| 1,819 | 507,969 | 20,419 | 530,207 |
  =======================+=======+=========+========+=========+

JAPAN’S UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN[228]

The most remarkable occurrence in Japan in the opening year of the
Twentieth Century was the establishment of a University for Women.
What does this mean? It means that the Twentieth Century is to be the
century for women in Japan and perhaps in other parts of the Orient,
just as the Nineteenth Century was the century for women in the
Occident. This new University will be the centre of woman’s activity,
social, educational, economical (and perhaps political?), in the future
in Japan.
About ten years ago Mr. Naruse began to think about establishing a
university for girls and went to America to inspect female institutions
of learning. There he spent three years going about from place to
place, and thus made a thorough observation and study of colleges
for women in the United States of America. In 1894 he was encouraged
to start the enterprise, in which his special friends were such men
as Marquis Itō, Marquis Saionji, Counts Ōkuma and Itagaki, and Baron
Utsumi, then Mayor of Ōsaka, now Home Minister.
Among the first promoters of the enterprise were well-to-do persons of
Ōsaka, such as Mr. Dogura and Mrs. Hiroöka (of the Mitsui family). The
idea was, and still is, to secure 300,000 _yen_, of which half should
be used for property and half for endowment. It was also decided not to
begin to build unless at least 100,000 yen had been raised. The money
was obtained quite rapidly; and in this Mr. Naruse’s skill and tact
were remarkable. Many not in sympathy with the idea of higher female
education (like Baron Katō, ex-President of the Imperial University),
were won over by Mr. Naruse’s presentation of the cause.
The problem of location was thoroughly discussed in Ōsaka, and at last
it was unanimously agreed that Tōkyō, being the capital, was the most
convenient place, because the institution was not local, for either
Ōsaka or Tōkyō alone, but was national, for all Japan.
The faculty number forty-six in all, among whom are several professors
of the Imperial University. The President is, of course, Mr. Naruse;
and the Dean is Professor S. Aso, a Dōshisha alumnus. There are also
several ladies; and it is the purpose to have as many lady teachers as
possible.

There are three departments in the University course:

1. Department of Domestic Science.

2. Department of Japanese Literature.

3. Department of English Literature.

In the first department the greater part of the time is devoted to
various branches of Applied and Domestic Science; in the second and
third departments the largest number of hours is given up to Japanese
and English respectively. Ethics, Sociology, Psychology, Education
(including Child-Study) and Calisthenics are required studies in all
departments; and Drawing, Music, and Science of Teaching, are electives
in all cases.

The boarding-department includes seven “Houses,” each with a matron and
a head cook. The girls live just as at home, and take turns in cooking.

This school is not, of course, to be compared with foreign
universities, or the Imperial University; nor is it a copy of other
universities; but it is intended to make this university just suited to
the needs of the time and the social conditions of Japanese women. The
standard will be gradually elevated. In the system of female education,
it is a university, at least in germ.

It is the purpose as soon as possible to increase the number of
courses; to add, for instance, pedagogy (including sociology,
psychology, etc.), music, science, art, and calisthenics. It is
intended also to extend the preparatory course downward, so that it
shall include, not a _Kōtō Gakkō_ only as at present, but also a _Shō
Gakkō_ (Grammar School) and a kindergarten. Thus the system of female
education will be complete in all its grades: from three to six in
the kindergarten; six years in the grammar school; five years in the
secondary school (_Kōtō Jō Gakkō_); three years in the university; with
a post-graduate course of three years. Then surely the institution will
be worthy to be called a university.


STATISTICS OF CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN[229]

Under the title, “The Present State of Christianity,” the “Tōkyō Maishū
Shinshi” publishes a number of statistics culled from the Rev. D. S.
Spencer’s “Tidings from Japan.” Here is the “Maishū Shinshi’s” summary
of Mr. Spencer’s report:

  ===============+===============+==============+============
     MISSIONS.   | MISSIONARIES. |    NATIVE    |
                 |               | PASTORS AND  | MEMBERS.[230]
                 |               | EVANGELISTS. |
  ---------------+---------------+--------------+------------
  Protestant     |     789       |    494       |  50,512
  Roman Catholic |     229       |     98       |  55,824
  Greek Church   |       4       |    152       |  27,245
  ===============+===============+==============+============

These figures, when compared with those of ten years ago, do not, as
far as the Greek Church and the Roman Catholic Church are concerned,
indicate remarkable progress, but to Protestants they are on the
whole encouraging. There are 23 Protestant denominations working in
Japan, but the most important sects are the Congregationalists, the
Presbyterians, the Episcopalians, the Methodists, and the Baptists. The
statistics for the 5 principal missions are as follows:—

  ===============+=============+=========+=========+==========+==========
     MISSIONS.   |   FOREIGN   | JAPANESE|  ADULT  |INCLUDING |BAPTISMS
                 |MISSIONARIES.| PASTORS.| MEMBERS.|CHILDREN. |  LAST
                 |             |         |         |          |  YEAR.
  ---------------+-------------+---------+---------+----------+----------
  Congregational |    71       |    45   |  10,856 | 11,548   |   880
  Presbyterian   |   153       |    79   |  10,156 | 11,651   | 1,213
  Episcopalian   |   224       |    47   |   9,968 | 10,997   |   846
  Methodist      |   233       |   125   |   9,283 |  9,711   | 1,598
  Baptist        |    56       |     9   |   2,213 |  2,213   |   328
  ===============+=============+=========+=========+==========+==========

The following table gives other interesting particulars:

  ================+===========+=================+===========
  MISSIONS.       | CHURCHES. | SELF-SUPPORTING |  CHURCH
                  |           |    CHURCHES.    | PROPERTY.
                  |           |                 |  _Yen._
  ----------------+-----------+-----------------+-----------
  Congregational  |     81    |        34       |  125,794
  Presbyterian    |     71    |        23       |  218,252
  Episcopalian    |     69    |         2       |
  Methodist       |    146    |        13       |  225,559
  Baptist         |     30    |                 |
  ================+===========+=================+===========

  ================+===========+==================+============
  MISSIONS.       |  SUNDAY-  |      NATIVE      | AMOUNT PER
                  |  SCHOOL   | MONEY SUBSCRIBED.|  MEMBER.
                  | SCHOLARS. |      _Yen._      | _Yen. Sen._
  ----------------+-----------+------------------+------------
  Congregational  |    6,880  |     33,791       |    3.11
  Presbyterian    |    7,879  |     29,027       |    2.86
  Episcopalian    |    5,524  |     15,827       |    1.59
  Methodist       |   12,613  |     30,011       |    3.24
  Baptist         |    3,775  |     4,283        |    1.94
  ================+===========+==================+============

It is calculated that if all the different kinds of property held by
the Protestant Church be included, it is worth over 1,500,000 _yen_.


_The Catholic Church in Japan_

A writer signing himself “K. M.” contributes to the “Fukuin Shimpō”
an account of the methods followed by the Roman Catholics and of their
work in Japan, said to have been derived from an interview with L’Abbé
E. Ligneul. The following is a summary of “K. M.’s” article. (1) _The
revival of Roman Catholicism in Japan._ This began at Nagasaki in 1865,
where a church was built and when the descendants of the old Christians
came forward in large numbers to welcome the arrival of foreign
missionaries. Having mentioned the principal works of reference on the
Roman Catholic Missions in Japan, M. Ligneul went on to speak (2) _Of
the present state of their churches_. The following table gives the
numerical strength of the mission:--

  ===============+===========+==========+==============+==============
                 |           |          |              |   FOREIGN
  ECCLESIASTICAL |           | JAPANESE |   JAPANESE   | MISSIONARIES
    DISTRICTS.   | CONVERTS. | PRIESTS. | EVANGELISTS. |   (MALE).
  ---------------+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------
  Tōkyō          |     9,245 |        4 |           20 |           37
  Nagasaki       |    38,160 |       27 |          180 |           31
  Ōsaka          |     4,273 |        2 |           40 |           27
  Hakodate       |     4,643 |        1 |           20 |           20
  ---------------+-----------+----------+--------------+--------------
      Total      |    56,321 |       34 |          260 |          115
  ===============+===========+==========+==============+==============

The fact that comparatively little is known of the work being carried
on by the Roman Catholics throughout the country is no accidental
affair. It is one of the principles observed by the whole mission to
refrain from the use of the methods employed by other missions for
making their work known to the public generally.


_The Greek Church in Japan_

In the issue of the “Tserkovniya Vyedomosti” or “Church Gazette” (the
official organ of the Russian Church) for March 29 (O. S.) there is a
long article taken from the “Moscow Gazette” on the state of the Greek
Church in Japan.

The writer says that there are now 260 congregations, one more than
last year; 41 clergymen, including 1 bishop, 2 Russian clergymen (who
have now left Japan—Translator), 30 Japanese clergymen, 1 Russian
deacon, 7 Japanese deacons: altogether three more persons than last
year; Christians 27,245 (935 more than last year); Catechists 1,214
(643 adults, 571 minors, altogether 305 more than last year); deaths
279 (18 less than last year); marriages 29 (9 more than last year);
churches or preachers’ houses 174. The sum of the offerings made by the
Christians in support of their church totalled 11,870 _yen_ 41.8 _sen_,
4,505 _yen_ 72.5 _sen_ more than last year. The number of pupils in
Mission schools totalled 152, 12 less than last year.

       *       *       *       *       *

The annual meeting of clergy (Shinpin Kwaigi) of the Greek Church
Mission was held in the cathedral of that mission in Tōkyō on the 15th
inst. It was reported at the meeting that there were 1,037 converts
last year, deaths 320; and now that the members of the church number
27,956, including 40 clergymen and 146 _denkiosha_ (preachers or
unordained evangelists and helpers).


JAPAN’S NATIONAL SONG[231]

Few Europeans have learned to detect and enjoy the subtle beauty of
Japanese poetry. Fewer still, perhaps, are acquainted with the delicate
charm of the little poem which, although not a hymn, takes the place in
Japanese minds and hearts of the Briton’s “God Save the King,” or the
American’s “My Country, ’tis of Thee.” It is sung to a native air, the
custom being to sing the poem through thrice, and when thus rendered
by a large and enthusiastic company it is often truly impressive. The
poem itself is very old, being found in the “Manyōshiu,” which dates
from about the middle of the eighth century, and its author is unknown.
As originally composed, it was not addressed to the actual ruler, but
in all probability to an Emperor who had gone into retirement. Now,
however, it is exclusively applied to the reigning Sovereign. The poem
consists of the usual number of thirty-one syllables, and runs as
follows:—

  Kimi ga yo wa
  Chiyo ni yachiyo ni
  Sazare ishi no
  Iwao to narite
  Koke no musu made.

So far as we are aware only two English translations have been
published. One of these is by Viscount Fukuba, and, closely following
the original, reads as follows:

 “May our Sovereign live for thousands and ten thousands of years,
 until the tiny pebble becomes a moss-covered rock.”

The other, by Professor Chamberlain, is more finished
but less literal than the foregoing, and is included in his excellent
“Classical Poetry of the Japanese”:—

  “A thousand years of happy life be thine!
  Live on, My lord, till what are pebbles now,
  By age united, to great rocks shall grow,
  Whose venerable sides the moss doth line.”

To the above translations may be added a third by the
late Dr. Gordon:—

  “O Prince upon the throne!
  Ten thousand years live on,
  Till pebbles shall great rocks become
  With moss all overgrown!”


FLORAL JAPAN

The Japanese are a nature-loving people, and frequently give
practical expression to their feelings by taking a holiday simply
for “flower-viewing.” At the proper season the entire nation, so to
speak, takes a day off, and turns out on a big picnic to see the plum
blossoms, or the cherry blossoms, or the maples, or the chrysanthemums.
No utilitarian views of the value of time or miserly conceptions of
the expense of such outings prevail for a moment; for the Japanese
are worshippers of beauty rather than of the “almighty dollar.” A few
pennies on such occasions bring many pleasures; and business interests
are sacrificed at the shrine of beauty. And, as one or more flowers
are blooming every month, because twigs, leaves, grasses, etc., are
included in the scope of the word _hana_, there is almost a continuous
round of such picnics during the year. It is our purpose, therefore, to
arrange a calendar of flowers popular each month.

At the very outset we are confronted with a chronological difficulty
in presenting this subject to Western readers. For the programme of
Japanese floral festivals was originally arranged on the basis of the
old lunar calendar so long in vogue in Japan. By that calendar the New
Year came in at varying dates from about the 21st of January up to the
19th of February; in 1903 it fell on Thursday, January 29; so that it
is from three to seven weeks behind the Occidental solar calendar. And
yet, when Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar, many of these festivals
were transferred to the “New Style” without regard to the awful
anachronism that necessarily followed.

For instance, the following is a floral programme according to the “Old
Style”:—

  OLD STYLE.  NEW STYLE.

  1st month,  February   Pine.
  2d    „     March      Plum.
  3d    „     April      Cherry.
  4th   „     May        Wistaria.
  5th   „     June       Iris.
  6th   „     July       Tree peony.
  7th   „     August     Lezpedeza.
  8th   „     September  Eularia.
  9th   „     October    Chrysanthemum.
  10th  „     November   Maple.
  11th  „     December   Willow.
  12th  „     January    Paulownia.

Now, the pine is chosen for the 1st month (O. S.) on account of the
prominent part that it plays in the New Year’s decorations, but when
the new year begins the first of January, that calendar suffers serious
dislocation, because all of the other flowers cannot be moved a whole
month.

A similar confusion arises in connection with the great festival of the
“autumn full moon,” in which certain grasses also figured. By the lunar
calendar it fell about the 15th day of the 8th month, which never comes
in the Western 8th month, August. It came in 1902 on September 18; and
1903 it will not come until early in October! It may now be readily
seen how difficult it is in Japan to run on schedule time!

But, taking all these difficulties into consideration, and harmonizing
them so far as possible, we have been able to construct the following
modern Japanese floral calendar:—

  January        Pine.
  February       Plum.
  March          Peach.
  April          Cherry.
  May            Wistaria.
  June           Iris.
  July           Morning-glory.
  August         Lotus.
  September      “Seven Grasses.”
  October        Chrysanthemum.
  November       Maple.
  December       Camellia.


JAPAN AND SIAM[232]

Mr. Inagaki, Japanese Representative in Bangkok, has been making
strenuous efforts to bring about the establishment of a direct line of
steamers between Japan and Siam. He maintains that there cannot be any
substantial development of trade without some improvement of the means
of communication. Tōkyō newspapers report that the Ōsaka Shōsen Kaisha
has been induced to undertake the extension of its Formosan line to
Siam, and that arrangements are now under discussion with the Formosan
officials.

In a lecture delivered by Mr. Inagaki before the Japan Economic
Society, he insisted that Siam could be of the greatest service to
Japan in supplying raw materials and food stuffs. Her production of
sugar, hemp, and gum is very large, and whereas her export of silk ten
years ago was only 250,000 _yen_, it is now 10 millions. The Siamese
government has decided to devote a quarter of a million _yen_ to
agricultural experimental stations, and there can be no doubt that if
Japan sent seeds of raw materials to be grown in that country, fine
results would be obtained. It is important that a country like Japan
should have a source of supply which would certainly remain neutral in
time of war, and Siam is essentially such a source. This question of
food supply will one day be as important for Japan as it is already for
England, and its solution seems to lie in the direction of Siam.


FORMOSA UNDER JAPAN

Concerning Formosa under Japanese rule the following additional items
are worthy of notice. The Governor-General, 1913, is Count Sakuma.

It has been pointed out by the “Japan Mail” that the revenue of the
new territory in the first six years after its cession to Japan has
increased by 600 per cent, as shown in the following table:—


              _Yen._
  1896       2,710,000
  1897       5,320,000
  1898       8,250,000
  1899      11,750,000
  1900      14,900,000
  1901      16,370,000

       *       *       *       *       *

The number of the pest patients in Formosa has been decreasing year
after year, as the following returns for the period January 1 to June
17 of the respective years show:—

            CASES.      MORTALITY.
  1901      3,481         2,619
  1902      1,795         1,352
  1903        750           606

       *       *       *       *       *

The government is making strenuous efforts to increase the export
trade. It has subsidized a modern sugar-mill which has commenced
operations in South Formosa, manufacturing brown sugar for refining
purposes; it has likewise given assistance to a white-sugar factory; it
has started an experimental paper-factory; in fact, it has devoted all
its energies toward increasing the island’s productions. Independent
Japanese firms have likewise done a good deal, though not as much
as we had reason to anticipate. Two gold-quartz mills, one being of
considerable size, are successfully at work in the Formosan gold
fields; two wealthy companies are engaged in plantation work on a large
scale in Southeast and in North Formosa; and there is a glass-factory
in the north, several Japanese-owned coal-mines, a paper-factory
at Kagi, several modern salt farms, and other small industries, to
Japanese credit. In improving transportation, the Japanese have done
much, and are planning to do much more. The Chinese railway line
was handed over to the Japanese in such a condition that it had to
be all reconstructed. We thus have practically a new line to Kelung
and another to Shinchiku (formerly Teckoham). In addition to these,
new lines were constructed from Taihoku to Tamsui, and from Takow to
Shinyeisho via Tainan-fu, which gives a total of 93 miles of rail.
The trunk line connecting the north and south is now in course of
construction.[233] The Japanese have also built over 200 miles of
narrow gauge for the temporary transport of military supplies, general
freight, and passengers. Nearly a thousand miles of ordinary road have
been constructed.[234]

       *       *       *       *       *

Rev. W. Campbell, a Scotch missionary in Formosa, testifies concerning
what Japan has accomplished in the island:—

At the outset it should be remembered that, when they [Japanese]
arrived in 1895, instead of being allowed to take quiet possession,
they found the people everywhere up in arms against them, and had
literally to fight their way from north to south before anything like
settled government could be established.... Immediately after some
measure of peace had been restored, the executive sent out qualified
experts to engage in survey work and to report on the resources of
their newly ceded territory.

A complete census of the population was taken in 1897, 800 miles of
roads were made, and a tramway line laid down from Takow to Sin-tek.
This was followed by construction of the main line of railway from
Kelung to Takow, about one-half of which has already been opened
for goods and passenger traffic. Three cables were also laid down,
connecting Formosa with Japan, Foochow, and the Pescadores, and over
the existing 1,500 miles of telegraph and telephone wires immediate
communication has been made possible with every important inland
centre. The post offices recently opened in Formosa number over a
hundred, and letters can now be sent to any part of the empire for
two cents each. Up till the close of 1899, 122 government educational
institutions had been established, only 9 of those being for Japanese,
and 113 for natives. There are at present 10 principal Government
hospitals in the island, at which about 60,000 patients are treated
gratuitously every year, while sanitary precautions and free
vaccination have become so general that the danger from visitations
like small-pox and plague has been very much reduced.[235]


THE AMERICO-JAPANESE ENTENTE

“1. It is the wish of the two Governments to encourage the free and
peaceful development of their commerce on the Pacific Ocean;

“2. The policy of both Governments, uninfluenced by any aggressive
tendencies, is directed to the maintenance of the existing _status quo_
in the region above mentioned and to the defence of the principle of
equal opportunity for commerce and industry in China;

“3. They are accordingly firmly resolved reciprocally to respect the
territorial possessions belonging to each other in said region;

“4. They are also determined to preserve the common interests of all
Powers in China, by supporting by all pacific means at their disposal,
the independence and integrity of China and the principle of equal
opportunity for commerce and industry of all nations in that Empire;

“5. Should any event occur threatening the _status quo_ as above
described, or the principle of equal opportunity as above defined, it
remains for the two Governments to communicate with each other in order
to arrive at an understanding as to what measures they may consider it
useful to take.”



INDEX


  A

  Abdication, practice of, 90, 97

  Aborigines, 44

  Academy of Music, Tōkyō, 217

  Acrobats, 66

  Actors’ guild, 27

  Adams, Will, 91

  “Advance Japan,” 15, 28, 59, 117, 132, 158, 208

  Agricultural College, 216

  Agricultural College in China, 297

  Agricultural experiment stations, Siam, 411

  Agriculture, 16-22, 216, 350

  Ainu, 44, 45

  “Ainu Folk-lore,” 45

  “Ainu of Japan,” 45

  Akashi, 8

  Alaska, 15

  Alcock, 117

  Ale, 56

  Aleutian Islands, 15

  Almonds, 351

  Amaterasu, _see_ Sun-Goddess

  America, 2, 3, 7, 14, 20, 21, 28, 34, 37, 61, 106, 112, 140, 145,
    189, 213, 219, 220, 237, 268, 270, 271, 281, 285, 290, 292, 299-301

  American baby, first, 60;
    books, favorite, 204;
    fleet visits Japan, 335;
    life, 80;
    state legislature, 135

  “American Japanese Relations,” 341

  “American Journal of Sociology,” 175

  “American Missionary in Japan, An,” 190, 269

  Americans, 33, 36, 47, 66, 79, 104, 107, 144, 165, 168, 210, 216

  Americo-Japanese Entente, the, 335

  Amoy, 295

  Amusements, 66-69

  Anarchists, 337

  Ancestors, worship of, 64

  “Ancestor-Worship and Japanese Law,” 174, 249

  “Ancient Matters, Records of,” 92

  Anderson, 235

  Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 4, 92, 147, 153, 154, 156, 157, 299, 332, 338

  Anglo-Saxon influence, 157;
    town meeting, 142

  Anglo-Saxons, 128, 168, 310

  Animals, _see_ names of animals

  “Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,” 129

  Anti-Christian edicts removed, 91, 111, 112

  Anti-foreign reaction, 92, 114, 115

  Antimony, 23

  Aomori, 17, 32

  Aoyama, Dr., 220

  Apples, 19

  Apricots, 19

  Arbitration treaty with United States, 335

  Architecture, 51, 91

  Area, 5, 7

  Arima, 8

  Arita ware, 229

  Armor, 230

  Army, 126, 147-151;
    statistics, 381, 382

  Arnold, Sir Edwin, 78, 253

  Arsenal, 149, 150, 286

  “Art Japonais, L’,” 235, 236

  Artisans, 48, 82

  “Artistic Japan,” 236

  “Artist’s Letters from Japan, An,” 236

  Arts, fine, 91, 222-236;
    mechanical, 24, 25

  Aryans, 45

  Asahigawa, 149

  Asakawa, 328

  Asama, 8

  Ashikaga period, 98, 99

  Ashikaga supremacy, 91

  Ashikaga Yoshimasa, 233

  Asia, 14, 149, 156, 281, 292, 294, 301

  “Asia, the key of,” 4;
    Eastern, supremacy of Japan in, 299, 300

  “Asiatic Loch Lomond,” 8

  Asiatic Society of Japan, Transactions, 20, 22, 43, 54, 61, 62, 71,
    83, 89, 92, 101, 132, 133, 145, 159, 174, 199, 208, 231, 249, 255,
    259, 261

  Aso, Mount, 8

  Aso, Prof. S., 402

  “As the Hague Ordains,” 328

  Aston, W. G., 50, 92, 208, 232, 236, 249

  Atami, 8

  Athletics, 66

  “Atlantic Monthly,” 302

  Atsu, Prince, 123

  Audsley, G. A., 235, 236

  Australasia, 281

  Australia, 34, 45

  Austria, 85

  Automobiles, 31, 34

  Autumn, Japanese, 12

  “Awakening of the East, The,” 28, 158

  “Awakening of Japan, The,” 117, 304, 328

  Ayrton, Mrs. Chaplin-, 75


  B

  Babylon, 300

  Bacon, Miss Alice M., 59, 75, 189, 190, 221

  Badgers, 13

  Baelz, Dr., 46, 47

  Baggage, 29

  Baggage check system, American, 33

  Bakan, 9

  Ballard, Miss, 70

  Ballard, Walter J., 356

  Baltic fleet, Russian, 316, 317-318

  Bamboo, 13, 22, 74

  Bananas, 19

  Bandai, Mount, 8, 113

  Bank of Formosa, 38

  Bank of Japan, 38, 39, 92, 170;
    organized, 113

  Banks, national, 38;
    _see also_ specific names;
    private, 38;
    savings, 38, 39;
    deposits, 364

  Baptists, 264, 272, 404, 405

  Barbers’ guild, 27

  Barley, 19, 26, 55

  Base-ball, 66

  Bastiat’s “Science of Finance,” 206

  Batchelor, J., 45

  Bathing, 58, 59

  Battleships, _see_ Warships

  Bays, 9

  Beans, 19, 37, 55

  Bear, 13

  Beechey, Capt., 105

  Beef, 54

  Beer, 56;
    brewing, 24

  Beets, 19

  Beggars, 48;
    guild, 27

  Bellows, U. S. Consul, 351

  Bettelheim, Dr., 105

  Bevan, Paul, 236

  Bicycle boats, 85

  Bicycles, 31, 34, 280, 281

  Biddle, Commodore, 105

  Bimetalism, 92, 111

  Bing, S., 236

  Bird, Miss, _see_ Bishop, Mrs. Isabella Bird

  Birds, 13

  Birth and birthdays, 60, 61

  Bishop, Mrs. Isabella Bird, 15, 43, 45, 341

  Biwa Lake, 8

  Bizen ware, 229

  Black, J. R., 117, 200

  Blind, the, 217

  “Blossom,” 105

  “Blue-Jacket Spirit,” 152

  Boar, 13

  Boatmen, 30

  Boats, 29, 31;
    _see also_ Steamboats

  Boissonade, M., 161

  Bonin Islands, 34

  Books, 197, 203-206

  Booth, General, 334

  Bowes, J. L., 235

  Boxer troubles, 115, 146, 153, 308

  Bramhall, Mrs., 60, 75, 221

  Brick industry, 24

  Bricklayers’ guild, 27

  Brinkley, Captain, 208, 231-233, 235, 309, 311

  British, 7, 66

  British Columbia, 14

  Brothels, 166, 167, 271

  Buckwheat, 19

  Buddha, 253-255, 260;
    statue of, 228;
    birthday, 74

  Buddhism, 48, 54, 90, 96, 99, 177, 224, 237, 252-260, 269, 288;
    Buddhist ceremonies, 62;
    education, 209;
    festivals, 63, 65;
    periodicals, 203;
    philosophy, 198;
    priests, 224, 258;
    temples, 65, 166, 240, 243, 253, 258

  Buffalo, N. Y., 37

  Bushidō, 251-252

  “Bushidō, the Soul of Japan,” 89, 239, 252, 261

  Business ability of Japanese, 39-42, 82-83

  “Business men’s party,” 131

  Business men, American, visit Japan, 335;
    Japanese visit United States, 337

  Butter, 37

  Button industry, 24

  Byron, Lord, 204


  C

  Cabinet, 124, 125, 130, 143, 340, 375, 376;
    reconstruction, 113, 114

  California, 5, 14, 37

  Camellia, 410;
    trees, 12

  Campbell, W., 398

  Camphor, 37;
    trees, 12, 21

  Canada, 335

  Canadian Pacific steamship line, 3

  Candles, 37

  Canning industry, 22

  Canton river, 14

  Capital punishment, 162

  Capitals of Japan, 91, 96, 97

  Carpenters, wages of, 26, 360;
    guild, 27

  Carriage, 281

  Carrots, 19

  Cary, Otis, 89, 249, 259, 276

  “Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese Paintings in the British
    Museum,” 235

  “Catalogue of the Morse Collection of Japanese Pottery,” 235

  Cats, 13

  Caucasians, 45

  Cedar trees, 12

  Cemeteries, 258, 259

  Central America, 291

  Chamberlain, B. H., 15, 22, 45, 58, 75, 86, 92, 152, 161, 192, 197,
    199, 208, 222, 236, 252, 256, 408

  Chang Chih-tung, Viceroy, 297

  Changtu, occupation of, 317

  Cha-no-Yu, _see_ Tea-ceremonial

  Characteristics of the people, 46-50, 76-89

  “Charter Oath,” 91, 110-112, 118

  “Chautauquan, The,” 211, 401

  Chemulpo, 311

  Cherry flowers, 65, 79, 408-410;
    trees, 13

  Chestnuts, 19

  Chicago, 3, 11, 37, 38

  Chickens, 13, 54, 56

  “Child-Life in Japan,” 75

  Children, 66, 181, 182

  China, 4, 5, 7, 14, 21, 34, 35, 37, 42, 92, 96, 99, 103, 106, 115,
    143, 146, 149, 150, 153, 154, 157, 221, 224, 237, 250, 255, 285,
    287, 291, 292, 294-299, 301;
    tribute to, 91;
    war with, 92, 115, 307, 308;
    Japanese influence in, 294-298;
    Revolution, 340

  “China and the Far East,” 341

  Chinese, 7, 85, 94, 100, 105, 143, 144, 178, 198, 281, 297, 298;
    Chinese art, 224;
    Chinese Empire, 157;
    ideographs, 193, 194, 207, 220, 227;
    government service, 297;
    language, 209;
    literature, 90, 208, 209, 296;
    zodiac, 71;
    students in Japan, 340

  “Chinese Recorder,” 297

  Ching-ho-cheng, 317

  Cholera, 10

  Chop-sticks, 55

  Chōshiu, Clan of, 109

  Christian home, 177

  Christian literature, 265, 266;
    periodicals, 203

  “Christian Movement in Japan, The,” 276

  Christianity, 48, 61, 71, 91, 99, 100, 107, 111, 156-158, 167,
    177, 190, 219, 237, 240, 242, 243, 247-249, 253, 256, 259, 276,
    286-288;
    helped by war, 324, 334, 336, 337;
    statistics, 404-406;
    _see also_ Anti-Christian

  “Christianity in Japan, History of,” 276

  “Christianity in Modern Japan,” 276

  Christmas, 66

  Chromoxylography, _see_ Color printing

  “Chronicle,” Kōbe, 201

  “Chronicles of Japan,” 92

  Chrysanthemum Festival, 64, 65

  Chrysanthemums, 408-410

  “Chrysanthemums, War of the,” 91, 99

  Church, Japanese, 336

  Churches, 91, 110, 111, 267, 268, 287

  Chūzenji, Lake, 8

  Cire perdue process, 230

  Cities, opening of, 91

  Citizen (_kōmin_) 138-140

  City Council, 140, 141

  “Civil Code, New Japanese, Lectures on,” 174

  Civil war, 91, 109, 110

  “Classical Poetry of the Japanese,” 236, 408

  Clearing-houses, 354

  Clement’s “Christianity in Modern Japan,” 276

  Clement’s “Japanese Floral Calendar,” 65

  Climate, 5, 6, 11, 12

  Cloisonné, 230

  Coal, 23, 37, 41, 42, 152, 292, 295, 298

  Coast line, 5, 9, 10

  Cocoa, 37

  Code, Civil, 61, 114-116, 176, 178, 18O-182, 190;
    commercial, 38, 114, 115, 161;
    criminal, 161;
    Napoleon, 161;
    penal, 113;
    civil procedure, 161;
    criminal procedure, 113, 161;
    codes, new, 92

  Co-education, 211

  Coffins, 62

  Coins, 39

  Collotype, 227

  Colonial Bank of Hokkaidō, 38

  Color printing, 227

  Columbia University, 296

  “Commentaries on the Constitution of the Empire of Japan,” 132

  Commerce, 36, 37, 39-43;
    Treaty of commerce and navigation, 385-399

  Commercial centre, 291

  Compulsory school attendance, 212

  Conder, Josiah, 54, 236

  “Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism,” 275

  Confucian education, 209;
    influences, 91;
    philosophy, 198

  Confucianism, 48, 96, 100, 101, 237, 250-252, 260

  Congregationalists, 264, 404, 405

  Constantine, 248, 275

  Constitution, 92, 113, 114, 120-122,124, 127, 128, 132, 150, 273, 287

  “Constitutional Development of Japan,” 111, 132, 145

  “Constitutional Government in Japan,” 129

  Continental influences, 90

  Convicts, 162

  Cooking, 56

  Cooks’, European-style, union, 27

  Coolies, 27, 29, 31, 32, 282;
    guild, 27

  Co-operative stores, 27, 28

  Copper, 23, 37, 41

  “Corea, the Hermit Nation,” 341

  Cornstarch, 37

  Corporal punishment, 212

  Costumes, _see_ Dress

  Cotton, 21, 37;
    mills, 21, 286;
    spinning, 21;
    velvet, 37

  Counsel, 163, 164

  Couriers, 29, 35, 281

  Courts, 163-165

  Cream, evaporated, 37

  Credit Mobilier, 38

  “Creed of Half Japan, The,” 261

  Crimes, 162
  Criminal law, 160, 161

  Criminals, 163

  Currency, 39

  Curtis, W. E., 28, 43, 56, 66, 132, 174

  Curtius, ——, 107

  Customs, 60-75


  D

  Dai Nihon Shi, 101

  “Dai Nippon,” 28, 59, 89, 117, 132, 158

  Dalny, 295, 309, 313

  Damascus, 230

  Dancing, 68, 69, 228, 231-233;
    dancing-girls, 69

  Dan-no-ura, Battle of, 98

  Darwin’s “Origin of Species,” 204

  Davidson, U. S. Consul, 21, 143, 145, 398

  Days, special, lucky or unlucky, 71-75

  Deaf, education of, 217

  Death, 62

  Deer, 13

  De Forest, Dr., 276

  Deme Jikan, 228

  Dening, Prof., 86, 89

  Deportation, 162

  Development, internal, 104, 113, 114

  “Dial, The,” Chicago, 204, 206, 208

  “Diamond edition of humanity,” 47

  “Diary of a Japanese Convert,” 265

  Dickens, F. V., 236, 303

  Dickson, Walter, 117

  Dining-cars, 33

  Diosy, Arthur, 39, 117, 145, 151, 152, 156, 158

  Disciples, 264

  Divisions, 5, 6

  Divorce, 61, 177, 179, 180, 181

  Dixon, W. G., 109, 117

  Docks, 110, 111, 286;
    dockyards, 91

  Dogs, 13

  Dogura, Mr., 402

  Dolls, 66

  Dolls’ festival, 61, 64, 65

  Dōshisha, 215

  Dowie, J. A., 264

  Drama, 233

  Dress, 56-59, 284
  Duarchy, 97

  Dumb, education of, 217

  Dutch, 91, 100, 105, 106, 210, 281;
    books, 285

  “Dux Christus,” 276

  Dyeing, 24

  Dyer, Prof., 28, 59, 89, 117, 132, 158


  E

  “Earthquake, The Great,” _see_ Cabinet reconstruction

  Earthquakes, 8, 10, 51, 88, 106;
    Gifu, 92, 114;
    Professor of, 216

  Easter, 66

  Eastlake, F. W., 117, 158, 283

  Ebara, Mr., 274

  Editors, 201

  Education, 47, 209-221, 285, 341

  “Educational Conquest of the Far East, The,” 221

  Edwards, Osman, 68

  Egg-plants, 19

  Eggs, 26, 55, 56, 60

  Election, First National, 114;
    first under Constitution of 1889, 127

  Electoral franchise, extension of, 115, 116

  Electric cars, 34, 281;
    lights, 31, 36;
    railways, 31;
    apparatus manufactories, 286

  Elgin, Lord, 106, 107

  “Elizabethan Age,” Japan’s, 97

  Elocution, 195

  Embroidery, 24, 231

  Emperor Yoshihito, 123, 339

  Emperors and Empresses, chronological table, 374-375

  Empire, New, 91

  Empress Dowager, the, 111, 188, 280

  Empress Sada, 123, 188

  Enamelling, 230

  “Encyclopædia Britannica,” 204

  Engine works, 286

  Engineering, 23

  Engineers, American, 32

  England, 37, 61, 85, 93, 300

  English, 91, 145

  “English-Japanese Dictionary,” 208

  “English-Japanese Etymology,” 208
  English language, 113, 195, 201, 211, 219, 285, 298

  English normal school, 186

  Epicureanism, 79, 81

  Epidemics, 10

  Episcopalians, 264, 272, 404, 405

  Eularia, 409

  Europe, 3, 34, 112, 156, 189, 213, 237, 281, 290, 292, 299, 301

  European books, favorite, 204;
    languages, 220

  Europeans, 47

  Evangelical alliance, 271

  “Every Day Japan,” 15, 43, 59, 75, 89, 158, 174, 190, 221, 261

  “Evolution of the Japanese, The,” 89

  Exports, 36, 37, 298, 368


  F

  Factories, 352-353

  “Fairy Tales from Far Japan,” 70

  Family, Japanese, 50, 51

  Fan industry, 24

  Farming, 16, 17-19;
    farmers, 48, 82, 248, 283

  Fenollosa, E. F., 235

  Festivals, 63-65

  “Feudal and Modern Japan,” 59, 89, 101, 132, 208, 249

  Feudalism, 91, 110, 112, 119, 133, 134, 370

  Figs, 19, 351

  Filial piety, 87, 166, 176, 250

  Fillmore, Millard, 102, 106

  Finck, H. T., 15, 59, 89

  Fine Arts School, Tōkyō, 217

  Firefly lamp, 285

  “Fire-Fly’s Lovers, The,” 70

  Fire-Shine and Fire-Fade, Princes, 90

  Fish, 13, 22, 23, 26, 55, 56;
    fisheries, 294;
    considered by Peace commissioners, 319, 320

  Fisher’s “Universal History,” 205

  Flag, Imperial, 5;
    first foreign, officially raised, 107;
    flags, feast of the, 61, 64, 65;
    red and white, wars of, 91

  Florenz, Dr., 249

  Flour, 37
  Flowers, 408-410;
    arrangement, 233, 234;
    festivals, 65, 409, 410;
    “Flower-viewing,” 394;
    _see also_ specific names

  “Flowers of Japan and the Art of Floral Arrangement, The,” 236

  Folk-lore, 70

  Food, 54-56, 284

  Foreign Language School, Tōkyō, 217

  Foreign trade, 368

  Foreigners, status of, 170-174

  Formosa, Island of, 3, 5, 6, 12, 14, 16, 21, 30, 34, 91, 92, 111,
    115, 142-144, 220, 295, 336, 347;
    under Japan, 143, 144, 411-413

  Formosan Bank, 295

  Foxes, 13

  France, 37, 85, 164, 278, 290

  Franco-Japanese Agreement, 333

  Freight, 29, 30;
    carts, 30, 31

  French language, 211, 285

  Friends, 264, 272

  Froebel, Friedrich, 214

  “From Far Formosa,” 276

  “From Tōkyō through Manchuria with the Japanese,” 328

  Fruit, _see_ specific names

  Fruit-growing, 351-352

  Fuchow, 294, 295, 413

  Fuji, Mount, 8

  Fujiwara bureaucracy, 91;
    epoch, 97;
    family established in regency, 91

  Fukuba, Viscount, 408

  Fukuzawa, Mr., 184, 185, 215

  Fukwai, 135-138

  Funeral ceremonies, 62

  Furniture, 52, 53

  Fushun, occupation of, 317

  “Future of Japan, The,” 304


  G

  Gale, J. S. 341

  Gamblers’ guild, 27

  Game, 54

  Games, 66

  Gardens, 17, 53, 54

  Gas, 36

  Geisha, _see_ Dancing-girls

  Genroku era, 356
  German liberals, 264

  Germany, 37, 85, 122, 145, 147;
    and Japan, 300;
    German language, 211, 285

  “Geschichte des Japanischen Farbenholzschnitts,” 235

  Gifu earthquake, 92, 114

  Ginko or Salisburia, 351

  Ginza, the, of Tōkyō, 26

  “Gist of Japan, The,” 15, 89, 249, 276

  Glass-blowing, 24

  “Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan,” 43, 54, 65

  Glyptic art, 227

  _Go_, 66

  Goats, 13

  Goethe’s “Faust,” 204

  Goh, ——, 50

  Gokinai, 6

  Gold, 23, 27, 41, 369;
    _see_ Coins;
    gold standard, 39, 92, 115, 116

  Golownin, Captain, 104

  Gonse, Louis, 235, 236

  Gordon, Captain, 104

  Gordon, Dr., 190, 408

  “Gospel ship,” 267, 287

  Goto family, 230

  Government, Constitutional, 113, 116;
    and Liberals, alliance between, 115;
    ownership, 33

  Governor, 136-138

  Governors, assembly of, 91, 111

  Græco-Roman mythology, 95

  “Grammar of the Japanese Written Language,” 208

  Grant, U. S., 113, 369

  Grapes, 19, 351

  Grave-diggers, 48

  Great Britain, 4, 37, 146, 147, 153-157, 308, 310, 317

  Greater Japan, 331-341

  “Great Righteousness,” Era, 339

  Greece, 248, 300

  Greek church, 263, 404, 406, 407;
    language, 211, 285;
    chorus, 68

  Greene, D. C., 259

  Gregorian calendar, 64, 91, 103, 111, 112, 409

  Gribble, Henry, 20

  Griffin, Professor, 380

  Griffis, Dr., 18, 43, 59, 70, 71, 73, 75, 99, 101, 117, 206, 208,
    210, 241, 242, 249, 252, 256, 257, 276, 341

  “Grippe, La,” 10

  Guam, 299

  Guano deposits, 6

  Gubbins, J. H., 117, 161, 176, 178, 182

  Guilds, 27

  Gulf Stream, 11

  Gulick, S. L., 89, 117, 304, 328

  Gumma Prefecture, Governor of, 138

  Gunboat, United States, 23

  Guncotton, 85

  Gunpowder, smokeless, 85


  H

  Hachiman, god of war, 90, 96

  Hachisuka, Marquis, 188

  Hades, God of, 74

  Haga, 261

  Hakodate, 9, 107

  Hakone, 8, 37;
    lake, 8

  Hakuchi era, 370

  Hakuseki, Arai, 210

  Ham, 54

  Hamaoka, 39

  Hamath, 46

  Hancock, H. I., 66

  “Hand-Book for Japan,” 15

  “Hand-Book of Colloquial Japanese,” 208

  Hand-carts, 31

  Handkerchief industry, 24

  Hangchau, China, 297

  Happiness of the people, 79

  Hara, Mr., 168

  Harbors, 9

  Hardy, Thomas, 204

  Hare, 13

  Harris, Townsend, 106, 107, 117

  Hartshorne, Miss, 15, 43, 59, 75

  Haru, Prince, 92, 113, 115, 123, 188, 211

  Harunobu, 227

  Harvard University, 307

  “Hatsuse,” sinking of, 314

  Hawaii, 3, 7, 35, 299

  Hayashi, Mr., 312
  Hearn, Lafcadio, 43, 54, 65, 75, 77, 89, 190, 238, 249

  Hebrew, 285

  Heco, Joseph, 200

  Heikeutai, battle of, 315

  Heine, Heinrich, 204

  “Herald,” Kōbe, 201

  Herbart, J. F., 205

  “Heroic Japan,” 117, 158, 283

  Hideyoshi, 91, 99

  Hildreth, Richard, 101

  Hiroöka, Mrs. Asa, 186, 187, 402

  Hirose, Commander, 313

  Hiroshima, 148

  Hirth, Dr., 296

  “Histoire de l’Art du Japan,” 235

  History (Old Japan), 90-101
    I. Divine Ages, 94
    II. Prehistoric Period, 94-96
    III. Imperialistic Period, 96-97
    IV. Civil Strife, 97-100
    V. Tokugawa Feudalism, 100-101

  History (New Japan), 102-117
    I. Period of Seclusion, 104-106
    II. Period of Treaty-Making, 106-107
    III. Period of Civil Commotions, 107-110
    IV. Period of Reconstruction, 110-112
    V. Period of internal Development, 113-114
    VI. Period of Constitutional Government, 114-117
      Greater Japan, 331-341

  History and mythology outline, 90-92

  “History of Japan,” 101

  “History of Japanese Literature,” 208, 232, 236

  “History of Japanese Political Parties,” 132

  “History of Protestant Missions in Japan,” 276

  “History of the Twelve Japanese Buddhist Sects,” 253

  “Hitachi Maru,” sinking of, 314

  Hittites, 46

  Hizen ware, 229

  Hoang-Ho river, 14

  Hōjō tyranny, 91;
    family, 98
  Hokkaidō, 5, 6, 9, 11, 42, 142, 143, 292, 347;
    _see also_ Yezo

  Hokurikudō, 6

  Hokusai, 227

  Holidays, 63-66

  Holland, 37

  Holme, Charles, 22

  Honda, Y., 334

  “Honda the Samurai,” 75

  Hondo, 5, 6

  Hongkong, 33, 35, 37, 355

  Honolulu, 3, 33

  Horse-cars, 31, 34, 281

  Horses, 13, 24

  Hours, 72-73

  House, E. H., 117

  House of Commons, 119, 126, 130

  House of Peers, 126, 128, 130, 376, 377

  Houses of Japanese, 51-53, 284

  Hozumi, Dr. N., 174, 249

  Hugo’s “Les Misérables,” 204

  Huish, Marcus, 22, 222, 229, 236

  Hulbert, H. B., 341

  “Human Bullets,” 328

  “Hundred Poems,” 199

  Hyōgō, _see_ Kōbe


  I

  Ice industry, 24

  “Ichijiku,” 266

  “Ideals of the East, The,” 224

  Iga ware, 229

  Ii, Prime Minister, assassinated, 107, 108

  Ikao, 8

  Illinois, 37

  Imari ware, 229

  Imbrie, Dr., 208, 323

  Imitation, Japanese ability for, 41, 85

  Immigration, 335, 338

  Imperial Court, 278, 296

  Imperial Diet, 36, 92, 114, 122, 126-128, 130, 165, 207,
    212, 247, 313

  Imperial family, 48, 93

  Imperial Guard, 149

  “Imperial Japanese Navy, The,” 158

  Imperial Library, _see_ Library

  Imperial Rescripts, 212, 398-399

  Imperial University, _see_ University

  Imperialism, 91, 96-97, 101, 118-132
  Imperialistic period, 90

  Imports, 36, 37, 170, 368

  “In the Mikado’s Service,” 75

  Inagaki, Mr., 410

  Inari Sama, 248

  Incomes, _see_ Wages and incomes

  Indemnity, War, 319

  India, 14, 21, 34, 37, 45, 48, 301

  Indigo, 17

  Industrial and commercial Japan, 17-28, 39-42, 183, 341

  Industrial Bank, 38

  “Industries of Japan, The,” 28, 231, 235

  Inland Sea, 10, 267, 287

  Inouye, Jukichi, 74

  “Intercourse between the United States and Japan,” 117

  International, law, violated by Russia, 317;
    Oil Company, 36;
    Postal Union, 35

  Invention, Japanese ability for, 41, 85

  Investment, foreign, 40-42

  Iris, 65, 409, 410

  Iron, 23, 37, 42, 295;
    foundries, 286;
    workers’ union, 27

  Ise, shrine at, 167, 243

  Ishigami, Dr., 220

  Ishikari river, 9

  Ishikawajima, 355

  “Island of Formosa, The,” 21, 143

  Itagaki, Count, 119, 131, 402

  Italian, 285

  Itō, Prince, 40, 120, 131, 132, 332, 336, 381, 402

  “Ito, With Marquis, in Korea,” 341

  Iwakura Embassy, 110, 112

  Iyemochi, Shōgun, 108, 109

  Iyenaga, 111, 132, 145

  Iyenari, Shōgun, 280

  Iyeyasu, Shōgun, 91, 99, 100

  Iyeyoshi, Shōgun, 105

  Izanagi, 90, 95

  Izanami, 90, 95

  Izumo, 94; ware, 229


  J

  Janes, 158

  “Japan,” 15, 59, 101, 208, 249
  “Japan, An Interpretation,” 89

  “Japan: Its History, Arts, and Literature,” 231, 233, 235

  “Japan and America,” 39, 42, 356

  “Japan and her people,” 15, 43, 59, 190

  “Japan and its Art,” 236

  “Japan and its Regeneration,” 89, 249, 276

  “Japan and its Trade,” 28

  “Japan and the Japanese,” 300

  “Japan as it Was and Is,” 101

  “Japan Daily Advertiser,” 201

  “Japan Evangelist,” 276

  “Japan in History, Folk-lore, and Art,” 59, 101, 208, 210

  “Japan in Transition,” 28, 145, 158, 291

  “Japan Mail,” 46, 131, 184, 201, 243, 296, 350, 370, 376, 383,
    404, 410, 411

  Japan Mail Steamship Company, 34, 92, 113, 114, 139

  Japan Society, London, Transactions, 22, 50, 92

  “Japan Times,” 24, 130, 131, 188, 201, 204, 362,
    381, 384, 399, 404

  “Japan To-day,” 15, 43, 158, 261

  “Japan Tract Society,” 266

  “Japan Year Book,” 28, 43

  “Japanese Boy, A,” 75, 221

  “Japanese Calendars,” 71, 83

  “Japanese Education,” 221

  “Japanese Epigrams,” 208

  “Japanese Fairy Book,” 70

  “Japanese Fairy Tales,” 70

  “Japanese Floral Calendar,” 65

  “Japanese Girls and Women,” 59, 75, 189, 190, 221

  “Japanese Homes,” 51, 54

  “Japanese Illustration,” 235

  “Japanese, Interior, A,” 59, 190, 221

  “Japanese Legal Seal, The,” 174

  “Japanese Life in Town and Country,” 59, 75, 89, 261

  “Japanese Nation,” 341

  “Japanese Odes,” 236

  “Japanese Physical Training,” 66

  “Japanese Plays,” 68
  “Japanese Plays and Playfellows,” 68

  “Japanese Rule in Formosa,” 145

  “Japanese Wood-cutting and Wood-cut Printing,” 235

  “Japanese Wood Engravings,” 235

  Java, 45;
    Javanese, 45

  Jevon’s “Money,” 206

  Ji sect, 254

  Jimmu Tennō, Emperor, 63, 90, 93, 95, 121

  “Jingles from Japan,” 83

  Jingorō, Hidari, 228

  Jingu, Empress, 90, 95, 96

  Jinrikisha, 31, 32, 281

  “Jinrikisha Days in Japan,” 15, 20, 43, 56, 123, 236

  “Jinrikisha men,” 32, 203

  Jōdo sect, 253, 255

  Journalism, 200-202

  Judges, 163-165

  Julian, 248

  Jūmin, _see_ Resident

  Justice, 160


  K

  Kaga ware, 229

  Kagi, Formosa, 398

  Kago, 30

  Kagoshima, 32, 107, 108

  “Kaigai Shimbun,” 200

  Kaiping, 313

  Kaiyuan, 317

  Kajima, 186

  Kamimura, Admiral, 314, 316

  Kanazawa, 215

  Kaneko, Baron, 120, 139, 307

  Kanin, Prince, 278

  Kansas City, 37

  Karuizawa, 8

  Kataoka, Mr., 274

  Katayama Sea, 28

  Katō, Baron, 402

  Katsura, Prime Minister, 324;
    ministry, 331, 332, 336-338, 340

  Kawakami, E. E., 132, 341

  Kawamura, Count and Countess, 123

  Kawasaki, 341

  Kegon waterfall, 9
  Keiki, Shōgun, 108,109

  Keiō-gijiku, 215

  Kelung, Formosa, 412, 413

  Kenkwai, 135-138

  Kennan, George, 328

  Kenzan ware, 228

  “Keramic Art of Japan,” 235

  Keramic wares, 228

  Kii, 9

  Kikuchi, Dr., 221

  Kimotsuki, Admiral, 291

  Kinchow, 313

  Kindergartens, 210, 213, 214, 269, 403

  Kingsley Hall, 28

  “Kinse Shiriaku,” 117

  Kipling, Rudyard, 204

  Kirby, E. C., 341

  Kiso river, 9

  Kitakami river, 9

  Kitasato, Dr., 10, 220

  Kites, 66

  Kiyomori, 98

  Knapp, A. M., 59, 89, 101, 132, 208, 249

  Knight, 283

  Knox, G. W., 59, 75, 89, 249, 261, 304

  Kōbe, 2, 9, 33, 110, 201, 355, 364

  “Kōbe Herald,” 407

  Koch, Dr., 220

  Kodama, Baron, 220, 321

  Koike, Major, 381

  Kojiki, 241

  Kojimachi Ku, 139

  Kōkaku, Emperor, 278

  “Kokumin Shimbun,” 335

  Komagatake, 8

  Komatsu II., Emperor, 99

  Kōmei, Emperor, 64, 108,109, 122

  Kōmin, _see_ Citizen

  Komura, Baron, 318

  Korea, 4, 5, 7, 14, 32, 34, 90, 91, 95, 96, 99, 111, 154, 157,
    224, 237, 252, 255, 292, 294, 299, 331;
    Japanese convention with Japan, 332;
    agreement influence in, 294;
    Russia in, 309;
    with Japan, 333;
    annexed, 337;
    Supreme Court in, 334;
    Koreans, 85;
    students, 341

  “Korea and Her Neighbors,” 341
  “Korean Sketches,” 341

  “Korea in Transition,” 341

  “Korea, The Passing of,” 341

  “Korea, The Tragedy of,” 341

  “Korea, With Marquis Ito in,” 341
    _See also_ “Corea the Hermit Nation,” 341

  Koriusai, 227

  Korsakoff Harbor, Sakhalin, 315

  Kublai Khan, 98

  Kuchinotsu, 9

  Kumamoto, 32, 149, 215

  Kure, 150, 355

  Kurihama, 102

  Kurile Islands, 5, 6, 12, 44, 105, 111

  Kuroki, General, 313, 315

  Kuropatkin, General, 313, 315

  Kuro Shio (Black Stream), 11

  Kurozumi-kyō, 259

  Kusatsu, 8

  Kusunoki, 91, 98

  Kyonaga, 227

  Kyōto, 19, 91, 97, 109, 215, 230, 278, 280, 282, 350

  Kyōto ware, 229

  Kyōwa era, 277

  Kyūshiu, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 42, 45, 95, 292


  L

  Labor unions, 27, 28

  “Labor World,” 28

  Lacquer trees, 12;
    lacquer work, 24;
    lacquering, 230-231

  Ladd, George T., 87, 341

  “Ladoga” (American), 105

  La Farge, John, 236

  Lakes, 8

  Lamps, 298

  Land, arable, 350, 351;
    foreign ownership of, 170, 171

  “Land of the Morning,” 109

  Landscape-gardening, 54, 234

  “Landscape-Gardening in Japan,” 54, 236

  Lange, Dr., 208

  Language, 191-198, 206, 207, 232

  Lanman, Chas., 117

  Latin, 211, 285
  Latitude, 5

  “Lawrence” (American), 105

  Laws, 96, 137

  Lay, A. H., 132, 376, 380

  Lead, 23

  Legal Japan, 159-174

  Leroy-Beaulieu, A., 28, 158

  Lespedeza, 395

  Lewis, R. E., 221

  Liaotung Peninsula, 307, 308

  Liaoyang, 313, 315

  Library, Imperial, 203, 220;
    Max Müller, 220

  “Life of Sir Harry Parkes,” 303

  Light-houses, 91, 110

  Ligneul, L’Abbé, 391

  Literary class, 48

  Literature, 70, 100, 198-208

  Lithography, 227

  Living expenses, 26, 27, 358-360

  Lizards, 13

  Lloyd, Prof., 15, 59, 75, 89, 158, 174, 190, 221, 259, 261

  Loans, war, 313

  Local self-government, 113, 114, 116, 120, 133-145

  Locomotives, 37

  London, 341

  Longford, J. H., 101, 174

  Lönholm, Dr., 161

  Loo Choo (Ryūkyū) Islands, 5, 12, 34, 92, 105, 113

  Loquats, 19, 351

  Loti, Pierre, 77

  “Lotos-Time in Japan,” 15, 59, 89

  Lotus, 65, 410

  Lotze, R. H., 87

  Louisiana, 5

  Lowell, Percival, 26, 43, 50, 75, 89, 195, 223, 239, 249, 257

  Loyalty, 87

  Lucky and unlucky days, 71-75

  Lumber, 24

  Lunar calendar, 64

  Lutherans, 264


  M

  MacCauley, Clay, 199

  McClatchie, T. R., 68
  McCormick, Frederick, 328

  McDonald, Roland, 105, 106

  McKenzie, F. A., 341

  Mackay, Dr., 276

  Maclay, A. C., 75

  Magazines, 202, 285

  “Magna Charta of Japanese liberty,” _see_ Constitution

  Maize, 19

  Maizuru, 150

  Makaroff, Admiral, 314

  “Maker of the New Orient, A,” 276

  Malays, 45, 46, 95

  Manchoo Court, 301

  Manchuria, China, 30, 32, 295, 308-310, 313, 331

  Manila, 33, 35

  Manners, _see_ Customs

  Manufacturing plants, 286

  “Manyōshiu,” 407

  Maple, 65, 408, 409

  Marcus Island, 6

  “Mariner” (British), 105

  Marriage, 61, 62, 178-182

  Masamune, 230

  Mason, W. B., 15

  Masujima, Dr., 169, 170, 174

  Match industry, 24, 37, 298

  Matsukata, Count, 128

  Matsumai, Yezo, 105

  “Matthew Calbraith Perry,” 117

  Matting, 37

  “Mayors of the Palace,” 98, 278

  Mechanics, 283;
    wages of, 26, 358-360

  Megata, Mr., 351

  Meiji era, 91, 277, 339

  Melons, 19

  Memorial Day, 65

  Men-of-war, American, 23

  Mercantile Marine, 384

  “Mercator” (American), 105

  Merchants, 48, 82, 283

  Meredith, George, 204

  Merovingians, Japanese, 98

  Metal work, 24, 229-230

  Meteorological table, 346

  Methodist Publishing House, 266, 276

  Methodists, 264, 272, 334, 404, 405

  Michi, Prince, 123

  Migrations, 95
  “Mikado’s Empire, The,” 43, 66, 71, 206

  Military class, 48

  Mill, John Stuart, 380

  Miller, ——, a criminal, 165

  Millet, 19, 55

  Milne, Professor, 15

  Minamoto, 98

  Mining, 23, 294

  Minko, 228

  Minnesota, 5

  Mint, 39, 91, 110, 111

  Miochin family, 230

  Mission of Japan, the, 289-304

  Mission schools, 211, 219

  Missionaries, 107, 157, 173, 177, 218, 245, 263-269, 272, 287

  Missionary Conference, First, 110;
    at Ōsaka, 92, 113;
    at Tōkyō, 92, 115;
    at Yokohama, 91

  Mississippi valley, 5

  Mitake, 8

  Mitford, A. B. F., 70, 75, 261

  Mito, 54, 60, 67, 280

  Mito clan, 100

  Mito, Prince of, 149, 286

  “Mito Yashiki,” 75

  Mitschenko’s cavalry, 315

  Mitsu Bishi Company, 23

  Mitsui Bank, 370

  Miwa, 228

  “Miyako-Dori,” 236

  Miyanoshita, 8

  “Modern Japanese Legal Institutions,” 174

  Moji, 9, 32, 187

  “Moji no Shirube,” 208

  Money, Table of, 347-349;
    in circulation, 367;
    money-making, 81-82, 408

  Mongolians, 45

  Monkey, 13

  Morals, 48, 257, 271, 287

  Mormons, 265

  Morning-glory, 65, 410

  Morris, John, 15, 28, 117, 132, 158, 208

  Morrison, Arthur, 235

  “Morrison” Expedition, 105

  Morrison, Mt., 8
  Morse, E. S., 51, 54, 235

  “Moscow Gazette,” 406

  Mosquitoes, 10

  Mossman, Samuel, 117

  Mother-in-law, 176

  Mott, John R., 270

  Mounsey, A. H., 117

  Mountains, 8

  Mourning, 62

  Mousseline, 37

  Mukden, battle of, 317

  Mulberry trees, 19

  Munichika, 230

  Munzinger, Carl, 85

  Muramasa, 230

  Murata rifle, 149

  Murdock, James, 101, 276

  Muroran, 9, 150

  Murray, David, 15, 59, 94, 97, 101, 132, 263

  “Murray’s Hand-Book,” 12, 15

  “Muscovite Menace,” 322

  Music, 68, 69, 231, 232

  “Music and Musical Instruments of Japan, The,” 236

  Mutsuhito, Emperor, 108-110, 118, 121, 122, 279;
    death of, 339, 340

  Mythology, 90, 92-95;
    history, outline, 90-92


  N

  Nachi waterfall, 9

  Nagasaki, 9, 23, 32, 104-107, 201, 281, 341, 405, 406

  Nagoya, 21, 148, 230, 364

  Namikawa, 230

  Nanjo, 253

  Nankaidō, 6

  Nanshan, 313

  “Napoleon of Japan,” 91, 99

  Nara, 97, 228;
    Nara epoch, 90, 97

  “Narrative of a Japanese,” 200

  Naruse, Jinzō, 187, 188, 402

  “Nation, The,” 132, 134, 145

  National Assembly, 120

  National development, 366, 367

  National exhibition in Tōkyō, 111

  National song, 407, 408

  Nature-worship, 45, 79
  Naval increment, 383, 384

  Navy, 126, 147-152

  Nelson, Lord, 151

  Nemoto, Mr., 274

  “New Far East, The,” 39, 117, 145, 151, 158

  New Year’s Day, 61, 64, 75

  New York City, 296

  New York State Bar Association, 170

  Newchang, 315

  Newspaper, first, 91, 110, 111, 200;
    newspapers, 200-202, 257, 266, 273, 285;
    _see also_ specific names

  Nichiren sect, 253, 255-256

  Nicolai, Bishop, 263

  Nietzche’s “Zarathustra,” 204

  Nightingale, 13

  Niigata, 9, 110

  Niitaka, 8

  Nikkō, 8, 9, 185, 228

  Ninigi, 90

  Ninsei ware, 228

  Nippon Electric Company, 38

  Nippon Yūsen Kwaisha, _see_ Japan Mail Steamship Company

  “Nisshin Shinjishi,” 200

  Nitobe, Dr., 45, 89, 117, 239, 252, 261, 341

  Nitta, 91, 98

  _Nō_ dances, 228, 233

  Nobility, new orders of, 92, 113, 114

  Nobles’ School, 123, 211

  Nobunaga, persecutor of Buddhists, 91, 99

  Nodzu, General, 313, 315

  Nogi, General, 313, 316, 340

  Norimono, _see_ Sedan-chair

  Normal schools, 211, 216, 400

  Norman, Henry, 56, 57, 69, 152, 158, 174, 202

  Noss, Christopher, 208

  “Notes on Shippo,” 235

  “Noto, an Unexplored Corner of Japan,” 43

  Novik, sinking of, 315

  Nunobiki waterfall, 9

  Nuts, 55

  Nuttall’s “Standard Dictionary,” 205
  O

  Oak trees, 12

  Oatmeal, 37

  Occidentalization, 69

  “Occult Japan,” 249

  Ocean currents, 11, 14

  Officials, 26, 48

  Ōhashi, Mr., 220

  Oil, 23, 36, 41, 42;
    industry, 364-365

  Ōjin, 90, 96

  Okakura, Kakasu, 117, 224, 235, 304, 328

  Okayama, 215

  Oku, General, 313, 315

  Ōkuma, Count, 119, 130, 154, 215, 218, 333, 381, 402

  Olcott, Colonel, 253

  Omaha, 37

  Omnibus, 34

  Onions, 19

  Onohama, 355

  Onsen, 8

  Oöka, 159

  “Open door,” 310, 322

  Opium, 144, 170

  Oranges, 19, 351, 352

  Orchestras, 67-69

  Oregon, 14, 106

  “Orient, The Spirit of the,” 304

  Oriental Steamship Company, 23, 35

  “Ornamental Arts of Japan,” 235

  Ōsaka, 9, 21, 39, 92, 110, 148, 149, 186, 355, 364, 402, 406;
    “Ōsaka Asahi Shimbun,” 202;
    Exhibition, 24, 356-358;
    Gas Company, 36;
    “Ōsaka Mainichi Shimbun,” 202;
    Merchant Steamship Company, 34, 295;
    Missionary Conference, Proceedings, 276;
    Shōsen Kwaisha, 34, 295

  Oshū, 45

  Ota ware, 229

  “Othello,” 68

  Ōuchi, Mr., 322

  “Out of the Far East,” 190

  Outcasts, 283;
    admitted to citizenship, 91, 110, 112

  “Outline of the History of Ukiyo-ye, An,” 235
  “Outlook, The,” 309, 328

  Owari ware, 229

  Oxen, 13; ox-carts, 29, 31

  Ōyama, Marquis, 150, 321

  Ozaki, Mme., 70


  P


  Pacific Ocean, 1-3, 6, 14, 299, 301

  Pack-horses, 29, 31

  “Painters of Japan, the,” 235

  Painting, 225-227;
    collections in America, 225

  Palanquin, 30

  Palmer, Frederick, 328

  Pantomime, 68

  Paper-making, 24;
    mills, 286

  Paper money, 39

  “Paradise of the East,” 290

  “Party Cabinet,” first, 115

  Paulownia, 409

  Peace, articles of, 318-320

  Peace commissioners, 318;
    conference by, 318

  “Peace Preservation Act,” 113, 114

  Peace Resolutions, 335

  Peace Society, 333

  Peach trees, 13;
    blossoms, 410;
    peaches, 19, 351, 352

  Peanuts, 19

  Pears, 19, 351, 352

  Peas, 19, 37

  Peeresses’ School, 188, 211

  Peery, R. B., 15, 89, 249, 276

  Peking, 115, 296, 297, 301

  Penal Code, 113

  People, 44-59;
    _see also_ Characteristics of the people

  Perry, Commodore, 102, 103, 105-107, 116;
    anniversary of treaty, 314;
    Memorial Relief Fund, 314;
    expedition, 91, 117

  Persimmons, 19, 351

  Pescadores Islands, 5, 413

  Petroleum, 37, 365

  “Petropavlovsk,” sinking of, 314

  “Phaethon” (British), 104

  Philippine Islands, 3, 14, 15, 291, 299

  Phillips, Fs. C., 205

  Phœnicia, 300
  Physiographical advantages, 291

  Physiography, 1-15

  Pickles, 37

  Pickpockets’ guild, 27

  “Pictorial Arts of Japan, The,” 235

  Piggott, F. T., 22, 236

  Pine, 12, 409, 410

  Pisciculture, 24

  Plague, 10, 413

  Plasterers’ guild, 27

  Plum trees, 13;
    blossoms, 65, 79, 408, 409, 410;
    plums, 19, 351, 352

  Poetry, 192, 198-200, 225, 226, 231, 232, 407

  Policemen, 162, 163

  “Political and Commercial Reasons for the Study of Chinese,” 296

  “Political Development of Japan (1867-1909), The,” 132

  “Political Ideas of Modern Japan, The,” 132

  Political parties, 113, 114, 130, 376-381

  “Political Science Quarterly,” 145

  Pomegranate, 351

  Population, 7, 366

  Porcelain, 24, 37, 228-229

  Pork, 54

  Port Arthur, 307, 309, 311, 313, 315, 316

  Portland, Oregon, 2

  Ports, opening of, 91

  Portsmouth, N. H., peace conference at, 318

  Portuguese, 20, 91, 99

  Postage, letter, 35, 36

  Postal system, 31, 35, 91, 110, 111;
    postal savings, 35, 362-364

  Potatoes, 19, 26

  Pottery, 24, 228-229;
    “Father of Pottery,” 229

  Poultry, 24

  “Powers, Great,” 146, 307, 308

  “Practical Introduction to the Study of Japanese Writing,” 208

  “Preble” (United States), 105

  Prefectural assemblies, 92, 111-114

  Prehistoric period, 90

  Presbyterians, 264, 272, 404, 405

  Presents, 60
  Press, freedom of the, 92, 115, 116, 201

  Printers’ union, 27

  Prison system, 165, 166;
    officials, school for, 168;
    treatment of prisoners, 321

  Privy council, 92, 113, 124

  Professional schools, 218

  “Progress of Japan, 1853-1871, The,” 117

  Pronunciation, xvii

  Prophecy, 288

  Proverb, a Japanese, 46

  Provinces and Prefectures, 345, 347

  Prussian voting system, 141


  R

  Radicals, dissatisfaction of, 113, 114

  Radish, 19

  Railroad, first, 91, 110;
    fare, 33;
    carriages, 37;
    engineers’ union, 27;
    workmen’s union, 27

  Railroads, 31-33, 282, 294, 333, 360-362, 367

  Rainy seasons, 11

  Ransome, Stafford, 28, 145, 158, 291

  Rathgen, Dr. Karl, 17

  Rats, 10, 13

  “Real Japan, The,” 56, 57, 69, 152, 158, 174, 190, 202

  “Real Triumph of Japan, The,” 158

  Red Cross Society, 188, 269, 270, 280, 321

  Reform School, 168

  Reform work, 271

  Registration, system of, 168, 169

  Rein, J. J., 15, 22, 28, 46, 59, 75, 85, 89, 208, 231, 235, 249

  Religion, 172, 173, 237-276

  “Religion in Japan, Development of,” 249, 261

  Religions, Bureau of, 243

  “Religions of Japan, The,” 242, 249, 257, 276

  Remmon-kyō, 259

  Remsen, Ira, 205

  Resanoff, 104

  “Rescue homes,” 168

  Resident (_jūmin_), 138, 139

  Resources, 41, 42, 340
  Restoration, 108, 110, 118, 144, 210, 242

  Revolutionary war, 91

  Rice, 18, 19, 26, 37, 54, 56, 169, 351

  Richardson affair, 91, 107, 108

  Rifles, 85

  Ritter, H., 276

  Rivers, 9

  Roman Catholic, 264, 404-406

  Roosevelt, President, 318

  Rosen, Baron, 318

  Roses, War of the, 99

  Rowing, 66

  “Rurik,” loss of, 314

  Russia, 4, 14, 36, 145, 263, 285, 294, 295;
    and Japan, 299, 300, 307-328

  “Russia, The Tragedy of,” 328

  Russian aggressions, 155, 157

  Russian Church, 406

  Russian epidemic, 10

  Russian language, 285

  “Russo-Japanese Conflict, The,” 328

  Russo-Japanese convention, 333

  Russo-Japanese war, 307-327, 331, 332, 336

  Ryūkyū Islands, _see_ Loo Choo Islands


  S

  Sada, Empress, 123, 188, 211

  Saga rebellion, 91, 111

  Saikaidō, 6

  Saionji, Marquis, 402;
    cabinet, 332, 336, 340

  “Saiseikwai” Society, 338

  _Sake_, 24, 55

  Sakhalin traded off for Kurile Islands, 111;
    indemnity from Russia, 331

  Salisburia, or Ginko, 351

  Salt, 23

  Salvation Army, 168, 264, 271

  Samurai, or Knight, 283

  San Diego, 2, 3

  San Francisco, 2, 3, 35, 37

  Sanindō, 6

  Sanskrit, 211, 285

  Sanyō Railway Company, 33

  Sanyōdō, 6

  Sapporo Agricultural College, 216

  “Saramang” (British), 105
  Saseho, 150, 311

  Satin, 37

  Satow, Sir Ernest, 22, 117, 241, 249

  Satsuma, Prince of, 108

  Satsuma rebellion, 91, 111

  Satsuma ware, 229

  Sawyers’ guilds, 27

  Saxons, 93

  Scandinavian Alliance, 264

  Scherer, J. A. B., 15, 43, 117, 158, 221, 261

  Schools, 210-212, 214-218;
    statistics, 399-401;
    _see also_ Academy of Music, Fine Arts School, Foreign Language
    School, Kindergartens, Mission, Nobles’, Normal, Peeresses’,
    Professional, and Technical schools, Sapporo Agricultural College,
    University for Women, and University, Imperial

  Schopenhauer, Arthur, 204

  Scidmore, Miss E. R., 15, 20, 43, 56, 75, 123, 236, 328

  “Scribner’s Monthly,” 87, 132

  Scripture Union, 271

  Sculptors, 228

  Sea of Japan, battle of, 318

  Seaman, Louis L., Major, 158, 328

  Seattle, Washington, 2, 35, 355

  Seaweed, 55

  Second Army, 313

  Sedan-chair, 30

  Seidlitz, 235

  Seifu ware, 228

  Sei-i-Tai-Shōgun, 98

  Seismology, 15, 216

  “Seiyō Kibun,” 210

  Sekigahara, 91, 100

  Senate, 91, 111, 119

  Sendai, 148, 215, 332

  Seoul, 311, 312

  Seto ware, 229

  Setonouchi, _see_ Inland Sea

  Setouchi, _see_ Inland Sea

  “Seven grasses,” 410

  Seventh-Day Adventists, 264

  Shaho River, battle of, 315;
    skirmishes on, 317

  “Shakai Zasshi,” 18

  Shanghai, China, 298, 355
  Sheep, 13

  Shibata, Mr., 323

  Shibusawa, Baron, 39, 82

  Shigemi, 75, 221

  Shikoku, 5, 10, 12

  Shimada, Mr., 274

  Shimoda 107

  Shimonoseki, and Straits of, 32, 91, 107, 108

  Shin sect, 253, 255, 256

  Shinano river, 9

  Shinchiku, Formosa, 412

  Shingon sect, 253, 254

  “Shinshiu,” 255

  Shintō, 48, 50, 62, 68, 94, 177, 224, 237-249, 250, 251, 254,
    259, 260, 288, 340;
    periodicals, 203;
    shrines, 166, 240, 243, 244;
    temples, 65, 238

  “Shinto: the Way of the Gods,” 249

  Shinyeisho, Formosa, 412

  Shioya, S., 75, 221

  Ship-building, 23, 24, 354-356

  Ship-carpenters’ union, 27

  _Shippō_, 230, 235

  Shirane, 8

  Shirozaemon, 229

  Shizuoka, 280

  Shōgunate, 91, 98, 99, 108-110

  Shops, shopkeepers, shopping, 25-26

  Shōtoku Taishi, 90, 96

  Shrines, Bureau of, 243

  Shunsho, 227

  Siam, 4, 299;
    and Japan, 298, 410-411

  Siberia, 4, 14, 34

  Siberia railway, 291, 309

  Sick poor, relief of, 338

  Silk, 17, 20, 21, 37, 41;
    silkworms, 20

  Silver, 23, 41, 42

  Simmons, Dr., 133

  Simplicity of life, 78-81

  Singapore, 355

  Sin-tek, Formosa, 413

  “Sketches of Tōkyō Life,” 74

  Sleeping-cars, 33

  Smallpox, 10, 220, 413

  Smelt-fishing, 22

  Smoking, 20

  Snakes, 13

  Soap, 37
  Social evil, 166-168

  Social settlement, 28

  Socialism, 28

  Society, classes of, 48-49, 282, 283

  Soldiers, 30, 82, 283

  “Solomon, Japanese,” 159

  Soma ware, 229

  Sone, Viscount, 337

  “Soul of the Far East,” 26, 50, 89, 195, 239, 249

  Soups, 55

  South Pacific Islands, 45

  Soy, 24, 55

  Spanish, 285

  Spencer, D. S., 404

  Spencer, Herbert, 206

  Spokane Falls, Washington, 37

  Spring, Japanese, 12

  Springs, hot, mineral, 8, 59

  Stage, 31, 34, 281

  “Standard, The,” Chicago, 237

  Standard Oil Company, 36

  Star Vega, Festival of the, 64, 65

  Stature of Japanese, 47

  Steamboats, 31, 281

  Steam-car, 281

  Steamers, 37;
    companies, 34;
    lines, 2, 3;
    steamships, 286

  Steel, 37

  Stevenson, R. L., 204

  Stoicism, 81

  Stonemasons’ guild, 27

  Stores, _see_ Shops

  “Story of Japan, The,” 15, 59, 94, 132, 263

  “Story of Old Japan, The,” 101

  Strange, E. F., 235

  Strawberries, 19

  Street-car conductors, wages, 26;
    drivers, 26

  Stroessel, General, 316

  Students’ Standard Dictionary, 205

  Sugar-raising, 24

  Sugawara, 91

  Suiko, Empress, 96

  “Sūjin, the Civilizer,” 90, 95

  Sulphur, 23

  Sumac tree, 230

  “Summary of Japanese Penal Codes,” 174
  Summer, Japanese, 12

  Sunday-school, National Association, 334

  Sunday-school picnics, 66

  Sun-goddess, 90, 95, 248, 259

  “Sunrise Kingdom, The,” 5

  “Sunrise in the Sunrise Kingdom,” 276

  Superiors, obedience to, 49, 50

  Superstitions, 70-75

  “Superstitious Japan,” 73

  Suyematsu, Baron, 120

  Swords, 24, 48, 230


  T

  Tacoma, Washington, 2

  Taft, W. H., 334

  Taggart’s “Cotton Spinning,” 205

  Taihoku, Formosa, 412

  Taikwa Reformation, 370

  Tainan-fu, Formosa, 412

  Taine’s “English Literature,” 206

  Taira supremacy, 91, 98

  Taisho Era, 339

  “Taiyō,” 291, 293, 368

  Takahashi, K., 290

  Takahira, Minister, 318

  Takekoshi, 145

  Take-no-uchi, 90, 96

  Takow, Formosa, 412, 413

  Takushan, 313

  “Tales of Old Japan,” 70, 75, 261

  Tamsui, Formosa, 412

  Tamura, N., 61

  Tanners, 48

  Tariff, 92, 108, 115, 116, 170

  Tartars, 98; armada, 91

  Tax, land, 18, 49, 139, 169;
    business, 169;
    house, 169, 170;
    income, 169

  Taxation, 48, 142, 150, 169

  Tea, 19, 20, 26, 37, 41, 55;
    ceremonial, 99, 233

  Teachers’ Institutes, 219, 220

  Technical schools, 211, 216, 400

  Telegraph, 31, 91, 110, 282, 294, 367, 413

  Telephone, 31, 33, 34, 282, 413

  Telissu, 313

  Temperament, 87-89
  Tempō era, 370

  Tendai sect, 253, 254

  Tennis, 66

  Tennyson, Alfred, 204

  Tenrikyō, 259

  Tenryu-gawa, river, 9

  Terauchi, Gen., 339

  Terry, Prof., 161

  Teru, Prince, 123

  “Text-book of Colloquial Japanese,” 208

  Theatre, 66-68

  Thibet, 301

  “Things Japanese,” 161, 199, 256

  Third Army, 313

  “30th year” (of Meiji) rifle, 149

  Thomson, Elihu, 205

  “Three Provinces,” 310

  Tidal wave, 115

  “Tidings from Japan,” 404

  Tiehling, occupation of, 317

  “Time, Land of Approximate,” 83

  Tin, 23

  Tobacco, 17, 19, 20;
    sale of, to minors, prohibited, 271

  Togo, Admiral, 311, 315, 316, 318

  Tōkaidō, 6

  Tokonami, Mr., 339

  Tokugawa Dynasty, 91, 100, 101, 110, 280

  Tokuno, 235

  Tōkyō, 21, 26, 28, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 47, 91, 92, 110, 111,
    114, 139, 148, 149, 166, 168, 186, 201, 215-217, 220, 230,
    270, 276, 280, 282, 285, 286, 322, 334, 336, 360, 361, 364,
    370, 402, 406, 410

  Tōkyō Bay, 314

  Tōkyō Missionary Conference, Proceedings, 276

  Toledo blades, 230

  Tolstoi, Leo, 204

  Tomeoka, 168

  Tomotada, 228

  Tone river, 9

  Torpedo-boats, 311

  Tōsandō, 6

  Tōyō Kisen Kwaisha, 23, 35

  Toyokuni, 227

  Trade Unions, 27, 28
  Traits, 46-50, 76-89

  Transportation, travel, 29-43, 281

  Treaties, new, 92;
    with foreign nations, 91;
    of-alliance between Japan and Korea, 312;
    of commerce and navigation between Japan and the United
    States, 385-399;
    of Portsmouth between Japan and Russia, 331, 333;
    new, with United States, 338

  Treaty-Making, Period of, 104, 106-107

  Tree peony, 409

  Trees, _see_ names of trees

  Trials, 164

  Tri-Religion Conference, 339

  Troup, James, 255

  Trusteeship, system of, 41

  Turnips, 19

  “Twain, Mark,” 204

  Twentieth Century Japan, 267, 277-288

  “203-metre Hill,” 316

  Type Foundry, Tsukiji, Tōkyō, 285, 286

  Typhoons, 10, 11, 88


  U

  Uchimura, 265, 300

  Uhlhorn, Gerhard, 275

  Uji, 19

  Ukita, K., 293

  Umé Tsuda, Miss, 186

  “Unabridged Japanese English Dictionary,” 208

  United States, 2, 3, 7, 14, 36, 37, 85, 157, 186, 200, 291, 293,
    299, 308, 310, 317, 335, 336, 338;
    President of the, 102, 106;
    treaties between, and Japan, 338, 385-399

  Universalists, 264

  University, Imperial, 23, 91, 165, 166;
    at Kyōto, 211, 215;
    at Tōkyō, 110, 210, 215, 216, 221

  University for Women, 186, 188, 211, 401-403

  Uraga, 102, 106, 355;
    dockyard, 23

  Urami waterfall, 9

  Uriu, Admiral, 311, 316
  Utamaro, 227

  Utsumi, Baron, 402

  Uychara, G. E., 132

  Uyeno, 381


  V

  Vaccination, 413

  Vancouver, 2

  “Various impressions,” 45

  Vegetables, _see_ names of vegetables

  Vehicles, 30

  “Verbeck of Japan,” 117, 276

  Verestchagin, death of, 314

  Vergil, 304

  Vessels, 367

  Vladivostock, 33, 315;
    squadron of, 314

  Volcanoes, 8

  Von Siebold, Dr., 105


  W

  Wadō era, 370

  Wages and incomes, 26, 27, 358-360

  Wakayama, 17

  Walker’s “Political Economy,” 206

  War indemnity, 319, 331

  War, Russo-Japanese, 307-327

  Warships, 150, 151, 383

  Waseda, 215

  Washington, 14; D. C., 157

  Watanabe, Viscount, 43, 333

  Watson, 304

  Wealth of Japan, 369-370

  Weasels, 13

  Weaving, 24

  Webster’s Dictionaries, 205

  Weddings, _see_ Marriage

  “Wee Ones of Japan, The,” 60, 75, 221

  Weight and Measure, Table of, 347-350

  Weights, comparative, of Japanese and European men, 47

  Weihaiwei, battle of, 150

  Wheat, 19; cracked, 37

  “When I was a Boy in Japan,” 75, 221

  Whistler, J. A. M., 223
  “White Peril in the Far East, The,” 117, 304, 328

  Wigmore, Prof., 132-134, 145, 159, 160

  William II. of Holland, 105

  Willow, 409

  Wine, 56

  Winter, Japanese, 12

  Wistaria, 65, 409, 410

  “With Kuroki in Manchuria,” 328

  Witnesses, 164

  Witte, Sergius, Count, 318

  Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, 168, 264, 270, 271

  Women, 175-190, 286;
    Japanese and American, contrasted, 81;
    legal position of, 178-182;
    education of, 183, 185, 186, 188, 401-403;
    employment for, 183, 188, 270

  Wool, 37

  Woollen mills, 286

  World’s Student Christian Federation, 334

  Wrestling, 66;
    wrestler’s guild, 27

  Writing, art of, introduced, 92, 94, 96

  Wuchang, China, 297


  X

  Xavier, Francis, 91, 99, 262


  Y

  Yalu, battle of, 150

  Yalu River, battle of, 313

  Yamada, 117, 158, 283

  Yamagata, Isoh, 276

  Yamagata, Marquis, 150, 321

  Yamaguchi, 215

  Yamamoto, Count, 375, 340

  Yamath, Yamato, 46

  Yamato-Dake, Prince, 90, 95

  Yangtze Kiang river, 14, 295

  “Yankees of the East, The,” 28, 43, 56, 66, 123, 132, 174, 190

  Year Periods, 370-373

  Yedo (now Tōkyō), 91, 100, 106, 110, 280, 282; Bay, 102, 104, 105

  “Yellow Peril,” 321

  Yezo, 5, 9, 12, 16, 32, 44, 104, 106, 110, 162;
    _see also_ Hokkaidō

  Yinkow, 315

  Yi Tchi Yong, Major-General, 312

  Yokohama, 2, 3, 9, 14, 28, 91, 107, 165, 166, 201, 360, 361, 364;
    Athletic Association, 66;
    Specie Bank, 38, 170

  Yokosuka, 150

  Yoritomo, 91, 98

  “Yoshino,” sinking of, 314

  Yoshihito, Emperor, 339

  Yoshitsune, 91, 98

  “Young Japan,” 117, 221

  Young Men’s Buddhist Association, 256

  Young Men’s Christian Association, 256, 264, 270;
    Perry celebration in Tōkyō rooms of, 314;
    work at Antung, 324;
    providing teachers, 340

  Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavor, 265, 271

  Young Women’s Christian Association, 270

  Yuzu Nembutsu sect, 254


  Z

  Zen sect, 253-255

  Zola, Émile, 204



FOOTNOTES:

[1] Miss Bacon, in “Japanese Girls and Women.”

[2] Fifth edition.

[3] Twelfth edition.

[4] If any are inclined to delve still more deeply into any of these
topics, they will find farther references in the books in the lists,
especially in “Things Japanese.” And the most complete treatment of
this subject is found in Wenckstern’s “Bibliography of Japan.” Poole’s
Index is also valuable.

[5] Including half of Sakhalin, but not Korea.

[6] Another design shows the sun’s rays shooting out from the sun in
the centre.

[7] 24° 14´-45° 30´ N.

[8] There is a Tōkyō _Shi_, for instance, in Tōkyō _Fu_. See Appendix
for lists of _Kuni_ and _Ken_.

[9] Except Korea.

[10] Niitaka, or Mt. Morrison, in Formosa, is about 13,000 feet high.

[11] _Kawa_, or _gawa_ in composition, means “river.”

[12] See also meteorological tables in Appendix.

[13] This quotation is from Murray’s “Hand-Book for Japan” by
Chamberlain and Mason. The Introduction of that book contains most
valuable practical information for prospective travellers in Japan.

[14] See Appendix.

[15] See tables of measurement and coinage, in Appendix.

[16] See “The Yankees of the East” (Curtis), chap. xiii.

[17] The “Shakai Zasshi” has the following on the decrease of farmers:
The causes of the phenomenon, briefly stated, are as below: (1) The
current methods of farming require no intelligence in the farmer.
He works very much like an animal in a purely mechanical fashion.
Hence lads with minds are attracted to trade and industry. (2) The
universality of education has increased the number of intelligent men
among the lower classes, and this has made farmers discontented with
their lot. (3) City life offers many attractions to active-minded
persons; and hence in Japan, as in the Western world, there has been
a steady flow of country people towards the towns. The statistics
published on this matter show, that, whereas in 1889 the proportion
of townspeople to the total number of inhabitants was 15 in every 100
persons, in 1898 it has risen to 18. This accounts for the scarcity
of farm labor, which has constantly been complained of in recent
years.—_Japan Mail._

[18] See tables in Appendix.

[19] See Appendix.

[20] See tables of weights and measures in Appendix.

[21] Scidmore’s “Jinrikisha Days in Japan,” chap. xxxv., and Gribble’s
paper in Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xii. pp. 1-33.

[22] Scidmore’s “Jinrikisha Days in Japan,” chaps. xxvi., xxvii.

[23] See Davidson’s “Island of Formosa.”

[24] See Transactions Japan Society, London, vol. i., for an
interesting paper by Charles Holme, and Transactions Asiatic Society of
Japan, vol. xxvii., for an elaborate and finely illustrated paper by
Sir Ernest Satow, on “Bamboo.”

[25] See Appendix.

[26] Japan Times. See also Appendix.

[27] See also chapter on “Æsthetic Japan.”

[28] Lowell’s “Soul of the Far East,” pp. 114-117.

[29] The Yankees of the East (Curtis), chap. xii. Also see Appendix.

[30] “Unlike ordinary laborers _jinrikisha_ men have always to work in
the open air, often in defiance of the elements, and irrespective of
day or night. Sometimes they are covered from head to foot with dust
and at other times drenched to the skin with water. Then again they
experience a constant change in their bodily temperature, at one time
perspiring from their arduous exertions, and at another shivering with
cold. No one can doubt that such quick change in bodily temperature
will sooner or later tell on the health of those unfortunate victims.
At every street corner they are to be found on the eager look-out for
customers, but exhaustion soon asserts its claim over them, as they
invariably doze whenever and wherever they have the chance.”

[31] See Appendix, for important railway statistics.

[32] Japan is also in cable communication with the rest of the world
via Hongkong, or Vladivostock, or Manila, or Honolulu; and press rates
are available.

[33] It should be pronounced Mah-ro͝o, _not_ Mă-roo´.

[34] See Appendix.

[35] See Appendix.

[36] See table in Appendix. In 1912 the exports footed up $262,000,000,
and the imports $309,000,000.

[37] See Hamaoka’s pamphlet on “The Bank of Japan.”

[38] For tables of currency, weights, measures, etc., see Appendix.

[39] See “Japan and America” for June and July, 1903; also consult
Diosy’s “New Far East,” chap. vi.

[40] See “Japan and America” for June and July, 1903.

[41] “Unbeaten Tracks in Japan,” by Miss Bird (now Mrs. Bishop), is
interesting and reliable in its treatment of the Ainu of that day.
Chamberlain also has written on the “Ainos.” The best single book is,
of course, “The Ainu of Japan,” by Rev. J. Batchelor, the leading
authority, who has also written a book on “Ainu Folk-lore.”

[42] “Various Impressions” is the title of an address delivered at a
meeting of the Imperial Education Society by Dr. Nitobe, reported very
fully in the Kyōiku Kōhō. Dr. Nitobe gave an account of his travels in
the South Pacific. He visited Java, many other islands, and Australia.
At Java he felt persuaded that an eminent French ethnologist who not
long ago said that, as the result of much investigation, he had come to
the conclusion that the Japanese race was 6/10 Malay, 3/10 Mongolian,
and 1/10 mixed, was right. Among the mixed elements there was an Aryan
element, which came from India, and a negrito element. “Now it is
supposed,” says Dr. Nitobe, “that this negrito element comes from the
Javanese. It no longer shows itself in the Japanese in regard to the
form of the nose and that of the cheek-bones, but it is to be seen in
the curly hair of certain inhabitants of Kyūshiu. In Oshū, from which
I come, this peculiarity is not known. During my travels in the South
Pacific Islands I was repeatedly struck by the similarity of Malay
customs to our own. In the structure of their houses even this was very
manifest.”—_Japan Mail._

[43] Dr. Baelz estimates the average stature at about 5 feet.

[44] See also subsequent chapter on “Japanese Traits.”

[45] His is simply a case of what is called “undeveloped moral
consciousness.”

[46] See Transactions Japan Society, London, vol. ii., papers by Goh
and Aston.

[47] See Lowell’s “Soul of the Far East,” chap. ii.

[48] Morse’s “Japanese Homes” is the one book on this subject.

[49] Besides Morse’s “Japanese Homes,” Conder’s “Landscape-Gardening in
Japan” (Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xiv., and in book
form, illustrated), is very valuable. An instructive short description
of this subject may be found in chap. xvi., vol. ii., of Hearn’s
“Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.”

[50] For descriptions of Japanese meals or banquets, see Miss
Scidmore’s “Jinrikisha Days in Japan,” _passim_; “The Yankees of the
East” (Curtis), vol. ii. chap. xiv.; and Norman’s “Real Japan,” chap. i.

[51] See Norman’s “Real Japan,” pp. 180-195.

[52] For instance, “such an attire as Japanese clogs, flannel drawers,
swallow-tail coat, and opera hat” has been seen; and another witness
testifies to the “oddest mixtures of evening dress and bathing suits,
naked legs with a blouse and a foreign hat, high boots with a _kimono_,
legs and head Asiatic with trunk European, or _vice versa_, with
endless combinations and variations.” There is a great variety, with
all kinds of fits and misfits.

[53] Chamberlain.

[54] “The Wee Ones of Japan,” by Mae St. John Bramhall, can be
recommended.

[55] See Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xiii. pp. 114-137;
and “A Japanese Bride,” by Rev. N. Tamura, is admirable.

[56] See Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xix. pp. 507-544.

[57] See chap. xx. of Hearn’s “Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.”

[58] See Appendix, and Clement’s “Japanese Floral Calendar.”

[59] See chapter on “Children’s Games and Sports” in “The Mikado’s
Empire.”

[60] See chap. xx. of “The Yankees of the East” (Curtis).

[61] See Hancock’s “Japanese Physical Training.”

[62] On the subject of the Japanese theatre and drama, see McClatchie’s
“Japanese Plays” and Edwards’s “Japanese Plays and Playfellows.”

[63] See Norman’s “Real Japan,” chap. ix.

[64] The best books on this subject are Mitford’s “Tales of Old Japan,”
Miss Ballard’s “Fairy Tales from Far Japan,” Griffis’s “Fire-Fly’s
Lovers,” Mme. Ozaki’s “Japanese Fairy Book,” and the series of crêpe
booklets of “Japanese Fairy Tales,” published by the Kobunsha, Tōkyō.

[65] See “Japanese Calendars,” Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan,
vol. xxx. part. i.

[66] The sixty-first year of a person’s life is of special interest,
because it is the first of a second cycle of sixty years.

[67] “The vast rice crop is raised on millions of tiny farms; the silk
crop in millions of small, poor homes; the tea crop on countless little
patches of soil.”—LAFCADIO HEARN.

[68] The Japanese seem to have no nerves; or, at least, their nervous
system is much less sensitive than ours.

[69] See Baron Shibusawa’s opinion, pp. 40-43.

[70] But “the peasantry is, in the main, honest.”

[71] See “Japanese Calendars,” Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan,
vol. xxx. part i.


THE LAND OF APPROXIMATE TIME.

Here’s to the Land of Approximate Time! Where nerves are a factor
unknown, Where acting as balm are manners calm, And seeds of sweet
patience are sown.

Where every clock runs as it happens to please, And they never agree
on their strikes; Where even the sun often joins in the fun, And rises
whenever he likes.

—_Jingles from Japan._


[72] For particulars on this point, see chapter on “Æsthetic Japan.”

[73] See “Scribner’s Monthly” for January, 1895.

[74] Chamberlain’s English version is found in Transactions Asiatic
Society of Japan, vol. x., Supplement.

[75] Aston’s English version is found in Transactions Japan Society,
London, Supplement.

[76] See Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xvi. pp. 39-75.

[77] There are, indeed, many striking resemblances between “things
Japanese” of various kinds and the corresponding “things Græco-Roman.”
See “Japanesque Elements in ‘The Last Days of Pompeii’” in the “Arena”
for October, 1896.

[78] See Appendix, where will also be found a list of the year-periods,
or eras.

[79] His younger brother, Yoshitsune, was a popular hero.

[80] See “The Religions of Japan” (Griffis), chap. xi.

[81] Previously Portuguese, English, and others had enjoyed the
privilege.

[82] For lists of eras and emperors, see Appendix.

[83] Or [VII. Cosmopolitanism (1899- )].

[84] Recommending to open Japan to foreign intercourse.

[85] The following is what the Japanese themselves stated about this
event: “The letter of the President of the United States of North
America, and copy, are hereby received and delivered to the Emperor.
Many times it has been communicated that business relating to foreign
countries cannot be transacted here at Uraga, but in Nagasaki. Now,
it has been observed that the Admiral, in his quality of ambassador
of the President, would be insulted by it; the justice of this has
been acknowledged; consequently, the above-mentioned letter is hereby
received, in opposition to the Japanese law.”

[86] Dixon’s “Land of the Morning,” p. 97.

[87] Iyenaga’s “Constitutional Development of Japan,” p. 33.

[88] See Appendix for New Treaty.

[89] Drawn up by the then Count (the late Prince) Itō, Mr., now
Viscount, Kaneko and Mr. Suyematsu (now Viscount), and others.

[90] This and following quotations are from the Constitution itself.

[91] See Scidmore’s “Jinrikisha Days in Japan,” chaps. xi., xii.

[92] See “The Yankees of the East,” chap. iii.

[93] For table of Cabinet changes, see Appendix.

[94] The number is variable; in 1912, it was 373. See Appendix.

[95] The property qualification has since been abolished.

[96] Published in the “Annals of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science.”

[97] See Appendix.

[98] See valuable papers by Simmons and Wigmore in Transactions Asiatic
Society of Japan, vol. xix. pp. 37-270, and vol. xx., Supplement, part
i., pp. 41-62.

[99] See “Nation,” vol. li. (1890).

[100] The sessions are generally very orderly; no smoking or drinking
is allowed in the assembly-room.

[101] The principle of local self-government has been most signally
upheld in one instance by the Imperial Japanese government. Recently
the Governor of Gumma Prefecture, in the face of the public opinion of
that section, gave permission for the re-establishment of the system
of licensed immorality. Inasmuch as the people of that prefecture have
always taken great pride in the fact that their section was an oasis
in the desert, they raised a great storm, and accused the Governor of
having lent himself to speculators. Whether or not this accusation was
true, the Minister of Home Affairs so far respected local opinion as to
revoke the permission granted by the Governor and to remove the latter
from office.

[102] Baron Kentarō Kaneko has been elected a member of the City
Council (of Tōkyō) as representative of the first-class tax-payers in
Kōjimachi Ku. It may be added that the Nippon Yūsen Kwaisha (Japan Mail
Steamship Company) is the only first-class tax-payer in that ward, and
the Baron secured the one vote.

[103] See note at bottom of page 139.

[104] “The Island of Formosa” (Davidson) is invaluable.

[105] See Appendix.

[106] Quotations from Regulations.

[107] For statistics and other information concerning the army and the
navy, see Appendix.

[108] “The New Far East,” chap. vii.

[109] “Any foreign power that should venture to attack Japan in her own
waters, would be strangely advised.”—CHAMBERLAIN.

[110] See p. 104.

[111] Renewed in 1905 and 1911.

[112] “Japan, geographically to the mighty continent of Asia what
Great Britain is to the continent of Europe; Japan, an island people
with all the strength, mental and physical, that is the heritage of a
nation cradled on the sea; Japan, by the necessities of her environment
compelled to appreciate the importance of sea-power; Japan, in short,
the Britain of the Orient.”—DIOSY.

[113] The first alliance of a white nation and a yellow nation.

[114] Several paragraphs are here republished, by permission, from “The
Standard,” Chicago.

[115] See his voluminous work in Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan,
vol. xx., Supplement.

[116] These new codes are available in English, as follows: The Civil
Code, by Gubbins; the Civil Code and the Commercial Code, by Lönholm
and Terry; the Commercial Code, the Criminal Code, and the Code of
Civil Procedure, in official translations.

[117] See “Japan in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century.”

[118] But missionaries, as individuals, are able to unite in organizing
a Japanese corporation.

[119] Portions of this chapter are reprinted by permission from the
“American Journal of Sociology,” March, 1903.

[120] Chap. iv. on “People, Houses, Food, Dress.”

[121] The Japanese mother-in-law is an awful tyrant; but it is always
the wife’s mother-in-law.

[122] Since 1882 they have been upon the same basis.

[123] These are composed of a large circle of relatives, and exercise
autocratic influence in most important questions.

[124] The word “family” is here and hereinafter used in a technical
sense, peculiar to Japan, of a group of the same surname. In Old Japan
the family was the social unit.

[125] “A Japanese judge has ruled in a certain case that the wife is
not obliged ‘to obey the unreasonable demands of her husband.’ In
this particular instance the man of the house had told the wife to
perform some disagreeable manual labor for him; she refused, and he
promptly divorced her. The wife appealed, and her plea was upheld
by the court. A very important precedent has been established, and
this decision may lead to a revolution in Japanese domestic life, in
which, thanks to the courage of one woman and the enlightening effect
of American ideals, the Japanese wife need no longer be her husband’s
slave.”--_Congregational Work._

[126] It is interesting to note that after a marriage ceremony at one
of the shrines at Nikkō, the bridegroom and the bride were presented
with a copy of Mr. Fukuzawa’s work.

[127] See Appendix.

[128] Chicago Daily Record.

[129] “H. M. the Empress gave a donation of 2,000 _yen_ to the Women’s
University established by Mr. Jinzō Naruse. Prince Iwakura and
Marquis Hachisuka will call at the Imperial Palace in a day or two in
order to express the gratitude of the university for this munificent
donation.”—_Japan Times._

[130] Her birthday on May 28 is annually observed by Christian women in
special services.

[131] Arranged by the famous Buddhist priest, Kōbō Daishi.

[132] Read from top to bottom and from left to right.

[133] See “The Soul of the Far East,” pp. 78-109.

[134] Translation by Prof. Clay MacCauley, Transactions Asiatic Society
of Japan, vol. xxvii.

[135] From Chamberlain’s “Things Japanese.”

[136] It is, however, only fair to state that Joseph Heco, who was
probably the first naturalized Japanese citizen of the United States,
claims the same honor for his “Kaigai Shimbun,” published in 1864 to
give a summary of foreign news. See his “Narrative of a Japanese,” vol.
ii. pp. 53, 59.

[137] See also Norman’s “Real Japan,” chap. ii.

[138] Reprinted, by permission, from “The Dial,” Chicago.

[139] Reprinted, by permission, from “The Dial,” Chicago.

[140] Reprinted, by permission, from “The Dial,” Chicago.

[141] Or “Practical Introduction to the Study of Japanese Writing.”

[142] Noss’s Lange’s “Text-book of Colloquial Japanese” (1908) is very
valuable.

[143] The new “English-Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken Language”
(1904) is indispensable.

[144] See chap. xxiii. of “Japan in History, Folk-lore and Art”
(Griffis).

[145] See “Chautauquan” for April, 1902.

[146] For a statistical table of schools in the empire, see Appendix.

[147] Official translation, revised.

[148] This has recently secured the famous Max Müller Library.

[149] “The Soul of the Far East,” p. 121.

[150] While it is possible and even probable that this movement may
have begun before the formal introduction of Buddhism from Korea in the
year 552, our present knowledge of the history of art in Japan anterior
to that event is not sufficient to warrant any definite assertion
respecting it.

[151] See “The Ideals of the East,” by Kakasu Okakura. London, 1903.

[152] The principal collections of Japanese paintings in America are
the Fenollosa collection in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and that
of Mr. Charles L. Freer, of Detroit. A few fine works are owned by Mr.
Henry O. Havemeyer, Mr. Howard Mansfield, and Mr. C. D. Weldon, of New
York; Mr. Denman Ross, Mr. Quincy A. Shaw, and Mrs. John Gardner, of
Boston; Mr. Charles J. Morse, of Uniontown, Pa.; and Mr. Frederick W.
Gookin, of Chicago. In England the most notable collections are those
of the British Museum and Mr. Arthur Morrison, of Loughton. There are
also a number of private collections in France and Germany.

[153] A large portion of this chapter is reprinted, by permission, from
“The Standard,” Chicago.

[154] “Shintō signifies character in the highest sense,—courage,
courtesy, honor, and, above all things, loyalty. The spirit of Shintō
is the spirit of filial piety [Lat. _pietas_], the zest of duty, the
readiness to surrender life for a principle.... It is the docility
of the child; it is the sweetness of the Japanese woman.... It is
religion—but religion transmuted into hereditary moral impulse—religion
transmuted into ethical instinct. It is the whole emotional life of the
race,—the Soul of Japan.”—HEARN.

[155] “Shintō is the Japanese conception of the cosmos. It is a
combination of the worship of nature and of their own ancestors.... To
the Japanese eye, the universe itself took on the paternal look. Awe of
their parents, which these people could comprehend, lent explanation to
dread of nature, which they could not. Quite cogently, to their minds,
the thunder and the typhoon, the sunshine and the earthquake, were the
work not only of anthropomorphic beings, but of beings ancestrally
related to themselves. In short, Shintō ... is simply the patriarchal
principle projected without perspective into the past, dilating with
distance into deity.”

“Shintō is so Japanese it will not down. It is the faith of these
people’s birthright, not of their adoption. Its folk-lore is what they
learned at the knee of the race-mother, not what they were taught from
abroad. Buddhist they are by virtue of belief; Shintō by virtue of
being.”—LOWELL, “The Soul of the Far East.”

[156] The earliest sacred book. The ancient records.

[157] See Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan, vols. xiv. and xvii.,
papers on “Shinshiu” by Troup.

[158] “Things Japanese.”

[159] “The Religions of Japan.”

[160] “Emotionally its tenets do not at bottom satisfy us Occidentals,
flirt with them as we may. Passivity is not our passion, preach it as
we are prone to do each to his neighbor. Scientifically, pessimism is
foolishness, and impersonality a stage in development from which we
are emerging, not one into which we shall ever relapse. As a dogma it
is unfortunate, doing its devotee in the deeper sense no good, but it
becomes positively faulty when it leads to practical ignoring of the
mine and thine, and does other people harm.”—LOWELL.

[161] See papers in vol. xxix., Transactions Asiatic Society of Japan,
by Lloyd and Greene.

[162] See Cary’s article in “Andover Review,” June, 1889.

[163] See Greene’s paper in vol. xxiii., Transactions Asiatic Society
of Japan.

[164] See Lowell’s “Soul of the Far East,” pp. 168, 169.

[165] “The wicked sect called Christian is strictly prohibited.
Suspected persons are to be reported to the respective officials, and
rewards will be given” (1868).

[166] See also Murray’s “Story of Japan,” pp. 172-179, 240-268.

[167] See Uchimura’s “Diary of a Japanese Convert.”

[168] There is now a “Japan Tract Society.”

[169] It is unfortunate that there are any missionaries, with more
zeal than knowledge, who seem to forget those wise words of Paul, the
courageous, but tactful, and therefore successful, preacher, in 1
Corinthians ix. 22. But most of the missionaries, or the best of them,
always bear in mind Christ’s own instructions in Matthew x. 16.

[170] It is no small matter for encouragement to Christian workers in
Japan that it is now possible to find among Japanese Christians three
generations of believers; so that the words of Paul in 2 Timothy i. 5
may be applied here: “Having been reminded of the unfeigned faith that
is in thee; which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois and thy mother
Eunice.” The future of Christianity in Japan is insured when it begins
to be inherited.

[171] See “An American Missionary in Japan,” pp. 259-262.

[172] There are said to be 17,530 women employed in the factories and
workshops of Tōkyō alone.

[173] “Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism.”

[174] See “Heroic Japan” (Eastlake and Yamada).

[175] Mr. K. Takahashi, President of the Bank of Japan.

[176] Rear-Admiral Kimotsuki in the “Taiyō” (Sun). See also chap. xiii.
of “Japan in Transition” (Ransome).

[177] Editorial in the “Taiyō” (Sun).

[178] Formerly of the Dōshisha. From the “Taiyō.”

[179] Osaka Merchant Steamship Company.

[180] “The Political and Commercial Reasons for the Study of Chinese.”

[181] “Chinese Recorder.”

[182] Japan exports chiefly matches, lamps, and coal, and imports
principally rice and cotton-seed.

[183] Uchimura’s “Japan and the Japanese.”

[184] “Life of Sir Harry Parkes.”

[185] Pages 299-300.

[186] Baron Kaneko at Harvard University.

[187] Captain Brinkley in “The Outlook.”

[188] Captain Brinkley.

[189] Official.

[190] The following is the authorized English text of the Protocol,
signed at Seoul, on February 23, 1904:—

Mr. Hayashi, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His
Majesty the Emperor of Japan, and Major-General Yi Tchi Yong, Minister
of State for Foreign Affairs _ad interim_ of His Majesty the Emperor of
Korea, being respectively duly empowered for the purpose, have agreed
upon the following Articles:—

ARTICLE I.—For the purpose of maintaining a permanent and solid
friendship between Japan and Korea and firmly establishing peace in the
Far East, the Imperial Government of Korea shall place full confidence
in the Imperial Government of Japan and adopt the advice of the latter
in regard to improvements in administration.

ARTICLE II.—The Imperial Government of Japan shall in a spirit of firm
friendship insure the safety and repose of the Imperial House of Korea.

ARTICLE III.—The Imperial Government of Japan definitively guarantees
the independence and territorial integrity of the Korean Empire.

ARTICLE IV.—In case the welfare of the Imperial House of Korea or the
territorial integrity of Korea is endangered by aggression of a third
Power or internal disturbances, the Imperial Government of Japan shall
immediately take such necessary measures as the circumstances require,
and in such cases the Imperial Government of Korea shall give full
facilities to promote the action of the Imperial Japanese Government.

The Imperial Government of Japan may, for the attainment of the
above-mentioned object, occupy, when the circumstances require it, such
places as may be necessary from strategical points of view.

ARTICLE V.—The Governments of the two countries shall not in future,
without mutual consent, conclude with a third Power such an arrangement
as may be contrary to the principle of the present Protocol.

ARTICLE VI.—Details in connection with the present Protocol shall be
arranged as the circumstances may require, between the Representative
of Japan and the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Korea.


[191] See Chapter XXI.

[192] Pages 14 and 301.

[193] Certainly the Japanese enjoy more social freedom and political
privileges than the subjects of the Czar. Intellectual liberty is not
repressed in Japan as in Russia, and freedom of assembly and of the
press is permitted in Japan, but not in Russia. The administration of
law and justice in Japan is by far more humane than in Russia with its
Siberian horrors. Again, strongest of all, nominally non-Christian
Japan grants religious liberty, while nominally Christian Russia
cruelly persecutes Jews and Stundists. In fact, in what constitutes
true greatness, Japan is superior to Russia.

[194] It had established a record by holding office for four and
one-half years, the longest period of any Ministry since the
establishment of constitutional government.

[195] For text, see end of Appendix.

[196] The word “Meiji” means “Enlightened Rule.”

[197] From Chamberlain’s “Things Japanese.”

[198] From “Japan and America.”

[199] From the “Japan Mail.”

[200] From a Report by U. S. Consul-General Bellows, Yokohama.

[201] From the “Japan Times.”

[202] The first figures in each group represent the end of 1896, and
the second figures the end of 1900.

The grand total of operatives had increased in 1909 to 692,221—240,864
males and 451,357 females.

[203] From a Report by U. S. Consul Lyon, Kōbe.

[204] From “Japan and America,” by Walter J. Ballard. This account,
with a few changes, is retained because of the impressive witness it
bears to the progress of Japan. (Ed.)

[205] With board.

[206] From the “Japan Times,” revised.

[207] From the “Japan Mail.”

[208] In 1910, it was over 14,000,000 _yen_.

[209] From the “Japan Mail.”

[210] From official sources.

[211] Beginning 660 B. C.

[212] Northern Dynasty.

[213] Southern Dynasty.

[214] Empresses in Italics. Bracketed names (Nos. 15 and 99) are
omitted from some lists.

[215] _Go_ is a prefix signifying the second of the name.

[216] From summary of “A Brief Sketch of the History of the Political
Parties in Japan,” by A. H. Lay, in the “Japan Mail.”

[217] Professor Griffin, in discussion of Mr. Lay’s paper.

[218] From the “Japan Times.”

[219] From “The Real Triumph of Japan” (Seaman).

[220] From the “Japan Mail.”

[221] In 1910, it was more than 600,000 tons.

[222] In 1908, it was more than 47,000 men.

[223] From the “Japan Times.”

[224] In 1910, it was more than 1,600,000 tons.

[225] See also Elgar’s paper on “Japanese Shipping” in the Transactions
Japan Society, London.

[226] From the “Japan Times.”

[227] From 28th Annual Report of the Minister of State for Education.

[228] Condensed from “The Chautauquan,” April, 1902.

[229] From the “Japan Mail” and the “Japan Times.”

[230] Later statistics give respectively 83,638—66,689—32,246.

[231] From the “Kōbe Herald.”

[232] From the “Japan Mail.”

[233] Completed in 1908.

[234] U.S. Consul Davidson.

[235] For details concerning what the Japanese have accomplished in
Formosa, see Takekoshi’s “Japanese Rule in Formosa.”



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