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Title: A Pictorial Atlas of Fossil Remains, consisting of coloured illustrations selected from Parkinson's "Organic remains of a former world," and Artis's "Antediluvian phytology."
Author: Mantell, Gideon Algernon
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Pictorial Atlas of Fossil Remains, consisting of coloured illustrations selected from Parkinson's "Organic remains of a former world," and Artis's "Antediluvian phytology."" ***

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REMAINS, CONSISTING OF COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS SELECTED FROM PARKINSON'S
"ORGANIC REMAINS OF A FORMER WORLD," AND ARTIS'S "ANTEDILUVIAN
PHYTOLOGY." ***



Transcriber's Note

Text emphasis denoted by _Italics_ and =Bold=. Whole and fractional
parts as 123-4/5.



[Illustration]

JOSEPH DINKEL. DEL. ET LITH.

PRINTED BY M. & N. HANHAR

THE PERFECT SERIES OF THE BONES OF THE RIGHT FOOT OF THE =MOA=, OR
EXTINCT COLOSSAL OSTRICH-LIKE BIRD OF =NEW ZEALAND= FOUND IMBEDDED IN
AN ERECT POSITION, WITH THE CORRESPONDING FOOT A YARD IN ADVANCE, IN
A TURRARY DEPOSIT, AT =WAIKOUAITI= IN THE MIDDLE ISLAND, BY =WALTER
MANTELL ESQ^{RE}= OF =WELLINGTON=.

FIGURES 1^a 2^a 3^a THE PLANTAR OR UNDER SURFACE OF THE FIRST, SECOND
& THIRD TOES. THE FIGURES ARE 1/3 NATURAL SIZE LINEAR. THE ORIGINAL
BIRD WAS ABOUT 10 FEET HIGH.



                                  A

                           PICTORIAL ATLAS

                                 OF

                           FOSSIL REMAINS,

                       CONSISTING OF COLOURED

                            ILLUSTRATIONS

                            SELECTED FROM

          PARKINSON'S "ORGANIC REMAINS OF A FORMER WORLD;"

                                 AND

                  ARTIS'S "ANTEDILUVIAN PHYTOLOGY."

                          WITH DESCRIPTIONS

            BY GIDEON ALGERNON MANTELL, ESQ. LL.D. F.K.S.

              VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY,
      FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, ETC.
            AUTHOR OF "THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY," ETC. ETC.

[Illustration]

  "All things in nature are engaged in writing their own history. The
  planet and the pebble are attended by their shadows--the rolling
  rock leaves its farrows on the mountain side--the river its channel
  in the soil--the animal its bones in the stratum--the fern and the
  leaf inscribe their modest epitaphs on the coal--the falling drop
  sculptures its story on the sand, or on the stone--not a footstep
  on the snow or on the ground but traces in characters more or less
  enduring the record of its progress."--_Emerson._


                      With Seventy-four plates,

               CONTAINING NEARLY NINE HUNDRED FIGURES.


                               LONDON:
               H. G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
                                1850.


LONDON:

R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.


                                 TO

                          THE VERY REVEREND

                    WILLIAM BUCKLAND, D.D. F.R.S.

                        Dean of Westminster,

                             &c. &c. &c.

                       THIS WORK IS INSCRIBED

    AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE HIGH RESPECT AND AFFECTIONATE REGARD

              OF ONE WHO HAS FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS

       ENJOYED THE HONOUR AND PRIVILEGE OF HIS CORRESPONDENCE

                           AND FRIENDSHIP.


  Chester Square, Pimlico,
      _January 1850._



PREFACE.


In the hope of promoting the diffusion of a taste for the cultivation
of a peculiarly interesting and attractive branch of Natural History,
I have been induced, in compliance with the suggestion of the eminent
publisher of this volume, to arrange in a connected series the Plates
of the late Mr. Parkinson's "Organic Remains of a Former World," and
of Mr. Artis's "Antediluvian Phytology," with descriptions of the
specimens represented.

As I have been enabled, with the valuable assistance of my friend,
John Morris, Esq. F.G.S., the author of "A Catalogue of British
Fossils," to append, in almost every instance, the generic and
specific names adopted by the most recent authorities, the volume
will, I trust, not only prove interesting to the general reader, as
a beautiful _Pictorial Atlas_ of some of the most remarkable relics
of the animals and plants of a "Former World," but also constitute
a valuable book of reference in the library of the Geologist and
Palæontologist, since it contains the names and localities of no
inconsiderable number of species and genera.

For the guidance of the unscientific reader who may desire further
information on any of the subjects treated of in the following pages,
references are given to a few general works on Geology and Fossil
Remains.


  Chester Square, Pimlico,
      _August 1850._



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                                                                    PAGE
  Preface                                                              v

  Description of the Frontispiece                                      x

  Introduction                                                        13


Descriptions of the Plates.



FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

(_Plates I. to XXXIII. inclusive._)

  Plate

      I.--Various specimens of Fossil Wood, and fragments of Plants   19

     II.--Chiefly examples of silicified Wood                         21

    III.--Stigmaria, Calamites, and Wood                              23

     IV.--Fronds of various Fossil Ferns                              25

      V.--Different species of Ferns and other Plants                 27

     VI.--Principally Fossil Fruits from the London clay of the
            Isle of Sheppey                                           29

    VII.--Specimens of the Fruit of a species of _Nipas_, or
            Molucca Palm; from the Isle of Sheppey                    31

   VIII.--Figures of different portions of beautiful silicified
            Stems of Plants allied to the Arborescent Ferns;
            from Chemnitz                                             33

     IX.--Fossil Seed-vessels or Cones (_Lepidostrobus_) of
            the Lepidodendron                                         35

      X.--An aquatic Plant (_Hydatica_) in Coal shale                 37

     XI.--A fine specimen of another species of Hydatica              39

    XII.--A delicate aquatic Plant (_Myriophyllites_) in Coal
            shale                                                     41

   XIII.--Portion of the Stem of the _Calamites ramosus_              43

    XIV.--Fragment of Stems of another species of Calamite
            (_Calamites dubius_)                                      45

     XV.--Stem of a Calamite very much resembling the Bamboo
            (_Calamites pseudo-bambusia_)                             47

    XVI.--Another species of Calamite (_Calamites approximatus_)      49

   XVII.--Stem of another kind of Calamite (_Calamites decoratus_)    51

  XVIII.--Fossil Stems allied to the Pandanus or Yucca
            (_Sternbergia transversa_)                                53

    XIX.--Stem of a species of Sigillaria (_Sigillaria fibrosa_)      55

     XX.--Stem of another kind of Sigillaria                          57

    XXI.--Fossil Roots of Sigillaria (_Stigmaria ficoides_)           59

   XXII.--Another species of Stigmaria (_Stigmaria verrucosa_)        61

  XXIII.--Fragment of a Stigmaria with large tubercles                63

   XXIV.--Part of a Stem of a tree allied to Sigillaria
            (_Aspidiaria cristata_)                                   65

    XXV.--Stem of a Plant allied to the Arborescent Ferns
            (_Megaphyton_)                                            67

   XXVI.--Stem of a species of Lepidodendron                          69

  XXVII.--Fossil Plant allied to the Lepidodendron                    71

 XXVIII.--A beautiful fossil Fern resembling Osmunda regalis
            (_Neuropteris auriculata_)                                73

   XXIX.--An elegant trifoliate Fern in Coal shale
            (_Neuropteris trifoliata_)                                75

    XXX.--An exquisite specimen of fossil Fern (_Pecopteris Miltoni_) 77

   XXXI.--Another elegant Fern in Coal shale (_Pecopteris plumosa_)   79

  XXXII.--A very beautiful plumose Fern in Coal shale
            (_Alethopteris decurrens_)                                81

 XXXIII.--A fossil Fruit or Seed-vessel in Coal shale
            (_Carpolithes marginatus_)                                83


FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

(_Plates XXXIV. to LXXIV: inclusive._)

  XXXIV.--A beautiful mass of Coral (_Syringopora geniculata_) on
            Carboniferous limestone                                   87

   XXXV.--Several kinds of fossil Corals (_Syringopora ramulosa_,
            _Catenipora escharoides_, &c.)                            89

  XXXVI.--Corals from different formations (_Fungia_,
            _Cyathophyllum_)                                          91

 XXXVII.--Various fossil Corals (_Astrea_, _Lithostrotion_,
            _Caryophyllia annularis_)                                 93

XXXVIII.--Corals and Coral marbles (_Cyathophyllum_, _Astrea_,
            _Lithodendron_)                                           95

  XXXIX.--Fossil Corals, and Sponges or Amorphozoa (_Siphonia_,
            _Favosites_, _Explanaria_)                                97

     XL.--Various fossil Zoophytes (_Clionites_, _Millepora_)         99

    XLI.--A beautiful specimen of a cyathiform fossil Zoophyte
            (_Chenendopora Parkinsoni_)                              101

   XLII.--Several kinds of Zoophytes in Flint (_Choanites_,
            _Siphonia_, _Jerea_)                                     103

  XLIII.--Various Corals and other Zoophytes (_Fungia polymorpha_,
            _Jerea pyriformis_, _Ventriculite_)                      105

   XLIV.--Silicified Sponges and other Zoophytes (_Scyphia_,
            _Cnemidium_, _Chenendopora_)                             107

    XLV.--Several kinds of calcareous and silicified Corals and
            other Zoophytes                                          109

   XLVI.--A recent Pentacrinus (_P. caput medusæ_), and a
            beautiful Fossil species                                 111

  XLVII.--Numerous specimens of portions of Stems, separate
            Ossicles, and Receptacles, of various kinds of
            Encrinites and Pentacrinites                             113

 XLVIII.--The Lily Encrinite (_Encrinites monileformis_)             115

   XLIX.--Remains of several kinds of Encrinites and Encrinital
            marbles                                                  117

      L.--Chiefly specimens of the Pear Encrinite of Bradford, in
            Wiltshire (_Apiocrinus Parkinsoni_)                      119

     LI.--Several kinds of Crinoidea (_Actinocrinites_,
            _Pentacrinites_)                                         121

    LII.--Specimens of Pentacrinites from Lyme Regis                 123

   LIII.--Fossil Star-fishes (_Goniaster_, _Ophiura_, _Cidaris_)     125

    LIV.--Various kinds of Echinites or fossil Sea-urchins
            (_Clypeaster_, _Ananchytes_, _Discoidea_, _Conulus_)     127

     LV.--Several varieties of fossil Echini (_Cidaris_,
            _Nucleolites_, _Micraster_, _Spatangus_)                 129

    LVI.--Echinites and echinital Spines                             131

   LVII.--Fossil univalve Shells (_Euomphalus_, &c.) and
            _Cololites_                                              133

  LVIII.--Fossil Shells of various kinds of Cephalopoda
            (_Nautilus_, _Orthoceras_, _Lituties_, &c.)              135

    LIX.--Belemnites, Orthoceratites, and Hippurites, &c.            137

     LX.--Belemnites and Ammonites                                   139

    LXI.--Hamites of several species; Scaphites, Nummulites, &c.     141

   LXII.--Fossil Foraminifera of several genera                      143

  LXIII.--Several species of Trigonia                                145

   LXIV.--Fossil bivalve Shells (_Cucullæa_, _Crassatella_,
            _Lima_, _Cardium_, &c.), and the anomalous bodies
            termed _Trigonellites_                                   147

    LXV.--Fossil Shells of the genera _Panopæa_, _Teredina_, &c.     149

   LXVI.--Fossil Shells of the genera _Ostrea_, _Perna_,
            _Gryphea_, &c.                                           151

  LXVII.--Chiefly Shells of brachiopodous Mollusca,
            (_Terebratula_, _Spirifer_, _Productus_, &c.)            153

 LXVIII.--Fossil Crabs from Sheppey; Trilobites, Insects, &c.        155

   LXIX.--Remains of Turtles from Sheppey, and Vertebræ of
            Crocodilian Reptiles from Havre, and of the _Mosasaurus_ 157

    LXX.--The Jaws of the fossil Reptile of Maestricht
            (_Mosasaurus_); and Teeth of various kinds of
            Sharks and Rays (_Carcharias_, _Miliobatis_,
            _Pthychodus_, &c.)                                       159

   LXXI.--Skull and Antlers of the fossil Elk of Ireland, and Teeth
            of the Mammoth                                           161

  LXXII.--Fossil teeth of _Hippopotamus_, _Rhinoceros_,
            _Dinotherium_, _Palæotherium_, and _Anoplotherium_;
            and ungueal bone of Megalonyx                            163

 LXXIII.--Skeleton of the _Megatherium_, and Teeth of the fossil
            _Bears_ of the Caverns                                   165

  LXXIV.--Molar Teeth of _Mastodon giganteus_, from Big-bone Lick,
            Kentucky                                                 167

Frontispiece.--Foot of the Moa of New Zealand.


SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES.

   1. Fossil Bears of the Caverns                                    166

   2. The Belemnite                                                 _ib._

   3. Fossil Remains of Birds--Moa of New Zealand                    172

   4. Botanical Arrangement of Fossil Vegetables                     175

   5. Cephalopoda--Nautilus, Ammonite, &c.                           180

   6. Carboniferous Formations                                       181

   7. Coal                                                           182

   8. Corals                                                        _ib._

   9. Cuvier's Principles of Palæontology                            183

  10. Fossil Edentata, Megatherium, &c.                              184

  11. Flint: Animal Remains in Siliceous Nodules                     185

  12. Foraminifera                                                   186

  13. The Gigantic extinct Irish Elk: Cervus megaloceros             189

  14. Fossil Infusoria                                              _ib._

  15. The Mosasaurus, or Fossil Animal of Maestricht                 191

  16. Fossil Reptiles                                                192

  17. --------------- of the Wealden: the Iguanodon             193, 202

  18. ------------------------------ the Pelorosaurus                197

  19. Silicification and Siliceous Petrifactions                    _ib._

  20. Stigmariæ and Sigillariæ                                       198


WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE DESCRIPTIONS.

  Michelin, Iconographie Zoophytologie, Paris, 4to.

  Göppert, H. R. Die Fossilen, Farrnkrauter,--forming vol. xvii. of
     the Nova Acta Academiæ C. L. C. Naturæ Curiosorum. 1836, 4to.

  Presl, C. B., Sternberg, Dr. G. Flora der Vorwelt, Part VII. and
     VIII. edited by Presl.

  Goldfuss, Dr. A., Petrefacta Germaniæ, folio, Dusseldorf, 1841-44.

  Fossil Flora of Great Britain, by Dr. Lindley and Mr. Button.

  Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay on Geology and Mineralogy, 2 vols,
     with numerous Plates.

  The Wonders of Geology, 3 vols, sixth edition, 1849.

  The Medals of Creation, 2 vols. 1844.

  Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight and along the
     adjacent Coast of Dorsetshire, 1 vol. numerous Plates.

  Thoughts on Animalcules, 1 vol. numerous coloured Plates, second
     edition, 1850.

  Thoughts on a Pebble, with 30 Illustrations, eighth edition, 1850.

  Lyell, Sir Charles, Travels in. America, 1845, and 1849.



DESCRIPTION OF THE FRONTISPIECE.


THE MOA OF NEW ZEALAND.

The Frontispiece represents the entire series of bones composing the
right foot of the Moa (_Dinornis robustus_), found imbedded in an
erect position, with the corresponding foot a yard in advance, in a
turbary deposit, at Waikouaiti, in the Middle Island of New Zealand,
in 1849. The figures are one-third less in linear dimensions than the
originals.

Figures 1^_a_, 2^_a_, 3^_a_, show the palmar, or under surface of
the respective toes, and exhibit the trochlear or articulating
extremities of the phalangeal bones.

       *       *       *       *       *

The ancient swamp or morass in which these matchless specimens were
imbedded, is situated on the shore, in a little creek or bay near
Island Point, at the mouth of the river Waikouaiti, and is covered
by the sea except at the lowest tides. Many remains of the largest
species of Moa have from time to time been obtained from this
deposit; the bones sent to England by Dr. Mackellar, Mr. Percy Earle,
and others, figured and described in the Zoological Transactions by
Professor Owen, were from this locality.

The specimens figured were obtained by Mr. Walter Mantell, in
1849, when visiting Waikouaiti, as Government Commissioner for the
settlement of Native claims. On the recession of the tide, the
upper (or proximal) ends of the metatarsals were just visible above
the surface: these were carefully dug up, and all the bones of the
respective toes numbered, one by one, as they were extracted from
the soil. In this state they were sent to me, and have subsequently
been articulated under my direction, in their natural order of
arrangement.[1]

[Footnote 1: By the well-known eminent anatomical artist, Mr. Flower,
of 22, Lambeth Terrace, Lambeth Road.]

The condition and position of the bones, and the nature of the
deposit,--evidently an ancient morass, in which the New Zealand flax
(_phormium tenax_) once grew luxuriantly,--remind us of the very
similar circumstances in which the extinct gigantic Elks in Ireland,
and the Mastodons in America, have occasionally been found engulfed
in peat bogs and morasses; and, as my son emphatically observes, it
is impossible to arrive at any other conclusion than that the Moa to
which these feet belonged, had sunk down in the swamp, and perished
on the spot. Vertebræ and other parts of a skeleton of a bird of the
same proportions, were dug up near the feet.

As the specimens under examination are the first examples in
which the entire series of the phalangeal and ungueal bones have
been found in natural connexion with the metatarsals, I subjoin
the admeasurements of the several parts, to render the peculiar
construction of the feet in one species of the lost race of the
colossal birds of New Zealand, more obvious to those who may feel
interested in the subject.

TARSO-METATARSAL BONES.

                                                             Inches. Lines.

  Length of the shaft from the distal end of the middle
    trochlea to the proximal extremity                          17      0

  Circumference of the proximal end                             11      9

  Transverse diameter, or width, of ditto                        4      6

  Antero-posterior diameter of ditto                             3      6

  Circumference of the middle of the shaft                       6      3

  Antero-posterior diameter of ditto                             1      8

  Transverse diameter of ditto                                   3      6

  Width of the distal, or trochlear, end                         6      3

  Circumference of the trochlear end                            15      6

  Antero-posterior diameter of the middle trochlea               3      9

PHALANGEAL BONES.

                                  Inner Toe.     Middle Toe.     Outer Toe.
                                   (Fig. 1.)      (Fig. 2.)      (Fig. 3.)
                                 Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines.

  First, or proximal phalanx
    { Length                         4     9   --   4     3   --   3      2
    { Circumference of proximal end  6     6   --   6     9   --   5      9

  Second phalangeal bone.
    { Length                         1     9   --   2     6   --   1      9
    { Circumference of proximal end  3     0   --   5     3   --   4      9

  Third phalangeal bone           Ungueal.
    { Length                        {3     0}  --   1     9   --   1      0
    { Circumference of proximal end {4     0}  --   4     6   --   4      6

  Third phalangeal bone                          Ungueal.
    { Length                                       {3     0}  --   0     11
    { Circumference of proximal end                {4     2}  --   4      0

  Fifth ungueal bone
    { Length                                                       2      6
    { Circumference of proximal end                                3      9

The total length of the toes is as follows:--inner digit, 9½ inch.;
middle, 11½ inch.; outer, 9-1/3 inch. The transverse diameter of the
expanse of the foot, from the distal extremity of the inner toe (fig.
1^a), to that of the outer one (fig. 3^a), is 15½ inches. The length
from the posterior part of the trochlear extremity of the metatarsal
to the distal end of the ungueal of the middle toe (fig. 2^a), is
13 inches. If to the actual dimensions of the bones be added the
proportional thickness of the cartilaginous integuments, nails, &c.,
the length of the foot of the living bird may be estimated at about
16 inches, and the breadth at 17 or 18 inches.

From the great width and solidity of the metatarsals, and the form
and corresponding size and strength of the phalangeals and ungueals,
the ornithologist will perceive that the feet of the Moa must have
constituted powerful instruments for scratching, digging, and
uprooting the sub-terrestrial vegetable substances, which Professor
Owen, with great probability, infers, formed the chief sustenance of
the extinct colossal birds of New Zealand.

According to the relative proportions of the bones composing the
hinder extremities of the gigantic species of Moa, the corresponding
_tibia_, or leg-bone, of the feet above described, would be two feet
nine inches in length, and the _femur_, or thigh bone, nine and a
half inches; the total height of the bird was probably about ten feet.

Tibiæ, femora, and other bones of much larger proportions,
(apparently of _Dinornis giganteus_ and _D. ingens_,) were obtained
from the same locality; some of these indicate birds of eleven or
twelve feet in height; dimensions exceeding by one-third those of the
largest known existing species of Struthionidæ--the Ostrich.[2]

[Footnote 2: Even from this imperfect description (and further
anatomical details would be irrelevant in the present work), the
ornithologist cannot fail to observe the peculiar characters
exhibited by these extremities of the remarkable family of birds,
of which the diminutive Apteryx appears to be the only living
representative. But the Apteryx differs most essentially in the
structure of the cranium and mandibles, from the extinct types to
which Professor Owen has given the names of Dinornis, Palapteryx,
Aptornis, &c.

With regard to the construction of the feet it may be further
remarked, that the length of the inner and outer toes is nearly
equal, as in the Cassowary; but the middle toe, which in the
Cassowary is one-third longer than the other digits, in the Moa
scarcely exceeds in length by one-fifth, the inner and outer toes.
The ungueal segments are very large, being equal to one-third the
length of the toes. The phalangeals are relatively much shorter than
in the Cassowary and Ostrich, and wider than in the former, and more
arched than in either of these living struthious birds.

In the metatarsal the presence of the three elements whose fusion
constitutes the bone, is strongly marked; there does not appear
to be any certain indications of a posterior or hind toe, though
Professor Owen imagines he has detected feeble traces of a fourth
digit: in that case the bird to which my specimens belonged, would
be termed _Palapteryx_. The crania found by Mr. Walter Mantell at
Waingongoro, and figured and described by Professor Owen in the
Zoological Transactions (Vol. III., Plates 52, 53, 54, 55), as
Dinornis and Palapteryx, must have belonged to birds of comparatively
small stature. The skull with the adze-like upper mandible, and
the enormously-developed _basi-occipitals_ and _basi-sphenoids_
(_Dinornis_, of Professor Owen, Plate 53), was found associated with
many vertebræ of the neck and back, and bones of the leg, of the same
bird; and these my son states indicated a height of from six to seven
feet. The skull and the rest of the skeleton were found imbedded in
sand, and lying in their natural relative position; unfortunately,
all these precious remains, except the cranium, were destroyed by
a sudden rush of the natives to seize upon the exhumed relics! It
therefore yet remains to discover the cranial type that characterized
the colossal forms at present known only by other parts of the
skeleton.]

Referring the reader to the additional account of the fossil birds
of New Zealand given in a subsequent part of this volume (see
_Supplementary Notes_, p. 173), I will conclude this notice with a
few general remarks. From the numerous facts relating to the fossil
remains of birds from our Antipodean colony, that have now been
brought under the consideration of the naturalists and geologists of
this country, we may safely conclude, that at a period geologically
recent, but of immense antiquity in relation to the human inhabitants
of those Islands, New Zealand was densely peopled by tribes of
colossal struthious bipeds, of species and genera that have long
since become extinct. I believe that ages ere the advent of the
Maori tribes, the Moa and its kindred were the chief inhabitants
of the country, and that from the period when those Islands were
taken possession of by man, the race gradually diminished, and the
colossal types were finally annihilated by human agency. That some
of the largest species were contemporary with the Maories, there can
now be no reasonable doubt. Apart from native traditions, and songs
and tales in which allusions are made to the gigantic magnitude and
flowing plumage of the Moa, the collocation of calcined and half
roasted bones of the Dinornis, of dogs, and of the human species,
in the ancient fire-heaps of the aborigines, and the unequivocal
marks of the celt or axe of jade on some of the tibiæ,--the chips or
cuts having evidently been made on the bones when recent,--afford
incontrovertible proof that the last of the Moas, like the last of
the Dodos, was annihilated by human agency.

From the remarkable size and strength of the thighs, legs, and feet
of the Moas, it is clear that the hinder limbs must have constituted
powerful locomotive organs; and when we consider the vast swarms of
the largest species which existed at some remote period, it seems
highly probable that this family of colossal birds,--a family unknown
in any other part of the world,--was not originally confined within
the narrow geographical limits of modern New Zealand, but ranged over
a vast continent now submerged, and of which Phillip and Norfolk
Islands, and Chatham and Auckland Islands, and those of New Zealand,
are the culminating points.

But whatever may be the result of future discoveries as to the
relative age of the bone-deposits, or the existence or extinction
of any of the colossal species of Moa, or the former extension of
the race over countries now submerged, one astounding fact must ever
remain unassailable--the vast preponderance of the class Aves or
Birds, that prevailed, and which still prevails, in the fauna of New
Zealand, to the almost entire exclusion of mammalia and reptiles. Any
palæontologist who saw only the collections sent over by my son, must
have been astonished at their extent and variety. I may venture to
affirm that such an assemblage of the fossil bones of birds was never
before seen in Europe: nearly fifteen hundred specimens, collected
from various parts of the country, with scarcely any intermixture
of the remains of any other class;--it is a phenomenon as startling
as the exclusively reptilian character of the fauna of the Wealden
epoch. But the fauna of New Zealand, even at the present time,
presents a character as ornithic and as anomalous as its ancient one;
for while there are upwards of fifty or sixty genera of birds, there
is but one indigenous mammalian quadruped known to naturalists--a
species of rat! In this respect, therefore, as well as in its flora,
in which ferns and other cellulosæ of peculiar types prevail to an
extent unknown elsewhere, the country offers a striking example of
that now acknowledged fact in natural history--a centre or focus of
creation of certain organic types. And this law, with whose operation
during the palæozoic and secondary ages modern geological researches
have made us familiar, appears to have continued in unabated energy
to the present moment.

From what has been advanced, it is manifest that the present
geographical distribution of special groups of terrestrial animals
and plants, displays as many anomalies in the relative predominance
of the different classes and orders over certain areas, without
relation to climatorial or other obvious physical conditions, as can
be traced in the natural records of the earlier ages of the world.
The conclusion therefore forces itself upon the mind, that throughout
the vast periods of time to which our retrospective knowledge
extends, the geological changes of the earth's surface, and the
appearance and obliteration of species and genera, have been governed
by the same physical and organic laws; and that notwithstanding the
variable conditions of the land and the water, indicated by the
sedimentary formations, there was at no period a greater discrepancy
in the assemblages of certain types of the animal and vegetable
kingdoms, than exists at present.

Of the nature of that law by which the extinction of a race of highly
organized beings is determined, and whose effects through innumerable
ages palæontology has in part revealed, we are as utterly ignorant
as of that which governs the first appearance of the minutest living
animalcule which the powers of the microscope enable us to descry;
both are veiled in inscrutable mystery, the results only are within
the scope of our finite comprehension.[3]

[Footnote 3: See the concluding part of Lecture VIII. § 46, Wonders
of Geology, vol. ii. p. 890.]



INTRODUCTION.


The publication of Mr. Parkinson's "_Organic Remains of a former
World_," at the commencement of the present century, must be regarded
as a memorable event in the history of British Palæontology: it was
the first attempt to give a familiar and scientific account of the
fossil relics of animals and plants, accompanied by figures of the
specimens described.

The three volumes[4] of which the work consisted, appeared at
considerable intervals; the last was published in 1811. Although
nearly forty years have since elapsed, and hundreds of geological
works, of all kinds and degrees of merit, have subsequently been
issued, Mr. Parkinson's Plates, owing to their fidelity and beauty,
are still in such request, as to induce the proprietor, Mr. Bohn, now
that the work is out of print, to publish them, with the descriptions
and modern names of the fossils represented.

[Footnote 4: Three volumes, in 4to.; price 10_l._ 10_s._]

I have added a few explanatory remarks, and in the "Supplementary
Notes," have given extended notices of some of the most interesting
subjects, with the view of rendering the volume more intelligible and
acceptable to the general reader.

In looking through the original work of Mr. Parkinson, the instructed
observer will not fail to perceive the immense progress which the
study of fossil animals and plants has made since the period of
its first appearance in 1811. At that time, the terms Geology and
Palæontology were unknown; all the sedimentary strata have since been
accurately defined and arranged, and names assigned to the respective
systems or formations; while the so-called _Diluvial Epoch_, which
Mr. Parkinson, and even Baron Cuvier, considered as established
by incontrovertible physical evidence, has been expunged from the
chronology of geology. In Mr. Parkinson's volumes, no allusion will
be found to that most remarkable era in the earth's history which
modern researches have brought to light--_the Age of Reptiles_;
the terms Ichthyosauri, Plesiosauri, Iguanodon, Megalosaurus--now
familiar as household words--are not inscribed on their pages; all
those marvellous beings of past ages have been discovered during the
last forty years; in short, the remark of an eminent critic is as
true as it is beautiful:--"Geology is a philosophy which never rests;
its law is progress; a point which yesterday was invisible is its
goal to-day, and will be its starting-post to-morrow."

I gladly avail myself of this opportunity to make a passing allusion
to the excellent and accomplished author, Mr. Parkinson. I had the
pleasure and privilege of his acquaintance in my youth, immediately
after the publication of the third volume of his valuable work. Mr.
Parkinson was rather below the middle stature, with an energetic,
intelligent, and pleasing expression of countenance, and of mild
and courteous manners; readily imparting information, either on his
favourite science, or on professional subjects; for he was at that
time actively engaged in medical practice in Hoxton Square, and
was the author of several valuable medical treatises. He kindly
showed and explained to me the principal objects in his cabinets,
and pointed out every source of information on fossil remains; a
department of natural knowledge at that time but little cultivated
in England, but which peculiar circumstances had contributed to
render the engrossing object of my young and ardent mind. In after
years Mr. Parkinson warmly encouraged my attempts to elucidate the
nature of the strata and organic remains of my native county, Sussex,
a district which was then supposed to be destitute of geological
interest; and he revised my drawings, and favoured me with his
remarks on many subjects treated of in my first work--"_The Fossils
of the South Downs_."[5]

[Footnote 5: Published in 1822.]

In 1822, Mr. Parkinson published "An Introduction to the Study of
Fossil Organic Remains, especially of those found in the British
Strata; intended to aid the Student in his Inquiries respecting
the Nature of Fossils, and their Connexion with the Formation of
the Earth;" 1 vol. 8vo. with ten plates, principally of the genera
of fossil shells. He also contributed a few papers to the early
volumes of the Geological Society of London, of which he was one of
the original members. After Mr. Parkinson's death, his beautiful
and choice collection was sold by auction, and its contents widely
dispersed. The fine series of silicified zoophytes was purchased by
Mr. Featherstonhaugh, and taken to America; and some years afterwards
was destroyed by a fire which consumed the museum in which it was
placed.

As illustrative of the pleasing style of Mr. Parkinson's work, I
subjoin an abstract of the chapter, _On the Pleasure and Advantages
of a Knowledge of Fossil Remains_. The epistolary style was adopted;
and the first letter is supposed to be penned by a friend desirous of
learning the nature of certain fossils he had observed on his journey
to Oxford:--

"I have lived long enough to witness many sad disappointments to the
fond dreams of happiness indulged by persons who, only intent on the
acquisition of riches, had neglected to cultivate any intellectual or
ennobling pursuit; so that on retiring from active life, they were
unable to enjoy the leisure so dearly earned by years of anxiety and
care, and either relapsed into a state of miserable ennui, or gave
themselves up to the excitement of frivolous or vicious indulgences.

"Aware of the necessity of devoting the few leisure hours, which
the duties of my calling left at my disposal, to some rational
and amusing occupation, I have always cultivated, more or less
assiduously, some branch of art or science, and thence acquired an
enthusiastic admiration for the beauties of nature, and an insatiable
curiosity to pry into the mysteries of the natural world. With this
state of mind, I have at length resolved to avail myself of the means
my little fortune affords me to indulge those feelings, and have, I
trust, quitted the busy scenes of the world for ever.

"In pursuance of a plan long entertained of visiting the most
interesting parts of our island, I left London last week, accompanied
by my daughter, and our old friend, Frank Wilton, whose lively
disposition and agreeable manners render him, as you well know, an
excellent companion. But he has made himself most acceptable to us
on another account;--his resolute scepticism with respect to the
more rational, and his submissive credulity as to the popular and
traditional explanations of such natural phenomena as are beyond his
comprehension, are frequently productive of remarks so quaint and
humorous, as to contribute in no small degree to our enjoyment.

"Ere our first day's journey was completed, I discovered how
insufficient was the knowledge I possessed to enable me to form
even a conjecture, as to the nature of the very first objects which
particularly arrested our attention. We were within a few miles of
Oxford, when Wilton, looking out of the carriage window, exclaimed,
'Bless me! never before did I see roads mended with such materials!'
This, of course, drew my attention to what had so strongly excited
his wonder; and I must confess that my astonishment was but little
less than his own; for I beheld a labourer with a large hammer
breaking to pieces a nearly circular ornamented stone, half as
large as the fore-wheel of our carriage, and resembling in form a
coiled-up serpent, or snake. We instantly stopped the chaise, and
inquired of the man the name of the stone, and where it came from.
'This, Sir,' he replied, 'is a _snake-stone_, and comes from yonder
quarry, where there are thousands of them.' Upon hearing this, we all
alighted, and with surprise examined some of the unbroken stones,
which, though evidently bearing the form of an unknown animal, were
composed of solid rock. As we sauntered along, the carriage following
us, we came to a neat building on the road-side, which a sign in
the hedge opposite denoted to be a house of public entertainment.
Hoping to gain more satisfactory information respecting the objects
that had so much excited our curiosity, we entered this literally
hedge ale-house, and on being shown into a neat room, the casement
of which, surrounded by roses and honeysuckles in full bloom,
opened into a garden redolent with fragrance and beauty, from the
wild profusion of its flowers and shrubs, we determined to rest
awhile, and partake of such refreshment as the cottage might afford.
While these were preparing, Frank Wilton, whose restless curiosity
leaves nothing unobserved, was examining the contents of the old
oaken mantel-shelf, and suddenly cried out, 'Well! if the object of
travelling is to behold novelties and wonders, surely this county
will afford that gratification in the highest degree; for among the
curious things on this mantel-piece, there is not one of which I
have ever seen its like before.' The articles now passed under my
examination, and with no better success; for I had never observed
anything similar, nor could I form a rational conjecture respecting
their nature.

"While thus engaged, our landlady made her appearance, and from her
we learnt that this was her collection of curiosities, gathered from
the neighbouring country; and she readily imparted to us all she knew
of the subject. Taking up one of the stones, which resembled those
we had seen on the road,--'This,' she said, 'is a petrified snake,
with which this neighbourhood abounds. These were once fairies that
inhabited these parts, and, for their crimes, were turned first into
snakes, and then into stones. Here'--showing a stone of a conical
form--'is one of the fairies' night-caps,[6] now also become stone.'
'Do, madam,' addressing Emma, 'pray observe this pattern; is it
possible lace-work like this should ever have been worked by human
hands? This--and this--are pieces of bones of giants, who lived
here after the fairies were destroyed.' These bones, she informed
us, were frequently dug up in several parts of the county, as well
as innumerable _thunderbolts_,[7] some of which she also showed us,
affirming that they were the very thunderbolts by which the giants
were in their turn annihilated.

[Footnote 6: A Cidaris, or turban-echinite; see Plate LIII.]

[Footnote 7: _Belemnites_, popularly termed "thunderbolts," Plate LIX.]

"We all listened attentively to this discourse, and on my smiling,
when she withdrew, at the romantic account we had received, Wilton
strenuously defended our good landlady's narration, and declared, he
thought it was not without a fair share of probability. On the return
of our hostess, I did not venture to express any doubt of the truth
of her story, but merely requested to know if she was aware of there
being anywhere a more extensive collection of similar curiosities.
'To be sure. Sir,' she replied, 'our University has a museum full of
them; and if you be going through Oxford, it will be well worth your
while to see it.'

"After taking refreshment, we left our kind and communicative
hostess, but not with an intention of immediately visiting the Museum
of the University. On the contrary, I felt that, without some
previous knowledge of the objects to be examined, our curiosity would
be only excited, not gratified; and I resolved to defer our visit to
Oxford, until we had obtained the information necessary to insure
us both pleasure and profit in the investigation of the relics of
interest it contained.

"Thus, my dear friend, at the very outset of my long anticipated
holidays, I have experienced considerable disappointment, and I
confidently appeal to you to afford me the information I require;
for I know that you have successfully cultivated the science which
teaches the nature of these figured stones, or petrifactions, and
possess a valuable collection of these most extraordinary objects.
You now, therefore, have it in your power to add greatly to the
delight and instruction I am anticipating from my travels, by giving
me an insight into the origin and nature of the petrified remains
which, I am told, are every where to be met with in the districts we
are about to visit."

       *       *       *       *       *

Of Mr. Artis's Work, I need only mention that it was intended, as
its title expresses, to illustrate "_The Fossil Remains of Plants
peculiar to the Coal Formations of Great Britain; selected for
their novelty and interest from upwards of a Thousand Specimens in
the possession of the Author_; by Edmund Tyrell Artis, Esq. F.S.A.
F.G.S." It was published by Nichols & Son, 1838. The plates are well
executed, and faithfully portray the original specimens.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Gallery of Organic Remains in the British Museum._

The collection of fossils in our national museum is now so varied and
extensive, and so admirably arranged by its eminent Curator, Charles
König, Esq., F.R.S., and his able assistants, Mr. Waterhouse and Mr.
Woodward, that the intelligent reader whose interest may be awakened
by the beautiful and curious objects figured and described in this
volume, cannot fail to be highly gratified by inspecting leisurely
the various organic remains from all parts of the world, that are
there displayed.

I gladly avail myself of this opportunity gratefully to acknowledge
the liberality and kindness I have at all times experienced from the
Officers of the several departments of Natural History in the British
Museum, in promoting my scientific researches, by affording me every
facility to examine the vast stores of Information placed under their
guardianship.

[Illustration]



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.



PART I.

FOSSIL FLORA.

Plates I. to XXXIII. inclusive.

[Illustration: Plate I]



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.


       *       *       *       *       *


PLATE I.

(Plates I. to IX. inclusive are from Parkinson's Organic Remains.)

Fossil Woods and Leaves.

  Fig. 1. Fossil coniferous wood, from a bed of clay at Blackwall.
         This wood is simply bituminized, and has undergone no other
         mineral transmutation; it is in the usual condition of wood
         in peat-bogs.

  Fig. 2. A piece of bituminous wood, containing _Mellite_,
         or Honey-stone (_honigstein_ of Werner), the yellow
         crystallized substance in the middle of the specimen. It is
         a fossil resin, allied to amber: from Thuringia.

  Fig. 3. Carbonized coniferous wood, from the so-called "Bovey
         Coal" formation of Devonshire.

  Fig, 4. A piece of calcareous wood, showing very distinctly the
         ligneous structure on the surface.

  Fig. 5. Lignite, or carbonized wood, in clay; the cracks or
         fissures in the wood are filled up with white calcareous
         spar. Specimens of this kind are common in many argillaceous
         strata, as well as in limestone.

  Fig. 6. A fragment of shale, covered with the imprints of the
         leaf-stalks that have been shed. It is a species of
         _Lepidodendron_. See description of Plate XXVI.

  Fig. 7. This fossil vegetable is part of the stem of a tree; and
         possibly of a species of _Sigillaria_.

  Fig. 8. Portion of a nodule of ironstone, enclosing some pinnules
         or leaflets of a beautiful fern (_Neuropteris_): from
         Coalbrook Dale, Shropshire.

[Illustration: Plate II.]


PLATE II.

Petrified Woods.

  Fig. 1. Silicified bituminized wood; probably from New Holland.

  Fig. 2. Silicified root of a coniferous tree, (_Rhizolithes_, of
         the early collectors,) "resembling in structure that of the
         larch."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 3. A similar example of silicified bituminous wood, or root.

  Fig. 4. Fossil coniferous wood, a longitudinal section.

  Fig. 5. Another section of the same fossil wood.

  Fig. 6. "Petrified larch-tree," from Mount Krappe in Hungary.

  Fig. 7. Silicified bituminous wood.

  Fig. 8. "Jasperized wood, resembling in structure that of the
         hazel."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 9. Silicified coniferous wood; apparently a dried and
         withered mass, before it underwent petrifaction.

  Fig. 10. Silicified wood, having a cavity lined with mammillated
         chalcedony; appearing as if the silex had percolated through
         the substance of the mass, and had slowly oozed into the
         hollow.

  Fig. 11. Silicified bituminous wood. In this specimen the
         siliceous matter occurs in yellow semi-pellucid globules;
         the colour is supposed to have been derived from the bitumen.

The silicified woods delineated above, belong to the division which
Mr. Parkinson denominated opaline; he conceived their peculiar
characters to have resulted from an infiltration of fluid silex
into the ligneous tissue, which, having previously undergone
bituminization, was in a permeable state; hence originated the
conchoidal fracture and peculiar resinous lustre which these
specimens exhibit.

The specimen, fig. 7, Mr. Parkinson describes as corroborating the
opinion that the ligneous tissues were converted into a bituminous
substance, and subsequently impregnated with siliceous matter. "In
that fossil there is a knot of wood which differs not the least
in appearance from that in a recent piece, but it is perfectly
impregnated with opaline silex. Is it possible that the change this
knot has suffered could have been effected by an abstraction of the
greater part or of the whole of its constituent molecules, and a
substitution of particles of a different nature? Its hardness and
closeness of texture oppose an insuperable bar to the supposition:
whilst the mysteriousness of the change is entirely dispelled
by admitting of the softening operation of bituminization, and
consequent admission of silex in a fluid state."--_Mr. Parkinson_.

[Illustration: Plate III.]


PLATE III.

Petrified Stems and Leaves.

  Fig. 1. A portion of the trunk of the fossil vegetable called
         _Stigmaria ficoides_ (of M. Alex. Brongniart); it is
         the root of a tree common in the coal deposits; see
         _Supplementary Notes_, Art. _Stigmaria_, p. 198, for a
         description of the nature and mode of occurrence of these
         fossils.

  Fig. 2. Impressions of dicotyledonous leaves in travertine; a
         modern calcareous deposit; from Campania.[8]

[Footnote 8: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 193.]

  Fig. 3. Part of the stem of a reed-like plant (_Calamites
         dubius_, Brongniart); from the coal deposits of Yorkshire.
         See description of _Calamites_.

  Fig. 4. Appears to be a fragment of the stem of a species of
         _Lepidodendron_.

  Fig. 5. Fragment of the leaf of a Cycadeous plant, from the
         oolite of Stonesfield. (_Zamia pectinata._)

  Fig. 6. Portion of an ironstone nodule, split asunder, showing
         part of the terminal branch of a _Lepidodendron_, from
         Coalbrook Dale. See description of _Lepidodendron_.

  Fig. 7. "A pebble that appears to have been partly enveloped in a
         leaf while in a soft state, which has produced the markings
         on its surface."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 8. "Ligniform pitchstone;" fossil wood having a resinous
         transparency; supposed by Mr. Parkinson to have originated
         from an intermixture of silex and bitumen; the internal part
         is opalized.

  Fig. 9. Fragment of calcareous coniferous wood from the Lias of
         Charmouth, Dorsetshire: the vegetable structure is well
         preserved.

[Illustration: Plate IV.]


PLATE IV.

Fossil Fern Leaves.

  Figs. 1, & 2. An ironstone nodule, split asunder, showing an
         inclosed fern-leaf (_Alethopteris lonchitidis_, of
         Sternberg); from the coal-beds of Newcastle.

  Figs. 3, & 4. The corresponding parts of another nodule,
         containing a fern-leaf of a different kind (_Neuropteris_).

  Fig. 5. A very beautiful fossil fern (_Cheilanthes microlobus_,
         of Göppert; _Sphenopteris_, of Brongniart); from the coal
         formation.

  Fig. 6. A slab of coal-shale with fronds of ferns (_Alethopteris
         Serlii_, of Göppert); from Dunkerton.

  Fig. 7. A beautiful fern (_Pecopteris_) in coal-shale; from
         Newcastle.

[Illustration: Plate V.]


PLATE V.

Fossil Ferns and Stems.

  Fig. 1. A beautiful delicate plant, belonging to a family of
         which numerous species occur in the coal deposits; named,
         from the stellular form of the foliage, _Asterophyllites_.

  Fig. 2. A fern in coal-shale, from Yorkshire. (_Sphenopteris
         trifoliata_, of Artis.)

  Fig. 3. Another species of star-leaf plant (_Annularia
         brevifolia_), from the coal of Silesia.

  Fig. 4. A dicotyledonous leaf in sandstone, in a beautiful state
         of preservation; from the tertiary strata of Œningen.

  Fig. 5. A frond of a remarkable species of extinct fern
         (_Cyclopteris orbicularis_, of Brongniart); from the coal of
         Shropshire.

  Fig. 6. An elegant fern (_Pecopteris_), from coal shale;
         Newcastle.

  Fig. 7. A delicate plant (_Sphenophyllum erosum_, vel _dentatum_,
         of Sternberg), with wedge-shaped pinnules, from the coal
         formation.

  Fig. 8. Portion of a stem, flattened by compression, of a species
         of _Sigillaria_ (_Sigillaria tesselata_, of Brongniart).
         From the coal of Yorkshire.

  Fig. 9. Fern (_Pecopteris oreopteridis_, of Brongniart); from the
         coal of South Wales.

  Figs. 10, & 11. Two specimens of _Asterophyllites_ in ironstone
         nodules, from Coalbrook Dale. The white appearance is
         occasioned by a deposition of hydrate of alumina.

[Illustration: Plate VI.]


PLATE VI.

Fossil Fruits from Sheppey.

The greater number of the specimens here figured, are from the London
clay of the Isle of Sheppey.[9]

[Footnote 9: For an account of the circumstances under which fossil
fruits, &c. occur in that celebrated locality, see Medals of
Creation, vol. ii.]

These fossils are strongly impregnated with pyrites (sulphuret of
iron), and are liable to decompose after exposure to the air for a
few weeks or months, even when placed in closed cabinets: when first
found they are remarkably beautiful. An excellent work on the fossil
fruits of the Isle of Sheppey, was commenced by J. S. Bowerbank, Esq.
F.K.S. of Highbury Grove; but which, it is much to be regretted, was
discontinued after only three numbers were published.

  Fig. 1. Portion of a branch of a tree, completely mineralized by
         pyrites; it is the "pyritous fossil wood" of Mr. Parkinson.

  Figs. 2, & 3. Vegetable substances, too imperfect to determine.

  Figs. 4, 8, 9, & 13. The berries of an extinct genus of plants,
         (named _Wetherellia_, by Mr. Bowerbank, in honour of Mr.
         Wetherell of Highgate,) which, from their appearance when
         split asunder, are called by the local collectors, "coffee
         berries." The natural affinities of these fossils are not
         determined.

  Figs. 5, 6, & 7. The fruit or seed-vessel of a palm allied to the
         recent Nipa, a native of the Molucca Islands; the fossil is
         therefore named _Nipadites_.[10] See the next Plate.

[Footnote 10: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p, 180.]

  Figs. 10, & 12. Fossil fruits of plants belonging to the Cucumber
         tribe (hence named _Cucumites_, by Mr. Bowerbank).[11]

[Footnote 11: Plate xiii. of Mr. Bowerbank's work on the Fossil
Fruits of the London Clay, contains numerous figures of Cucumites.]

  Fig. 11. A transverse section of Fig. 16.

  Figs. 14, 18, 24, & 26, are varieties of Cucumites.

  Fig. 16. Calcareous wood from Oxfordshire.

  Fig. 19. Wood mineralized by copper (Cupreous fossil-wood of
         Parkinson), from Souxson, in Siberia.

  Fig. 18. Fossil fruit resembling the seed-vessels of plants
         of the genus _Cupania_ (_Amomocarpum_, of Brongniart;
         _Cupanoides_, of Bowerbank); M. Brongniart considers the
         original to have been related to the Cardamoms (_Amomum_).

  Fig. 21. Probably a species of Cupanoides.

  Figs. 20, & 22. Pericarp of a fruit; its affinities unknown.

  Fig. 23. A piece of pyritous wood.

  Fig. 25. A rolled specimen of _Nipadites_.

  Figs. 24, & 26. Two fruits of plants of the Cucumber family
         (_Cucumites_).

  Figs. 27, & 29. Specimens of the stems of a species of extinct
         Club-moss (_Lycopodites squamatus_); fossils of this kind
         are abundant in the pyritous clay of Sheppey.

  Fig. 28. A fragment of silicified wood, rounded by attrition;
         from the gravel-pits at Hackney.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Figs. 15, & 17. I have purposely reserved the description of these
         fossils for this place, because notwithstanding their close
         resemblance to the aments or cones of a pine or larch, which
         led the earlier collectors to regard them as fruits, they
         do not belong to the vegetable but to the animal kingdom,
         being the hardened excrementitious contents (_Coprolites_)
         of the intestines of the fishes, with whose remains they are
         associated in the chalk.[12] The specimens figured are from
         Cherry Hinton, in Cambridgeshire; similar fossils occur in
         the Chalk and Chalk-marl of Sussex, Kent, &c.

[Footnote 12: See Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 432; and Dr.
Buckland's Bridgewater Essays, vol. ii. pl. 15.]

[Illustration: Plate VII.]


PLATE VII.

Fossil Fruits of Palms.

  Figs. 1-5. Splendid specimens of one of the most remarkable of the
         fossil fruits that occur in the London clay of the Isle of
         Sheppey. The nut in its pericarp or husk is shown in fig. 1,
         the separate pericarp in fig. 2, and the nut itself in fig.
         3. Figs. 4 and 5, represent another beautiful fossil of the
         same species.

These fossil fruits, which Mr. Parkinson considered as belonging
to a species of Cocos, or Cocoa, and M. Brongniart referred to the
Pandanus or Screw-pine, Mr. Bowerbank has demonstrated to be closely
related to the recent _Nipa_, or Malucca Palm; a low shrub-like
monocotyledonous plant, that inhabits marshy tracts near the mouths
of great rivers, particularly where the waters are brackish.

Mr. Bowerbank has figured and described eleven species. The
species represented in this plate is distinguished as _Nipadites
Parkinsonis_: M. Brongniart had previously named it _Pandanocarpum
Parkinsonis_.[13]

[Footnote 13: See an account of an "Excursion to the Isle of
Sheppey," Medals of Creation, vol. ii. p. 897.]

The following is Mr. Bowerbank's description of these fossils:--

"The fruits of which the group I propose to name _Nipadites_ is
composed, are known among the women and children by whom they are
usually collected, by the name of '_petrified figs_.' The epicarp and
endocarp are thin and membranous; the sarcocarp is thick and pulpy,
composed of cellular tissue, through which run numerous bundles of
vessels. The cells are about the 8/100th part of an inch in diameter.
Nearly in the centre of the pericarp is situated a large seed, which,
when broken, is found to be more or less hollow. It is frequently
not more than half a line in thickness; but in perfect specimens it
presents the appearance of a closely granulated structure, in which
small apertures containing carbonaceous matter occasionally occur.
The seed in _Nipadites Parkinsonis_, consists of regular layers of
cells radiating from a spot situated near the middle of the seed, and
apparently enclosing a central embryo.

"If the habits of the plants which produced these fossil fruits were
similar to those of the recent _Nipa_, it will account for their
amazing abundance in the London Clay of the Isle of Sheppey; which
formation, from the great variety of fossilized stems and branches,
mixed up with _asteria_, _mollusca_, and _conchifera_ of numerous
marine and fresh-water genera, is strikingly characterized as having
been the delta of an immense river, which probably flowed from near
the Equator towards the spot where these interesting remains are now
deposited."[14]

[Footnote 14: History of the Fossil Fruits and Seeds of the London
Clay. Van Voorst, London, 1840.]

  Figs. 6, 7, & 8. Specimens of a seed-vessel, or nut, of an unknown
         plant, often found in the strata of the coal measures. It is
         called _Trigonocarpum olivæforme_, from its general shape.
         From Leicestershire; it probably belongs to a plant of the
         Palm family.

[Illustration: Plate VIII.]


PLATE VIII.

Petrified Stems and Woods.

  Figs. 1-7, represent different sections and parts of some
       remarkably beautiful and interesting silicified stems of an
       extinct tribe of plants, related to the arborescent ferns, and
       which are found in considerable abundance at Chemnitz, near
       Hillersdorf, in Saxony. The name of _Psaronius_ is given to
       the genus by M. Cotta.

  Figs. 1, 2, 5, 7, are _P. helmintholithes_; figs. 3, 6, _P.
       asterolithes_; figs. 5, 6, 7, are enlarged figures of the
       transverse sections of some of the vessels forming the
       vascular tissue.

From the stellular figure produced by transverse sections of the
vessels, this fossil wood has received the name of "_Staarenstein_,"
or Starry-stone. In the time of Mr. Parkinson, the tubes now known
to be the vessels of the vascular tissue, were supposed to have been
produced by some boring or parasitical animals.

  Fig. 4. Transverse section of a stem of calcareous wood from the
       Bath oolite.

  Figs. 8, & 9. Calcareous fossil wood; the cylindrical cavities have
       been formed by the depredations of the ligniverous boring
       mollusk, the _Teredo_, and are now filled with translucent
       calcareous spar. This kind of fossil was called "_Lapis
       syringoides_" by the early collectors.

  Fig. 10. Silicified wood; the perforations are supposed to have
       been occasioned by the depredations of boring mollusca: the
       cavities are filled with a white pellucid chalcedony.

[Illustration: Plate IX.]


PLATE IX.

Fossil Stems and Seed-vessels.

  Fig. 1. The strobilus or cone of an extinct family of plants
         whose remains are very abundant in the coal strata, and
         which have largely contributed to the formation of the
         mineral fuel now become so indispensable to the necessities
         and luxuries of man. There are several kinds, and although
         there can be no doubt that they are the seed-vessels of the
         _Lepidodendra_ with which they are associated, yet but few
         species are identified with their parent trees. The specimen
         figured is the _Lepidostrobus ornatus_ of Lindley and
         Hutton. From the coal measures of Coalbrook Dale.

  Fig. 2. One of the so-called "Petrified Melons" of Mount Carmel.

  Figs. 3 & 4. An unknown fossil body; possibly a coral.

  Fig. 5. A vertical section of one of the "_Petrified Melons_"
         from Mount Carmel. The fossil thus named by Mr. Parkinson
         appears to be merely a siliceous nodule, having a cavity
         lined with quartz crystals. There is, however, a legend
         rife among the barefooted friars of Mount Carmel, that has
         conferred a celebrity on these stones; it runs, that "on
         this spot was a garden well stocked with melons, and that
         the prophet Elias, who founded the monastery, once asking
         the gardener for one of his melons, he with churlish humour
         answered, they were not melons but stones: on which they
         were immediately changed into stones, and so remain to this
         day."

  Figs. 6 & 7. Unknown vegetable fossils, highly metallic; fig. 6
         appears to be a fragment of a cone.

  Figs. 8 & 9, are nodules of pyrites, accidentally assuming the
         form of fungi; they are not fossils, but simply masses of
         inorganic mineral matter.

  Fig. 10. Portion of the flattened stem of an extinct plant, from
         the coal measures of Yorkshire, whose affinities are
         uncertain; supposed to resemble the Yew-tree. It appears to
         be similar to the fossil named _Knorria taxina_ by Messrs.
         Lindley and Hutton in the British Fossil Flora. In that
         beautiful work,--the continuation of which is much to be
         desired,--the genus _Knorria_ comprises those fossil stems
         in which the projecting scars of the petioles are densely
         arranged in a spiral manner.[15]

[Footnote 15: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 161.]

[Illustration: Plate X.]


PLATE X.

(Plates X. to XXXIV. inclusive, are from Artis's work on the Fossil
Remains of Plants, from the coal formations of Great Britain.)

"Columnar Hydatica."

Under the name _Hydatica_, Mr. Artis has described two species of
fossil plants, from the coal-mine near Wentworth, Yorkshire. The
originals appear to have been aquatic plants, having a horizontal or
creeping stem, sending up slender branches, which floated by their
leaves on the surface of the water.

The generic characters are, "Stem, arborescent, jointed, branched;
leaves, long, linear."

In the arrangements of Schlotheim and Brongniart, who consider only
the construction of the leaves, these plants would belong to the
genus _Poacites_.

The species figured is named _Hydatica columnaris_, or Columnar
Hydatica. The stem is branched all the way up, and ends in a
club-like head; the branches are numerous, simple, alternate, and
covered with parallel hair-like leaves.

  Fig. 1. The plant of the natural size, imbedded in coal-shale;
         fig. 2, a branch magnified, showing; the two linear series
         in which the leaves are arranged.

[Illustration: Plate XI.]


PLATE XI.

"Prostrate Hydatica."

A splendid specimen of another species of _Hydatica_, spread out on
the surface of the coal-shale, as if expanded on the bosom of the
lake in which it grew: the length of the original, a part of which
only is figured in the plate, was eight feet, five inches.

This species is named by Mr. Artis, _Hydatica prostrata_. The stem is
jointed, and slightly striated; the joints are formed with irregular
sutures, whence arise tufts of linear leaves resembling those of our
common grasses.

Fragments of this fossil plant are abundant in the roofs of several
of the chambers whence the coal has been extracted, in Elsecar
Colliery, Yorkshire.

[Illustration: Plate XII.]


PLATE XII.

"Slender Myriophyllite."

The fossil here figured seems to approximate very closely to the
Hydatica; but Mr. Artis describes the plant under the generic name of
_Myriophyllites_;--_M. gracilis_. The stem is herbaceous and slender,
terminating in a point; it is thickly covered with hair-like leaves.

It was found imbedded horizontally, in detached masses, separated
from the great mass of vegetable matter which covers the coal, by an
intervening layer of shale. It is rarely met with in the same bed
with other vegetables, but generally in solitary and thin strata,
taking a horizontal position; so that by riving the shale which
contains these plants, numbers of them are disclosed on the same
surface. In its general aspect this fossil vegetable resembles the
trailing roots of some aquatic plants.

[Illustration: Plate XIII.]


PLATE XIII.

"Branched Calamite."

Long and large jointed stems, generally more or less flattened by
compression, and bearing some resemblance to a cane or bamboo, are
very abundant in the coal formations. Some of them attain many feet
in length, and are of a corresponding magnitude in circumference.
The original plants are supposed to have been related to the
_Equisetaceæ_, or Mare's-tail, and not to the _Bambusiæ_, and
other arborescent grasses. The stem is jointed, and longitudinally
striated, having annular impressions at the articulations.

The present species (_Calamites ramosus_) has the stem arborescent
and branched; the branches are cylindrical, striated, and inserted at
the articulations of the trunk; the articulations of the branches are
surrounded by a striated disk.

The stem has been found nine feet in length, and occurs both
horizontally and vertically, in sandstone, in Leabrook Quarry, near
Wentworth.

[Illustration: Plate XIV.]


PLATE XIV.

"Doubtful Calamite."

These fossil stems are from the same sandstone quarry as the Calamite
delineated in the previous plate.

They differ in some respects from the usual type of the genus,
hence the specific name (_Calamites dubius_). The striæ are narrow,
and have a fine groove running down the middle; the fifth or sixth
articulation is surrounded by a double line of large globular
indentations, one row belonging to each of the connected joints;
these imprints have apparently been left by a zone of some organs
which surrounded the articulations, and by its pressure left the
indented frill, shown in the upper extremity of fig. 2.

These stems are generally found compressed, and from two to three
feet in length. Their termination is unknown.

This species is figured by M. Ad. Brongniart in Hist. Veg. Foss. tab.
18, figs. 1-3.

[Illustration: Plate XV.]


PLATE XV.

"Pseudo-Bamboo Calamite."

  (_Calamites pseudo bambusia_, of Sternberg.
   ---- _Suckovii_, of Brongniart, Hist. Foss. Veg. tab. 14.)

"This fossil was found in the clay which fills the fissures of a very
fine grit, called by the workmen 'Delf,' that forms a stratum from
twenty to twenty-five feet thick, in the quarry at Leabrook, near
Wentworth, in Yorkshire. Immediately under this stratum there is a
thin bed of very good coal; and at a considerable depth below this
bed, there is a second layer of coal, eight feet thick, which is
covered in particular places with immense masses of fossil plants."

The species here figured very closely resembles the Bamboos. The
stem is arborescent, and marked with parallel linear strife, which
are intercepted at the sutures; it is simple and cylindrical, and
contracted at the articulations; it occurs five feet or more in
length.

  Fig. 1, represents part of the middle of a stem.

  Fig. 2, shows the gradual upward diminution of the stem, and its
         pointed termination.

[Illustration: Plate XVI.]


PLATE XVI.

"Short-jointed Calamite."

  (_Calamites approximatus_, Sternberg.
   ---- ----, Brongniart, Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 24.)

This species of Calamite is characterized by the shortness and number
of the joints; these are intercepted by distinct articulations, and
have small compressed tubercles, forming a studded row round the
trunk. The articulations are about one-fifth the diameter of the stem
apart. The tubercular studs, or warts, are probably the cicatrices
of fallen leaves; they rise directly from the articulations, and not
from the lower termination of the striæ, as in the species figured in
the next plate.

The specimen was found imbedded horizontally in soft sandstone, at
the bottom of the rock in Hober Quarry, near Wentworth.

  Fig. 1, represents a portion of the upper part of the trunk,
         of the natural size, terminating at the top in a sharp
         compressed point.

  Fig. 2. An outline on a reduced scale, to show the proportionate
         size of the stem.

[Illustration: Plate XVII.]


PLATE XVII.

"Ornamented Calamite."

  (_Calamites decoratus_, Artis.
   ---- ----, of Brongniart, Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 14, figs. 1-5.)

In this species of Calamite the joints are short, and decrease in
length towards the summit, where they terminate in an enlarged
rounded head. The striæ are ornamented with tubercles at the bottom,
close to the articulation. The striæ are broader, and the tubercles
larger, towards the summit.

The stem is sometimes found two feet long, and from two to four
inches in diameter.

The situation of the tubercles at the lower extremity of the striæ,
is a striking feature of this species; and the termination of the
summit of the stem is remarkable for its obtuseness.

The specimen is from Leabrook Quarry, Yorkshire.

[Illustration: Plate XVIII.]


PLATE XVIII.

"Transverse Sternbergia."

  (_Sternbergia transversa_, of Artis.
   _Artesia_ ----, of Presl. Additions to Sternberg's _Flora der Vorwelt_.)

The stems known by the name of _Sternbergia_, (from Count Sternberg,
the author of the Fossil Flora,) appear to be related to the Yucca,
or to the Pandanus or Screw-pine.

Mr. Artis observes, that they bear considerable analogy to the stems
of the _Stapeliæ_ of our gardens; but still, the external form,
which Is the only character visible, does not furnish sufficient
ground for their being positively referred to that genus. The stem is
marked longitudinally with double keels or ridges, which terminate at
different heights spirally round the stem, and have small tubercles
at their terminations. There are likewise slight annular depressions,
mostly distinct, but in some places two or more unite.

The stem is straight, simple, and cylindrical, and is compressed
towards the summit. It is sometimes found six feet in length, and
from one to four inches in diameter. It is generally coated with a
carbonized bark.

  Fig. 1, shows a portion of the stem of the natural size.

  Fig. 2. The upper extremity, in which the tubercular terminations
         of the double keels or ridges are seen at A, B.

Found associated with Calamites in the clay-bind of Leabrook Quarry.

[Illustration: Plate XIX.]


PLATE XIX.

"Fibrous Sigillaria."

  (_Rhytidolepis fibrosa_, of Artis.)

Stems more or less flattened, with the external surface
longitudinally furrowed, and uniformly ornamented with rows of deeply
imprinted symmetrical figures, disposed with much regularity, are
among the most abundant vegetable remains in the coal formation.
These are named _Sigillariæ_, from the Latin word _sigillum_,
signifying a _seal_, in allusion to the extreme regularity of the
imprints on the surface. When found in an upright position, at right
angles to the plane of the stratum, the original cylindrical form
of the tree is commonly preserved; and many examples are now known
of groups of erect Sigillariæ, with their roots extending into the
surrounding clay or sandy loam; the roots proving to be the fossil
bodies called _Stigmariæ_, which were formerly supposed to be a
distinct family of aquatic plants.[16] The first discovery of this
highly interesting and unexpected fact was made by Mr. Binney.[17]

[Footnote 16: Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay, vol. i. p. 476.]

[Footnote 17: See "Supplementary Notes, p. 198."]

The specimen figured was found in an erect position in the sandstone
of a quarry at Rowmarsh, near Rotherham in Yorkshire.

The stem is simple, the furrows small and wavy, impressed with dots
on the ridges. The cicatrices are ovate, subpentagonal, with the
lower angles rounded, having a single gland near the lower extremity.
The stem is three feet long, and four inches in diameter.

The transverse section, as seen in fig. 1, shows traces of a double
concentric ring, as if produced by internal structure. Fig. 2,
displays the equality of the stem throughout its entire length, and
its abrupt termination. In fig. 3, is seen the cicatrix with its
single gland, for the attachment of the petiole or leaf-stalk. Fig.
4, indicates the undulating line of the top of the ridge.

"The originals of these fossils are supposed by M. Ad. Brongniart to
have constituted a peculiar family of coniferous plants, now extinct,
which probably belonged to the great division of gymnospermous
dicotyledons. In their external forms they somewhat resembled the
Cacteæ or Euphorbiæ, but were more nearly related by their internal
organization to the Zamiæ or Cycadeæ. The leaves and fruits of these
trees are unknown, for no satisfactory connexion has been established
between the stems, and the foliage and seed vessels with which they
are sometimes collocated."[18]

[Footnote 18: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 138.]

[Illustration: Plate XX.]


PLATE XX.

"Sigillaria."

  (_Euphorbites vulgaris_, of Artis.)

This species is characterized by the remarkable fish-like form of
the cicatrices left by the base of the leaf-stalks, and by the
rapid tapering of the upper part of the stem, as shown in the
reduced figure 1, which represents a specimen nine feet long, five
feet in circumference at the base, and only twenty-one inches in
circumference at the upper end.

The ridges, which at the superior extremity are simple and narrow,
and parted only by a single line, become at the lower part of the
stem wide and flat, and are separated by a groove of equal breadth,
as seen in fig. 3, which is taken from B, fig. 1.

Fig. 2, represents a portion towards the upper end, at A, fig. 1; and
exhibits the different appearance of the bark, and the under surface,
when the cortical investment is removed; the imprints in each case
differing very much in appearance.

The specimen from which the drawing was taken, was from a sandstone
quarry near Altofts, in Yorkshire. In one of the abandoned chambers
of the upper Elsecar coal-mine, seven trunks of this tree were
suspended freely from the roof, the largest of which was eight feet
in circumference.

[Illustration: Plate XXI.]


PLATE XXI.

"Ficoid Stigmaria."

  (_Stigmaria ficoides_, of M. Brongniart, Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 17,
      figs. 5, 6.
   _Ficoidites furcatus_, of Mr. Artis.)

The fossil trunks or stems called _Stigmariæ_, or _Variolæ_, (from
the pits or areolæ with which they are studded,) occur as abundantly
in the coal formation as the _Sigillariæ_, of which tribe of plants
unequivocal proof has at length been obtained that they are the
roots. These bodies are more or less regularly cylindrical, and vary
in length from a few inches to fifteen or twenty feet, the largest
being several inches in diameter. Their surface is covered with
numerous oval or circular depressions, in the middle of each of which
there is a rounded papilla, or tubercle. These variolæ are disposed
round the stem in quincunx order. When these roots are broken across,
a small cylindrical core or pith is exposed, which extends in a
longitudinal direction throughout the stem, like a medullary column.
This central axis, which is often separable from the surrounding
mass, is composed of bundles of vascular tissue disposed in a
radiated manner, and separated from each other by medullary rays.
This internal organization presents the same correspondence with that
of the stems of Sigillariæ, as does the structure of the roots of a
dicotyledonous tree with that of its branches and stems.

The Stigmariæ are almost invariably present in the bed called the
"Under Clay," which underlies the coal, and when observed in this
situation, long tapering sub-cylindrical fibres are found attached to
the tubercles; and these processes or rootlets are often several feet
in length. Their form and mode of attachment are shown at C, D; the
rootlets terminate in bifurcations, as seen at A, B.

The specimen here figured is part of a root nearly six feet long, and
three inches in diameter; some of the rootlets were two feet long. It
is imbedded in shale; from Elsecar colliery.[19]

[Footnote 19: A Stigmaria with rootlets, many feet in length, is
placed over the doorway in the room devoted to fossil vegetables in
the Gallery of Organic Remains in the British Museum.]

[Illustration: Plate XXII.]


PLATE XXII.

"Warty Stigmaria."

  (_Stigmaria ficoides_, Brongniart.
   _Phytolithus verrucosus_, Martin's Petrificata Derbiensia, Pl. II.
   _Ficoidites verrucosus_, of Artis.)

In this species of Stigmaria the tubercles vary considerably in size,
and give a verrucose, or warty, aspect to the surface. The specimen
figured on a small scale, fig. 2, and a portion of the natural size,
fig. 1, was between five and six feet in length, and four inches in
diameter. A groove visible on the external surface indicates the
inner axis, which by compression has been pressed from its natural
central position; see fig. 2, A, B, C, D: figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, show in
the corresponding transverse sections the position of this body.

The mode of attachment of the rootlets to the tubercle on the main
root, is represented fig. 5. Fig. 3, exhibits the characters of the
two kinds of variolæ, or tubercles.

When Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay was published, the true
nature of these fossil remains was unknown. It was supposed by
Messrs. Lindley and Hutton, that the original was an aquatic plant,
having a short dome-shaped trunk, from which radiated numerous long
horizontal branches; and that when the plant was perfect, and the
branches floating on the water, its appearance resembled that of
an Asterias.[20] This dome-shaped trunk is now known to be merely
the base of the stem of the tree. See _Supplementary Notes_, art.
_Stigmaria_.

[Footnote 20: Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay, vol. ii. p. 95.]

[Illustration: Plate XXIII.]


PLATE XXIII.

"Great Stigmaria."

  (_Stigmaria ficoides_, of Brongniart.
   _Ficoidites major_, of Artis.)

The fossil here represented is a fragment of a Stigmaria having
larger tubercles than the species previously described. The tubercles
are oval at the base, somewhat compressed, longitudinally farrowed at
the top, with a pit in the furrow.

This root is from five to six inches in diameter; the axis is seen
near the compressed side, in the transverse section at the bottom of
the figure.

From a sandstone quarry, near Rotherham, Yorkshire.

The specimen figured by Mr. Parkinson, _ante_, Plate III. fig. 1,
appears to be the fragment of a Stigmaria of this kind in ironstone:
the internal axis is seen in the transverse section pressed from its
natural position to near the outer surface.

[Illustration: Plate XXIV.]


PLATE XXIV.

"Crested Aspidiaria."

  (_Aspidiaria cristata_, of Presl.
   _Sigillaria appendiculata_, Brongniart.
   _Aphyllum cristatum_, Artis.)

The fossil here represented is part of the stem of a tree nearly
forty feet long, and two feet in diameter, found imbedded in
sandstone at Banktop, Yorkshire.

The cicatrices of the petioles are obovate, and have a central oblong
crest or ridge; the interstices form deep angular furrows.

The stems with this type of sculpturing, are supposed to belong to a
group of extinct vegetables, which held an intermediate place between
the Sigillariæ, previously described, and the Lepidodendra; together
with the latter, and certain true Coniferæ and arborescent ferns,
these trees appear to have constituted the principal forests of the
Carboniferous epoch.

[Illustration: Plate XXV.]


PLATE XXV.

"Frondose Megaphyton."

  (_Megaphyton distans_, of Lindley and Hutton's Fossil Flora of
      Great Britain.)

Very large stems not channelled, with regular cicatrices of great
size, arranged longitudinally, occur in the sandstone and grits of
the Carboniferous formation, and are supposed to belong to a tribe of
extinct plants, more nearly allied to the arborescent ferns of our
tropical climes, than to any other existing trees.

The specimen figured is part of a stem ten feet in length, from a
quarry near Rowmarsh in Yorkshire.

This stem has a coarse fibrous surface, furrowed longitudinally; the
cicatrices left by the shedding of the leaves are of a horseshoe
shape with the points directed upwards.

This group of stems has been separated by writers on fossil botany
into several genera, as _Bothrodendron_, _Ulodendron_, &c.[21] In
some of these the scars are five inches in diameter.

[Footnote 21: See Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay, plate 56.]

There are many fine examples of these fossils in the British Museum.

[Illustration: Plate XXVI.]


PLATE XXVI.

"Lepidodendron, or Scaly-tree."

  (_Aphyllum asperum_, Rough Aphyllum, of Artis.)

"The Lepidodendra (Scaly-trees) are a tribe of plants whose remains
abound in the Coal formation, and rival in number and magnitude the
Calamites and Sigillariæ previously described. The name is derived
from the imbricated or scaly appearance of the surface, occasioned by
the little angular scars left by the separation of the leaves. Some
of these trees have been found almost entire, from their roots to the
topmost branches. One specimen, forty feet high, and thirteen feet
in diameter at the base, and divided towards the summit into fifteen
or twenty branches, was discovered in the Jarrow coal-mine, near
Newcastle.[22]

[Footnote 22: Wonders of Geology, sixth edition, vol. ii. p. 722.]

"The foliage of these trees consists of simple linear leaves,
spirally arranged around the stem, and which appear to have been
shed from the base of the tree with age. The markings produced by
the attachment of the leaves are never obliterated, and the twigs
and branches are generally found covered with foliage. The originals
are supposed by M. Adolphe Brongniart, notwithstanding their
gigantic size, to have been closely related to the Lycopodia, or
Club-mosses."[23]

[Footnote 23: Medals of Creation, p. 144.]

Associated with the stems of Lepidodendra, and oftentimes imbedded
in masses of their foliage, and in some instances attached to the
extremities of the branches, are numerous oblong or cylindrical
scaly cones, garnished with leaves: an imperfect specimen is figured
in Plate IX. fig. 1, and the vertical section of another in Plate
III. fig. 6. These cones have received the name of _Lepidostrobi_
(Scaly-cones), and are the seed-vessels or fruits of the
Lepidodendra.[24]

[Footnote 24: See Medals of Creation, p. 147, and lign. 31, p. 149.]

These fossils often form the nuclei of the ironstone nodules from
Coalbrook Dale, and are invested with a pure white hydrate of
alumina; the leaflets, or more properly bracteæ, are often replaced
by galena, or sulphuret of lead, giving rise to specimens of great
beauty and interest, as examples of the electro-chemical changes
which these fruits of the carboniferous forests have undergone.

The fossils figured in this Plate, are portions of a stem eleven feet
in length, from near Hoyland, Yorkshire. Fig. 1, is from the upper
part, and shows the carbonized scales attached; fig. 2, represents
part of the lower end, in which the scales are decorticated, from the
adhesion of the bark to the surrounding shale.

  A. Shows the cicatrix, with its transverse gland that connects the scale,
       in the upper part of the trunk.

  B. Exposes the interstice between the scales in the lower portion of the
       stem.

  C. A section of the hollow cicatrix.

[Illustration: Plate XXVII.]


PLATE XXVII.

"Lychnophorite."

  (_Lychnophorites superus_, of Artis.)

The fossil figured under the above name by Mr. Artis, is part of a
large branch of a tree, the surface of which is covered with the
cicatrices of leaf-stalks, as in the Lepidodendron. The form of the
cicatrix and point of attachment is shown at B; figure A, is the
restored outline of a leaf.

"Dr. Martins refers the fossil plants of this type to a recent
shrubby genus of syngenesious plants, which cover the plains of
Brazil, and which he names _Lychnophora_, whence he formed this
fossil genus, by changing the termination to _ites_, according to the
common usage."--_Artis._

The specimen represented is in sandstone, from Swinton Common, near
Rotherham, Yorkshire.

This tree seems to be closely allied to the Lepidodendra.

[Illustration: Plate XXVIII.]


PLATE XXVIII.

"Eared Neuropterite."

  (_Neuropteris auriculata_, Brongniart. Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 66.
   _Filicites Osmunda_, of Artis.)

The general aspect of this beautiful filicite very much resembles
that of our well-known flowering fern, the elegant _Osmunda regalis_;
the auriculated or one-eared base of the lanceolated leaflets
forms, however, a distinguishing character. It belongs to the genus
_Neuropteris_ (nerved-leaf fern) of M. Brongniart, which comprises
many species of delicately-veined ferns: the veins in this fossil
plant are very fine, arched, and rise obliquely from the base of the
leaflet.

The leaflets are often found detached, and in many instances, though
completely carbonized, are so firm, and so slightly attached to
the shale, that they may be separated by a pair of forceps: when
removed, their impression remains on the stone, as is shown in the
light-coloured part of the figure 2; the form and distribution of the
rib, and nervures or veins, are seen in fig. 3.

From Elsecar colliery.

[Illustration: Plate XXIX.]


PLATE XXIX.

"Trifoliate Sphenopterite."

  (_Sphenopteris trifoliata_, Brongniart, Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 53, fig. 3.
   _Filicites trifoliatus_, of Artis.
   _Cheilanthites_; from its supposed analogy to the recent genus
     _Cheilanthes_. Göppert. _Trans. Academy of Bonn_.)

This is a rare species of fern from the coal shale of Yorkshire,
Elsecar Colliery. It has the leaf or frond tripinnate; the pinnæ,
lobes, or wings, alternate with an odd one; the leaflets are ternate,
with roundish, convex lobes.

This plant has been referred to the tropical ferns, and is nearly
allied to the genera _Davallia_, or _Cheilanthes_; but from the
almost general absence of the organs of fructification in fossil
ferns, it is impossible to refer them with any certainty to living
genera. It belongs to the Sphenopteres, or wedge-shaped-leaf ferns,
of M. Brongniart.

A, shows the cast or matrix of the under side of the leaf; B, the
upper side in relief.

[Illustration: Plate XXX.]


PLATE XXX.

"Milton Filicite."

  (_Pecopteris Miltoni_, Brongniart, Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 114,
   _Filicites Miltoni_, Artis.)

This exquisite specimen exhibits part of two leaves attached to the
stem, the under surface of the fronds, on which the fructification is
beautifully displayed, being exposed. The frond is tripinnate, the
stipes large and strong, the leaflets linear with the tip rounded.
The fructification is arranged in lines near the margin; but slight
traces of the venation of the leaflets are distinguishable.

From Milton, in Yorkshire.

[Illustration: Plate XXXI.]


PLATE XXXI.

"Plumose Pecopterite."

  (_Pecopteris plumosa_, Brongniart, Hist. Veg. Foss. tab. 121.
   _Filicites plumosus_, Artis.)

This elegant fern is characterized by the plumose or wavy character
of the stipes or stems of the fronds, which are tripinnate; the
leaflets are lanceolate and sessile,--that is, are closely attached
by their base, without a stalk. The fructification is seen disposed
near the margins of the leaflets on the left hand upper part of the
specimen.

From the same locality as the last.

[Illustration: Plate XXXII.]


PLATE XXXII.

"Decurrent Filicite."

  (_Alethopteris decurrens_, of Göppert.
   _Pecopteris heterophylla_, Lindley and Hutton, tab. 38.
   _Filicites decurrens_, of Artis.)

The drawing represents but a small portion of the specimen, which
indicated a plant of gigantic size.

"The leaf or frond of this fern is very large, tripinnate or
quadripinnate; the stipes is broad and undulated; the leaflets are
sessile, linear-lanceolate; the ribs pinnate, the secondary ribs
perpendicular to the main rib; the first leaflet on the superior side
of the pinnule adheres by its side to the rachis."--_Artis._

This fern, which closely resembles some recent species, (_Pteris
aurita_,) occurs in great abundance in the shale at Alverthorpe near
Wakefield. Notwithstanding the profusion with which the foliage of
many kinds of ferns is distributed throughout the coal formation,
the undoubted stems of tree-ferns are so rare, that it may admit
of question whether some of the leaves which from the analogy of
their structure to recent forms have been referred to the ferns,
may not have belonged to the stems of unknown trees with which
they are associated in the strata; for as, in the animal kingdom,
distinct types of living organisms are often found blended in the
extinct races, so in the vegetable, it is possible, that foliage and
stems, of apparently discordant types, may have belonged to the same
extinct species or genus of trees. This problem can only be solved
by diligent and continued research in the richest localities of
coal-plants.

M. Brongniart remarks that every bed of coal is the product of a
special vegetation, often different from that which preceded, and
that which followed it. Each bed thus resulting from a distinct
vegetation, is characterized by the predominance of certain
impressions of plants, and the experienced miners distinguish in many
cases the beds they are working, by their practical knowledge of the
plants that prevail.

The same beds of coal, and the deposits which cover it, ought
therefore to contain the different parts of the plants that were
living at the period of its formation; and by carefully studying the
association of these different fossils, forming thus little special
floras, generally of but few species, we may hope to acquire data
by which we may advance the means of reconstructing the anomalous
vegetable forms of the ancient world. M. Brongniart strongly urges
attention to this circumstance in the examination of the coal strata,
with the view of determining the identity of the scattered leaves,
stems, and fruits, in any particular stratum. By such a procedure,
much addition would be made to our knowledge of the entire structures
of many of the fossil plants of which we now only know the fragments.
Thus we may hope to ascertain the foliage of the Sigillariæ,
the roots of which, by a similar method, have but recently been
determined to be the fossils called _Stigmariæ_.

[Illustration: Plate XXXIII.]


PLATE XXXIII.

"Carpolithe, or Fossil Seed-vessel."

  (_Carpolithus marginatus_, of Artis.)

The carbonized husks or shells of nuts, and other carpolithes,
or seed-vessels, are not unfrequently met with in the coal and
coal-shale. In the slab of shale figured, there are three specimens
of an oval nut, B, C, which is striated longitudinally. These
are associated with other vegetable remains, among which part of
a Lepidostrobus, the supposed cone or strobilus of a species of
Lepidodendron (see description of Plate IX.), is conspicuous at a.



PART II.

FOSSIL FAUNA.

Plates XXXIV. to LXXIV. inclusive.

[Illustration: Plate XXXIV.]


PLATE XXXIV.

(_Plates XXXIV. to LXXIV. inclusive, are from Parkinson's Organic
Remains._)

Fossil Tubipore, from Derbyshire.

  (_Syringopora geniculata_, of Phillips, from the Mountain Limestone,
      Derbyshire.)

The specimen figured is a mass of limestone, on the surface of which
is spread out in high relief a delicate tubiporite, or fossil coral,
allied to the Tubipora, or "Organ-pipe coral," so generally preserved
in cabinets of natural curiosities, from the beauty and elegance of
its crimson tubes. The fossil, however, though somewhat resembling
the recent coral in its general form, belongs to an extinct genus.

This Syringopora appears to have been very abundant in the sea
in which the strata of mountain or carboniferous limestone were
deposited, for it forms entire beds of great extent. A beautifully
figured marble results from this coral, when the interstices of its
tubes have been filled up with compact calcareous matter. A small
polished slab is represented in fig. 2. At Matlock, vases, and other
ornamental articles, are made of it; and the sections of the coral
tubes impart considerable variety of figures.[25]

[Footnote 25: Articles of this kind may be obtained of Mr. Tennant,
149, Strand.]

Some slabs of this fossil coral are of a dull red hue, which there
is every reason to conclude is due to the colour of the original;
and not only are traces of the natural tints of the living zoophyte
preserved, but even the animal membrane of the coral; and this may
be exposed by immersing a fragment of the marble in dilute muriatic
(hydrochloric) acid. Mr. Parkinson thus describes the result of his
first experiment:--

"A fragment of the marble (Plate XXXIV. fig. 2) was exposed to the
action of muriatic acid in a very dilute state. As the calcareous
earth was dissolved, and the carbonic acid escaped, I was delighted
to observe the membranaceous substance appear, depending from the
stone in light, flocculent, elastic flakes. Many of these retained
a deep red colour, and appeared in a beautiful and distinct manner,
although not absolutely retaining the form of the tubipore. A
faithful representation of this appearance is given in fig. 3."

This experiment of Mr. Parkinson was highly important, as proving
the previously almost incredible fact, that animal membrane,
when hermetically sealed, as it were, in the solid stone, was as
indestructible as the rock itself. It suggested, too, the probability
that vestiges of other animal tissues might be traced in organic
remains, and encouraged subsequent observers to seek for evidence of
the soft parts of animal bodies entombed in the strata. It was the
first step in the right direction, and led to the detection of many
highly interesting phenomena. In Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay
will be found figures and descriptions of the eyes of crustacea: of
the wings, elytra or wing-covers, and the integuments of the body of
insects; of the skin of reptiles; and, in the "Wonders of Geology,"
and "Medals of Creation," of the membranes of the air-bladder,
and of the capsule of the eye of fishes; of the soft parts of the
animalcules called foraminifera, &c. The bodies of mollusca, or
shell-fish, converted into a dark brown mass (_mollushite_), occur
in such abundance in some deposits, as to yield a rich manure from
the quantity of phosphate of lime. The excrementitious substances
termed by Dr. Buckland "Coprolites," are also used for agricultural
purposes.

[Illustration: Plate XXXV.]


PLATE XXXV.

The subjects here figured are Fossil Corals.

  Fig. 1. (_Syringopora ramulosa_.) A fragment of another species
         of the coral previously described; from the mountain
         limestone.

  Fig. 2, represents four connected tubes of the recent organ-pipe
         coral (_Sarcinula musica_) of New Holland, to show the
         structure of this type of Zoophytes. Coloured figures of the
         live polypes of this coral are given in Wonders of Geology,
         sixth edition, vol. ii. plate vi.

  Fig. 3. A polished slab of marble, the white markings in which
         are produced by sections of the tubes of the same species of
         coral as that represented in fig. 1.

  Fig. 4. (_Catenipora escharoides._) The fossil here delineated is
         well known to collectors by the name of "_chain-coral_"
         derived from the elegant cateniform markings produced by
         transverse sections of the parallel tubes, which being of an
         oval form, and in close apposition, give rise to chain-like
         figures, as shown in figs. 5 and 6. From Dudley.

This fossil coral abounds in that division of the Silurian formation
termed the Wenlock or Dudley limestones, wherever these deposits
occur. The most exquisite specimens are obtained from the Falls of
the Ohio, at Louisville, in the United States of America. A coral
reef of the Silurian epoch here exists in the bed of the mighty
stream of fresh water, almost as perfect as when growing in its
native sea! The river dashes over the entire mass in the season
of high water; but in those periods when the stream is low, the
ridge of coral is exposed, and its surface then presents the most
extraordinary display of Silurian corals, of numerous species and
genera, standing in relief on the more compact masses of the rock.
The substance of the corals, being siliceous, resists the action
of the cataract, while the softer calcareous matter which filled
up the interstices of the tubes, lamellæ, &c. of the zoophytes, is
washed away atom by atom; and natural dissections are formed, which
art would in vain attempt to imitate. Dr. Yandell, of the Medical
College, Louisville, and Dr. Clapp, of New Albany, have splendid
collections from the Falls, which every geologist and intelligent
traveller who visits Kentucky should not fail to examine: the masses
of Astreæ, Madrepores, &c. are so fresh in their aspect, as not to be
readily distinguished from the recent specimens of the same genera
which are placed beside them.[26]

[Footnote 26: See Sir Charles Lyell's Travels in the United States;
and Drs. Yandell and Shumard's "Contributions to the Geology of
Kentucky." Louisville, 1847.]

  Fig. 5, is a transverse section of a mass of chain-coral from
         Dudley.

  Fig. 6. The same, as seen by transmitted light.

[Illustration: Plate XXXVI.]


PLATE XXXVI.

Various Fossil Corals from different Formations.

  Figs. 1, 2, 3. (_Cyathophyllum turbinatum_, of Goldfuss.) These
         three turbinated or top-shaped corals are referable to a
         genus of which many species are exceedingly abundant in the
         Wenlock or Dudley limestone of the Silurian System. They
         belong to the Anthozoa, or flower-like corals. The living
         animal, of which the _coral_ is but the durable earthy
         fabric or skeleton, bore a close analogy to the sea-anemone,
         or animal flower (_Actinia_), of our coasts. Each of these
         specimens belonged but to a single animal: the Cyathophylla
         are not, like the tubipores previously described, an
         aggregation of numerous individual polypes.[27]


[Footnote 27: For a popular account of the nature of Corals and the
animals which form them, see Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. Lect. vi.
p. 589.]

  Fig. 4. A small coral (_Fungia_) from Dudley.

  Fig. 5. On this block of mountain limestone there are the remains
         of two different kinds of corals. The upper cylindrical part
         is a fragment of Cyathophyllum, to the lower part of which
         is attached a species of another genus (_Michelinia_).

  Fig. 6, is a small coral (_Fungia numismalis_, of Goldfuss),
         common in the Oolite.

  Fig. 7. A piece of encrinital limestone, from Derbyshire, having
         a conical cast--that is, the stone has been moulded in the
         interior or cavity--of a turbinated coral (_Turbinolia_).

  Fig. 8. A longitudinal section, showing the transverse cells and
         lamellæ of the same kind of coral (_Cyathophyllum_) as figs.
         1, 2, 3.

  Fig. 9. A species of Turbinolia (_Turbinolia complanata_, of
         Goldfuss).

  Fig. 10. A small turbinated coral (_Turbinolia mitrata_, of
         Hesinger), from the Silurian strata of Gothland.

  Fig. 11. A Turbinolia from the Silurian deposits of Sweden.

  Fig. 12. A remarkable coral (_Petraia_, of Munster), from the
         Devonian strata.

  Figs. 13 & 14, are sections of Cyathophylla, like figs. 1, 2, 3,
         to exhibit the internal structure.

  Figs. 15 & 16. Two elegant simple corals (_Caryophyllia
         centralis_, of Mantell), from the chalk of Kent. The form
         and disposition of the lamellæ of the cavity, as seen at the
         upper part of the specimens, are shown at _a_ and _b_.

  Fig. 17. A transverse and polished section of a species of
         Cyathophyllum, from the Devonian strata, at Blackenberg on
         the Rhine.

[Illustration: Plate XXXVII.]


PLATE XXXVII.

Various Fossil Compound Corals.

  Fig. 1. A beautiful specimen of Star-coral (_Astrea ananas_, of
         Goldfuss), from the Silurian strata of Sweden. At _a_, is
         shown "the mode in which, as in proliferous flowers, new
         polypes bud from the centre of the parent disk. At _b_, is
         represented the growth in the recent _Madrepora stellaris_
         of Linnæus."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 2. An elegant Cyathophyllum (_C. dianthus_, of Goldfuss),
         from the Silurian formation of Sweden. At _c_, (the lower
         part of the plate,) is shown its probable mode of increase.

  Figs. 3 & 6. A columnar compound coral (_Lithostrotion striatum_,
         of Lhwyd), from the mountain limestone of Derbyshire;
         fig. 3, is a transverse section of fig. 6, showing the
         basaltiform arrangement of the columns.

  Fig. 4. "A fossil madrepore, from Lincolnshire."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 5. A very elegant and abundant coral (_Caryophyllia
         annularis_, of Parkinson), in the bed termed "Coral Rag," of
         the oolite of Wiltshire, Berkshire, &c. Large conglomerated
         masses of this branched species form a considerable
         proportion of the fossil coral-reef which traverses some
         parts of the oolite: and when this bed is worked for road
         materials, blocks of this coral, more or less changed into
         calcareous spar, may be seen lying on the way-side. Near
         Faringdon, in Berkshire, a quarry in the Coral-rag has
         yielded many beautiful examples.

  Fig. 7. Called "Spider-stone," by Mr. Parkinson. It is a species
         of _Astrea_: _d_, is an enlarged view of one of the
         polype-cells.

  Fig. 8. A beautiful fossil coral, from Transylvania (apparently a
         species of Lithostrotion?).

  Fig. 9. The specimen figured is from the mountain limestone of
         the Mendip Hills. (It is the _Michelinia tenuisepta_, of
         Phillips; _Manon favosum_, of Goldfuss?) It is described
         by Mr. Parkinson as "bearing somewhat of a honeycomb
         appearance."

[Illustration: Plate XXXVIII.]


PLATE XXXVIII.

Fossil Corals, and Coral Marbles.

  Fig. 1, is a polished slab of the carboniferous limestone,
         well known as the Kilkenny marble, and much used for
         chimney-pieces. The figures exposed on the surface are
         produced by sections of enclosed corals (some species of
         Cyathophyllum), which are transmuted into white calcareous
         spar.

  Fig. 2. A coral of the same kind (_Cyathophyllum turbinatum_),
         from the mountain limestone of Derbyshire.

  Fig. 3. A polished slice of Derbyshire marble, the markings on
         which are derived from sections of enclosed branches of
         corals (_Syringopora_), resembling that figured in Pl. XXXIV.

  Fig. 4. An elegant compound coral, called "Spider-stone" by
         collectors (_Astrea arachnoides_, of Dr. Fleming); from
         Wiltshire: the geological habitat uncertain; probably the
         Oolite.

  Fig. 5. This specimen appears to be a cluster of corals belonging
         to the genus Cyathophyllum.

  Fig. 6. A magnified sketch of one of the cells of fig. 4.

  Fig. 7. A polished transverse section of a coral; the precise
         relation of this species is not certain.

  Fig. 8. This is a very abundant coral in some of the beds of
         mountain limestone, (_Lithodendron fasciculatum_, of
         Phillips.) The specimen figured is from Clifton, near
         Bristol. The marble cups, and other ornaments, manufactured
         from the rocks near that place, often exhibit sections of
         this species.

  Fig. 9. A mass of coral from Ingleborough, (_Cyathophyllum
         fungites._)

  Fig. 10. A polished slice of a beautiful marble richly marked by
         the sections of the enclosed corals (_Astrea undulata_, of
         Dr. Fleming); from Switzerland: probably from the Oolitic or
         Jurassic formation.

  Fig. 11. Vertical section of a fossil coral, showing the
         transverse arrangement of the internal cells.

  Figs. 12 & 13. These specimens are polished sections of a very
         beautiful compound coral (_Astrea Tisburiensis_, of Miss
         Benett), which occurs in a silicified state in the Portland
         beds that are quarried at Tisbury, in Wiltshire. Masses of
         chert (a kind of coarse silex or flint), wholly made up of
         this coral, are often met with, and when sliced and polished
         are extremely beautiful and interesting; the originally
         calcareous fabric of the zoophytes being perfectly
         transmuted into silex, and the interstices filled up with a
         similar substance, but of a different colour.[28]

[Footnote 28: Specimens of the Tisbury Astrea, and of most if not
all of the coralline marbles figured and described, may be obtained
of Professor Tennant; and also vases, &c. of the various marbles of
Derbyshire.]

[Illustration: Plate XXXIX.]


PLATE XXXIX.

Various Fossil Corals and Sponges, or Amorphozoa.

  Fig. 1. A coral from the Dudley limestone. (_Favosites?_)

  Fig. 2, is a vertical section of figs. 4 and 5, to show the
         internal arrangement of the cells.

  Fig. 3. The under surface of a very common species (_Favosites
         Gothlandica_, of Goldfuss); from the Wenlock limestone of
         Dudley. A magnified view of part of the surface, to show the
         honeycomb structure, is given in fig. 7.

  Fig. 4, the under, and fig. 5, the upper surface, of a small
         coral (_Cyclolites ?_) from the Oolite.

  Fig. 6. A silicified branched sponge, (_Spongites lobatus_, of
         Dr. Fleming,) from the chalk of Berkshire.

  Fig. 9, is a beautiful silicified, lobate, spongoid body,
         (_Siphonia_,) probably from the greensand. Siliceous
         cruciform spicula obtained from this fossil are represented
         in fig. 8.

Zoophytes of this kind, like many of the sponges, have their tissues
strengthened by, and largely composed of spicula, which vary in
form and size in the different species and genera. Many sponges and
Siphoniæ in flint, and in the chert of the greensand, consist almost
entirely of spicula, which may be easily detected by a slightly
magnifying power.

  Fig. 10. Another common Dudley Coral. (_Porites pyriformis_, of
         Mr. Lonsdale.)

  Fig. 11. A beautiful coral (_Explanaria flexuosa_, of Dr.
         Fleming), from the Coral Rag of Steeple Ashton, Wilts. The
         outline indicates the mode of increase, according to Mr.
         Parkinson, of this form of zoophyte.

  Fig. 12. This is a portion of a delicate ramose sponge
         (_Spongites ramosus_, of Mantell), whose remains are
         abundant in the chalk-flints, and have given rise to the
         irregularly branched siliceous nodules. A specimen nine
         inches long, with seven branches, is figured in Fossils of
         the South Downs, Pl. XV. fig. 11. Siliceous spicula are
         thickly interspersed throughout the mass.

[Illustration: Plate XL.]


PLATE XL.

Fossil Corals, &c.

  Fig. 1. The shells of Oysters, and other mollusca, are subjected
         to the ravages of a parasitical sponge, (_Cliona_, of Dr.
         Grant,) which is beset with minute siliceous spines or
         spicula, and inhabits hollows formed in the substance of the
         shell. Shells thus honeycombed, as it were, may often be
         found on the sea-shore with the excavated parts filled up
         by sponge. I have shells collected by my eldest son on the
         shores of New Zealand, that are hollowed out in a similar
         manner, and occupied by sponge. Whether these cavities are
         produced by mechanical means, or are the result of the
         decay and absorption of the shell induced by the growth of
         the parasite, are questions still undetermined. There are
         several kinds of shells found fossil, which were infested
         with a similar parasitical sponge; and when the cavities
         thus produced have been filled up by flint, and the shell
         has subsequently decomposed, or been worn away, the surface
         of the flint is studded with the casts of the cells, in
         the form of small irregular globular bodies, connected by
         filaments or strings of flint. The fossil, fig. 1, is a
         fossil of this kind, described by Mr. Parkinson as being
         "covered with minute round bodies, the nature of which is
         unknown;" fig. 12, is an enlarged view of five of these
         globular casts connected by filaments.

The origin of these fossils was first pointed out by the Rev. W.
Conybeare.[29] The fibrous shells of a fossil genus of bivalves named
_Inoceramus_, of which several species abound in the Chalk, appear
to have been particularly subjected to depredations of this kind.
Hence among partially water-worn flints, specimens of the siliceous
casts are common; figs. 8, and 10, are examples from the Hackney
gravel-pits.

[Footnote 29: See Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 396, fig. 94.]

Mr. Morris has named these fossils, _Clionites_; fig. 1, is _C.
Parkinsoni_.

  Figs. 2, 4, 7, are portions of a recent species of jointed
         zoophyte (_Isis_), from a modern concretionary deposit on
         the shores of the Mediterranean, Sicily.

  Fig. 3. A branched fossil coral (_Millepora ramosa_, of Dr.
         Fleming), imbedded in compact oolitic limestone from
         Wiltshire. A portion of the surface magnified is represented
         in fig. 11.

  Fig. 5, appears to be a fungiform Spongite; its locality is not
         mentioned.

  Fig. 6. Portion of a fossil coral (_Ceriopora_), from
         Switzerland.

  Figs. 8, & 10. These pebbles have the surface covered with casts
         of Clionites (_Clionites Conybeari_, of Mr. Morris.[30])

[Footnote 30: Mr. Morris thus defines the generic character of these
fossil bodies:--"Reticular masses of a more or less compressed
globular, elliptical, or polygonal form; rugose and sometimes
papillose; connected by minute tubuli or fibrillæ. Dendritical,
dichotomous, or irregularly aggregated." _Clionites Conybeari_ is
characterized by "Cells irregular, somewhat polygonal, with one
or more papillæ; surface finely tuberculated, connecting threads
numerous." Note from Mr. Morris, April, 1850.

The fossils, however, do not appear to be the silicified sponge
(_Cliona_) by which the ravages in the shell have been effected; they
are merely casts of the cavities produced.]

  Fig. 9. Fragments of the radicle processes of attachment of some
         Apiocrinite or Lily-shaped animal in chalk; see description
         of Plate LI.

  Fig. 14. A section of a siliceous nodule; probably the cellular
         appearance is inorganic: fig. 13, is a magnified section of
         the cells.

[Illustration: Plate XLI.]


PLATE XLI.

A Silicified cup-shaped Sponge, from Touraine.

  (_Chenendopora Parkinsoni_, of Michelin.
   _Spongites Townsendi_, of Mantell.)

This beautiful plate of a petrified zoophyte allied to the Spongia,
formed the frontispiece to Mr. Parkinson's second volume. The fossil
delineated is from Touraine in France, and is one of the most perfect
examples of this kind hitherto observed. It belongs to a group
of cup-shaped _Amorphozoa_, (as these organisms are now named by
naturalists, from the great irregularity of shape which they assume,)
termed _Chenendopora_. The original organic substance is transmuted
into silex, and the interstices are filled up with carbonate of
lime. The same species occurs in the greensand in the Vale of
Pewsey in Wiltshire, and, I believe, also in the white-chalk; for
many cyathiform flints from the South Downs appear to have the same
internal structure.

In the so-called "gravel-pits," near Faringdon, in Berkshire,--which
are quarries of a loosely-aggregated grit of the greensand, almost
wholly made up of the relics of shells, corals, amorphozoa,
&c.--numerous sponges of this genus are met with. One beautiful
species (_Chenendopora fungiformis_) has acquired, from its cup-like
form, the local name of "petrified salt-cellar."[31]

[Footnote 31: Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. p. 637; and Medals of
Creation, "Excursion to Faringdon," vol. ii. p. 923.]

[Illustration: Plate XLII.]


PLATE XLII.

The Fossils represented in this Plate are chiefly Zoophytes in Flint.

  Fig. 1. A flint from the gravel-pits at Hackney. Its form is
         derived from the enclosed zoophyte, part of whose structure
         is exposed in the upper portion of the figure. This
         fossil zoophyte (_Choanites Königi_, of Mantell) is very
         abundant in some of the chalk strata, and many of the most
         beautifully marked pebbles cut and polished for brooches by
         the lapidaries of Brighton, Bognor, and the Isle of Wight,
         are the silicified soft parts of this animal. The original
         was of a subglobular form, and probably of a soft fleshy
         consistence; it had a deep central cavity, whence numerous
         tubes diverged, and ramified throughout the mass; it was
         fixed at the base by radicle or root-like processes.[32]

[Footnote 32: See Medals of Creation, p. 264. "Thoughts on a Pebble,"
(eighth edition,) contains coloured figures and a full description of
these fossils.]

  Fig. 2. This is another characteristic and abundant fossil
         zoophyte of the chalk and flint. The specimen figured
         is a water-worn pebble, and therefore gives but obscure
         indications of the form and structure of the original.
         The fungiform flints--called in Sussex petrified
         mushrooms--belong to the same genus (_Ventriculites_, of
         Mantell): and highly interesting specimens occur in which
         some part of the zoophyte is invested with flint, and
         the other part expanded in the chalk. The original was
         probably a polyparium--that is, the skeleton or support of
         an aggregation of coral-polypes--of a funnel shape, the
         polype-shells being situated on the inner surface: the base
         was attached by root-like fibres.[33] The polype-cells are
         cylindrical and regular, and clusters of beautiful casts of
         them often occur on flints.

[Footnote 33: Consult Medals of Creation, pp. 270-279: and Wonders of
Geology, sixth edition, p. 638.]

  Fig. 3. This specimen is described by Mr. Parkinson as "a
         pear-shaped alcyonite from Switzerland." It is probably one
         of those fossil zoophytes allied to the sponges (called
         _Siphonia_), in which the upper part is of a bulbous or
         pear-like form, and is supported by a stem with root-like
         processes at the base. The bulb has a central cavity
         studded with irregular pores, that communicates with the
         parallel longitudinal tubes of which the stem is composed: a
         structure admitting of that ready ingress and egress of the
         sea-water, which this class of organisms requires. There are
         numerous species in the greensand of the chalk formation.[34]

[Footnote 34: Medals of Creation, p. 258, Lign. 56.]

  Fig. 4. A variety of Siphonia (_Jerea excavata_, of Michelin),
         from the greensand of Wiltshire.

  Fig. 5. A silicified Siphonia from Saumur.

  Fig. 6. A Ventriculite from a gravel-pit; the markings are
         produced by the exposed and partially abraded outer
         integument, which in perfect examples consists of a regular
         net-work of sub-cylindrical fibres.

  Fig. 7, is a transverse section of a Siphonia (_Siphonia
         pyriformis_ of Goldfuss).

  Fig. 8. A nearly perfect specimen of a similar fossil. In fig. 7,
         are shown sections of tubes passing from the periphery to
         the centre; in fig. 8, the central aperture of the cavity of
         the bulb, and part of the stem, are displayed.

  Figs. 9, & 10, are imperfect specimens of Choanites: fig. 10,
         is a vertical section showing the central cavity and the
         connected tubes.

  Fig. 11, is another example of _Siphonia pyriformis_.

  Fig. 12, a vertical, and fig. 13, a transverse section, of the
         same species of Siphonia.

  Fig. 14. A small turbinated calcareous spongite from Switzerland.

  Fig. 15. The appearance of the animal membrane exposed by
         immersion of the fossil (fig. 14), in diluted hydrochloric
         acid.

[Illustration: Plate XLIII.]


PLATE XLIII.

Fossil Corals, and other Zoophytes.

  Figs. 1, 2, 3, & 4, are representations of different aspects of
         a simple coral (_Fungia polymorpha_, of Goldfuss); the
         locality is uncertain. Fig. 1, the base; fig. 2, a magnified
         representation of part of the same; fig. 3, magnified view
         of part of the lamellated surface of fig. 4.

  Fig. 5. The nature of this fossil is not obvious; it may be a
         rolled Siphonia.

  Fig. 6, is a fine specimen of a Siphonia (_Jerea pyriformis_,
         of Lamouroux). At both extremities the apertures of the
         numerous tubuli are seen.

  Figs. 7, 8, & 9, are varieties of the same species of fossil
         sponge (_Scyphia articulata_, of Goldfuss), from Switzerland.

  Fig. 10. A spongite of a very peculiar form.

  Fig. 11. A spongite investing a fossil shell (_Nerita_), from
         Faringdon.

  Fig. 12, is an imperfect specimen of a Ventriculite
         (_Ventriculites alcyonoides_, of Mantell), from the chalk of
         Wiltshire.

  Fig. 13. A calcareous spongite which has been immersed in dilute
         hydrochloric acid to show its structure.

  Fig. 14. A pebble deriving its shape from a zoophyte apparently
         related to the Ventriculites (_Spongites labyrinthicus_,
         of Mantell). The aperture at the base has arisen from the
         decomposition of the process of attachment.

  Fig. 15. A pebble enclosing part of the base of a Ventriculite;
         the circular spots on the large end are sections of the
         ramifications of the stirps or base of the zoophyte; for
         this figure and the following are drawn in an inverted
         position.

  Fig. 16, is a similar fossil, split vertically, and showing the
         enclosed stem of the Ventriculite.

[Illustration: Plate XLIV.]


PLATE XLIV.

Fossil Zoophytes.

  Fig. 1. A spongite (_Scyphia costata_, of Goldfuss), from
         Switzerland. The fossil spongeous bodies named _Scyphia_,
         are characterized by the "mass or body being either
         cylindrical, simple or branched; fistulous, and terminating
         in a rounded pit; entirely composed of a firm reticulated
         tissue."[35] Like the other bodies comprised in the group
         of Amorphozoa, the form in this genus is exceedingly
         diversified, and as the structure is often but obscurely
         shown, the determination of these fossils is oftentimes
         impossible. It is however convenient, in the present state
         of our knowledge, to distinguish the principal kinds by
         names which may be modified or abandoned, when the structure
         and natural affinities of the original organisms are more
         accurately determined.

[Footnote 35: Medals of Creation, p. 237.]

  Fig. 2. Another species of Scyphia from Switzerland; a small
         portion of the surface magnified is seen at _a_.

  Fig. 3. The peculiar form and tissue of another genus of
         Amorphozoa (_Cnemidium rimulosum_, of Goldfuss), are shown
         in this beautiful specimen.

  Fig. 4, is a section of a chalk flint, from Wycombe Heath; the
         purple body, partially invested by a white border, is
         evidently a mass of the soft parts of some zoophyte, which
         served as a nucleus to the siliceous nodule. A purple
         or pink hue often prevails in the sections of zoophytes
         immersed in flint, and doubtless depends on the original
         colour of the living animal.

  Fig. 5. A very fine spongite (_Chenendopora fungiformis_, of
         Michelin), from France.

  Fig. 6. This is evidently a fossil zoophyte, but the structure
         exposed is not sufficiently characteristic to determine the
         genus.

  Fig. 7. A beautiful fungiform Scyphia.

  Fig. 8. This elegant specimen, which Mr. Parkinson highly valued,
         is evidently a _Choanite_ imbedded in flint. The body
         retains a pink colour, and is surrounded by a white band,
         which is probably the remains of the cortical or external
         tissue of the original zoophyte. I have seen many transverse
         sections in which the central mass was either of a pink or
         purple colour, and encircled by a white zone, in the squared
         flints of the walls of churches and other ancient edifices
         in Sussex.[36]

[Footnote 36: Polished specimens of the pebbles of the Isle of Wight,
exhibiting sections of the Choanites, Ventriculites, &c., may be
obtained of _Mr. Fowlestone_, Lapidary, 4, Victoria Arcade, Ryde;
who also has generally on sale a good series of the fossils of the
Island. The minute organisms that occur in flints, many of which are
highly interesting objects when seen by transmitted light under a
good microscope, can be procured of _Mr. Topping_, that well-known
preparer of microscopic objects, New Winchester Street, Pentonville
Hill; and fossil infusorial earths, &c. in great perfection of _Mr.
Poulton_, Microscopic Artist, Reading, Berks.]

[Illustration: Plate XLV.]


PLATE XLV.

Fossil Corals and other Zoophytes.

  Fig. 1. "A fossil body, from near Bath, the surface of which
         is covered by stelliform markings, which seem to have
         been formed by a coralloid."--_Parkinson._ This fossil
         is supposed by Mr. Morris to be the cast of one of those
         mollusca which form and inhabit hollows in stone, coral, &c.
         (hence termed _Lithodomi_). In the present instance, the
         mollusk had bored into a mass of coral, the imprints of the
         stellular polype-cells of which remain on the surface of the
         cast. It closely resembles fig. 3, Plate XXXVI. of Faujas
         St. Fond, Hist. Mont. St. Pierre, which is described as a
         coral; it is the _Astrea geometrica_, of Goldfuss.

  Fig. 2. A fossil coral from Maestricht. At _b_, is shown an
         enlarged view of one of the stars.

  Fig. 3. "A siliceous fossil from Essex."--_Mr. Parkinson._
         (_Ventriculites racemosus_, of Mr. Toulmin Smith.) I must
         confess myself unable to determine the nature of this
         specimen.

  Figs. 4, & 6. Corals from the cretaceous strata of St. Peter's
         Mountain, Maestricht (_Gorgonia bacillaris ?_ of Goldfuss).
         At _a_, is shown one of the cells in fig. 6, magnified.

  Fig. 5. A pebble, split asunder, exposing the remains of a
         spongite, which formed the nucleus of the flint.[37]

[Footnote 37: For an account of the formation of flint, see Wonders
of Geology, vol. i. p. 300. (_6th Edition._)]

  Fig. 7. Another spongite in a pebble; from Sewardstone, Essex.

  Fig. 8. A water-worn, silicified, or rather chalcedonic
         Ventriculite, from France.

  Fig. 9. A very beautiful transverse section of the stem of a
         Ventriculite in a flint; the colour of the original being
         retained. This was another precious gem in the estimation
         of the amiable author of "The Organic Remains of a Former
         World."

  Fig. 10. A portion of a Choanite in flint; from gravel, Islington.

  Fig. 11. A perfect specimen of a small simple coral (Fungia),
         from Maestricht.

  Fig. 12. A spongite in a pebble; similar to fig. 5. Such
         specimens are very common in the shingle along the sea-shore
         at Brighton, Dover, &c.

  Fig. 13. A fossil coral in limestone, from Maestricht. It is too
         imperfectly defined to determine the species or genus; an
         enlarged sketch of the structure is given at _c_.

[Illustration: Plate XLVI.]


PLATE XLVI.

Pentacrinus.

  Fig. 1. Specimen of a recent _Pentacrinus Caput Medusæ_, from the
         Caribbean Sea.

The Lily-shaped animals (_Crinoidea_), so named from a fancied
resemblance of some species when in a state of repose to a closed
lily, may be compared to a Feather-star (_Comatula_) fixed to
a jointed column, with its mouth upwards; the base of the stem
being attached to the rock by root-like processes. The only known
living genus inhabits the seas of the West Indies, and the specimen
figured represents the body (or upper part of the animal), with a
considerable portion of the stem remaining attached. The Crinoidea
are divided into two groups; Encrinites, having the ossicula
(little bones) of the stem rounded, and Pentacrinites, in which the
ossicula of the column are pentagonal, or angular. The Crinoidea are
characterized by having a fixed base, a column or stem composed of
numerous separate articulated pieces of a solid calcareous substance,
supporting on its summit a vase, or receptacle, formed by a series
of closely adjusted plates, which contain the body, or viscera. The
upper part of the receptacle is covered by a plated integument, on
one side of which an aperture or mouth is placed. From the upper
margin proceed five articulated tentacula or arms, which subdivide
into branches that in some species are very numerous and of extreme
tenuity. On the inside, the arms are beset with articulated cirri or
feelers. The joints composing the column are perforated by a central
opening; there are also side-arms, that radiate from the column in
groups of five at different points. When the animal is alive, the
skeleton is covered by a soft integument, as in the star-fishes, and
the arms spread out and expand, forming a net, by which living prey
is captured and conveyed to the mouth by the tentacula, in the same
manner as in the fresh-water polype or Hydra.

The fossil remains of Crinoidea consist of the ossicula of the
column, arms, and tentacula; of the plates of the vase, or
receptacle; and of the peduncle, or base of attachment. This family
of Radiaria, though now of such excessive rarity, swarmed in the
seas that deposited the ancient secondary strata; whole mountain
chains and extensive tracts of country are composed of strata almost
entirely made up of their fossil remains.[38] The number and species
of genera is very great.

[Footnote 38: Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. p. 645. Medals of
Creation, p. 312.]

  Fig. 2, is a remarkably beautiful specimen of the receptacle of
         a Pentacrinite from Gloucestershire, showing the arms
         introverted, as if the animal had suddenly perished while in
         the act of closing over its prey; the stem is wanting.

  Fig. 3. A spongite (_Chenendopora subplana_, of Michelin) from
         the greensand of the Vale of Pewsey, in Wiltshire.

[Illustration: Plate XLVII.]


PLATE XLVII.

Fossil Remains of Crinoidea.

In this beautiful plate Mr. Parkinson has figured a great variety
of ossicula and portions of stems belonging to many species and
genera of Crinoidea; the markings or sculpturing on the articulating
surfaces of the columnar ossicula are represented with great
accuracy. It is not within the plan of this work to give detailed
descriptions of these numerous detached parts; a few of the most
interesting objects only will be particularized.

The specimens figured in the upper part of the plate, figs. 1 to 28,
are cylindrical ossicula, and portions of stems of Encrinites: those
in the lower division are for the most part pentagonal, and therefore
belong to Pentacrinites.

  Fig. 24. The "Tortoise Encrinite," of Mr. Parkinson, (_Marsupites
         Milleri_, of Mantell,) from the chalk of Kent. The specimen
         figured is the receptacle or body of a very remarkable
         crinoideal animal which forms the link that unites the
         Lily-shaped animals with the Star-fishes; like the former,
         the receptacle is composed of articulated plates, closed
         at the top by a tessellated plate-work with a buccal
         aperture, and surrounded by five flexible arms; but the
         original animal, like the Star-fishes, was destitute of a
         stem, and could float through the water at pleasure. Its
         true structure was first pointed out by me in 1822;[39] the
         name Marsupite was suggested by the purse-like form. In the
         figure, the base of the receptacle is uppermost. Fig. 30, is
         a single plate of a Marsupite attached to a piece of chalk.

[Footnote 39: See "Fossils of the South Downs."]

  Figs. 31, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 74, 75, 76, 77. These are portions
         of a small species of Encrinite (_Apiocrinus ellipticus_)
         peculiar to the white chalk, in some localities of which the
         detached ossicula and peduncles are abundant. At Northfleet,
         near Gravesend, these fossils are often met with. Figs. 75,
         and 76, are portions of the receptacle with part of the
         column; figs. 31, 38, and 39, are parts of the processes of
         attachment. I have never seen any specimen with the arms.[40]

[Footnote 40: Medals of Creation, p. 321.]

  Fig. 34. This is part of the receptacle and stem of another small
         chalk Encrinite (_Bourgeticrinus_, of D'Orbigny) from Kent;
         it is remarkable for the very slight increase in bulk of the
         receptacle, and the peculiar form of the plates of which it
         is composed.

  Figs. 36 & 37. Two views of the receptacle of a very remarkable
         crinoidean animal (_Pentremites florealis_, of Say), from
         the cherty carboniferous limestone of Kentucky. This
         zoophyte, though resembling the Crinoidea in having a
         plated receptacle supported by an articulated stem, has a
         remarkable affinity to the Sea-urchins (_Echinidæ_) in the
         porous bands and pentagonal aperture, and in being destitute
         of arms or tentacula. Some of the Kentucky limestone beds
         swarm with the remains of these zoophytes.[41]

[Footnote 41: Medals of Creation, p. 327.]

  Fig. 47. "Two ossicula of the Lily Encrinite immersed in diluted
         muriatic acid, by which the animal membrane was exposed,
         and is seen hanging in flocculæ from the bottom of the
         fossil,"--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Figs. 57, 64, 66. Part of the stem, and the articulating surfaces
         of two ossicles of a very elegant pentacrinite (_Pentacrinus
         scalaris_, of Goldfuss), from the Lias of Lyme Regis.

  Figs. 53, 56, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 67. Portions of stems, and the
         various modifications of the ossicula of another Lias
         Pentacrinite (_Pentacrinus basaltiformis_, of Goldfuss).

  Fig. 79. This elegant little crinoidean receptacle was named
         the "Clove Encrinite," by Mr. Parkinson, from its form;
         (_Eugeniacrinus caryophyllatus_, of Goldfuss). It is from
         the Oolite of Mount Randen, in Switzerland.[42]

[Footnote 42: Ibid. p. 327.]

  Figs. 80, 81, 82, & 83. Appear to be fossil corals of the genus
         Ceriopora.

[Illustration: Plate XLVIII.]


PLATE XLVIII.

The Lily Encrinite (_Encrinites monileformis_).

This exquisite species of the extinct Crinoideans which swarmed in
the seas of the secondary ages of Geology, is equally interesting and
attractive to the amateur collector and the scientific observer. The
specimen figured is a charming example of the "_Stone Lily_" partly
expanded, attached to a block of limestone studded with encrinal
ossicula. Mr. Parkinson informed me that it was formerly in the
collection of Mr. Jacob Forster, and cost him twenty guineas; from
five to ten guineas is now the usual price for a specimen in a good
state of preservation, with any part of the column attached. This
Encrinite is not known to occur in England. The specimens seen in
collections are for the most part from Lower Saxony: this species has
only been found in the limestone strata called "_Muschelkalk_" one
of the subdivisions of the _Trias_, or New Red Sandstone formation,
of Germany.[43] The most celebrated locality of these fossils is
in Brunswick, near the village of Erkerode, about two miles from
the town bearing the same name. The bed in which they are found is
a soft argillaceous cream-coloured limestone, about one foot and a
half in thickness; and the stone is composed chiefly of trochites, or
detached ossicula of the stems, and a few fragile shells and corals.

[Footnote 43: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 322. Wonders of Geology,
vol. ii. pp. 534, 549.]

An elaborate account of the structure of the skeleton of the Lily
Encrinite is given by Mr. Miller, in his valuable work, "The
Natural History of the Lily-shaped Animals," (1 vol. 4to. 1821.)
Mr. Parkinson had previously carefully investigated the different
parts which enter into the composition of the receptacle and column,
and had given them names analogous to those employed to designate
the bones of the skeleton in vertebrated animals. This nomenclature
has very properly been abandoned; but I subjoin Mr. Parkinson's
description of the figures, to record his ingenuity and skill in
dissecting organic remains:--

  "Fig. 1, The Lily Encrinite, with part of its vertebral column
         attached. In this specimen is seen the extensive capacity
         for motion yielded by the peculiar form of the vertebra;
         in the superior part of the column; and by the fortunate
         removal of a portion of the fingers, a fair view is given of
         the natural arrangement of the tentacula.

  Fig. 2. The pentagonal base, composed of the ossa innominata, and
         forming with the scapulæ and clavicles, the pelvis, in which
         were contained the organs of digestion, &c.

  Fig. 3. The Lily Encrinite, detached from its vertebral column.

  _a_, the centre of its base, formed by five cuneiform ossicula,
         or _ossa innominata_.

  a, one of the _ossa innominata_ detached.

  _b_, the ribs, or _articuli trapezoides_; forming, with the preceding
         bones, the pentagonal base.

  b, one of the ribs detached, showing its internal surface.

  _c_, the clavicles.

  c 1, the interior surface.

  c 2, the superior surface.

  _d_, the scapulæ.

  d 1, the inferior surface.

  d 2, the superior surface.

  _e_, the arms.

  f, the two first bones of the arms united.

  _g, h, i, k, l, m_, the bones of the fingers gradually diminishing.

  Fig. 4. Part of the supposed base, or organ of attachment, of the
         Lily Encrinite.

  Fig. 5. The supposed base, or organ of attachment, of the '_Cap
         Encrinite_.'"

[Illustration: Plate XLIX.]


PLATE XLIX.

Remains of Encrinites.

  Fig. 1. A polished slab of limestone formed of portions of the
         stems of encrinites; the white figures are produced by
         sections of the calcareous spar into which the ossicula
         are transmuted. The dark spots are the cavities of the
         entrochites, filled with mineral matter of a different
         colour.

  Fig. 2, is the pentagonal base of the receptacle of the
         Derbyshire Encrinite.

  Fig. 3. A mass of Derbyshire encrinal marble, with numerous
         portions of stems lying in relief.

The Derbyshire encrinal marble is so extensively employed in the
manufacture of tables, chimney-pieces, vases, &c., that it must be
familiar to every reader; and yet probably but few are aware of
its origin, or of the nature of the fossil remains of which it is
composed, and that give rise to the elegant figures in which its
beauty consists. On Middleton Moor, near Matlock, extensive quarries
of this marble are worked, and good specimens of the ossicula and
stems may be easily obtained.[44]

[Footnote 44: See Medals of Creation for "A Geological Excursion from
Matlock to Middleton Moor, returning by Stonnis," p. 968.]

  Fig. 4. Part of the stem of a large Encrinite, (_Cyathocrinus
         rugosus_, of Miller,) from the Wenlock limestone, Dudley.

  Fig. 5. A fine specimen of the lower part of the stem, and the
         root-like processes of attachment of the base, of the same
         species as fig. 4: from Dudley.

  Fig. 6, is called the "_Screw or Pulley-stone_" of Derbyshire.
         These curious fossils are found in the chert (a kind of
         flint) which occurs in veins and layers in some of the
         limestone strata: they are siliceous casts of the interior
         cavities of the stems, and small branches of ossicula, of
         Encrinites. Plate XL VII. fig. 10, is a detached specimen of
         this kind.

  Fig. 7, is described by Mr. Parkinson as "a piece of marble from
         Shropshire, in which is discovered a part of the pentagonal
         base of the Turban or Shropshire Encrinite."

  Fig. 8, is part of the column of the same species. These
         specimens belong to the Rose Encrinite (_Rhodocrinus verus_,
         of Miller).

  Fig. 9. The receptacle of a very remarkable form of Encrinite,
         called by Mr. Parkinson "the _Cap Encrinite_ of Derbyshire."
         I can find no notice of this beautiful and unique specimen
         in the work of Miller or of subsequent authors; neither am
         I aware of any data by which a relation can be established
         between this receptacle and the ossicula and stems, so
         abundant in the carboniferous limestone of Derbyshire.

[Illustration: Plate L.]


PLATE L.

Encrinites and Pentacrinites.

  The Pear Encrinite of Bradford; Mr. Parkinson.

  (_Apiocrinus rotundus_, of Miller.
   ---- _Parkinsoni_, of Bronn.)

The most generally known of the British Crinoidea, from its size,
and abundance in one particular locality, is the "_Pear Encrinite_"
of Bradford in Wiltshire, some of the quarries of the oolite on the
heights above that picturesquely-situated town, yielding not only
immense quantities of detached plates and ossicula, but also numerous
examples of the receptacle, and occasionally the entire skeleton
from the peduncle of the base to the extremities of the arms. The
lamented Mr. Channing Pearce, and his father (now of Percy Place,
Grosvenor, Bath), when resident at Bradford, paid such unremitting
attention to the collection of these fossils, that perfect specimens
were obtained, exhibiting the entire structure of the originals;
of these some fine examples are preserved in the British Museum.
Sir Charles Lyell mentions a very interesting fact relating to the
occurrence of these Crinoidea in the strata. He states that the
upper surface of a bed of limestone at Bradford is incrusted with a
continuous pavement formed by the stony roots of the Apiocrinites;
and upon this is a layer of clay in which are the stems and bodies
(receptacles) of innumerable examples; some erect, others lying
prostrate; while throughout the clay are scattered detached arms,
stems, and receptacles. This submarine forest of Crinoideans must
therefore have flourished in the clear sea-water till invaded by a
current loaded with mud, which overwhelmed the living zoophytes, and
entombed them in the argillaceous deposit in which their remains are
now imbedded.[45]

[Footnote 45: See Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. p. 653.]

The receptacle of this Apiocrinite is pyriform and very smooth, the
plates are large and thin, with radiating articulated surfaces; the
stem is short, smooth, and strong, the arms are simple, and like
those of the Marsupite; the peduncle spreads out into an expanded
base, which is firmly attached to the rock; sections of this part are
generally of a purple colour.

  Fig. 1. Part of the column of the Bradford Encrinite. 2. Part
         of the receptacle; a minute incrusting coral (_Bryozoa_)
         is attached to the lower part, giving the stem a rough
         appearance.

  Figs. 3, & 4. Surface of detached plates of the receptacle.

  Fig. 5. Portion of the column partly covered with a cortical
         covering of a purple colour possibly the original investing
         membrane.

  Fig. 6. A receptacle, in which a few of the ossicula of the arms
         remain attached to the margin.

  Fig. 7. Another receptacle, in which the plates called by Mr.
         Parkinson "clavicles and scapulæ," are retained in their
         natural positions.

  Fig. 8. A receptacle, in which the principal plates are well
         defined: these are named by Mr. Parkinson as follow: _a_,
         clavicle; _b_, scapula; _c_, ossicula of the arms; _d_, the
         last series of the same. The ossicles forming the elongated
         tentacula, Mr. P. termed "_bones of the fingers_."

  Fig. 9. Portion of an encrinital stem with digitated processes:
         the nature of this fossil is unknown to me.

  Fig. 10. Three united ossicula of a Pentacrinite with depressions
         for side-arms: from the Lias of Lyme Regis.

  Fig. 11. A distorted pentacrinal ossicle; said to be from Africa.

  Figs. 12, & 14, are vertical polished sections of the peduncle, or
         base of the stem, of the Bradford Encrinite.

  Fig. 13. Vertical section of the peduncle of a Pentacrinite from
         Soissons.

  Fig. 15. A polished slab of pentacrinal marble from Charmouth,
         Dorsetshire.

  Fig. 16. Variously contorted pentacrinal stems with numerous
         side-arms, from Charmouth.

[Illustration: Plate LI.]


PLATE LI.

Fossil Crinoidea, or Lily-shaped Animals.

  Fig. 1. Part of the receptacle of the "_Nave Encrinite_" of Mr.
         Parkinson (_Actinocrinus_, of Miller). Mountain limestone.

  Fig. 2. A portion of the receptacle of a "_Rose Encrinite_"
         (_Rhodocrinus_), viewed from the base.

  Fig. 3. The "Nave Encrinite" (_Actinocrinus triacontadactylus_,
         or thirty-fingered, of Miller), from the mountain limestone.
         This is a good example of the structure of the receptacle
         in this group of Crinoideans, which is distinguished by
         the arms passing off at right angles from the periphery
         of the receptacle, like the spokes of a wheel; whence the
         name, Nave Encrinite. The upper part is covered by closely
         adapted plates, and the buccal aperture or mouth is situated
         at the side. The stem of this group is thickly beset with
         side-arms. (Fig. 7 is a very small detached one.) The arms
         are numerous (amounting to thirty in the species figured),
         and of great length; these subdivide into jointed filaments
         of extreme minuteness. Slabs of limestone are often entirely
         covered with them, and many layers are wholly made up of
         their aggregated remains. The plates of the receptacle are
         generally highly ornamented: in one species the sculpturing
         so closely resembles that of the _Marsupites ornatus_ of the
         chalk, that it was with difficulty I convinced Mr. Parkinson
         that the latter did not possess a stem, and therefore was
         not an Actinocrinite.[46]

[Footnote 46: See Medals of Creation, p. 325; Wonders of Geology, p.
664; Miller's Crinoidea, p. 94.]

  Figs. 4, & 5. Portions of receptacles of Actinocrinites.

  Figs. 6, & 8. Fragments of stems of a Pentacrinite (_Pentacrinus
         scalaris_, of Goldfuss); from Gloucestershire.

  Fig. 9. A Pentacrinite expanded on a slab of Lias-shale.
         Gloucestershire.

  Fig. 10. Stem, receptacle, and arms of a Crinoidean (probably a
         _Cyathocrinite_); it is drawn in an inverted position. The
         figure is stated by Mr. Parkinson to be copied "from a plate
         by Dr. Capeller." Neither the locality, nor the stratum from
         which it was obtained, is mentioned.

  Fig. 11. Part of the stem of a Pentacrinite (_P. basaltiformis_,
         of Miller); from the Lias. Gloucestershire.

  Fig. 12. The receptacle of a Crinoidean (_Platycrinus lævis_, of
         Miller); from the mountain limestone, Ireland. Fig. 13,
         ossicles of the arms; and fig. 14, joints of the stems,
         slightly magnified.

  Fig. 15. "The superior part of the Briaræan pentacrinite."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ (_Pentacrinus Briareus_, of Miller.) The
         specimen is a slab of Lias, almost wholly made up of
         crinoideal remains. In relief on the surface are the stems
         and dislocated ossicles of the receptacle; the latter are
         thus enumerated by Mr. Parkinson;--_a_, scapula; _b_,
         clavicle; _c_, first bone of the arm; _d_, second arm-bone;
         _e_, commencement of the two series of bones forming the
         fingers.

  Fig. 16, is another slab of pentacrinal Lias limestone, with
         portions of a stem and numerous side-arms: these are
         generally electrotyped, as it were, with a brilliant
         pyrites, giving a rich metallic lustre to the animal
         remains. In the British Museum there are many splendid
         specimens of this highly interesting family of Radiaria. I
         would especially direct the intelligent visitor's attention
         to a slab of stone, many feet in height and breadth, on
         which a group of Pentacrinites is displayed, as palpable
         and perfect as if the animals were sporting in their native
         element. This matchless specimen is from Germany.

  Fig. 17. One of the small auxiliary lateral tentacles of a
         Pentacrinite.

[Illustration: Plate LII.]


PLATE LII.

Pentacrinites.

  Fig. 1. This specimen displays the usual appearance of the mode
         in which the arms of Pentacrinites are spread out in relief
         on the pyritous lias limestone of Charmouth.

  Fig. 2. The arms, from the upper part of the receptacle to their
         third or fourth subdivision of the Briaræan Pentacrinite.
         Charmouth.

  Fig. 3. A small specimen, showing the ramifications and delicacy
         of the extremities of the arms or tentacula.

  Fig. 4. "A fossil body, supposed to be a species of oval
         encrinite."--_Mr. Parkinson._ This fossil is certainly
         a coral, probably some species of Turbinolia, from the
         Devonian formation.

[Illustration: Plate LIII.]


PLATE LIII.

Fossil Star-Fishes and Echini.

The radiated animals popularly called Star-fishes, from their
stellular figure, are so abundant along our sea shores, that the
nature of the common five-rayed species (_Asterias_, or _Uraster
rubens_)[47] must be familiar to most of my readers. This species
belongs to the group in which the rays are elongated, and far exceed
in length the diameter of the disk; in another subdivision (the
_Goniaster_, or Cushion-star), the body is angular, and the lobes
or rays are short, and do not exceed in length the diameter of the
body. In another group (the _Comatula_, or Feather-star), the rays
are fringed with long jointed tentacula, which divide and subdivide
like those of the Crinoidea; and these star-fishes may, in fact, be
regarded as free Lily-shaped animals.[48] There is another tribe in
which the arms are elongated into slender rays, without grooves or
tentacula; these are called the Serpent Star-fishes (_Ophiura_).
Species of all these groups occur in a fossil state.[49]

[Footnote 47: See Professor Forbes's delightful "History of the
British Star-Fishes."]

[Footnote 48: In the young state the Comatulæ have a jointed
stem, and are attached to other bodies; being in this stage true
Crinoideans.]

[Footnote 49: Medals of Creation, p. 332.]

  Fig. 1. "Part of a fossil lunated star from the chalk of
         Kent."--_Mr. Parkinson._ (_Goniaster semilunata_, of
         Parkinson; _Goniaster Parkinsoni_, of Prof. E. Forbes).
         Remains of Star-fishes are by no means rare in the chalk
         strata of Kent; in those of Sussex they are far less common.
         When the "Fossils of the South Downs" was published, in
         1822, a few fragments only had been discovered. Of late
         years, some beautiful examples have been obtained from
         the chalk-pits near Arundel and Worthing, by Mr. Dixon,
         Mr. Coombe, Mrs. Smith, of Tunbridge Wells, and other
         collectors. The cabinet of the Marquess of Northampton is
         very rich in this class of fossils. Several unique examples
         of new species have been obtained from the chalk near
         Maidstone.

  Fig. 2. "An echinite, from France."--_Mr. Parkinson._ The
         locality of this fossil is uncertain; no similar specimen
         is known either to Mr. Morris, or the other eminent
         palæontologists I have consulted; and the original cannot be
         discovered. I have reason to believe it was purchased, after
         Mr. Parkinson's death, together with the greater number of
         the fossils already described, by an American gentleman, and
         taken to the United States.

  Fig. 3. "Part of a stellite or fossil star-fish, resembling
         _Pentagonaster regularis_."--_Mr. Parkinson._ This
         well-known chalk species (_Goniaster Mantelli_, of Prof.
         E. Forbes), occurs frequently in an imperfect state in the
         quarries near Gravesend. The collection of the Marquess
         of Northampton contains a perfect and exquisite specimen
         attached to a flint, from that locality.

  Fig. 4. A beautiful example of the Turban Echinite (_Cidaris
         Parkinsoni_, of Dr. Fleming), from Wiltshire.

The _Cidaris_, or Turban Echinite, belongs to the family of radiated
animals, of which the recent Sea-urchin (_Echinus sphæra_) is a
well-known example. The globular shell or envelope of these animals
is composed of numerous calcareous polygonal plates, arranged in
regular and elegant patterns, like the lines of the meridian on a
globe. These plates are externally covered with papillæ of various
sizes, to which spines of corresponding magnitude are articulated.
In some of the _Cidares_ the principal tubercles are very large, and
their spines several inches in length. The number and variety of the
animals of this family that occur in a fossil state are so great,
that a work expressly devoted to the subject would be required to
thoroughly investigate the characters and relations of the known
species. An elementary knowledge of this class of fossil remains may
be obtained by reference to "Medals of Creation," chap. xi. p. 240.

  Fig. 5. Part of the case of a Cidaris attached to a flint by its
         outer surface, surrounded by upwards of twenty spines; the
         interior of the shell, of a light pink colour, is exposed.
         This exquisite fossil is now in the cabinet of the Marquess
         of Northampton. It was purchased by Mr. Parkinson for the
         sum of twenty guineas; but this was in the palmy days of
         the study of organic remains, before the terms Geology and
         Palæontology were invented, and when a choice relic of "a
         former world" was cheap at any price, in the opinion of the
         enthusiastic collector.

  Fig. 6. A Turban Echinite (_Cidaris_ (_Hemicidaris_, of Agassiz)
         _crenularis_, of Lamarck): from the Coral Rag of Wiltshire.

  Fig. 7. A siliceous cast--that is, a flint that has been moulded
         in the interior of the shell, and received the impress
         of the internal structure--of "_Cidaris corollaris_," of
         Parkinson; (_Cyphosoma correlare_, of Agassiz): from Sussex.

  Fig. 8. Cidaris with spines, from the Oolite of Stonesfield.

  Fig. 9. A specimen of one of the Cidares with large tubercles
         (_Cidaris coronatus_, of Goldfuss); from the Coral Rag,
         Oxfordshire.

  Fig. 10. An elegant chalk echinus (_Cidaris Königi_, of
         Mantell;[50] _Cyphosoma Milleri_, of Agassiz; _C.
         granulosus_, of Goldfuss): from Kent.

[Footnote 50: Fossils of the South Downs, p. 189. (1822.)]

  Fig. 11. A fine species from the chalk at Gravesend (_Cidaris
         vesiculosus_, of Goldfuss).

  Fig. 12. A peculiar type of Cidaris (_Salenia scutigera_, of
         Goldfuss), from the freestone or upper greensand of
         Warminster, Wilts.

  Fig. 13. Another species of the same genus (_Salenia stellulata_,
         of Agassiz); from Warminster.

  Fig. 14. An enlarged view of part of the structure around the
         vertex of fig. 13.

  Fig. 15. A species of Feather-star (_Comatula pectinata_, of
         Goldfuss); from Solenhofen.

  Figs. 17, 18, 19, 20. "Minute _Stellitæ_ (that is, fossil
         Star-fish); from Verona."--_Mr. Parkinson._ These are
         probably the bodies or disks of _Ophiuræ_ deprived of their
         arms.

  Fig. 16. The nature of the specimen figured is unknown to me.

[Illustration: Plate LIV.]


PLATE LIV.

Various Species of Fossil Sea-Urchins.

  Fig. 1. A large, discoidal echinite, of the type called _Clypeus_
         or _Shield-echinus_, (_Clypeus sinuatus_, of Leske,) from
         the Coral Rag of Oxfordshire. This species abounds in the
         beds of this division of the Oolite in Berkshire, Wiltshire,
         Gloustershire, &c.

  Fig. 2. "_Echinanthites orbicularis_ (_Pygurus_) of Leske."--Mr.
         Parkinson.

  Fig. 3. An imperfect flint cast of an echinus (_Discoidea_), from
         the South Downs.

  Fig. 4. The Helmet Echinite, (_Ananchytes ovatus_, of Lamarck,)
         from the Chalk of Kent. This is a characteristic species of
         the white chalk, and abounds in the strata of the North and
         South Downs. At Northfleet, near Gravesend, the quarry-men
         find beautiful specimens.

  Fig. 5. An oval echinite (_Nucleolites_,) from Verona.

  Fig. 6. A portion of a very flat echinite, in which the rays or
         ambulacra are in a floriform arrangement, (_Echinodiscus
         bisperforatus_, of Parkinson; _Lobophora biperforata_, of
         Desor,) from Tertiary Strata, Verona.

  Fig. 7. A small discoidal echinite (_Discoidea subuculus_, of
         Leske,) from the upper greensand of Warminster.

  Fig. 8. The floriform radiated part of the shell of an echinite
         (_Clypeaster_), from the tertiary strata of Malta.

  Fig. 9. A cast in flint of part of the interior of the case or
         shell of an echinite.

  Fig. 10. An elegant conical echinite (_Conulus albogalerus_, of
         Leske; _Galerites_, of Agassiz), common in the chalk of Kent
         and Sussex.

  Fig. 11. View of the base of fig. 10, showing the situation of
         the two apertures of the shell.

[Illustration: Plate LV.]


PLATE LV.

Fossil Sea-Urchins, or Echinites.

  Fig. 1. The shell of a Turban Echinite (_Cidaris saxatilis_, of
         Parkinson), broken in two, and each piece imbedded in the
         same fragment of flint. From Kent.

  Fig. 2. A round Buckler Echinite (_Echinodiscus_ (_Clypeaster_)
         _subrotundus_, of Parkinson), from Italy.

  Fig. 3. The upper surface of an Echinite (_Spatangites_
         (_Disaster_, of Agassiz) _ovalis_, of Parkinson); from
         Scarborough.

  Fig. 4. View of the upper, and fig. 5, of the lower surface of
         an Echinite, (_Spatangus_ (_Hemipneaster_, of Agassiz)
         _radiatus_, of Parkinson,) from the cretaceous strata of St.
         Peter's Mountain, Maestricht.

  Fig. 6. A small Echinite (_Echinites_ (_Nucleolites_, of Leske)
         _pyriformis_, of Parkinson), from the cretaceous strata of
         Maestricht.

  Fig. 7. A small Echinite of a different genus (_Echinites_
         (_Cassidulus_, of Lamarck,) _Lapis cancri_, of Parkinson),
         from Maestricht.

  Fig. 8. An Echinite (_Spatangites_ (_Nucleolites_) _brissoides
         ovalis_, of Parkinson). Locality unknown.

  Fig. 9. A beautiful specimen of a large heart-shaped Echinite of
         a recent species (_Spatangus purpureus_), from a modern
         tertiary deposit, Malta.

  Fig. 10. An Echinite (_Echinodiscus_ (_Clypeaster_) _laganum_, of
         Parkinson), from a tertiary deposit, Verona.

  Fig. 11. This Is a very abundant Spatangus or heart-shaped
         echinite, (_Spatangus cor marinum_, of Parkinson; _Cor
         testudinarium,_ of Goldfuss; _Micraster cor anguinum_, of
         Agassiz,) in the chalk of Kent, and some parts of Sussex.
         Siliceous casts, forming cordiform flints, with deep
         imprints of the pentapetalous rays on the vertex, are common
         among the stones of the ploughed fields of the Downs.

  Fig. 12. A _Spatangite_, (_Spatangus_ (_Micraster_, of Agassiz)
         _lacunosus_, of Parkinson), from tertiary strata, Malta,

[Illustration: Plate LVI.]


PLATE LVI.

Echinites and Echinital Spines.

  Fig. 1. A fragment of the shell of a Turban Echinite, with three
         clavated or club-shaped spines attached, on chalk, from Kent
         (_Cidaris claviger_, of König). The inner surface of the
         fragment of shell is exposed.

  Fig. 2. A crushed shell of an elegant species of Turban Echinite
         (_Cidaris sceptrifera_, of Mantell), on a block of chalk;
         with two displaced spines near it. The sceptre-like form of
         the spines suggested the specific name. The chalk has been
         carefully cut away so as to display the shell and spines as
         much as possible without detaching them. From Sussex; common
         in the chalk near Gravesend.

  Fig. 3. Part of the shell, with two spines of another species
         (_Cidaris vesiculosus_, of Goldfuss), from Kent.

  Fig. 4. "A fossil echinital spine resembling a belemnite."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ I am unable to determine either the species or
         locality of this fossil: it is indeed doubtful whether it is
         a spine of an echinus.

  Figs. 5 to 19, represent various kinds of echinital spines of
         Turban Echinites or Cidarites.

  Fig. 5. "A fossil spine named '_Bacolo di Santo Paulo_,' by
         Scilla."--_Mr. Parkinson._ From Verona.

  Figs. 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, & 18, are, I believe,
         referable to various species of Cidaris that occur in the
         Oolite or Jurassic deposits.

  Figs. 9 and 11. Species of _Cidaris glandiferus_, of Goldfuss.

  Fig. 15, is a well known form, which occurs in thousands in
         the Oolite Limestone, the Coral Rag, of Caen, and other
         localities in Wiltshire; it belongs to a beautiful Cidarite
         (_Cidaris Blumenbachii_[51]), which is occasionally found
         with similar spines attached.

[Footnote 51: See Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. p. 500, figs. 3 and 6.]

  Fig. 12. "A flat serrated spine from Verona."--_Mr. Parkinson._
         It belongs to the _Cidaris Schmidelii_, of Goldfuss.

  Fig. 7. The interior of the upper part or vertex of a large
         Echinus, from the tertiary strata of Malta. The greater
         portion of the shell is broken away, but a small fragment
         showing the outer surface remains on the upper left
         hand of the specimen. The five large petalous ambulacra
         are beautifully seen. Perfect examples of this echinite
         (_Echinanthus Clypeaster altus_, of Parkinson), are not
         uncommon.

  Fig. 19. A spine of _Cidaris sceptrifera_, from the chalk of Kent.

  Fig. 20. An elegant Turban Echinite, (_Hemicidaris crenularis_,
         of Lamarck,) common in the Coral Rag of Wiltshire. Groups of
         this beautiful echinoderm, with numerous spines attached,
         are found at Caen. I have seen on one slab of limestone,
         upwards of twenty individuals with the spines radiating
         round the shell, as if the animals were alive on a mud bank
         in shallow water.

  Fig. 21. A fragment of the shell with two spines (_Cidaris
         claviger_), attached to a flint; from Kent.

[Illustration: Plate LVII.]


PLATE LVII.

Fossil Shells.

  Figs. 1, & 3. Upper and under view of a discoidal spiral univalve
         shell (_Euomphalus pentangulatus_, of Sowerby), from
         the mountain limestone of Derbyshire. The extinct genus
         Euomphalus, a name suggestive of the deeply excavated
         disk, comprises many species which occur in the Silurian,
         Devonian, and Carboniferous formations. The shell has
         chambers, or rather obsolete cavities sealed up by a shelly
         partition, in the abandoned part of the spire.[52]

[Footnote 52: Medals of Creation, pp. 425-427.]

  Fig. 2. An elegant univalve shell, completely silicified or
         transmuted into flint (_Natica canrena_, of Parkinson,
         _Natica Gentii_, of Sowerby), from the upper greensand of
         Blackdown.

  Figs. 4, & 6. Two views of the same specimen; a univalve (_Nerita
         conoidea_, of Lamarck), in which the apex or upper part is
         destroyed, and the interior of the shell is filled with
         yellowish brown chalcedony; in fig. 4, a cast of the spire
         is seen, and in fig. 6, the mouth of the shell, with the
         chalcedony partially filling up the interior. From tertiary
         strata near Paris.

  Fig. 5. A beautiful fossil univalve shell, from the "Red Crag" of
         Suffolk, known to collectors as the "Essex reversed whelk,"
         from the spire being coiled in the opposite direction to the
         common mode; the mouth is consequently situated to the left
         of the observer; the same species occurs with the spire in
         the usual direction. This shell is the _Murex_ (_Fusus_)
         _contrarius_, of Parkinson.

  Figs. 7, & 8. Under and upper view of another species of
         Euomphalus (_E. rugosus_, of Sowerby), from the Wenlock
         limestone, Dudley.

  Fig. 9. An enlarged view of fig. 10. "A shell of the genus
         _Sigaretus_."--_Mr. Parkinson._ Mr. Morris thinks it is
         merely an operculum of a small univalve.

  Fig. 11. A chambered cephalopodous shell (_Lituites lituus_, of
         Hisinger), from Silurian strata, Sweden.

  Figs. 12, & 13. These curious contorted bodies are named
         "_Vermiculitæ_" by Mr. Parkinson. They occur in the
         cream-coloured limestone of Pappenheim and Solenhofen.
         They are termed "_Lumbricaria colon_" by Goldfuss; and
         "_Cololites_" by M. Agassiz; the last-named eminent
         naturalist has demonstrated that they are the fossilized
         intestines of fishes.[53]

[Footnote 53: See Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay, vol. ii. plate
15.]

[Illustration: Plate LVIII.]


PLATE LVIII.

Fossil Shells.

  Fig. 1. "Part of a hexahedral Serpulite."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 2. A silicified mass of delicate filiform serpulæ, from the
         upper greensand of Devonshire (_Serpula filiformis_, of
         Sowerby).

  Fig. 3. Portion of a species of _Siliquaria_, from tertiary
         strata, France. It is the shell of an Annelide related to
         _Dentalium_.

  Fig. 5. A spiral Serpulite (it resembles the _Serpula conica_);
         probably from the cretaceous beds of the Isle of Rugen.

  Fig. 6, is a piece of polished sandstone, from the upper
         greensand of Wiltshire, "the markings on which are produced
         by sections of a species of Serpula (_Vermetus concavus_, of
         Sowerby)."--_Mr. Morris._

  Fig. 7. A species of _Vermetus_; from Bayonne?

  Figs. 8, & 9. A species of _Vermetus_ which abounds in the coarse
         arenaceous limestone of Bognor Rocks, in Sussex (_Vermetus
         Bognoriensis_, of Sowerby).

  Fig. 10. "A section of the shell of a Nautilus, to show that the
         siphuncle sometimes suffered distension."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 11. A species of Serpula (_Serpula ampullacea_, of Sowerby),
         from the chalk of Kent.

  Fig. 12. A fragment of the back or dorsal part of the shell of a
         fossil Nautilus (_Nautilus centralis_, of Sowerby), from the
         London clay, Brentford. The outer shell is broken away, and
         the siphuncle, traversing five of the septa of the chambers,
         is exposed.

  Fig. 13. "The outline of the back of a Nautilus."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._

  Fig. 14. An Orthoceratite (_Orthoceras annulatum_, of Sowerby;
         _O. undulatum_, of Kissinger), from the Wenlock Limestone,
         Dudley.

  Fig. 15. A fragment of a fossil Nautilus (_Nautilus Parkinsoni_,
         of Mr. Edwards), from the London clay of Harwich. It shows
         the situation of the siphuncle and the form of the septa, as
         indicated by the sinuous transverse lines.

  Fig. 16. A polished section of a Nautilus (_N. truncatus_, of
         Sowerby), from the Inferior Oolite of Yeovil, Somersetshire.
         The chambers are filled up with crystalline limestone, with
         the exception of the six outermost cells, in which are left
         hollows that are lined with calcareous spar.

  Fig. 17. Polished section of an Orthoceratite, from the Silurian
         strata of Oëland, Sweden.

  Fig. 18. The discoidal part of a Lituite from the same locality
         as fig. 17.

  Fig. 19. A polished slab of grey marble, from the Devonian
         formation of the Rhine. The figures are sections of
         _Orthoceratites_, _a_; and _Lituites_, _b_.

[Illustration: Plate LIX.]


PLATE LIX.

Fossil Cephalopoda, &c.

  Fig. 1. A fossil shell named Hippurite (_Hippurites bioculatus_,
         of D'Orbigny), from the south of France. This shell belongs
         to a family termed _Rudistes_, whose characters are somewhat
         problematical,--some naturalists referring them to the
         bivalves, and others to the univalves. The Hippurite is
         generally of an elongated conical form, and has internally
         two obtuse longitudinal ridges; the base is sometimes
         partitioned by transverse septa.

  Fig. 5, is a longitudinal section of a specimen in which septa
         are displayed. The aperture is closed by a moveable
         operculum, or upper valve, as in the specimen fig. 1. The
         substance of the shell is cellular and very thick, and when
         fractured, resembles that of the lamelliferous corals. Some
         kinds attain a large size, and are called "petrified horns"
         by the inhabitants of the districts in the Pyrenees where
         they abound. Though Hippurites are abundant in the chalk of
         the south of France, and in Spain and Portugal, none have
         been found in England. The _Spherulite_, a nearly allied
         genus, which has no internal longitudinal ridges, occurs in
         the chalk of Sussex: it was first discovered near Lewes.
         (_Spherulites Mortoni_, of Mantell.)[54]

[Footnote 54: Medals of Creation, p. 428.]

  Fig. 2. The siphuncle of a very large Orthoceratite ("related to
         the genus _Ormoceras_," Mr. Morris), from the Rhine.

  Figs. 3 & 4, "show the direction in which the siphuncle in
         Orthoceratites intersects the septa."

  Fig. 6. Siphuncle of an orthoceratite (related to _Orthoceras
         duplex_, of Kissinger), from the Silurian strata, Sweden.

  Fig. 7. An Orthoceratite (_O. pyriforme_, of Sowerby), from the
         Silurian strata, Dudley.

  Figs. 8-15. Various kinds of Belemnites.

In the "_Supplementary Notes_" I have, under the head,
"_Belemnites_," explained somewhat fully the nature of those fossils
which, by the name of "thunderbolts," have for so many centuries
excited the interest and perplexed the ingenuity of collectors of
fossil remains. Referring the reader to that note, I shall therefore
in this place merely give such specific names of the specimens
figured by Mr. Parkinson as I have been able to determine.

  Fig. 8. "A Belemnite of large size," Mr. Parkinson. This specimen
         is part of the phragmocone from near the lower apical
         portion, partially invested with the fibrous rostrum or
         guard. It is the species named _Belemnites giganteus_ by M.
         D'Orbigny; from the Oxford clay of Wiltshire.

  Fig. 9. The guard of a Belemnite, eroded by some Annelide.

  Fig. 10, is a vertical section of a fragment of a Belemnite,
         showing the alveolus or cavity for the reception of the apex
         of the phragmocone in the upper part.

  Fig. 11. The distal or apical part of the rostrum or guard of a
         Belemnite. The annexed outline of a transverse section
         exhibits the radiated structure.

  Fig. 12. The distal part of the guard of a chalk Belemnite
         (_Belemnitella mucronata_); from Norwich. Siliceous casts
         of the phragmocone of _Belemnitella_ are occasionally met
         with in the flints of the South Downs. This phragmocone has
         a longitudinal flat band or ridge, extending down the dorsal
         aspect: the chambers are very numerous; the slit or fissure
         in the ventral aspect of the guard, is occupied by a thin
         expansion of the phragmocone.

  Fig. 13. A Belemnite from the great oolite of Stonesfield
         (_Belemnites fusiformis_, of Parkinson). The upper part
         shows the alveolus for the reception of the apex of the
         phragmocone.

  Fig. 14. A fragment of a guard split vertically, the flat surface
         showing a section of the alveolus filled with spar. This
         specimen belongs to the _Belemnites cylindriformis_, of
         Parkinson.

  Fig. 15. A Belemnite (_Belemnites coniformis_, of Parkinson),
         having part of the guard broken off, to show the alveolus
         or hollow in which the apical part of the phragmocone is
         received. The removed portion has the cast of the alveolus
         attached to it.

  Fig. 16, of which fig. 17, is an enlarged view, is a species of
         chambered foraminiferous shell, called _Nodosaria_ (_N.
         raphanistrum_, of Lamarck); from Sienna. See description of
         Plate LXII.

[Illustration: Plate LX.]


PLATE LX.

Ammonites.

  Fig. 1. A Belemnite (_Belemnitella mucronata_) attached to a
         flint. Kent.

  Fig. 2. Cast of part of a straight-chambered shell (_Baculites
         Fraujasii_, of Lamarck), in which the septa, or partitions,
         are deeply and regularly sinuated. In fossils of this kind,
         the cast of each chamber is distinct from the others; but
         the series is held together by the flexuosities of the
         septa. From Maestricht.

  Fig. 3. A limestone cast of the chamber of an Ammonite: from
         Bath. The elongated channel in the middle indicates the
         position of the siphuncle.

  Fig. 4. Fragment of an Ammonite, showing cavities of two
         chambers, and the canal of the siphuncle, partly lined with
         calcareous spar.

  Fig. 5. Polished sections of an Ammonite (_Ammonites Walcotii_)
         from the Lias, Whitby. The chambers are filled with
         semi-transparent spar. The siphunculus is seen running along
         the dorsal, or outer margins of the volutions. The dark
         appearances observable in several parts of the siphuncle
         result from the carbonization of the animal membrane with
         which the tube was lined in the living state.

  Fig. 6. "An _Oval Ammonite_."--_Mr. Parkinson._ This is evidently
         the cast of a discoidal shell pressed into an elliptical
         form. In the Chalk-marl, casts of Ammonites, Nautilites, &c.
         are very commonly more or less distorted by compression. The
         marl appears to have remained in a plastic state after the
         decomposition of the shell in which it was moulded, and to
         have admitted of being squeezed into close contact with the
         surrounding matrix; when the stratum became consolidated
         the cast retained its accidental shape, and adhering but
         slightly to the investing marl, was separable by a properly
         directed blow. This explains the otherwise unintelligible
         fact of a cast being closely invested by the rock, and all
         traces of the shell in which it was formed absent. When both
         the cast and the matrix became solid and uncompressible
         before the shell was decomposed, then loose casts were
         formed; as is common in the Portland stone, &c. The fossil
         figured appears to be an indifferent example of a common
         chalk-marl species (_Ammonites Mantelli_, of Sowerby).

  Fig. 7. A beautiful cast of an Ammonite, in which the foliaceous
         septa transmuted into pyrites (sulphuret of iron, or
         _marcasite_), are exquisitely shown.

  Fig. 8. A very fine specimen of an Ammonite (_Ammonites latus_,
         of Sowerby), from the "_Galt_;" a subdivision of the
         Lower chalk, in which Ammonites, with their pearly shells
         beautifully preserved, are abundant. From Folkstone, in
         Kent; a celebrated locality for these and other fossils of
         the same cretaceous deposits.

  Fig. 9. Sections of a pyritous cast of an Ammonite, showing the
         sinuous edges of the septa.

[Illustration: Plate LXI.]


PLATE LXI.

Fossil Cephalopoda, &c.

  Fig. 1. Part of the cast of a species of Hamite (_Hamites
         intermedius_, of Sowerby), from the Gait of Folkstone. The
         name _Hamites_ was employed by Mr. Parkinson to designate
         a genus of chambered shells, in which the direction of the
         spire, instead of being straight, as in _Baculites_, or
         discoidal, as in _Ammonites_, was bent like a hook beyond
         the inner reflected part. All the specimens here figured are
         but fragments.[55]

[Footnote 55: Medals of Creation, vol. ii. p. 500.]

  Figs. 2, & 5. Portions of _Hamites intermedius_, of Sowerby.

  Fig. 3. _Hamites plicatilis_, of Sowerby.

  Fig. 4. A fragment of _Hamites rotundus_, of Sowerby.

  Figs. 6, & 7. Two views of a species of an extinct genus, the
         shells of which, though not chambered, are supposed to have
         been inhabited by Cephalopoda, like the recent Argonaut. The
         specimen (_Bellerophon costatus_, of Sowerby) is from the
         Mountain limestone of Derbyshire.[56]

[Footnote 56: Ibid p. 477.]

  Figs. 8, & 9. An Ammonite with a contracted aperture, and three
         deep constrictions across the disk. From the Inferior oolite
         of Normandy.

  Figs. 10, & 11. Two specimens of "_Scaphites_, or Boat-like
         Ammonite," of Mr. Parkinson. A remarkable cretaceous genus
         of extinct cephalopoda. The specimens figured are from the
         Lower chalk of Sussex (_Scaphites costatus_, of Mantell; _S.
         equalis_, of Sowerby).

  Fig. 12. Cast of a spiral chambered shell, called _Turrilite_, of
         which many species occur in the lower cretaceous strata
         (_Turrilites costatus_, of Langius). The quarries of lower
         chalk at St. Catharine's Mount, near Rouen, in Normandy,
         have long been celebrated for the number and perfection of
         specimens of this elegant type of cephalopodous shells.
         The first known English examples of this genus, as well as
         of Scaphites, were discovered by me in the chalk marl, at
         Hamsey, near Lewes, in Sussex, in 1810. Several very fine
         specimens of a large species (_Turrilites tuberculatus_),
         some of which are more than two feet in length, have
         been obtained from the same strata. The tubercles on the
         casts of this species are the bases of strong spines. The
         siphunculus, in the state of a pyritous cast, is preserved
         in some examples.

  Figs. 13 to 27. These figures all refer to a very curious group of
         fossils, termed _Nummulites_, from the supposed resemblance
         of some of the flat disks to a piece of money. The
         complexity of their internal structure, and the supposed
         resemblance of their organization to that of the true
         Cephalopoda, led to many erroneous opinions as to the
         nature of the originals. That eminent physiologist, Dr.
         W. B. Carpenter, has recently investigated the intimate
         structure of the whole group, and the results are given in
         a beautiful and masterly memoir in the Quarterly Journal
         of the Geological Society of London.[57] Dr. Carpenter
         has clearly shown that these fossils belong to the
         _Foraminifera_, and not, as some eminent naturalists have
         supposed, to the _Bryozoa_, or "_Moss-corals_." As the
         family to which they belong comprises a numerous assemblage
         of minute organic remains, many of which are delineated in
         the next plate (Plate LXII.), the reader is referred to
         the "_Supplementary Notes_," for a general description of
         the _Foraminifera_, in which is given a restored figure
         of the supposed living animal of the Nummulite, from Dr.
         Carpenter's memoir.

[Footnote 57: No. 21, for February 1850. "On the Microscopic
Structure of Nummulina, Orbitolites and Orbitoides."]

  Fig. 13. The usual appearance of the common species of Nummulite
         (_Nummulina lævigata_). From Egypt.

  Fig. 14. A specimen rubbed down, and exposing the internal
         cellular structure.

  Fig. 15. An example in which the outer investment is partly
         removed.

  Fig. 16. A vertical section of the same.

  Fig. 17. This fossil, of which fig. 18, is a vertical section
         (_Nummulites obtusa_, of Sowerby), appears to belong to a
         different genus; probably _Orbitolites_, or _Marginopora_.
         Tertiary strata.

  Fig. 19. A vertical section of a Nummulite, showing a cavity in
         the centre, probably from decomposition.

  Fig. 20. A section of another species of Nummulite (_N. dispansa
         ?_ of Sowerby);[58] Tertiary strata, India.

[Footnote 58: See Sowerby's Mineral Conchology, vol. i.; and
Mantell's Fossils of the South Downs.]

  Figs. 21 to 26, are various sections of a fossil Nummulite, of
         which fig. 37, represents the flat surface (_Nummulites
         complanata_, of Parkinson. This fossil belongs to the genus
         _Discospira_ of Mr. Morris).[59]

[Footnote 59: "_Discospira_, Nov. Gen. Disciform, volutions distrial,
not embracing the previous ones, cells numerous." _Mr. Morris_, 1850.]

  Fig. 28. A species of Foraminifera (_Fasciolites_, of Parkinson;
         _Alveolina elliptica_, of D'Orbigny).

  Fig. 29. A transverse section.

  Figs. 30, & 31. Enlarged views of the same fossil. Fig. 31. A
         longitudinal section.

[Illustration: Plate LXII.]


PLATE LXII.

Fossil Foraminifera.

With the exception of figs. 23, 24, 29, 31 and 32, all the specimens
delineated in this Plate belong to the Foraminifera. The figures
represent magnified views; the natural size is indicated in some
instances by a minute outline. Under the article "Foraminifera,"
in the "_Supplementary Notes_," a general account is given of the
structure and economy of the living animalcules. A list of names is
subjoined.

  Figs. 1, & 2. _Rotalia trochiliformis_, of Lamarck. Tertiary.

  Fig. 3. _Rotalia Beccarii_, of Linnæus. Tertiary.

  Fig. 4. _Cristellaria rotulata_, Lamarck. Chalk.

  Figs. 5, 6, 7. _Lituola nautiloidea_, Lamarck. Chalk.

  Fig. 8. _Spirolina depressa_, Lamarck. This and the specimens to
         fig. 21 inclusive, are tertiary fossils.

  Fig. 9. _Spirolina cylindracea_, Lamarck.

  Fig. 10. _Orthocerina clavulus._

  Fig. 11. _Biloculina ringens_, Lamarck.

  Figs. 12, & 13. _Quinqueloculina cor anguinum_, Lamarck.

  Figs. 14, 15, & 16. _Quinqueloculina._

  Figs. 17, 18, 19. _Triloculina trigonula_, Lamarck.

  Fig. 20. _Quinqueloculina opposita_, Lamarck.

  Fig. 21. _Peneroloplis opercularis_.

  Fig. 22. _Adelosina_, of D'Orbigny; a recent species.

  Figs. 23, & 24. _Gyrogonites_. The fossils here figured on a
         magnified scale as microscopic shells of the same family as
         those above described, received the name of Gyrogonites,
         or twisted stones. They prove to be the seed-vessels of a
         species of the common fresh-water plant, the _Chara_. The
         fruit of this genus consists of minute nuclei, with an
         external calcareous covering, composed of five spirally
         twisted plates, which unite at the summit. These fossils
         occur by myriads in many of the fresh-water secondary and
         tertiary limestones, as well as in the calcareous deposits
         now in progress of formation in our lakes. In the lacustrine
         limestones of the Isle of Wight (at Binstead, White Cliff,
         &c.), beautiful specimens may be obtained.[60] Professor E.
         Forbes has discovered Gyrogonites in the Wealden strata of
         the Isle of Purbeck, associated with shells of the genera
         _Planorbis_, _Physa_, _Paluolina_, &c.

[Footnote 60: See Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight. 2d
Edit. 1850, p. 108.]

  Fig. 25. _Polystomella crispa_, of Linnæus. From the tertiary
         strata of the Apennines.

  Fig. 26. _Cristellaria ?_

  Figs. 27, & 28. _Rotalia Beccarii_. Apennines.

  Fig. 30. _Cristellaria galea_, of Lamarck. Apennines.

  Fig. 29. Cast of a species of Area; a bivalve shell, from
         tertiary strata, Bordeaux.

  Fig. 31. A curious pteropodous shell (_Vaginella depressa_), from
         tertiary strata, Basterot.

  Fig. 32. This appears to be an imperfect specimen of a bivalve
         having a fibrous structure, like _Pinna_. It is probably a
         fragment of an Inoceramus.

[Illustration: Plate LXIII.]


PLATE LXIII.

Trigoniæ.

  Figs. 1, & 2, represent the structure of the hinge in both valves
         of a genus of bivalves of which numerous fossil species
         are met with in the secondary strata, and two or three
         species still exist in the Pacific Ocean. The genus is named
         _Trigonia_, from the form of the hinge, and the specific
         names below are those given by Mr. Parkinson.

  Fig. 3. _Trigonia clavellata_, of Parkinson, from the Kimmeridge
         clay, Hartwell, Bucks.

  Fig. 4. _Trigonia costata_, Oxford clay, Wilts.

  Fig. 5. _Trigonia excentrica_; upper greensand, Blackdown. Like
         most of the shells from this locality, the Trigoniæ are
         transmuted into silex.

  Fig. 6. _Trigonia dædalea_, Blackdown.

  Fig. 7. ---- _spinosa_, Blackdown.

  Fig. 8. Enlarged view of the spines of the above.

  Fig. 9. _Trigonia alæformis_, Blackdown.

  Fig. 10. ---- _rudis_, Blackdown.

  Fig. 11. A bivalve shell of the genus _Productus_ (_P.
         antiquatus_, of Sowerby?), from the Mountain limestone. See
         description of fig. 9, Plate LXVII.

  Fig. 12. Cast of a species of _Trigonia_ (_T. clavellata_), from
         the Portland rock. Many beds of this oolitic limestone are
         almost entirely made up of casts of Trigoniæ, and chiefly of
         this species.

  Fig. 13. _Trigonia sinuata_, from Blackdown.

  Figs. 14 to 18. "Different views of a species of _Harpax_."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ (_Plicatula spinosa_). From the Lias,
         Gloucestershire.

  Fig. 14. The inner surface of the flat valve.

  Fig. 15. Inner surface of the convex valve.

  Fig. 16. Magnified hinge teeth of the flat, and fig. 17, of the
         convex valve.

  Fig. 18. Magnified view of the adpressed spines on the external
         surface of the shell.

[Illustration: Plate LXIV.]


PLATE LXIV.

Fossil Shells.

  Fig. 1. A perfect specimen of one valve, showing the character of
         the hinge of _Cucullæa decussata_, of Parkinson. London
         clay. Herne Bay.

  Fig. 2. Interior view of _Crassatella tumida_, of Lamarck. Eocene
         strata, Paris.

  Fig. 3. _Cardium Hillanum_, of Sowerby. A beautiful silicified
         bivalve from Blackdown.

  Fig. 4. _Nucula ovum_, of Sowerby. A common bivalve, in the Lias,
         Yorkshire.

  Fig. 5. Inner view of _Cyrena deperdita_, of Parkinson. Plastic
         clay, Woolwich.

  Fig. 6. _Lima gigantea_, of Sowerby, from Lyme Regis. This is a
         young and small specimen of a large bivalve that occurs in
         great perfection in the Lias.

  Fig. 7. _Cardinia Listeri_, of Sowerby. From the Lias,
         Gloucestershire.

  Fig. 8. Cast of a bivalve; genus uncertain.

  Figs. 9 to 12. These fossils are the _Trigonellites_ of Mr.
         Parkinson; and have since been referred to a genus named
         _Aptychus_. Their true relations are very problematical.
         Though found in pairs, there is no hinge or natural
         connexion. Some naturalists suppose they may belong to the
         internal organization of Ammonites, because certain kinds
         have been found collocated with particular species of that
         genus of Cepholopoda. At present I do not think there is any
         satisfactory evidence as to their real nature. Species occur
         in the Kimmeridge clay, and other subdivisions of the Oolite
         formation.

  Figs. 9, & 12. _Trigonellites lata_, of Mr. Parkinson.

  Figs. 10, & 11. ---- _lamellosa_.

  Figs. 13, & 14. _Corbida revoluta_, of Sowerby. London clay,
         Highgate.

  Fig. 16. An imperfect specimen of _Lysianassa_ (_Mya_)
         _literata_, from the fullers' earth of the Oolite, Wiltshire.

  Figs. 15, & 17. _Cardita senilis_, of Sowerby. From the Red crag
         of Suffolk.

[Illustration: Plate LXV.]


PLATE LXV.

Fossil Shells.

  Fig. 1. A single valve, viewed interiorly, of a fine shell
         (_Panopæa Aldrovandi_, of Faujas St. Fond) from the
         Pleistocene or Newer Tertiary strata, that form a chain
         of low hills near Palermo, in Sicily. The shells in these
         deposits comprise almost all the genera and species that now
         inhabit the Mediterranean. They occur in the most beautiful
         state, deprived only of their colour; and groups are often
         met with of extreme elegance. The cabinet of the Marquess of
         Northampton contains an extensive and unrivalled series of
         these fossils, collected during his Lordship's residence at
         Palermo.

  Figs. 2, & 4. A boring bivalve (_Fistulana_ or _Lithodomus_) from
         the Oolite, Bath.

  Figs. 3, & 5. Valves of a small Oyster from the Crag of Essex.

  Fig. 6. A group of Lithodomi in limestone from the Oolite,
         Bradford, Wilts.

  Fig. 7. A detached specimen from the same, showing the enclosed
         bivalve.

  Figs. 8, & 10. Fine but imperfect specimens of a species of
         _Teredo_ (_Teredina personata_, of Lamarck), from the
         Plastic clay of Epernay, France.

  Fig. 9. A snail-shell (_Helix arbustorum_) found associated, and
         evidently contemporaneous, with bones of Mammoth, and
         extinct species of Deer, and other mammalia. From Brentford,
         in a bed of light calcareous earth, twenty feet below the
         surface.

  Fig. 11. "A concamerated Teredo."--_Mr. Parkinson._ I am unable
         to ascertain the nature of this fossil.

  Fig. 12. A species of _Fistulana_, from France.

  Fig. 13. External surface of _Chama squamosa_ of Brander. London
         clay, Hordwell.

  Figs. 14, & 15, are the anchylosed caudal vertebræ of the tails of
         fishes. From the London clay, Isle of Sheppey.

  Fig. 16. "A small oyster with a spathose structure."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ This shell is probably the flat valve of a
         species of _Dianchora_, of Sowerby; from the Chalk.

[Illustration: Plate LXVI.]


PLATE LXVI.

Fossil Bivalve Shells.

  Fig. 1. A fossil Oyster (_Ostrea Marshii_, of Sowerby), from the
         Cornbrash of the Oolite, Wiltshire.

  Fig. 2. The fossil Cockscomb Oyster, (_Ostrea carinata_, of
         Lamarck,) from the Lower chalk, Havre, France.

  Fig. 3. The elegant fossil shell here figured is a peculiar and
         most abundant species in the Lias formation; specimens
         are not uncommon, in which every part of the shell is as
         perfect as if just thrown up on the sea-shore. It belongs
         to the genus Gryphites (_Gryphea incurva_, of Sowerby,)
         the shells of which are nearly related to the oysters, but
         are distinguished by the deep concave under-valve, and its
         curved beak, and the almost flat upper shell. The testaceous
         substance is of a finer laminated structure than in the
         Ostrea, and the hinge-ligament is inserted in an elongated
         curved groove.[61]

[Footnote 61: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 387.]

  Fig. 4. "_Ostrea vel frons folium._"--_Mr. Parkinson._ This
         species appears to be the _Ostrea gregarea_ (?) of Sowerby,
         which occurs in the chlorite marl or firestone of the Lower
         chalk in Sussex and Kent.

  Fig. 5. The fossil is the cast of an oyster-like bivalve, called
         Perna, (_Perna quadrata_, of Sowerby,) which is easily
         recognisable, even in casts, by the line of distinct
         teeth which compose the hinge. This species is abundant
         in the Portland limestone, particularly in the quarries
         around Swindon, in Wiltshire; but from the close adhesion
         of the outer surface of the shell to the surrounding
         stone, they can seldom be extracted, the casts only being
         readily obtainable. In the Kimmeridge clay, which lies
         above the Portland rock, the shells may be met with in
         great perfection. The best locality is near Hartwell, in
         Buckinghamshire, where the clay is extensively dug for the
         brick manufactures.

  Figs. 6, & 7. Two views of a small shell of the genus _Crenatula_,
         from Bedfordshire.

  Fig. 8. Portion of a very large species of Perna (_Perna
         maxillata_, of Sowerby), from tertiary strata. Piedmont. The
         figure shows the inner surface of the shell with part of the
         broad crenulated hinge.

[Illustration: Plate LXVII.]


PLATE LXVII.

Fossil Shells of Brachiopoda, &c.

  Fig. 1. A species of _Radiolites_ (_R. agariciformis_, of M.
         D'Orbigny), from the Cretaceous strata of France. This genus
         is only known in a fossil state; it belongs to the same
         group of shells (order, _Rudistes_) as the Spherulites and
         Hippurites: the lower valve is conical, and much larger than
         the upper, which is slightly convex; it is deeply channelled
         longitudinally.

  Fig. 2. Smooth valve of a species of Corbula (_Corbula gallica_,
         of Lamarck); abundant in some of the Eocene deposits of the
         Paris basin.

  Fig. 3. A single valve; the inner surface is shown in the figure,
         of a remarkable genus of shells (_Crania personata_, of
         Lamarck), frequently occurring attached to Echinites and
         other bodies of the white chalk.

  Fig. 4. A species of _Terebratula_ (_T. diphya_, of Lamarck).
         The shells of this genus belong to that division of
         mollusks termed _Brachiopoda_ (arm-feet), from their having
         internally two spiral fleshy arms developed from the sides
         of the alimentary orifice. These organs are supported by
         shelly processes, curiously modified in different genera,
         which often occur in a fossil state. Although the fossil
         Terebratulæ are very numerous, the recent species are but
         few, and are inhabitants of the seas off Australia. They
         form two natural groups; in the one the shells are smooth,
         but perforated all over with minute openings or foramina;
         and these are often filled with a dark substance, which is
         the carbonized soft parts: in the other division the shells
         are plicated or furrowed, and are not foraminiferous.[62]
         The Spirifers, another group of Brachiopoda, have a pair of
         internal spiral appendages.

[Footnote 62: On the structure of shells the reader should consult
the admirable papers of Dr. Carpenter, in the British Association
Reports.]

  Fig. 5. _Terebratula coarctata_, of Parkinson. Bradford clay,
         Wilts.

  Figs. 6, & 7, show the internal structure of recent Terebratulæ
         from New Holland. The complicated shelly apophyses which
         supported the arms are quite perfect.

  Fig. 8. _Terebratula triquetra_, of Parkinson (_T. diphya_, of
         Lamarck); another example of the species, fig. 4.

  Figs. 9, & 10. Different parts of the same specimen of a
         brachiopodous bivalve belonging to the genus _Productus_, so
         named from the lengthened or produced form of the convex
         valve. "This is generally filled with limestone, which
         conceals the internal structure; but, with a slight blow,
         the shell divides, when the edge of the small valve rests
         against the inside of the produced cylindrical part of the
         larger one; generally about half an inch from the top of the
         shell: one side of the valve, before hidden, fig. 9 _a_, is
         then exposed, as shown in fig. 10."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 9. _a_, the beak of the upper valve; _c_, a cavity in the
         superior part of the shell.

  Fig. 10. The under part of the shell; _b_, a depression receiving
         the beak of the upper valve, a.

  Fig. 10*. The inner surface of another upper valve, having a
         longitudinal fissure. The species figured is the _Productus
         Martini_ of Mr. Sowerby. From the mountain limestone of
         Derbyshire; in which deposit numerous examples occur.

  Fig. 11. A large species of Spirifer (_Spirifer striatus_, of
         Sowerby), from the mountain limestone of Derbyshire. In this
         species the upper valve is broken away, and one of the large
         spiral apophyses is seen lying imbedded in the limestone
         with which the cavity of the shell is filled.

  Fig. 13, is a beautiful example of part of one of the spiral
         appendages of the same species.

  Fig. 12. "A patch of square scales of a fish from
         Dorsetshire."--_Mr. Parkinson._ These evidently belong to a
         Lepidoid fish (_Dapedius_), whose remains are common in the
         Lias;[63] perfect specimens are often obtained. The British
         Museum contains some beautiful examples of this fossil fish.

[Footnote 63: Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. p. 529.]

  Figs. 14, & 15. A curious fossil bivalve, from the Devonian strata
         of the Eifel. The flat valve is shown in fig. 14; and the
         deep conical valve in fig. 15; _a_, tooth in the posterior
         margin; _b_, a part of the surface magnified, to show its
         cellular structure. The species is _Calceola sandalina_, of
         Lamarck.

  Fig. 16. A species of Spirifer; _a_, medial convexity of the
         upper valve; _b_, the triangular foramen at the beak.

  Fig. 17. Spirifer (_S. cuspidatus_, of Mr. Martin), from the
         Mountain limestone of Derbyshire.

  Fig. 18, represents a common appearance in certain chalk flints.
         Although I have examined hundreds, and some in which the
         form was more definite than in the specimen figured, I
         am not able to offer any probable suggestion as to their
         origin, should they be organic bodies, of which there is
         much doubt.

  Fig. 19. "_Coronulites diadema._"--_Mr. Parkinson._ Probably a
         species of Balanus, from a tertiary deposit.

  Fig. 20. Cast of one of the shells of a bivalve (_Pentamerus_),
         from the Wenlock limestone of Dudley.

[Illustration: Plate LXVIII.]


PLATE LXVIII.

Fossil Crustacea.

  Figs. 1, & 3. "Fossil Crabs, from Sheppey."--_Mr. Parkinson._
         The London clay of this celebrated locality contains an
         abundance of the fossil remains of Crustacea; and the
         visitor may purchase of the local collectors fossil crabs
         and lobsters, as readily as the recent species from the
         neighbouring sea. Good specimens are however rare, and
         command high prices. The specimens figured are two common
         species.

  Fig. 1. _Cancer Leachii_, of MM. Desmarest and Brongniart.

  Fig. 3. _Inachus Lamarckii._

These fossils show the usual mode in which the crustaceæ occur in the
hardened clay of Sheppey. The thorax is bent over the abdomen, and
the pair of large chelate claws drawn towards each other.

  Fig. 2. Fossil Insects from the lithographic stone of Pappenheim.
         "_a_, an insect with a bifurcated caudal extremity; _b_, the
         sting which has passed out of its sheath; c, the termination
         in a single point."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 4. "A fossil Shrimp, from Anspach."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 5. "Impression of an unknown fossil."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 6. "The claw of a Crab, from Maestricht, &c."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ Claws of this kind are frequent in the soft
         sandy limestone of St. Peter's Mountain, but no other
         vestiges of the Crabs to which they belonged have been met
         with. The cause of this has been ascertained: the claws
         belong to a species of Hermit Crab (_Pagurus Faujasii_,
         of Desmarest), which like the living species had the body
         covered by a delicate membrane, the claws only possessing a
         durable crustaceous shell.[64]

[Footnote 64: Wonders of Geology, p. 338.]

  Fig. 7. "An extended trilobite, from Dudley."--_Mr. Parkinson._
         Among the organic remains of the inhabitants of the seas,
         in whose abysses were formed the Silurian, Devonian, and
         other ancient sedimentary strata, an extinct family of
         crustaceans, comprising numerous genera, are among the most
         characteristic and remarkable. The name "_Trilobite_," first
         given by Mr. Parkinson, expresses the most obvious character
         of the longitudinally trilobed, convex, segmented, carapace
         of the body, of the most common forms; but so great is the
         number of species, and so dissimilar the groups, now known,
         that the nomenclature of this class of fossils is greatly
         extended. In Sir R. I. Murchison's splendid work on the
         Silurian System, the genera and species of the formations
         therein comprised are beautifully illustrated. The specimen
         figured is an expanded specimen of the species commonly
         known as the _Dudley Locust_ or _Insect_, (_Calymene
         Blumenbachii_), from the Wenlock limestone, Dudley.

  Fig. 8. A coiled-up specimen; in this view are seen both ends
         of the crustaceous covering of the animal: _a_, "the eye
         enlarged."

  Fig. 9, is part of the head of the same species.

  Fig. 10. "A fossil Crab from the East Indies."--_Mr. Parkinson._
         Beautiful specimens of this species of Crab (_Gonoplax
         Latreilli_, of Mr. Edwards) have been obtained from the
         tertiary strata of India.

  Fig. 11. Another form of Trilobite (_Ogygia Buchii_, (_Asaphus_,)
         of the Silurian System), from the Llandeilo flagstones.

  Fig. 12. "Remains of some large unknown insect."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ This figure is not sufficiently defined to admit
         of interpretation.

  Fig. 13., "Part of a trilobite with tuberculated head,"
         (_Calymene variolare_,) from the Wenlock limestone, of
         Dudley.

  Fig. 14. Posterior part of a trilobite with a caudal style or
         process, (_Asaphus caudatus_,) from the Wenlock shale,
         Dudley.

  Fig. 15. A nodule of ironstone from Coalbrook Dale, in which is
         imbedded a small crustacean allied to the recent King Crab
         or _Limulus_; a genus abundant in the seas of India and
         America.[65] (_Limulus trilobitoides_, of Dr. Buckland.
         _Bellinurus bellulus_, of Mr. König.)

[Footnote 65: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 550.]

[Illustration: Plate LXIX.]


PLATE LXIX.

Fossil Fishes and Reptiles.

  Fig. 1. "A fossil body resembling part of a Tortoise, from
         Gloucestershire."--_Mr. Parkinson._ This specimen is
         probably one of the mandibles of a remarkable extinct genus
         (_Ceratodus_) of fishes, whose dental organs, like those
         of the recent _Chimæra_, consisted of consolidated plates
         instead of separate teeth; each side of the jaw was formed
         by one of these mandibular processes; the upper margin is
         deeply undulated. The bone-bed of the Lias at Aust Cliff
         near Westbury, Somersetshire, is rich in these remains.

  Fig. 2. The plastron, or inferior aspect of the carapace of a
         fossil Turtle (_Chelonia breviceps_), from the London Clay
         of the Isle of Sheppey. _a_, fragment of the _entosternal_
         plate; _b, b_, _hyosternal_ plates; _c, c_, _hyposternals_;
         _d_, _xiphisternals_.[66]

[Footnote 66: See Parkinson, p. 269.]

  Fig. 3. The cranium of the same species of Turtle, from the Isle
         of Sheppey. Equally rich in the remains of Chelonian
         reptiles, as in those of Fishes, Crustaceans, Serpents, and
         Mollusks, the little Island at the mouth of the Medway has
         yielded to the indefatigable researches of Mr. Bowerbank the
         most extensive series of fossil Turtles hitherto discovered
         in England. The various genera and species will be figured
         and described in a work now in progress by Professors Bell
         and Owen, under the auspices of the Palæontographical
         Society.

  Fig. 4. A Serpula (_S. antiquata ?_), from the chalk, Sussex.

  Fig. 5. A dorsal vertebra of a fossil crocodilian reptile
         (_Steneosaurus_), from the Oxford Clay of Honfleur. _a, b_,
         costal depressions.

  Fig. 6. A dorsal convexo-concave vertebra of a crocodilian or
         gavial-like reptile (_Streptospondylus_), from the same
         locality. This figure shows the remarkable character whence
         the name of this genus: the convexity of the body of the
         vertebra (_a_) being situated anteriorly as in mammalia, the
         reverse of the position of the bones forming the vertebral
         column in the existing Crocodilians and Lacertians. _b_,
         the posterior concavity; _c_, a deep depression beneath the
         neural arch.

  Fig. 7. Sketch of the lower jaw of an extinct gavial-like reptile
         (_Steneosaurus_): the vertebra, fig. 5, probably belongs to
         the same species. From Honfleur. This figure, and figs, 5,
         6, and 8, are copied from Cuvier, "_Annales du Muséum_"

  Fig. 8. A caudal vertebra of the Fossil Animal of Maestricht
         (_Mosasaurus_); a, the chevron bone or inferior spinous
         process (_hœmapophysis_), anchylosed to the middle of the
         body of the vertebra.

  Fig. 9. Fossil scale of a ganoid fish (probably _Lepidotus_),
         from Kent.

  Fig. 10. Fossil tooth of a fish of the Shark family (_Notidanus
         microdon_, of Agassiz,) from the chalk of Kent.

  Fig. 11. Recent "tooth of one of the Dog-fish," (Mr. Parkinson,)
         for comparison with fig. 10.

  Fig. 12. Tooth of an extinct group of squaloid fishes (_Ptychodus
         decurrens_, of Agassiz,) from the chalk of Kent.[67]

[Footnote 67: See Medals of Creation, vol. ii. p. 617.]

  Fig. 13. A ctenoid (or comb-like) scale of a fish, (probably of a
         species of _Beryx_,) from the chalk of Kent.

[Illustration: Plate LXX.]


PLATE LXX.

Fossil Reptiles and Fishes.

  Fig. 1. A reduced figure of the celebrated specimen of the jaws,
         &c. of the "Fossil Animal of Maestricht," (_Mosasaurus
         Hoffmani_,) from the cretaceous strata of St. Peter's
         Mountain. See "_Supplementary Notes_," art. _Mosasaurus_.

  "_a, b._ The left side of the lower jaw, nearly whole, and seen on
      its outer side.

  _c, d._ Eight side of the lower jaw, viewed on the inner side, the
     posterior part of which, a little concealed by the palate bones,
     is continued to e.

  _f, g._ The right side of the upper jaw, seen on its inner side, and
     with the palate bone. This part is nearly in its natural position
     in relation to the corresponding ramus of the lower jaw.

  _h, i._ A fragment of the left side of the upper jaw, displaced and
     fallen across the lower jaw.

  _k, l, m; k', l', m', o'._ The two palate bones displaced and thrown
     one over the other, and also over the right side of the lower jaw.
     In the original specimen a portion of bone is placed from _m_ to
     _p_, and another at _q_, which are omitted to render the figure more
     intelligible."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Figs. 2 to 18, are fossil teeth of various kinds of fishes,
         principally of the Shark and Ray families.

  Fig. 2. Tooth of a shark (_Lamna_), from Malta.

  Fig. 3. Tooth of a shark (_Galeus pristodontus_), chalk marl,
         Kent.

  Fig. 4. Tooth of a Saurian, the upper and lower end imperfect:
         probably of a species of Steneosaurus, from Bath.

  Figs. 5, & 8. Teeth of a shark (_Otodus_,) London Clay, Isle of
         Sheppey.

  Fig. 6. Tooth of a fish, (_Spherodus_,) from the Oolite,
         Gloucestershire.

  Fig. 7. Part of the fossil jaw with three rows of teeth of a
         fish, (of the Pycnoid[68] family,) from the Oolite,
         Gloucestershire.

[Footnote 68: Medals of Creation, vol. ii. p. 641.]

  Fig. 9. Tooth of a species of _Lamna_, from Sheppey.

  Fig. 10. Tooth of a species of _Hybodus_,[69] Stonesfield.

[Footnote 69: Ibid. p. 621.]

  Fig. 11. A very large tooth of a Shark, (_Carcharias megalodon_,)
         from the tertiary deposits of Malta.

  Fig. 12. Fragment of a bone, with two teeth, probably of a
         species of _Pycnodus_.

  Fig. 13. "The mandible and tooth of a recent fish (_Diodon_), to
         compare with the fossils figs. 16, and 17."--_Mr. Parkinson._

  Fig. 14. "Fossil palate of a fish, from Sheppey."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ This evidently belonged to a species of _Ray_;
         possibly to the Eagle rays (_Miliobatis_).

  Fig. 15. Tooth of a fish allied to the _Cestracionts_, or Port
         Jackson Shark, (probably of the genus _Acrodus_,[70]) from
         Bath; commonly called "_Leech palates_" by the quarry-men.

[Footnote 70: Medals of Creation, p. 614.]

  Figs. 16, & 17. "Fossil palates of fishes of the Ray kind, from
         Sheppey."--_Mr. Parkinson._ These appear to belong to the
         Miliobates (_M. micropleuris_, of Agassiz). Beautiful
         examples of these fossils have been obtained from the
         Bracklesham clay, on the coast of the West of Sussex. The
         late Frederic Dixon, Esq. of Worthing, whose untimely
         death is so much to be deplored, had a matchless suite of
         specimens from that locality.

  Fig. 18. A fine specimen of a fossil tooth of a fish of an
         extinct genus, of which many species occur in the chalk
         (_Ptychodus polygurus_, of Agassiz). The teeth of various
         species of this genus of Sharks abound in the chalk of
         almost every part of England.[71]

[Footnote 71: Ibid. p. 616; and plate vi. fig. 2.]

[Illustration: Plate LXXI.]


PLATE LXXI.

Fossil Remains of Mammalia.

  Fig. 1. "a fossil tooth, probably of some animal of the whale
         kind."--_Mr. Parkinson._ I am not able to determine the
         nature of this specimen.

  Fig. 2. The antlers and skull of the Fossil Elk, of Ireland,
         (_Megaceros Hibernicus_.) The original was nearly eleven
         feet across, from the point of one antler to another. A
         perfect skeleton of this extinct gigantic deer is exhibited
         in the Gallery of Organic Remains in the British Museum.
         For an account of this animal see Wonders of Geology, vol.
         i. p. 132; and _Supplementary Notes_, p. 189. The following
         measurements of the specimen figured are given by Mr.
         Parkinson;

                                        Feet. Inches.
  _a_ to _b_                             10     10
  _c_ to _d_                              5      2
  _e_ to _f_                              3      7½
  _g_ to _h_                              2      6
  _i_ to _k_                              1     10½
  _d_ to _l_                              1      2
  Diameter of the horn at _m_             0      2¼
  Circumference,       "                  0      8
       "        at the root               2     11
  Length of the cranium from _n_ to _o_   2      0
  Width       "        "     _p_ to _q_   1      0

"A similar pair, found ten feet under ground in the county of Clare,
was presented to Charles the Second, and placed in the guard-room of
Hampton Court Palace."

  Fig. 3. Fragment of the fossil horn of some species of Cervus or
         Deer, from Etampes, in France.

  Fig. 4. Two teeth of a ruminant, (a species of _Bos_ or _Ox_,) in
         breccia, from Gibraltar.[72]

[Footnote 72: Wonders of Geology, vol. i. p. 186.]

The remaining figures. Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, represent the worn surfaces
of molars or grinding teeth of the extinct species of Elephants
termed Mammoths, (_Elephas primigenius_, of M. Bojanus.)

  Fig. 9, shows the structure of part of the tooth.

These were regarded by Mr. Parkinson as referable to two or more
species of Mammoth; but Professor Owen, after an examination of the
vast number of specimens that modern researches have brought to
light, and which are deposited in the public and private collections
of Great Britain, concludes that the specimens here figured belong
to but one species. The differences observable in the surface of the
crowns, are due to abrasion, and to the latitude of variety to which
the highly complex molars of this extinct Elephant were subject.[73]

[Footnote 73: British Association, Report for 1843. Fossil Mammalia,
p. 213.]

For an account of the Mastodon and Mammoth, see Wonders of Geology,
vol. i. pp. 151-161.

[Illustration: Plate LXXII.]


PLATE LXXII.

Fossil Teeth of Mammalia.

  Fig. 1. A right lower molar tooth of an extinct species of
         Hippopotamus (_H. major_, of Cuvier), from France.

  Fig. 2. Upper molar of an extinct species of Rhinoceros (_R.
         leptorhinus_, of Cuvier), from the bone-cave near Torquay,
         Devonshire.

  Fig. 3. The crown of a molar tooth of the "gigantic Tapir" of
         Baron Cuvier; the _Dinotherium_ of M. Kaup.[74]

[Footnote 74: Wonders of Geology, vol. i. p. 174.]

  Fig. 4, "the outer, and fig. 5, the inner, surface of the fourth
         molar of _Palæotherium medium_, of M. Cuvier."--_Mr.
         Parkinson._ From the eocene tertiary deposits of Paris.

  Fig. 6, the outer, and fig. 7, the inner, aspect of an upper
         molar of the same animal.

  Figs. 8, & 9. Lower molars of _Amplotherium commune_, of M.
         Cuvier.[75]

[Footnote 75: Ibid, p, 256.]

  Fig. 10. An ungueal or bone of the claw, of a gigantic animal of
         the Sloth tribe (_Megalonyx Jeffersoni_); the figure is half
         the linear diameter of the original.[76]

[Footnote 76: Ibid. p. 169.]

  Fig. 11. Vertical section of a tooth of the same. These remains
         of a colossal animal of that remarkable group of
         mammalia--the Edentata--are from Big-bone Cave, in Kentucky.
         The Megalonyx resembled the Megatherium in its general
         characters but was one-third smaller. See _Supplementary
         Notes_, p. 184.

[Illustration: Plate LXXIII.]


PLATE LXXIII.

Megatherium and Fossil Bears.

  Fig. 1, is a sketch, on a very small scale, of the skeleton of a
         colossal extinct animal of the Sloth tribe, discovered in
         the alluvial deposits of the Pampas, and preserved in the
         museum at Madrid. A plaster model of a skeleton, restored
         from the remains of various individuals, dispersed in
         different collections, is just completed, and exhibited to
         the public in the Gallery of Organic Remains of the British
         Museum.[77] This extinct animal is named the _Megatherium_
         (_gigantic wild animal_) _Cuvieri_. It was seven feet
         high, and nine long, and therefore larger than the largest
         rhinoceros. It possessed no incisor teeth; and the grinders,
         which are seven inches long, are of a prismatic form,
         and like those of the sloths, are composed of dentine
         and cement. They are so formed that the crown always
         presents two cutting, wedge-shaped, salient angles; they
         are therefore admirably adapted for cutting and bruising
         vegetable substances. The entire fore-foot is about a yard
         in length, and armed with strong claws. The Megatherium held
         an intermediate place between the sloths, armadillos, and
         ant-eaters. The celebrated specimens of different parts of
         the skeleton of this colossal creature, preserved in the
         Hunterian Museum of the College of Surgeons of England, were
         collected and presented by Sir Woodbine Parish.

[Footnote 77: See Wonders of Geology, pp. 164-167.]

  Fig. 2. The hindmost grinder of the upper jaw of the Fossil Bear
         (_Ursus spelæus_) of the Caverns, from Gaylenreuth.[78]

[Footnote 78: Ibid. vol. i. p. 176.]

  Fig. 3. The middle upper grinder.

  Fig. 4. The foremost upper grinder.

  Fig. 5. The hindmost grinder of the lower jaw.

  Fig. 6. The penultimate grinder of the lower jaw.

  Fig. 7. The antepenultimate lower grinder.

  Fig. 8. The foremost lower grinder.

  Fig. 9. The canine tooth of the Fossil Bear.

[Illustration: Plate LXXIV.]


PLATE LXXIV.

Tooth of the Mastodon.

A molar tooth of the _Mastodon giganteus_, from Big-bone Lick,
Kentucky; of the natural size.

From the great number of bones and teeth of animals of the extinct
elephantine genus, to which the name of Mastodon was given by Cuvier
(from the structure of the crowns of the teeth), that have of late
years been brought to England, and are dispersed in our public and
private collections, the intelligent reader must be familiar with the
forms, characters, and gigantic proportions, of that stupendous tribe
of animals which once ranged through the primeval forests not only of
America, but also of some parts of Europe. From a perfect skeleton
lately set up in the British Museum (in the same room with that of
the Megatherium), a correct idea may be obtained of this peculiar
type of mammalian structure. From this specimen it appears that
the great Mastodon of the Ohio was not unlike the elephant In its
general outline, though somewhat longer and thicker. It had a trunk
or proboscis, tusks which curved upward, and four molar teeth in each
jaw, but no incisors. But another remarkable peculiarity, and which
entirely separates the Mastodon from the Elephant, is that the young
animal had a pair of tusks, placed horizontally in the lower jaw, and
of these tusks one only became developed, and that in the adult male:
both were early shed in the female. In the midst of a collection of
Mastodon bones imbedded in mud, a mass of small branches, grass, and
leaves, in a half bruised state, and a species of reed common in
Virginia, were discovered; the whole appeared to have been enveloped
in a sac, probably the stomach of the animal. In another instance
traces of the proboscis were observed. The tusks are composed of
ivory, and vary somewhat in the direction and degree of their
curvature. The bones of this colossal quadruped are found remarkably
fresh and well preserved, and are generally impregnated with iron. No
living instance of this creature is on record, and there can be no
doubt that its race has long since been extinct.

"Big-bone Lick, where so many remains of the Mastodon and other
extinct quadrupeds have been dug up, is distant from Cincinnati
about twenty-three miles in a south-west direction. This celebrated
bog is situated in a nearly level plain, in a valley bounded by
gentle slopes, which lead up to flat table-lands composed of blue
argillaceous (Silurian) limestone, and marl. The general course of
the meandering stream which flows through the plain, is from east to
west. There are two springs on the southern or left bank, rising from
marshes, and two on the opposite bank; the most western of which,
called the Gum Lick, is at the point where a small tributary joins
the principal stream. The quaking bogs on this side are now more than
fifteen acres in extent; but all the marshes were formerly larger,
before the surrounding forest was partially cleared away. Within the
memory of persons now living, the wild bisons or buffaloes crowded
to these springs; but they have retreated many years, and are now as
unknown to the inhabitants as the Mastodon itself. The bog in the
spots where the salt springs rise is so soft, that a pole may be
forced down into it many yards perpendicularly.

"The greater numbers both of the entire skeletons and the separate
bones have been taken up from black mud, about twelve feet below
the level of the Creek. It is supposed that the bones of the
mastodons found here could not have belonged to less than one hundred
individuals: those of the fossil Elephant (_Elephas primigenius_) to
twenty; besides which a few bones of the Megalonyx, and of a species
of stag, horse, and bison, are stated to have been collected. The
greatest depth of the black mud has not been ascertained; it is
composed chiefly of clay, with a mixture of calcareous matter and
sand, and contains 5 parts in 100 of sulphate of lime, with some
animal matter. Layers of gravel occur in the midst of it at various
depths. It contains remains of seeds, and of several species and
genera of fresh-water and terrestrial shells. It is impossible to
view this plain without at once concluding that it has remained
unchanged in all its principal features, from the period when
the extinct quadrupeds inhabited the banks of the Ohio and its
tributaries.

"There are two buffalo paths or trails still extant in the woods,
and both lead directly to springs: the one which strikes off in a
northerly direction from the Gum Lick, may be traced eastward through
the forest for several miles. It is three or four yards wide, and
only partially overgrown with grass, and sixty years ago was as bare,
hard, and well trodden, as a high road. It is well known that during
great droughts in the Pampas of South America, the horses, deer,
and cattle, throng to the rivers in such numbers, that the foremost
of the crowd are pushed into the stream by the pressure of others
behind, and are sometimes carried away by thousands, and drowned. In
their eagerness to drink the saline waters and lick the salt, the
heavy mastodons and elephants seem in like manner to have pressed
upon each other, and sunk in the soft quagmires of Kentucky."[79]

[Footnote 79: Extracted from Sir Charles Lyell's "Travels in North
America," vol. ii. chap. xvii. 1845.]



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES.



I. Fossil Bears of the Caverns. (Plate LXXIII.) For many centuries
certain caves in Germany have been celebrated for their osseous
treasures, particularly those in Franconia. The most remarkable of
these caverns is that of Gaylenreuth, which lies to the north-west
of the village of that name, on the left bank of the river Wiesent,
on the confines of Bayreuth.[80] The entrance to this cave is in the
face of a perpendicular rock, and leads to a series of chambers from
fifteen to twenty feet high, and several hundred feet in extent,
terminating in a deep chasm. The cave is quite dark; and the icicles
and pillars of stalactite, reflected by the light of the torches,
which it is necessary to use, present a highly picturesque effect.
The floor is literally paved with bones and fossil teeth, and the
pillars and corbels of stalactite also contain similar remains. The
bones are generally scattered and broken, but not rolled; they are
lighter and less solid than recent bones, and are often incrusted
with stalactites. Three-fourths of the bones belong to two species
of bears (_Ursus_), the remainder to hyænas, tigers, wolves, foxes,
gluttons, weasels, and other small carnivora. Those belonging to
bears are referable to two extinct species: the largest has the skull
more prominent on the front than any living species; it is named
_Ursus spelæus_, or cavern bear; the other has a flat forehead,
and is the _Ursus priscus_ of Cuvier. The Hyena was allied to the
spotted hyena of the Cape, but differed in the form of the teeth and
skull. Bones of the Elephant and Rhinoceros are said to have been
discovered, together with those of existing animals, and fragments of
sepulchral urns of high antiquity.[81]

[Footnote 80: See Medals of Creation, vol. ii. p. 869, for an
interesting account of the present state of these caverns, by my
friend. Major Willoughby Montague.]

[Footnote 81: Dr. Buckland's "Reliquia Diluviana" contains a full
account of the most remarkable ossiferous caverns and their contents.]

Similar ossiferous caves occur in England; of these, the most
remarkable now accessible are Kent's Hole, near Torquay, and Banwell
Cave, in the Mendip Hills, near the village of Banwell. The latter
may be easily visited, as the Exeter railway passes within three
miles of the village, and there is a station, with vehicles to convey
passengers to Banwell.

II. The Belemnite. (Plates LIX. and LX.) Among the innumerable relics
which abound in the secondary deposits, there are perhaps no fossil
bodies that have excited so much curiosity, or given rise to so many
fanciful conjectures as to their nature and origin, as the long,
cylindrical, fusiform, crystalline stones, called _Belemnites_ by
naturalists, and _thunderbolts_ by common observers. Mr. Parkinson
gives an amusing account (vol. iii. p. 122) of the discordant
opinions entertained at various times respecting the nature of these
bodies.

It would be irrelevant to dwell on the history of the successive
attempts that have been made to elucidate the origin and structure
of the Belemnite. It will suffice to describe concisely the present
state of our knowledge as to the organization of the original.

Mr. Miller, in 1823,[82] showed that the Belemnite was the rostrum
or osselet of an animal allied to the Sepia, or Cuttle-fish, and
gave a restored outline of the supposed form of the original, with
the Belemnite in its presumed natural situation. Dr. Buckland and M.
Agassiz imagined that they had traced a natural connexion between
certain species of Belemnites that abound in the Lias, and the ink
bag and other soft parts of the Sepiæ or Calamaries found associated
with them; and they suggested the name of _Belemno-sepia_ for the
supposed animal of the Belemnite,[83]

[Footnote 82: Geological Transactions, New Series, vol. ii.; and Dr.
Buckland's Bridgewater Essay.]

[Footnote 83: Bridgewater Essay, p. 374.]

In 1842, the late Mr. Channing Pearce described, under the name
of _Belemnoteuthis antiquus_, a naked (destitute of a shell,)
cephalopod, which occurs in immense numbers in certain beds of the
Oxford clay, especially at Christian Malford, in Wiltshire. This
animal has at the lower apical part a conical osselet of a horny
substance, and fibrous structure, enclosing a chambered siphunculated
shell, which becomes gradually thinner at the upper part, and forms
a cup-like receptacle, in which is placed the ink-bag. The soft body
of an elongated oval form, with a pair of lateral palleal fins, two
large sessile eyes, and with eight uncinated arms and a pair of long
tentacula, are preserved in a more or less distinct and perfect state
in several specimens that have lately been discovered. Mr. Channing
Pearce, Mr. Cunnington, and other collectors of these interesting
remains, were convinced that this cephalopod was entirely distinct
from the animal to which the Belemnite belonged.

In 1844, Professor Owen laid before the Royal Society "A description
of certain Belemnites preserved with a great proportion of their soft
parts in the Oxford clay, at Christian Malford, Wilts."[84] In this
memoir (for which one of the royal medals of the Society was awarded)
the author describes as the soft parts of the Belemnite the remains
of the animal which Mr. Channing Pearce had two years previously
shown to belong to a different genus (_Belemnoteuthis_). Belying on
the correctness of Professor Owen's views, I gave an abstract of this
memoir in my "_Medals of Creation_," and stated that belemnites had
been discovered with the osselet, receptacle, and ink-bag, in their
natural position, and with remains of the mantle, body, fins, eyes,
and the tentacula, with their horny rings and hooks.[85]

[Footnote 84: Philos. Trans. Part I. 1844. p. 65.]

[Footnote 85: Medals of Creation, vol. ii. p. 467.]

The discovery by my son (Mr. Reginald Neville Mantell) of some
remarkably perfect specimens of belemnites in the Oxford clay,
exposed in the railway works on which he was engaged, near
Trowbridge, in Wilts, led me to examine the structure of the
Belemnoteuthis with more attention than I had hitherto done, as well
as the evidence adduced by Professor Owen in proof that the fossil
osselet, the Belemnite, belonged to the same genus of cephalopoda. I
found that _no specimen had been obtained in which the phragmocone,
or terminal chambered part of the Belemnoteuthis_ (of Pearce),
_was situated in the alveolus of a Belemnite_; but Professor Owen
having assumed that the osselet of the former must have originally
been protected by a rostrum, or guard, described the soft parts
as belonging to the animal of the Belemnite, conceiving that the
phragmocone of the Belemnoteuthis was that of a Belemnite that had
slipped out of the guard.

In a communication to the Royal Society, in 1848, I demonstrated
how utterly at variance with the facts were these conclusions, and
pointed out the essential distinctive characters that separated the
two extinct genera, so far as the specimens then discovered would
warrant.[86] Other illustrative examples of the Belemnite have since
been obtained; and in a supplementary paper read before the Royal
Society, February 14th, of the present year (1850), I have stated
what appears to me to be the extent of our present knowledge of the
organization of the Belemnite. I subjoin an abstract of that paper,
which embodies the result of an examination of many hundred specimens
of Belemnites and Belemnoteuthites. The annexed outline, or diagram,
shows the known structures of the Belemnite; of the soft parts of
the animal, a few imperfect carbonaceous traces, apparently of the
mantle, around and between the shelly processes of the upper part of
the phragmocone, are the only vestiges I have been able to detect.
The most perfect Belemnite hitherto discovered consists of,

[Footnote 86: Philos. Trans. 1848, p. 171.]

[Illustration]

1. An external _Capsule_ (_e_) which invested the osselet or
sepiostaire, and extending upwards, constituted the external sheath
of the receptacle.

2. The _Osselet_, characterized by its fibrous radiated structure,
terminating distally in a solid rostrum or guard (_i_), having an
alveolus, or conical hollow (_g_), to receive the apical portion of
the chambered phragmocone, and expanding proximally into a thin cup,
which became confluent with the capsule, and formed the receptacle
(_b, b_,) for the viscera.

3. The _Phragmocone_ (_d_), or chambered, siphunculated (_c_),
internal shell; the apex of which occupied the alveolus (_g_) of
the guard, and the upper part constituted a capacious chamber, from
the basilar margin of which proceeded two long, flat, testaceous,
processes (_a, a_,).

These structures comprise all that are at present known of the animal
to which the fossil commonly called "_Belemnite_," belonged.

Of the _Belemnoteuthis_, the cephalopod which Professor Owen
considers to be a Belemnite, many examples of the body with eight
uncinated arms and a pair of long tentacula, and with an ink-bag, and
palleal fins, have been discovered. The osselet of this animal, like
that of the Belemnite, has a fibro-radiated structure, investing a
conical chambered shell; but this organ, for reasons fully detailed
in the memoir, could never have been contained within the alveolus of
a Belemnite.

No _certain_ evidence has been obtained of the occurrence of an
_ink-bag_ in natural connexion with a Belemnite.

Diagram of the known Structures of the _Belemnites Puzosianus_, from
Trowbridge.

  _a, a_, dorsal processes.

  _b, b_, the receptacle.

  _c, c_, the siphuncle.

  _d, d_, the phragmocone.

  _e_, the capsule.

  _f_, the inferior end of the phragmocone.

  _g_, the alveolus of the guard.

  _h_, vertical section of the guard.

  _i_, the guard, or rostrum of the osselet.

  _k_, sulcus, or furrow, on the ventral aspect of this species of
         Belemnite.

  _l_, capsule, or periostricum.

  _m_, the dorsal line.

  _n_, transverse section, showing the fibrous radiated structure of
         the guard.

In the annexed outline the several parts are represented in their
natural relative positions. The capsule, or most external investment,
(_e_) is seen only in section, being removed to expose the rostrum
or guard (the fossil body generally known as the Belemnite). The
upper three-fourths of the rostrum are also taken away, to show the
phragmocone which it originally enveloped. The straight transverse
lines denote the chambers of the phragmocone; the latter is seen
extending downwards till it terminates in a point or apex; that part
of the cavity in the guard is called the _alveolus_. The _siphuncle_,
or tube which extends through the entire series of chambers, and is
situated on the ventral margin, is indicated at _c, c_. The dorsal
processes (_a, a_) are seen on their inner aspect at the upper part;
the diverging lines (_m_) between them indicate the impressions of
the soft parts, of which some traces remain.

III. Fossil Remains of Birds.--_The Moa, or Dinornis of New
Zealand._ The bones of birds are of extreme rarity in a fossil
state. Throughout the immense series of the palæozoic and secondary
formations--the accumulated sedimentary deposits of innumerable
ages--no unquestionable indications of the existence of this class of
highly organized beings have been brought to light.

In the Triassic, or New Red argillaceous sandstones of the valley
of the Connecticut River, in North America, some very remarkable
phenomena have, however, been discovered, and which in the opinions
of many eminent observers render it highly probable, that at the
period when these strata were deposited, numerous birds, some of
colossal magnitude, abounded on the then dry land. When slabs of
these sandstones are split asunder, or exposed, so as to exhibit
the sedimentary surface which separates one layer from another,
the foot-prints of many species of bipeds are perceived deeply
impressed on the stone, and disposed in such manner as to prove that
they are the tracks of animals that walked over the surface of the
deposit when it was in a soft or plastic state. The close analogy of
these imprints to those of birds' feet, not only in their general
resemblance, but also in the disposition of the tracks, and in the
relation of the distance of the stride, and the depth and shallowness
of the impressions, to the size of the respective feet, tends to
corroborate the inference first enunciated by Professor Hitchcock,
and subsequently confirmed by other geologists, that these mysterious
markings on the rock, are natural records of the existence of various
tribes of birds during the Triassic period;[87] but unfortunately the
only certain evidence of the correctness of this opinion--remains of
the skeletons--is wanting; not a vestige of a vertebrated animal of a
higher class than fishes and reptiles has been discovered.[88]

[Footnote 87: Travels in North America, vol. ii. pl. 7.]

[Footnote 88: See Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. p. 556.
Ornithichnites, or Fossil Footprints of Birds; Medals of Creation,
vol. i. p. 808.]

In the vast fluviatile formation--the Wealden--of the south-east
of England, which abounds in the remains of terrestrial plants and
reptiles, many fragments of bones of such tenuity as to indicate that
they belonged to animals capable of flight, have from time to time
been collected since my first discovery and announcement, in 1822, of
supposed birds' bones in the strata of Tilgate Forest. Some of these
relics were declared by Baron Cuvier, and subsequently by Professor
Owen, to be unquestionably those of birds; probably some species of
waders. But recent observations have rendered it doubtful whether
all the specimens of this class from the Wealden, like those from
Stonesfield, are not to be regarded as referable to flying reptiles
(Pterodactyles).[89]

[Footnote 89: Wonders of Geology, vol. i. p. 438, 440. I still think
it probable, however, that bones of birds will be detected among the
Wealden fossils.]

In the chalk of Kent several bones of a very large flying animal
have been obtained from a quarry at Burham, near Maidstone; some of
these are figured and described in Professor Owen's beautiful work
on British Fossil Mammals and Birds, as those of a bird allied to
the Albatross; but the occurrence in the same quarry of jaws with
teeth, and other undoubted remains of a gigantic Pterodactyle,[90]
and the absence in the specimens figured of osteological characters
exclusively ornithic, seem to support the conclusion that these also
must be ascribed to flying reptiles.

[Footnote 90: These fossils are in the splendid museum of J. S.
Bowerbank, Esq. of Highbury Grove, Islington.]

In the most ancient tertiary strata unquestionable vestiges of birds
occur; in the Sub-Himalaya eocene deposits, they are associated with
bones of the extinct elephantine mammalia of India; in those of the
Paris basin with the remains of the Palæotheria, &c. In the miocene
and pliocene formations, the bones and even egg-shells of several
species and genera have been detected. The remains of birds, however,
even in comparatively recent deposits, were of such rare occurrence
as to be ranked by the collector of fossils among the most precious
of his acquisitions; but a few years ago, a most extraordinary
discovery in our Antipodean colony. New Zealand, astonished and
delighted the palæontologist, by placing before him hundreds of bones
of numerous extinct genera of birds, some of which far exceed in
magnitude those of the most gigantic living species, the Ostrich.

In various localities of the maritime districts of New Zealand,
there had been observed in the beds of rivers and streams, fossil
bones of birds of colossal magnitude, belonging to many species and
several genera, associated with similar relics of smaller species.
These bones had attracted the attention of the natives long ere the
country was visited by Europeans; and traditions are rife among the
New Zealanders that this race formerly existed in great numbers, and
served as food to their remote ancestors. They also believe that some
of the largest species have been seen alive within the memory of man;
and even affirm that individuals still exist in the unfrequented and
inaccessible parts of the interior of the country. They call the bird
_Moa_, and state that its head and tail were adorned with magnificent
plumes of feathers, which were worn by their ancient chiefs as
ornaments of distinction.

Nine years since, a fragment of a thigh-bone of a bird larger than
that of the Ostrich was brought to England by Mr. Rule, and submitted
to the examination of Professor Owen, who pronounced it to belong
to a gigantic bird of the _Struthious_ (Ostrich) order. A few years
afterwards several collections of vertebræ, bones of the extremities,
&c. were transmitted to England by Messrs. Williams, Wakefield,
Earle, &c., which corroborated that opinion, and proved that there
formerly existed in the islands of New Zealand, colossal birds of a
type distinct from any known in other parts of the world. In 1846
and 1847, my eldest son, Mr. Walter Mantell, who has resided in New
Zealand several years, made an extensive and highly interesting
collection of these fossil remains, which arrived in England in 1848.
This series contains _skulls_, with the _mandibles or beaks_, bones
of other parts of the skeleton, and _portions of the egg-shells_, of
several extinct species and genera of birds; presenting remarkable
deviations from the previously known types to which they are most
nearly allied.

This valuable accession to our knowledge of the osteology of this
extinct race of Ostrich-like birds--some individuals of which must
have attained a height of from ten to twelve feet--has yielded
important results as to the form, structure, and economy, of these
colossal bipeds, and the prevailing characters of the terrestrial
fauna of New Zealand in very remote periods. The collection,
consisting of above 700 specimens, is now in the British Museum: it
was obtained chiefly from a bed of _menaccanite_ or titaniferous
iron-sand, that had evidently been washed down by torrents from
the volcanic region of Mount Egmont; that snow-capped ridge which
forms so striking a feature in the physical geography of the North
Island, and is the source of the fresh-water streams that discharge
themselves into the ocean along the western shore. The tract of sand
from which my son dug up these relics, is on the coast near the
embouchure of a small river called Waingongoro, between Wanganui
and Waimate. That stream evidently once flowed into the sea far
from its present course, for lines of cliffs extend inland from
the now dry sand-spit, and bear marks of the erosive action of
currents.[91] A few months since, I received from my son another
most interesting collection of fossil bones (comprising above 500
specimens), chiefly obtained from the eastern shores of the Middle
Island of New Zealand, when engaged as Government Commissioner for
the settlement of native claims. These were dug up from a morass of
small extent, lying in a little creek or bay at Waikouaiti, some
twenty miles north of Otago. This swamp, which is only visible at low
water, is composed of vegetable fibres (apparently of the _Phormium
tenax_), sand, and animal matter. The bones are of a deep brown
colour, and almost as fresh as if recently taken from a tar-pit.
Among the specimens are crania and mandibles, and bones of enormous
size. The most remarkable are _the entire series of phalangeals, and
the two tarso-metatarsals_, (26 in number,) _of the right and left
foot of the same individual bird_ (_Dinornis robustus_), which were
found standing erect, one a yard in advance of the other; as if the
bird had sunk into the mire, and unable to extricate itself, had
perished on the spot. These bones were carefully exhumed and numbered
seriatim, and are the only instances of the bones of the foot and
metatarsus found in natural connexion; they are, consequently, the
first certain examples known of the structure of the feet of the
colossal birds of New Zealand. The foot of the Moa, to which these
bones belonged, must have been 16 inches long, and 18 inches wide;
and the height of the bird about ten feet. (_See the Frontispiece._)

[Footnote 91: I must refer for details to the Quarterly Journal of
the Geological Society, No. XV. August 1848.]

It would extend this article far beyond the limits assigned to this
work, were I to attempt even a cursory account of all the facts and
inferences connected with these discoveries. The anatomical and
physiological characters of many species and genera will be found in
the admirable Memoirs on the _Dinornis_, _Palapteryx_, _Notornis_,
&c. by Prof. Owen, in the Transactions of the Zoological Society.[92]

[Footnote 92: I regret to state that the egg-shells, and many
highly interesting bones, belonging to unknown genera of birds,
from Rangatapu or Waingongoro, in my son's first collection, remain
undescribed. My notes and observations on the geological position of
the ossiferous deposits of the North Island of New Zealand, derived
from the sketches and letters of Mr. Walter Mantell, are published in
the Geological Journal; those on his collection of fossils from the
Middle Island will appear in the same publication in the course of
the present year (1850).]

From the facts at present known as to the position of the ossiferous
deposits of New Zealand, there is reason to conclude that they
bear the same relation to the present state of the country, as the
alluvial loam and clay containing the bones of mammoths, Irish
Elks, &c. to that of Great Britain. I think we may safely infer
that at a period geologically recent, but historically very remote,
those islands were densely peopled by tribes of ostrich-like birds
of species and genera which have long since become extinct; that
many species existed contemporary with the Maories or native human
inhabitants, and that the last of the family were exterminated, like
the Irish Elk, and the Dodo, by man. If, as the natives affirm,
some of the race still exist in the unfrequented parts of the
country, they are probably diminutive species, like the Apteryx
or _Kivi-Kivi_, which is the only living representative known to
naturalists, of this once numerous tribe of colossal Struthionidæ.
The only fossil osseous remains from New Zealand not referable to
birds are bones of two species of Seals, and one femur and a few
other bones of a Dog. Associated with the relics of the Dinornis
and other extinct genera, and unquestionably coeval with them, are
crania, mandibles, and other bones, of the living species of Apteryx,
Albatross, Penguin, Notornis, Nestor, Water-hen, &c.

The fragments of egg-shells of Dinornis, from Rangatapu, belong to
three distinct types, each of very large size; my son, to convey an
idea of the magnitude of one egg, of which he dug up a large portion,
says, "a gentleman's hat would make a capital egg-cup for it." The
markings on the surface of the shells bear a greater resemblance to
those on the eggs of the Rhea and Cassowary than of the Ostrich.

A remarkable fact mentioned by my son throws some light as to the
comparatively recent extirpation of the Moa. In one spot the natives
pointed out some little mounds covered with herbage, as consisting of
heaps of ashes and bones, the refuse of the fires and feasts left by
their remote ancestors. Upon digging into them, a quantity of burnt
bones was discovered: these belonged to Man, Moa, and Dog, and were
promiscuously intermingled. These calcined bones present no traces
whatever either of the earthy powder or manaccanite sand which the
cells and pores of the fossil bones invariably contain. If, as the
natives affirm, these are the rejectamenta of the feasts of the
aborigines, the practice of cannibalism by the New Zealanders must
have been of very ancient date, and could not have originated, as
Professor Owen supposed, from the want of animal food in consequence
of the extirpation of the colossal birds. (See _ante_, p. xi.)

IV. Botanical arrangement of Fossil Vegetables.--Mr. Artis, in the
Introduction of his work, offers some judicious observations as
to the proper method in which the study of Fossil Botany should
be pursued. He remarks, "that from the imperfect state in which
fossil vegetables are generally found, the ordinary characters by
which recent plants are referred to their congeners, can scarcely
ever be detected in them. The sexual organs on which the systems of
Linnæus and Jussieu are founded, and even the integuments of those
organs while in the state of flowering, have uniformly perished. The
external parts of the seed or fruit exist, indeed, in a fossil state,
but they are almost always insulated from the other organs. If leaves
are found, it is almost certain that scarcely any portion of the stem
will be attached to them; if the external parts of a trunk, then very
rarely any vestiges of the branches and foliage. And when traces
of the internal structure can be discovered, it is seldom that the
external character of the stem remains.

"In consequence of this deficiency of the essential characters on
which the determinations of the botanist are founded, there exists
a necessity for examining more minutely and accurately than has yet
been done, the internal structure of recent plants; their habits of
growth, the cicatrices or scars left on the stem by the leaves that
are spontaneously shed, the different appearances which their fruits
exhibit in their various stages of development--all these points must
be minutely studied before we can obtain any certainty as to the
identity of fossil and living species of plants.

"It is not by publishing detached and unconnected delineations and
descriptions of fossil plants, as they occasionally occur, that
the knowledge of them can be considerably promoted. A systematic
arrangement must be formed; and the first step to this is the
accurate determination of the species. _Hoc opus, hic labor est._"

"It will be seen," he observes, "in the course of this work, how
easy it would be to imagine parts of the same specimen to be
different species, when they happen to be broken and dispersed. I can
confidently assert, that in at least a thousand different specimens
which I have had in my possession, not more than a hundred distinct
species can be recognised. Furthermore, still fewer indeed can be
referred to any living species; for it is not the fern-like leaf of
a plant, the palm-like cicatrix, or the cane-like joint of a stem,
that will suffice to identify them with those tribes of the vegetable
kingdom. The whole anatomy of the plant must be studied. The subject
has, indeed, been begun by Professor Martins, in his comparison
of certain fossil stems of plants with those of the living plants
growing in the Brazils, but the study is as yet too new to afford
certain results. Accordingly, several of that professor's opinions
are at variance with those of M. Adolphe Brongniart, who has also
compared the recent and fossil vegetables together on this plan.
But by following up the comparison, which has been so successfully
adopted by Baron Cuvier, in the study of fossil animals,[93] similar
results may be expected, and a knowledge of the extinct plants be at
length attained."

[Footnote 93: Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles.]

Mr. Artis then gives an abstract of the systems of Baron Schlotheim,
Count Sternberg, Professor Martins, and M. Adolphe Brongniart, which
I am Induced to subjoin as a useful record of the state of fossil
botany twelve years ago:--

"The Baron Schlotheim, who published in 1804 the first part of a
Flora der Vorwelt, followed up his researches of this kind by a
catalogue of his cabinet, under the title of 'Die Petrefactenkunde
auf ihrem jetzigen Standpunkte erläutert,' published in 1820, to
which two Appendices have since been added in 1822 and 1823.

"The arrangement made by the Baron, so far as regards the vegetable
part of his cabinet, is as follows. His specimens are first divided
into five Sections, or Orders:--

1. Dendrolithes, containing the remains of trees, which are
subdivided into three sub-sections.

A. _Lithoxylites_, of which no characters are given, but from the
specimens mentioned by him, he evidently arranges in this place the
wood-stone and wood-opal of the mineralogists.

B. _Lithanthracites_, in which are placed the bituminized stems, and
other parts of trees.

C. _Bibliolithes_.--Fossil leaves, mostly of the later formations.

2. Botanolithes.--Comprising those kinds of fossil plants which
cannot be considered either as trees or shrubs, nor as belonging to
the plants of the old coal formation.

All the specimens belonging to the preceding sections are merely
enumerated, and not distinguished by generic and trivial names, as is
the case with the following.

Phytotypolithes.--Fossil plants of the stone-coal formation. These
are divided systematically into genera and species. The genera are as
follow:--

  a. _Palmacites_, containing fifteen species.
  b. _Casuarinites_,    "     five.
  c. _Calamites_,       "     ten.
  d. _Filicites_,       "     twenty-three.
  e. _Lycopodiolithes_, "     five.
  f. _Poacites_,        "     four.

In the whole sixty-two species.

4. Carpolithes.--Of which he enumerates fifteen species as present in
his collection. This division is considered as a genus, as is also
the next.

5. Anthotypolithes.--The cabinet contains only one species, namely
the _Anthotypolithes ranunculiformis_."

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1820, Gaspard Count Sternberg published in German, the first
number of a work which has been translated by the Comte de Bray,
under the title of "Essai d'un Exposé Geognostico-Botanique de la
Flore du Monde Primitif." Of this translation a second and third part
appeared in 1823 and 1824. In these successive numbers the Count
has communicated the state of his knowledge as it grew up under his
hands, in consequence of his own labours and those of his friend,
Baron Schlotheim. The genera, as they are successively developed in
the work, are the following:--

  1. _Lepidodendron._--Stem scaly; the scales leaf-bearing, surrounding
       the stem spirally. In a subsequent number, what are here called
       scales, are denominated scale-like cicatrices.

This genus is subdivided in the first number into two sub-genera, but
this division is not noticed in the additional species quoted in the
succeeding numbers.

  _Lepidotæ._--Scales convex.

  _Alveolariæ._--Scales sub-concave.

  2. _Variolariæ._--Stem shield-bearing, or warty; shields leaf-bearing,
       surrounding the stem spirally.

  3. _Calamitæ._--Stem striated, intercepted with sutures at the
       articulations.

  4. _Syringodendron._--Stem arborescent, in the form of pipes agglutinated
       together, with naked glandules surrounding the stem spirally.

In the second number the following genera are given:--

  5. _Rhytidolepis._--Stem arborescent, streaked longitudinally with
       elevated wrinkles; shields surrounding the stem spirally.

  6. _Flabellaria._--Leaves part stalked, divided and expanded like a fan.

  7. _Schlotheimia._--Stem jointed, contracted at the articulation,
       verticillate.

  8. _Annularia._--Leaves disposed in a whirl, inserted in a proper ring.

  9. _Nœggerathia._--Stem as thick as a goose-quill; leaves alternate,
       approximate, reverse-ovate, half embracing the stem,
       pectinato-toothed at the top, the remainder of the edge uncut.

  10. _Osmunda._   } This and the following have no generic characters
  11. _Asplenium._ }   assigned to them, the recent genera being referred
                       to.

  12. _Rotularia._--Leaves verticillate, expanded in the form of a small
                      wheel.

The third number contains the following additional genera:--

  13. _Lepidolepis._--Scale-like cicatrices truncated at their top.

  14. _Thuites_, of which he gives no characters, but refers to his
                   figures.

  15. _Antholites._

  16. _Carpolites._

  17. _Conites._--Fossil strobili.

  18. _Sphenopteris._

  19. _Polypodiolithus._

  20. _Myriophyllites._

  21. _Phyllites._

  22. _Algacites_, which the French translator, on obtaining the opinion
        of Professor Agardh, has changed into _Sargassum_; that celebrated
        algologist having considered it as identically the same as that
        genus of recent algæ.

The genera thus successively established, may be arranged in the
following order:--

  A. Fossil plants of unknown origin, in which the stem is large, and forms
       the only, or at least the most prominent character; including,
       1. _Lepidodendron_; 2. _Variolaria_; 3. _Calamites_;
       4. _Syringodendron_; 5. _Rhytidolepis_; 13. _Lepidolepis_.

  B. Fossil plants, of unknown origin, in which the leaves form the
       prominent character; including, 6. _Flabellaria_; 7. _Schlotheimia_;
       8. _Annularia_; 9. _Nœggerathia_; 12. _Rotularia_.

  C. Fossil parts of unknown plants; including, 15, _Antholites_;
       16. _Carpolites_; 17. _Conites_.

  D. Fossil plants, or parts of plants referable to living types; including,
       10. _Osmunda_; 11. _Asplenium_; 14. _Thuites_; 18. _Sphenopteris_;
       19. _Polypodiolites_; 20. _Myriophyllites_; 22. Algacites.

       *       *       *       *       *

In November 1821, Professor Martins read to the Botanical Society of
Ratisbon, a paper which was afterwards published in its Memoirs for
1822. This paper was entitled, "_De Plantis nonnullis Antediluvianis
ope specierum inter tropicos viventium illustrandis_;" in it several
of the species mentioned by Baron Schlotheim and Count Sternberg are
referred to the orders and genera of recent plants; and the following
genera are proposed:--

  1. _Filicites_, analogous to the Arborescent ferns.

  2. _Palmacites_, analogous to the Palmæ.

  3. _Bambusites_, analogous to Bambusia, and other arborescent grasses;
       these are the _Calamites_ of other authors.

  4. _Yuccites_, analogous to the Cuciphoræ, Dracenæ, Pandani, Yuccæ, and
       Velloriæ, of botanical writers.

  5. _Cactites_, analogous to the Cacti.

  6. _Euphorbites_, analogous to the Cereiform species of Euphorbia.

  7. _Lychnophorites_, analogous to _Lychnophora_, a genus of plants found
       by Martius in Brazil, which belongs to the order of the Compositæ,
       and is allied to the _Vernoniæ_ of Linnæus and the _Pollalestæ_ of
       Humboldt.

       *       *       *       *       *

M. Adolphe Brongniart has given the following classification
of fossil plants, in his Essay "_Sur la Classification et la
Distribution de Végétaux Fossiles_" inserted in the "Mémoires du
Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle;" and also printed separately in quarto,
Paris, 1822:--


STEMS.


Class I.--Stems whose internal organization is recognisable.

  1. Exogenites.--Wood formed of regular concentric layers.

  2. Endogenites.--Wood composed of insulated bundles of vessels, which are
       more numerous towards the circumference than at the centre.


Class II.--Stems whose internal organization is no longer distinct,
but which are characterised by their external form.

  3. Culmites.--Stem jointed, smooth; a single impression at each
       articulation.[94]

  4. Calamites.--Stem jointed, regularly striated; impressions rounded,
       small, numerous, forming a ring round each articulation, or
       sometimes wanting.[95]

  5. Syringodendron.--Stem channelled, not jointed; impressions dot-like
       or linear, arranged in quincunx.[96]

  6. Sigillaria.--Stem channelled, not jointed; impressions in the form of
       disks, arranged in quincunx.

  7. Clathraria.--Stem neither channelled, nor jointed; impressions in the
       form of rounded disks, disposed in quincunx.[97]

  8. Sagenaria.--Stem without joints, or furrows, covered with conical
       rhomboidal tubercles disposed in quincunx, having at their upper
       extremity an impression in the form of a disk.[98]

  9. Stigmaria.--Stem without joints, or furrows; impressions rounded,
       distant, disposed in quincunx.[99]

[Footnote 94: These stems appear to M. Brongniart to belong to the
arborescent grasses, to _Calamus_ or its allied genera.]

[Footnote 95: M. de Candolle suggested to M. Brongniart that these
stems belong to some plants of the natural order of Equisetaceæ.]

[Footnote 96: M. Brongniart considers these remains to belong to
genera which are entirely extinct.]

[Footnote 97: M. Brongniart shows in his paper the great agreement
between these two genera, and the stems of ferns, in every respect
excepting magnitude, and considers them as evidently owing their
origin to plants of that natural order rather than to the palms.]

[Footnote 98: The stems of this genus are referable, in the opinion
of M. Brongniart, to those of plants belonging to the family of
_Lycopodiaceæ_, notwithstanding the great difference of size between
them and those of the recent plants of that natural order.]

[Footnote 99: These stems, M. Brongniart supposes, belong rather to
plants of the natural order of _Aroideæ_, than to the _Euphorbiaceæ_,
or to the Palms to which they have been ascribed by other authors.]

FOLIAGE.

  10. Lycopodites.--Leaves linear, or setaceous, without ribs, or traversed
        by a single rib, inserted all round the stem, or in a double row.

This genus is subdivided into four sections, as follow:--

  _a._ Leaves narrow, lanceolate, inserted in a regular manner all round a
         stem having the characters of Sagenaria.

  _b._ Leaves setaceous, inserted in a double row only; stem not reticulated.
         These he considers as the proper Lycopodites.

  _c._ Leaves broad, without any apparent ribs, inserted irregularly all
         round the stem. These differ much from the rest of the genus.

  _d._ Leaves blunt, short, closely applied to the stem.


Class III.--11. Filicites.--Frond disposed on a flat surface,
symmetrical; secondary rib simple, forked, or rarely anastomosing.

These are divided Into five sub-genera:--

  _a._ _Glossopteris._--Frond simple, not jagged, traversed by a single
         mid-rib, without distinct secondary ribs.

  _b._ _Sphenopteris._--Pinnules wedge-shaped, rounded or lobed at the
         extremity; ribs palmate or radiating from the base of the pinnule.

  _c._ _Neuropteris._--Pinnules rounded, not lobed, nor adhering to the
         rachis by their base; ribs scarcely visible beyond the base, in
         general very distinct, and two-forked.

  _d._ _Pecopteris._--Frond pinnatifid; pinnules adherent by their base to
         the rachis, traversed by a mid-rib; secondary ribs pinnate.

  _e._ _Odontopteris._--Pinnules adhering to the rachis by the whole of their
         base; mid-rib none; secondary ribs running out perpendicularly from
         the rachis.

  12. Sphœnophyllites.--Leaves verticillate, wedge-shaped, truncate; ribs
        radiating, two-forked.[100]

  13. Asterophyllites.--Leaves verticillate, with a single rib.[101]

  14. Fucoides.--Frond not symmetrical, often disposed on a flat surface;
        ribs none, or badly defined.

  15. Phyllites.--Leaves with ribs well defined, repeatedly divided, or
        anastomosing.[102]

  16. Poacites.--Leaves linear; ribs parallel.

  17. Palmacites.--Leaves fan-shape.

[Footnote 100: M. Brongniart considers these to belong to some
extinct genus of plants, allied to, although perfectly distinct from,
the recent genus _Marsilea_.]

[Footnote 101: These the author thinks are the remains of an extinct
genus of plants.]

[Footnote 102: The character of the ribs here given belongs
exclusively to leaves of plants of the dicotyledonous tribe; as those
of the next genus _Poacites_ equally restricts them to the other
great tribe of monocotyledonous plants.]


Class IV. _Organs of fructification._

Order I. Carpolithes.--Fruits or seeds.

Order II. Antholithes.--Flowers.[103]

[Footnote 103: These orders are too little known to be divided at
present into genera.]

The numerous additions and modifications, which subsequent experience
and discoveries have led M. Brongniart to introduce into his
classification, will be found in an article recently published (1849)
in the "Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire Naturelle," under the title
of "Tableau des Genres de Végétaux Fossiles, considérés sous le point
de vue de leur classification botanique et de leur distribution
géologique."


V. Fossil Cephalopoda, Nautilus, Ammonite, &c.--The fossil remains
of the molluscous animals, named _Cephalopoda_, from their organs
of prehension being arranged around the head or upper part of the
body, are the most ancient, numerous, and interesting, of this class
of animated nature in the mineral kingdom. These relics are among
the most varied and striking of the extinct beings that occur in
the sedimentary strata, from the most ancient secondary formations,
to the most recent tertiary. The living species are but a feeble
representation of the countless myriads which must have swarmed in
the ancient seas.

The animal of the Cephalopods is composed of a body, which is either
enclosed in a shell, as in the Nautilus, or contains a calcareous
osselet or support, as in the Sepia or Cuttle-fish; it has a distinct
head, and eyes as perfect as in the vertebrated animals, with
complicated organs of hearing, and a powerful masticating apparatus,
surrounded by arms or tentacula. Below the head there is a tube which
acts as a locomotive instrument, to propel the animal backwards, by
the forcible ejection of the water that has served the purpose of
respiration, and which can be ejected with considerable force by the
contraction of the body.

Their fossil remains consist of the external shell and the internal
osselet; and in the naked tribes, of the soft parts of the body,
the ink-bag, &c., as noticed in the account of the Belemnite and
Belemnoteuthis.

The shell varies exceedingly in the different genera. In the group
characterised by smooth septa, and a medial or submedial siphuncle,
as the Nautilus, the earliest or most ancient type is straight, as in
the _Orthoceras_ (Plate LVIII. fig. 14) of the palæozoic formations;
the intermediate forms present various modifications of the spiral,
and terminate in the completely discoidal shell of the living genus;
while the other group, that with sinuous or foliated septa and a
dorsal siphuncle, commences in a discoidal type--the Ammonite, which
gradually passes through the various modifications of _Crioceras_,
_Scaphites_ (Plate LXI. fig. 10), _Hamites_ (Plate LXI. fig. 3),
_Turrilites_ (Plate LXI. fig. 12), &c.; and finally becomes extinct
in the straight Baculites (Plate LX. fig. 2).

In argillaceous strata, as the Kimmeridge and Oxford clay, London
clay, &c., the shells of Cephalopoda are oftentimes beautifully
preserved; the chambers are frequently filled with the solid matrix,
but in many instances these cavities are lined either with brilliant
pyrites or spar. Stony or sparry casts of the cells or chambers, the
shell having perished, are another common state in which vestiges of
these animals occur. Sometimes the cast of each chamber is isolated,
so as to present a series from the innermost to the outermost
cell. Sections of those casts, in which the chambers are filled up
with spar, constitute specimens of great beauty and interest. The
so-called snake-stones are, of course, mere casts of Ammonites;[104]
those of Whitby, from the lias limestone, are well known to every
collector; the casts of a very large species are common in the
oolite, especially at Swindon, in Wiltshire, and in the neighbourhood
of Bath.


VI. The Carboniferous Deposits, or Coal Measures.--The various
deposits of Coal have manifestly been formed under different local
circumstances. Some have been peat-bogs, to which repeated additions
have been made by successive subsidences of the land; others have
been deposited at the bottom of lakes and rivers, and these are
associated with remains of fresh-water shells and Crustacea; others
have accumulated in the abyss of the ocean, having been formed by
the drifting and engulfing of immense rafts of trees and other
vegetable matter, like those of the Mississippi; others in inland
seas, the successive layers of vegetables having been supplied by
periodical land-floods. There can be no doubt that coal has been,
and may be, produced under all these conditions; and at different
periods, and in various localities, all these causes may have been in
operation. But the great series of ancient coal-formations present
a remarkable uniformity of character, not only throughout Europe,
but also in America and other parts of the world. A coal-field (as
a group of strata of this kind is commonly termed), is generally
composed of a series of layers of coal, clay, shale, and sand, of
variable thicknesses, based on grit or limestone, abounding in marine
shells and corals; and the most remarkable phenomenon is the constant
presence _beneath_ every bed of coal, of a thick stratum of earthy
clay, and of a layer of shale or slaty clay above it. One of the
series of triple deposits of which a coal-field consists, presents
therefore the following characters:--

1. _Under-clay_; the lowermost stratum. This is a tough argillaceous
earth or clay, which on drying becomes of a grey colour, and
very friable; it is occasionally black, from an intermixture of
carbonaceous matter. This bed almost invariably contains an abundance
of _Stigmariæ_ (see Plates XXII. XXIII.), of considerable length,
with their rootlets attached, and which extend in every direction
through the clay (as shown in the figures 1, 2, 6, pp. 199, 201).
These roots commonly lie parallel with the planes of the stratum, and
nearer to the top than to the bottom.

2. _Coal._--A carbonized mass, in which the external forms of the
plants and trees composing it are obliterated, but the internal
structure, in many instances, remains. Large trunks, and stems, and
leaves, are rarely found in it.

3. _The Roof_, or upper bed.--This consists of slaty clay, abounding
in leaves, trunks and branches, fruit, &c.; it includes layers and
nodules of ironstone, inclosing leaves, insects, Crustacea, &c. In
some localities beds of fresh-water shells, in others of marine
shells, are intercalated with the shale; finely laminated clay,
micaceous sand, grit, and pebbles of limestone, sandstone, &c. are
also often interstratified. The principal illustrative specimens of
the leaves, fruit, &c. (as those in Plate XXX. to Plate XXXIV.) are
found in this bed.

Thus an uninterrupted series of strata, in which triple deposits of
this kind are repeated, (often thirty or forty times, and through
a thickness of several thousand feet,) constitutes the predominant
character of the ancient coal formations wherever they have been
explored. The difficulties attending a satisfactory solution of
this problem, are fully stated in the last edition of my Wonders of
Geology (Vol. ii. Lecture vii.), and to that work I must refer the
reader for a more extended consideration of this highly interesting
subject.

[Footnote 104: See Medals of Creation, vol. ii. chap. i.; and
Thoughts on a Pebble, pp. 20, 69.]


VII. Coal.--The numerous fossil plants from the carboniferous strata
that are figured in this work, render it necessary to put the general
reader in possession of a concise view of the nature and mode of
formation of those ancient accumulations of vegetable matter, which
now constitute the beds of mineral fuel termed coal.

Although at the present time no one at all conversant with geology
doubts the vegetable origin of Coal, the period is not distant when
many eminent philosophers were sceptical on this point; and the
truth in this, as in most other questions In natural philosophy,
was established with difficulty. The experiments and observations
of the late Dr. Macculloch mainly contributed to solve the problem
as to the vegetable origin of this substance; and that eminent
geologist successfully traced the transition of vegetable matter
from peat-wood, brown coal, lignite, and jet, to coal, anthracite,
graphite, and plumbago. Nor must the important labours of Mr.
Parkinson in this field of research be forgotten. The first volume of
the "Organic Remains of a former World," which treats of vegetable
fossils, contains much original and valuable information on the
transmutation of vegetable matter, by bituminous fermentation, into
the various mineral substances in which its original nature and
structure are altogether changed and obliterated; and that work may
still be consulted with advantage by the student.

But though the vegetable origin of all coal will not admit of
question, yet evidence of the original structure of the plants or
trees whence it was derived is not always attainable. The most
perfect coal seems to have undergone a complete liquefaction, and
if any portions of the vegetable tissue remain, they appear as
if imbedded in a pure bituminous mass. The slaty coal generally
preserves traces of cellular or vascular tissue, and the spiral
vessels and dotted cells of coniferous trees may often be detected
by the microscope. In many instances the cells are filled with an
amber-coloured resinous substance; in others the organization is so
well preserved, that on the surface of a block of coal cracked by
heat, the vascular tissue, and the dotted glands, may be observed.
Some beds of coal appear to be wholly composed of minute leaves or
disintegrated foliage; for if a mass recently extracted from the
mine be split asunder, the exposed surfaces are found covered with
delicate laminæ of carbonized leaves and fibres matted together;
and flake after flake may be peeled off through a thickness of many
inches, and the same structure be apparent. Rarely are any large
trunks or branches observable in the beds of coal; but the general
appearance of the carboniferous mass is that of an immense deposit of
delicate foliage shed and accumulated in a forest, and consolidated
by great pressure while undergoing that peculiar process by which
vegetable matter is converted into carbon.

The essential conditions for the transmutation of vegetable
substances into coal, appear to be the imbedding of large quantities
of recent vegetables beneath deposits which shall exclude the air,
and prevent the escape of the gaseous elements when released by
decomposition from their organic combination; hence, according as
these conditions have been more or less perfectly fulfilled, coal,
jet, lignite, brown-coal, peat-wood, &c. will be the result.


VIII. Fossil Corals.--The real nature even of recent Corals is in
general so imperfectly understood by the intelligent reader who has
not paid especial attention to the department of natural history
which treats of the class of animated nature termed Zoophytes, that
in describing the Fossil Corals In my Wonders of Geology, I felt
it necessary to devote one Lecture to the consideration of Corals
and Crinoidea, in order to afford a popular exposition of the
structure and economy of these highly Interesting tribes of animal
existence.[105]

[Footnote 105: See Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. Lect. vi. p. 588.]

A very prevalent error regarding their nature Is, that the beautiful
stony substances generally called corals, are fabricated by the
animalcules which inhabit the cells when living, in the same manner
as is the honeycomb of the bee and wasp. This opinion is utterly
erroneous: the coral is secreted by the integuments or membranes with
which when recent it was invested and permeated; in like manner as
are the bones of the skeleton in the higher orders of animals by the
tissues designed for that especial purpose, and wholly without the
cognisance or control of the creature of which they constitute the
internal support.

A general idea of the nature of the compound coral-zoophytes may be
obtained by the examination of the common _Flustra_ or Sea-mat. This
form of polyparia, when taken out of the water, appears to the naked
eye like a patch of fine varnished net-work, adhering to a piece of
sea-weed or stone; when viewed with a magnifying lens of moderate
power, the surface is found beset with pores regularly disposed:
and if the Flustra be examined while immersed in sea-water, its
surface is seen to be invested by a gelatinous substance, and every
pore is the aperture of a cell, whence issues a tube fringed at the
extremity with long tentacula or feelers. These expand, then suddenly
contract, withdraw into the cell, and again issue forth: the whole
surface of the Flustra being studded with the hydra-like animalcules;
each enjoying a distinct existence, the entire group being united
by one common integument or calcareous frame-work. When the Flustra
is exposed to the air, the polypes soon perish, the animal matter
rapidly decomposes, and the calcareous lace-like skeleton alone
remains. In the larger and more compact corals the phenomena are
similar, differing only in degree. In a fossil state, the durable
remains of the corals consist for the most part of the calcareous
frame-work (or polyparium, as it is termed), which often possesses a
crystalline structure; and in some instances is completely transmuted
into silex, as in specimens from Antigua, the Falls of the Ohio, and
from Tisbury in Wiltshire. (See Plate XXXVIII. figs. 12, 13.)

I must refer to the Wonders of Geology for a more extended notice
of fossil corals, and other zoophytes, and will only add that the
calcareous and siliceous spines or spicula, not only of sponges, but
also of Gorgoniæ, and other corals, are often met with in a fossil
state.[106]

[Footnote 106: See Wonders of Geology, vol. ii. Lect. vi. p. 634.]


IX. Cuvier's Discoveries. _The Fossil Quadrupeds of Montmartre._
(Plate LXXII.)--The Palæotheria, Anoplotheria, and other genera of
extinct quadrupeds related to the _Tapir_, whose remains were first
noticed in the gypseous limestone of Montmartre, near Paris, and
which have since been found in many other localities of the same
strata, are familiar to every one, from the just celebrity attached
to the labours of the illustrious Cuvier, who restored as it were
these lost denizens of an earlier world, in their native character
and forms, and distinguished them by names long since become
classical in the sciences which treat of the ancient history of the
earth and its inhabitants.

The gypsum quarries spread over the flanks of Montmartre were many
years since known to contain fossil bones of extinct quadrupeds, and
some of these had been figured and described in 1768 by Guettard,
and afterwards by Pralon, Lamanon, and Parumot: but it was not till
the attention of M. Cuvier was directed to the subject by some
specimens put into his hands by M. Vuarin, that the interest and
importance of these fossils were understood. The curiosity of Baron
Cuvier was so much excited by an inspection of a large collection
of these bones, soon after he had been successfully engaged in the
investigation of the remains of fossil Elephants and Mastodons,
that he immediately began to obtain specimens from the quarries,
and by liberally rewarding the workmen, and by unremitting personal
research, he soon accumulated an immense quantity of bones of all
sorts, belonging to numerous individuals. He now perceived that
a new world was open to his view: and to use his own expressive
language, he found himself in an ancient charnel-house, surrounded
by a confused multitude of mangled skeletons of a great variety of
unknown beings. To arrange each fragment in its proper place, and
restore order to these heterogeneous materials, seemed at first a
hopeless task: but a knowledge of the immutable laws by which the
organization of animal existence is governed, soon enabled him to
assign to each bone, and even fragment, its proper place in the
skeleton; and the forms of beings hitherto unseen by mortal eye
appeared before him. "I cannot," he exclaims, "express my delight in
finding how the application of one principle was instantly followed
by the most triumphant results. The essential character of a tooth
and its relation to the skull being determined, all the other
elements of the fabric immediately fell into their proper places; and
the vertebra, ribs, bones of the legs, thigh, and feet, seemed to
arrange themselves even without my bidding, and in the very manner
I had predicted." The principles of the correlation of structure
which his profound researches in comparative anatomy had enabled
him to establish, conducted to these important results, and laid
the foundation of that science which has since received the name of
Palæontology.[107] The mode of induction adopted by this illustrious
philosopher, has been the mighty instrument by which subsequent
labourers in this department of science have so largely contributed
to our knowledge of the ancient condition of the earth, and of the
structure and economy of the tribes of beings which have successively
dwelt upon it. The examination of the fossil teeth (in Plate LXXII.
figs. 4-9) showed that the animals were herbivorous; and the crown
of the tooth being composed of two or three simple crescents, as in
certain pachydermata, proved that they differed from the ruminants,
which have double crescents, and each four bands of enamel. The
two principal genera first established were the _Palæotherium_ and
_Anoplotherium_. The first approximates to the Tapirs in the number
and disposition of the teeth; the second is remarkable in having no
projecting canines, and in all the teeth forming a continued series,
as in the human race. Remains of both these genera have been found
in the eocene tertiary strata of the Isle of Wight,[108] and on the
coast of Hampshire.

[Footnote 107: A concise exposition of the Cuvierian inductive
philosophy will be found in Wonders of Geology, pp. 137-147.]

[Footnote 108: See my Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight.
For an account of the fossil animals of Paris, refer to Wonders of
Geology, p. 254.]


X. Fossil Edentata. _Megatherium, and Megalonyx_. (Plates LXXII.
and LXXIII.)--The remains of these and other allied forms of the
extinct gigantic Edentata, which once inhabited South America, occur
in immense quantities throughout the Pampas--those vast plains which
present a sea of waving grass for 900 miles. These plains consist
of alluvial loam and sand, containing fresh-water and marine shells
of existing species; they were evidently once, like Lewes Levels,
a gulf or arm of the sea. Since the publication of Mr. Parkinson's
work, vast numbers of bones have been exhumed, and many most
interesting specimens sent to England by Sir Woodbine Parish, and
Charles Darwin, Esq., in whose charming "Journal of Researches into
the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the
Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World," will be found many highly
graphic notices of the discovery of these remains.[109] Mr. Darwin,
under the head of _Bahia Blanca_,[110] describes the remains of no
less than nine great quadrupeds found imbedded within the space of
200 square yards. They consisted of three heads and other bones
of the _Megatherium_, of enormous dimensions; and bones of the
_Megalonyx_. Of the _Scelidotherium_, an allied animal, Mr. Darwin
obtained an almost perfect skeleton; it must have been as large as a
rhinoceros; in the structure of the head, it approaches nearest the
Cape ant-eater, in other respects it is related to the armadilloes.
Remains of a different species of Mylodon, of another gigantic
edental quadruped, and of a large animal with an osseous dermal coat
in compartments, very like that of the Armadillo. Of this last, which
has been named _Glyptodon_, there is a very fine specimen in the
Hunterian Museum. Teeth and bones of an extinct species of horse,
and of an unknown pachyderm, a huge beast with a long neck like the
camel. Lastly the _Toxodon_ (so named from the remarkable curvature
of the teeth); this is perhaps one of the strangest animals ever
discovered. In size it equals the elephant or megatherium, but the
structure of its teeth shows it to have been intimately related to
the gnawers--the order which at the present day includes the smallest
quadrupeds. In many details it approaches to the pachydermata;
judging from the position of its eyes, it was probably aquatic, like
the Dugong and Manatee, to which it is also allied.

[Footnote 109: Published by Mr. Murray, in one vol. 1845. The
anatomical description of the fossil Edentata brought home by Mr.
Darwin, by Professor Owen, will be found in the "Zoology of the
Voyage of the Beagle."]

[Footnote 110: Mr. Darwin's Journal, chap. v. p. 81.]

The beds containing the above fossil remains, consist of stratified
gravel and reddish mud, and stand only from fifteen to twenty feet
above the level of high water; hence the elevation of the land has
been small since the great quadrupeds wandered over the surrounding
plains; and the external features of the country must then have been
very nearly the same as now.

In another place, Mr. Darwin observes,--"The number of the remains of
these large quadrupeds imbedded in the grand estuary deposit which
forms the Pampas and covers the granitic rocks of Banda Oriental,
must be extraordinarily great. I believe, a straight line drawn in
any direction through the Pampas, would cut through some skeleton
or bones. Besides those which I found during my short excursions, I
heard of many others; and the origin of such names as, 'the stream
of the animal,' 'the hill of the giant,' is obvious. At other times,
I heard of the marvellous property of certain rivers, which had the
power of changing small bones into large; or as some maintained,
the bones themselves grew. As far as I am aware, not one of these
animals perished, as was formerly supposed, in the marshes or
muddy river-beds of the present land, but their bones have been
exposed by the streams intersecting the subaqueous deposit, in
which they were originally imbedded. We may conclude that the whole
area of the Pampas is one wide sepulchre of these extinct gigantic
quadrupeds."[111]

[Footnote 111: Mr. Darwin's Journal, p. 135. The reader interested
in these extraordinary fossil remains should visit the British
Museum, and the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in
Lincoln's Inn Fields.]


XI. Flint.--_Animal Remains in siliceous nodules._--So many
beautiful specimens of siliceous petrifactions--that is, animal and
vegetable remains transmuted into silex or flint--are figured in
the subjoined plates, that it may be useful to offer a few remarks
on this subject.[112] In many instances the organic remains in
chalk-flints are simply incrusted by the silex; such is the state
of numerous sponges which are as it were invested by the flint, and
have all their pores and tubes filled up by the same material, the
original tissue appearing as a brown calcareous substance. In other
examples, the sponge has been enveloped in a mass of liquid flint,
and has subsequently perished and decomposed; in this manner have
been formed those hollow nodules, which on being broken present a
cavity containing only a little white powder, or some fragments of
silicified sponge; in many instances the cavity is lined with quartz
crystals, or mammillated chalcedony. Frequently but part of the
zoophyte is permeated by the silex, and the other portion is in the
state of a friable calcareous earth imbedded in the chalk. Sponges
and other zoophytes often form the nuclei of the flint nodules; the
original substance of the organic body being in general silicified,
and the most delicate internal structure preserved. Shells, corals,
and the minute cases of foraminifera, are often immersed as it were
in pure flint, appearing as if preserved in a semi-transparent medium.

[Footnote 112: See Wonders of Geology, vol. i. pp. 74-105, for a
general view of the process of petrifaction.]

But there are innumerable flint nodules in which no traces of
spongeous tissue are apparent, and veins, dikes, and sheets of
tabular flint, that are in a great measure free from organic remains;
containing only such as may be supposed to have become imbedded in a
stream of fluid silex that flowed over a sea-bottom. Wood perforated
by lithodomi and silicified, is occasionally met with; and fuci or
algæ are sometimes found, appearing as if floating in the liquid
flint.

For the most part, the minute shells in the chalk and flint are
filled with amorphous mineral matter; but in many examples, (as
I have ascertained by direct experiment,) the soft parts of
foraminifera remain in the shell.


XII. Foraminifera.--Plate LXII. contains figures of several species
belonging to various genera of those minute fossil shells, the
discoidal involute forms of which were once considered to belong
to the Cephalopoda, and to be related to the Nautilus, Spirula,
&c., but which are now grouped in one family, under the name of
_Foraminifera_; a term derived from the foramina or perforations with
which their shells are traversed, and which have relation to the
peculiar organization of the animals.

Since microscopic observations have become so general, thanks to
the genius and enthusiasm of Ehrenberg, these fossil bodies have
acquired a degree of interest and importance, unsurpassed by more
obvious organic remains. Whole mountain chains and extensive tracts
of country are now known to be almost entirely composed of the
aggregated shells of a few genera of these _microzoa_.[113] In other
deposits their remains are associated with those of _Infusoria_,[114]
(both animal and vegetable,) still more infinitesimal. As much
error prevails among collectors as to the real nature of the fossil
foraminifera, I am induced to annex the following remarks.[115]

[Footnote 113: A convenient term to express animal organisms that can
only be distinctly examined by the aid of the microscope: strata in a
great measure composed of such fossil remains may be distinguished as
_microzoic_ deposits.]

[Footnote 114: This term was first employed to denote the various
minute forms of animal organization that appear in vegetable
infusions; as Rotifers, Monads, Vorticella, &c. But with these,
numerous vegetable forms generally appear, as Gaillonella,
Bacellaria, Navicula, &c.: these were formerly also regarded as
animals, and were consequently comprised under the same general
appellation.]

[Footnote 115: The best scientific account of these animals will be
found in M. D'Orbigny's work on the "Foraminifères Fossiles du Bassin
Tertiaire de Vienne, (Autriche)." Paris, 1846. 1 vol. 4to, with
plates.]

The foraminifera are marine animals of low organization, and, with
but few exceptions, extremely minute: in an ounce of sea-sand between
three and four millions have been distinctly enumerated. When living,
they are not aggregated, but always individually distinct; they are
composed of a body (or vital mass) of a gelatinous consistence, which
is either entire, and round, or divided into segments, placed either
on a simple or alternate line, or coiled spirally, or involuted
round an axis. This body is covered with an envelope or shell, which
is generally testaceous, rarely cartilaginous, and is modelled on
the segments, and follows all the modifications of form and contour
of the body. From the extremity of the last segment, there issue,
sometimes from one, sometimes from several openings of the shell,
or through numerous pores or foramina, very elongated, slender,
contractile, colourless filaments, more or less divided and ramified,
serving for prehension, and capable of entirely investing the shell.
The body varies in colour, but is always identical in individuals of
the same species,--it is yellow, fawn-coloured, red, violet, blue,
&c. Its consistence is variable; it is composed of minute globules,
the aggregation of which determines the general tint. It is sometimes
entire, round, and without segments, as in _Gromia_, _Orbulina_, &c.,
which represent, at all ages, the embryonic state of all the other
genera. They increase, without doubt, by the entire circumference.
When the body is divided by lobes or segments, the primary lobe,
as in the permanent condition of the Gromia, is at first round or
oval, according to the genus; once formed it never enlarges, but is
enveloped externally by testaceous matter; it may be compared to a
ball on which is applied a second larger one, then a third still
larger, and so on during the life of the animal.

The annexed figure of the animal of _Nummulina_ (as given by MM.
Joly and Leymerie) will serve to convey a general idea of the living
Foraminifera.

[Illustration: THE ANIMAL OF THE NUMMULINA.]

The segments, as the body increases, are agglomerated in six
different ways, and these modifications are the basis of M.
D'Orbigny's classification. The discoidal forms, as the _Rotalia_,
_Rosalina_, _Cristellaria_, &c. are involuted like the nautilus,
and divided by septa or partitions, the different lobes of the body
occupying contemporaneously every chamber, and being connected by a
tube or canal that extends through the entire series. In the spiral
forms, the _Textilaria_, &c. the same structure is apparent. These
two groups are the most abundant in the cretaceous strata; many beds
of the white chalk consist almost wholly of the aggregated shells
of the Rosalinæ, Rotaliæ, and Textilariæ.[116] Whatever the form of
the body, the filaments always consist of a colourless matter as
transparent as glass; they elongate from the base to six times the
diameter of the shell. They often divide and subdivide, so as to
appear branched. Though alike in form in the different genera, they
vary much in their position. In some they form a bundle which issues
from a single opening, and is withdrawn into the same by contraction;
in others the filaments project only through each of the pores in
the shell which covers the last segment; in others they issue from
both the large aperture and the foramina. In fine, these filaments or
pseudopodia fulfil in the foraminifera the functions of the numerous
tentacula in the Asteriadæ, or Star-fishes, serving as instruments of
locomotion and attachment.

[Footnote 116: See Wonders of Geology, p. 299]

Neither organs of nutriment nor of reproduction have been detected.
In the genera having one large aperture from which the filaments
issue and retract, we can conceive nutriment to be absorbed by that
opening; but this cannot be the case in the species which have
the last cell closed up; in these the filaments issuing through
the foramina are probably also organs of nutrition. M. D'Orbigny
considers the Foraminifera as constituting a distinct class in
zoology; less complicated than the Echinoderms and the Polypiaria in
their internal organization, they have by their filaments the mode of
locomotion of the first, and by their free, individual existence--not
aggregated and immovably fixed--they are more advanced in the scale
of being than the latter. To me they appear to be merely hydra-form
polypes of the most simple structure, protected by shells;[117] those
composed of different segments, I conceive to be a single aggregated
individual, and not a successive series of beings.

[Footnote 117: An admirable paper on the "_Polystomella crispa_," by
Mr. Williamson, of Manchester, (Trans. Micros. Society of London,
vol. ii.) should be consulted on this question.]

The white chalk is well known to be largely composed of a few kinds
of foraminifera, but the occurrence of the soft bodies of these
animalcules in a fossil state was first discovered by me, in 1845,
in chalk-flints, and was announced in a paper, read before the
Geological Society, entitled, "_Notes of a Microscopical Examination
of Chalk and Flint_."[118] This statement was regarded by some
eminent palæontologists as so "startling and unsatisfactory," that I
resumed the investigation, and communicated the result to the Royal
Society, in a memoir "_On the Fossil Remains of the Soft Parts of
Foraminifera discovered in the Chalk and Flint of the South-East of
England_;"[119] and with the kind assistance of that able chemist
and microscopist, Mr. Henry Deane, of Clapham Common, I obtained,
by immersing chalk in dilute hydrochloric acid, and mounting the
residue in Canada balsam, several specimens of the entire integuments
of the bodies of Rotaliæ, as distinct as if recent! This fact is
now admitted; and the experiment has been successfully repeated in
India, by Mr. Carter, on the limestones of that country;[120] and in
America, by Dr. Bailey, &c.[121] In some limestone recently collected
by my eldest son, Mr. Walter Mantell, in the Middle Island of New
Zealand, and which, like our cretaceous strata, is almost entirely
made up of foraminifera, I have detected the soft parts of the bodies
of Rotaliæ in the cells of the fossil shells, as distinctly as in the
chalk of England; and two of the species appear to be identical with
European forms.

[Footnote 118: These "Notes" were withdrawn, and published in the
Annals of Natural History for August, 1845.]

[Footnote 119: Published in Philos. Trans. Part iv. for 1846.]

[Footnote 120: "On the existence of Beds of Foraminifera, recent and
fossil, on the South-East of Arabia," by H. J. Carter, Esq. Assistant
Surgeon, Bombay. Proceedings of the Bombay Asiatic Society, 1848.]

[Footnote 121: A remarkable foraminiferous deposit of chalk detritus
occurs at Charing, in Kent, and was first examined and described
by William Harris, Esq.; it contains immense numbers of many kinds
of foraminifera, and of the cases or shells of entomostraca, of
the genus Cytherina, with spicules of sponges, &c.--See Wonders of
Geology, vol. 1. p. 324.]

M. D'Orbigny gives the following summary of the distribution of the
known fossil species of Foraminifera:--

There are 228 species in the Tertiary deposits of Vienna alone, of
which twenty-seven species are known living in the Adriatic and the
Mediterranean.

Foraminifera are unknown in the Silurian and Devonian formations.

One species only is known in the Carboniferous system of Russia, the
_Fusulina cylindrica_.

  Jurassic or Oolitic formation     Genera  5 Species  20
  Cretaceous                           "   34    "    280
  Tertiary                             "   56    "    450
  Living in the present seas           "   68    "  1,000

Of these last, 575 species inhabit tropical seas, 350 the seas of
temperate, and 75 the seas of cold climates.


XIII. Fossil Elk of Ireland, or _Cervus megaloceros_. (Plate
LXXI.)--The shell-marls of Ireland contain in abundance the bones of
an animal, which like the Dodo, was once contemporary with the human
species, but has long been extinct: the last individuals of the race
were, in all probability, exterminated by the early Celtic tribes.
The remains of this noble creature generally occur in the deposits of
marl that underlie the peat-bogs, which are apparently, like those
of Scotland, the sites of ancient lakes or bays. In Curragh immense
quantities of these bones lie within a small area; the skeletons
appear to be entire, and are found with the skull elevated, and the
antlers thrown back on the shoulders, as if a small herd of these
Elks had sought refuge in the marshes, and had been engulfed in
the morass, in the same manner as the Mastodons of America. (See
description of Plate LXXIV., ante, p. 167.)

This creature far exceeded in magnitude any living species of elk
or deer. The skeleton is upwards often feet in height to the top of
the skull, and the antlers are from ten to fourteen feet from one
extremity to the other. The fine perfect skeletons in the British
Museum, College of Surgeons, and in the Museum at Edinburgh, render
a particular description unnecessary. The bones are generally well
preserved, of a dark brown colour, with patches of blue phosphate
of iron. In some instances they are in so fresh a condition, that
the hollows of the long bones contain marrow having the appearance
of fresh suet. Remains of this majestic animal have been found
collocated with ancient sepulchral urns, stone implements, and rude
canoes, in such manner, as to leave no doubt that this now extinct
deer was coeval with the early human inhabitants of these Islands.
Its bones and antlers have been found at Walton, in Essex, associated
with the remains of the Mammoth, or fossil elephant.[122]

[Footnote 122: Wonders of Geology, p. 134.]


XIV. Fossil Infusoria--_Infusorial Earths_.--In the note on
Foraminifera some account is given of various rocks composed of the
fossil remains of those minute animals; but the durable relics of the
yet more infinitesimal organisms designated by the terms _Infusoria_,
or _Infusorial animalcules_, form deposits of equal interest and
importance. Strata of great extent and thickness are wholly, or
in great part, made up of innumerable layers, consisting of the
aggregated siliceous cases or shields of Infusoria: and similar
structures are found to be the chief constituents of the white earthy
deposits of lakes, rivers, and basins of brackish water, in every
part of the world.

Slowly, imperceptibly, but incessantly, are the vital energies of
the feeblest and minutest animal and vegetable existences separating
from the element in which they live, the most enduring of mineral
substances, silex--fabricating it into structures of the most
exquisite forms and sculpturing, and thus adding to the accumulations
of countless ages, which make up the sedimentary strata of the crust
of the globe.

In the "Medals of Creation"[123] will be found a summary of what
was then known as to the formation and composition of many tertiary
deposits which the indefatigable Ehrenberg, Dr. Bailey, and other
eminent observers, had carefully investigated and described. The
five years that have since elapsed have been fruitful in results of
the most important and interesting character; from every quarter of
the world, from the loftiest mountain peaks, and from the deepest
recesses of the ocean which the plummet can reach, from the ashes of
volcanoes and from the snow of the glaciers, the durable remains of
Infusoria have been obtained. That excellent scientific periodical,
Silliman's American Journal, contains numerous interesting
communications on this subject from the eminent chemical professor
of the Military College at West Point, Dr. J. W. Bailey; and the
labours of Mr. Bowerbank, Williamson, and other active members of
the Microscopical Society of London, have yielded much interesting
information on the infusorial deposits of our own country.

[Footnote 123: Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 211.]

The present note will be restricted to remarks on the nature of the
organisms which enter so largely into the composition of certain
tertiary deposits; since the opinion once entertained of the
animal nature of many infusoria, now regarded as true vegetables,
materially affects the geological conclusions respecting the
persistence of certain species of organisms through long periods of
time, during which the mollusca, zoophytes, &c. underwent repeated
mutations both in the species and genera. Thus, for example, the
_polierschiefer_, or polishing-slate of Bilin, and the berghmehl
of Tuscany, are described by Ehrenberg as masses of the siliceous
shells of animalcules of such extreme minuteness, that a cubic inch
of the stone contains upwards of forty millions; the infusorial
earth of Richmond, in Virginia, in like manner, is stated to be
made up of the siliceous skeletons of animalcules of infinitesimal
minuteness. But later investigations have (I conceive) satisfactorily
established, that the greater part of these fossil organisms belongs
to the vegetable and not to the animal kingdom.[124] The whole of the
figures in Plate IV. of the "Medals of Creation," described as living
Infusoria, on the authority of Ehrenberg, are undoubted vegetables,
belonging to the great botanical groups called _Diatomaceæ_ (from the
angular segments into which they separate by partial division), and
_Desmidiaceæ_.[125] The entire family of _Bacillaria_ belongs to this
group. These simplest forms of vegetable structures abound in every
lake or stream of fresh and brackish water, in every pool, or bay,
and throughout the ocean, from the equator to the poles; they secrete
siliceous envelopes, which present an endless variety of form and
structure, and after the death and decomposition of the perishable
tissues of the plants, remain as perfectly transparent colourless
shields of pure silica; such are the _Gaillonellæ_, _Euastra_,
_Closteria_, _Naviculæ_, _Synhedræ_, _Podospheniæ_, _Xanthidia_,
&c., which constitute so large a proportion of the infusorial earths
described by Ehrenberg and other authors.[126]

[Footnote 124: In my little work on Recent Infusoria, entitled
"Thoughts on Animalcules, or a Glimpse of the Invisible World
revealed by the Microscope," I have expressed my conviction of
the vegetable nature of these organisms, as a reason for omitting
figures and descriptions of any of the species in a work on living
fresh-water animalcules.]

[Footnote 125: The name Diatomaceæ is restricted by M. Brébisson to
those species which have a siliceous envelope, or cuticle; and that
of _Desmidiæ_ to those which are not siliceous, but reducible by heat
to carbon.]

[Footnote 126: The reader interested in this subject should consult
the beautiful work of Mr. Hassall on the Desmidiaceæ, published by
Messrs. Reeve & Benham.]

The extent of this infinitesimal flora throughout regions where no
other forms of vegetation are known, is strikingly demonstrated by
the observations of the eminent botanist and traveller. Dr. Hooker,
in his account of the Antarctic regions.

"Everywhere," he states, "the waters and the ice alike abound in
these microscopic vegetables. Though too small to be visible to the
unassisted eye, their aggregated masses stained the iceberg and
pack-ice wherever they were washed by the sea, and imparted a pale
ochreous colour to the ice. From the south of the belt of ice which
encircles the globe, to the highest latitudes reached by man, this
vegetation is everywhere conspicuous, from the contrast between its
colour and that of the white snow and ice in which it is imbedded. In
the eightieth degree of south latitude all the surface ice carried
along by currents, and the sides of every berg, and the base of the
great Victoria barrier itself--a perpendicular wall of ice, from one
to two hundred feet above the sea-level--were tinged brown from this
cause, as if the waters were charged with oxide of iron. The majority
of these plants consist of simple vegetable cells, enclosed in
indestructible silex (as other _Algæ_ are in carbonate of lime); and
it is obvious that the death of such multitudes must form sedimentary
deposits of immense extent.

"The universal existence of such an invisible vegetation as that of
the Antarctic ocean, is u truly wonderful fact, and the more so,
from its being unaccompanied by plants of a high order. This ocean
swarms with mollusca, and entomostracous crustaceans, small whales,
and porpoises; and the sea with penguins and seals, and the air with
birds: the animal kingdom is everywhere present, the larger creatures
preying on the smaller, and these again on those more minute; all
living nature seems to be carnivorous. This microscopic vegetation is
the sole nutrition of the herbivorous animals; and it may likewise
serve to purify the atmosphere, and thus execute in the antarctic
latitudes the office of the trees and grasses of the temperate
regions, and the broad foliage of the palms of the tropics."[127]

[Footnote 127: From Dr. Hooker's account of the botany of the South
Polar regions in Sir J. Ross's Voyages of Discovery.]

Dr. Hooker also observes, that the siliceous cases of the same kind
of Diatomaceæ now living in the waters of the South Polar Ocean,
have contributed in past ages to the formation of European strata;
for the tripoli and the phonolite stones of the Rhine contain the
siliceous shields of identical species. Such are the comments of one
of our most eminent botanists on the phenomena under review. The
reader will probably ask,--What, then, are the essential characters
which separate the animal from the vegetable kingdom? To this
question it is impossible to give a satisfactory reply: perhaps the
only distinction that will be generally admitted by zoologists and
botanists is the following:--_animals require organic substances for
their support; vegetables derive their sustenance from inorganic
matter_.

The facts thus cursorily reviewed throw much doubt on many of M.
Ehrenberg's statements as to the identity of species of animalcules
now living, with those whose remains occur in the eocene, and in
the secondary strata. The so-called _Xanthidia_ of the chalk, are
certainly altogether distinct from the recent diatomæ to which the
name was first applied; the chalk organisms are probably the gemmules
of sponges or other zoophytes.[128]

[Footnote 128: It would be convenient to distinguish these fossils by
another name, and thus avoid the perpetuation of the error; I would
propose that of _Spiniferites_, in allusion to the numerous spines
with which all the species are beset.]

Infusorial earths may therefore be composed either of microscopic
vegetable or animal remains, or of both. The brackish and
fresh-water deposits I have examined are siliceous and almost wholly
diatomaceous: the marine calcareous strata composed of microscopic
organisms, consist chiefly of various kinds of foraminifera, a large
proportion belonging to the polythalamia, or chambered shells. I
am not certain as to the animal or vegetable nature of some of
the beautiful siliceous disks (_Coscinodisci_, _Arachnoidisci_,
_Actinocyclus_, &c.) so abundant in the Richmond, Barbadoes, and
Bermuda infusorial earths, and which occur in so splendid a state in
the Guano deposits of Ichaboe.

With the corrections which the above remarks will enable the reader
to make, I would refer to the account of Fossil Infusoria in the
Medals of Creation, and Wonders of Geology. [129]

[Footnote 129: See also "Thoughts on Animalcules."]


XV. The Mosasaurus, or _Fossil Reptile of Maestricht_. (Plate LXX.)
The occasional discovery of bones and teeth of an unknown animal
in the limestone of St. Peter's Mountain, near Maestricht, and the
innumerable shells, corals, teeth of fishes, claws of crabs, echini,
and other organic remains, had long since attracted the attention
of naturalists, and rendered these quarries celebrated throughout
Europe. In 1770, M. Hoffman, the surgeon of the Fort, who had for
some years been assiduously collecting the fossils of this locality,
had the good fortune to discover a specimen which has conferred an
enduring celebrity on his name. Some workmen, on blasting the rock
in one of the caverns of the interior of the mountain, perceived to
their astonishment the jaws of a large animal attached to the roof of
the chasm. The discovery was immediately made known to M. Hoffman,
who repaired to the spot, and for weeks presided over the arduous
task of separating the mass of stone containing these remains from
the surrounding rock. His labours were rewarded by the successful
extrication of the specimen, which he conveyed in triumph to his
house. This extraordinary discovery soon became the subject of
general conversation, and upon reaching the ears of the Canon of the
cathedral which stands on the mountain, excited in that functionary
a determination to claim the fossil, in right of being lord of the
manor; and he unfortunately succeeded, after a long and harassing
lawsuit, in obtaining this precious relic. It remained for years in
his possession, and Hoffman died without regaining his treasure,
or receiving any compensation. At length the French revolution
broke out, and the armies of the republic advanced to the gates of
Maestricht. The town was bombarded; but at the suggestion of the
committee of savans who accompanied the French troops to select their
share of plunder, the artillery was not suffered to bombard that part
of the city in which the celebrated fossil was known to be preserved.
In the mean time, the Canon of St. Peter's, shrewdly suspecting the
reason why such peculiar favour was shown to his residence, removed
the specimen, and concealed it in a vault; but when the city was
taken, the French authorities compelled him to give up his ill-gotten
prize, which was immediately transmitted to the Jardin des Plantes,
at Paris, where it still forms one of the most striking objects in
that magnificent collection.[130]

[Footnote 130: Faujus St. Fond, in whose beautiful work on the
fossils of St. Peter's Mountain the above account is given, remarks
with much sang froid, "La _justice_, quoique tardive, arrive enfin
avec le tems!" The reader will probably think that although the Canon
was justly despoiled of his ill-gotten treasure, the French _savans_
were a very equivocal personification of _Justice_!]

The beautiful model of this most interesting fossil in the British
Museum, was presented to me by Baron Cuvier. It is four and a half
feet long, and two and a half wide; it consists of the jaws, with
teeth, palatal bones, and the tympanic bone, or _os quadratum_,
a bone possessed by reptiles, as well as birds, and in which the
auditory cells are contained. There are likewise some fine portions
of jaws, with teeth, in the British Museum, presented by Camper.
The original animal was probably a terrestrial reptile, holding an
intermediate place between the Monitors and Iguanas. It was about
twenty-five feet long.

I discovered, many years since (1820), some vertebræ in the chalk
near Lewes, which closely resemble the corresponding bones of the
Mosasaurus, and in all probability belong to another species. In the
cretaceous strata of New Jersey, Dr. Harlan found and described, and
my friend. Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, sent me, in 1834, teeth which
cannot be distinguished from those of Maestricht. Vertebræ, and other
bones, have since been obtained from the same deposits by Professor
Rogers, and described by Professor Owen in the Geological Journal.


XVI. Fossil Reptiles. Although when Mr. Parkinson's work was
published many fossil bones and teeth of reptiles had been discovered
in various parts of England, yet the abundance and variety, and
the extraordinary modification of form and structure of this class
of vertebrated animals, which prevailed throughout the secondary
geological formations, were not for a moment suspected. The few
examples of the remains of fossil reptiles described by Mr.
Parkinson, serve to mark the degree of knowledge which then existed
respecting a department of palæontology that rapidly acquired an
importance and interest unsurpassed by any other branch of fossil
osteology.

The announcement of the founder of palæontology,[131] that there
was a period when the lakes and rivers of our planet were peopled
by reptiles, and cold-blooded oviparous quadrupeds of appalling
magnitude were the principal inhabitants of the dry land; when
the seas swarmed with saurians, exclusively adapted for a marine
existence, and the regions of the atmosphere were traversed by winged
lizards instead of birds; was an enunciation so novel and startling,
as to require all the prestige of the name of Cuvier, to obtain for
it any degree of attention and credence, even with those who were
sufficiently enlightened to admit, that a universal deluge would not
account for the physical mutations which the surface of the earth and
its inhabitants had, in the lapse of innumerable ages, undergone.

[Footnote 131: In the "Ossemens Fossiles;" tom. v. Reptiles Fossiles.]

Subsequent discoveries have established the truth of this proposition
to an extent beyond what even its promulgator could have surmised;
and the "_Age of Reptiles_" is now admitted into the category of
established facts.

During the incalculable ages which the formation of the various
systems of secondary strata must have comprised, we find no evidence
in the fossils hitherto observed, of the existence of birds and
mammalia, as the characteristic types of the faunas of the dry land.
On the contrary, throughout the immense accumulations of the spoils
of the ancient islands and continents, amidst innumerable relics of
reptiles of various orders and genera, a few jaws and bones of two or
three kinds of extremely small marsupials, and the bones of a species
of wader, are the sole indications of the presence of the two grand
classes of Aves and Mammalia, which now constitute the chief features
of the terrestrial zoology of almost all countries.

The earliest indications of air-breathing vertebrata in the ancient
secondary formations are those of small saurian reptiles in the
carboniferous strata; a few vestiges occur in the succeeding group,
the Permian. In the next epoch, the Triassic, colossal Batrachians
(_Labyrinthodonts_) appear; and on some of the strata of this
formation are the footmarks of numerous bipeds, presumed to be those
of birds; but at present the evidence of the bones of the animals
that made those imprints is required to establish the hypothesis.

In the succeeding eras, the Lias, Oolite, Wealden, and Cretaceous,
swarms of reptiles of numerous genera and species everywhere prevail;
reptiles fitted to fly through the air, to roam over the land, to
inhabit the lakes, rivers, and seas; and yet not one identical
with any existing forms! These beings gradually decline in numbers
and species as we approach the close of the secondary periods,
and are immediately succeeded in the eocene epoch, by as great a
preponderance of warm-blooded vertebrata--birds and mammalia--as
exists at the present time; and an equal decadence in the class of
reptiles. With the Cretaceous Formation the "Age of Reptiles" may be
said to terminate.


XVII.--Fossil Reptiles of the Wealden. _The Iguanodon._ The
fluviatile deposits (termed _Wealden_), which in the south-east
of England, and in the north of Germany, are intercalated between
the oolitic and cretaceous formations, abound in the bones of
terrestrial, fresh-water, and marine reptiles, comprising some of
the most colossal land-saurians which have hitherto been brought
to light. These remains belong to various genera of Chelonians,
Saurians, and Crocodilians; and with these are associated those of
flying lizards (_Pterodactyles_), Plesiosauri, gigantic whale-like
reptiles (_Cetiosauri_), and of other oviparous quadrupeds of unknown
species and genera.

The occurrence of fossils of this nature in the strata forming the
districts denominated the Wealds of Sussex and Kent, was first
brought under the notice of geologists in 1822, in my work on the
"Fossils of the South Downs," in which the remains of several
unknown reptiles were described; and among them the teeth and bones
of that extraordinary herbivorous lizard, the _Iguanodon_, on which
I am induced to offer a few observations in this place; the recent
discovery of some previously undetermined parts of the skeleton,
having materially elucidated the structure and economy of the
original.[132]

[Footnote 132: The following is the description of the specimens
first discovered, given in the "Fossils of the South Downs; or,
Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex," 1 vol. 4to. 1822: "Incisors
and molar teeth evidently belonging to the same species of animal:
they differ from any previously known; the masticating surface is
perfectly smooth and rather depressed in the centre; these teeth
consist of the crown only, and are quite solid. An incisor tooth
1.3 inch long Is slightly bowed and smooth on its inner surface;
but it has externally a ridge which extends longitudinally down the
front. Its sides are angular and the edges finely crenated." From
the resemblance of these teeth in their general form to those of
the Iguana, a common land lizard in the West Indies, I subsequently
proposed the name of _Iguanodon_ (implying an animal having teeth
like the Iguana) for the fossil reptile. The teeth of an Iguana
four or five feet long are not larger than those of a mouse; the
Iguanodon's teeth are as large as the incisors of the rhinoceros. The
Iguana's teeth, when used, are chipped off at the points, no existing
reptile being capable of performing mastication; the teeth of the
Iguanodon, on the contrary, are ground down like the worn molars of
herbivorous mammalia, as I pointed out in my first memoir in the
Philos. Trans. 1825.]

Since the first announcement of the discovery of the remains of the
Iguanodon, vast quantities of bones belonging to a great number of
individuals of all ages have been collected; but until a few years
since, not a vestige of the jaws had been observed, notwithstanding
the most diligent research. In the early part of the year 1848, I
was surprised and highly gratified by receiving from Capt. Lambart
Brickenden (at that time a personal stranger to me), who then resided
at Warminglid, near Cuckfield, in Sussex, the greater part of the
right side (or _ramus_) of the lower jaw, with several successional
teeth in their natural position, of an adult Iguanodon.[133] See p.
202.

[Footnote 133: This beautiful and most instructive specimen is now in
my possession; it is figured of the natural size in Philos. Trans.
Part ii. for 1848, Plate XVI., as well as the portion of upper jaw in
the British Museum, Plate XIX. The character of the upper and lower
teeth of the Iguanodon are well represented in Plate XVIII. of the
same memoir.

A specimen very similar to that discovered by Capt. Brickenden,
but of a young individual, was found soon afterwards in a quarry
near Horsham; but I was not allowed the privilege of figuring or
describing it!]

In the course of last summer I obtained a very instructive fragment
of the middle part of the right ramus of the lower jaw of a much
larger Iguanodon, found by Mr. Fowlestone, with some enormous bones
of the extremities, in the Wealden strata of the Isle of Wight. A
portion of the upper jaw (without teeth) was discovered some years
since in Tilgate Forest, and is deposited, with the whole of the
collection I formed at Brighton, in the gallery of organic remains
of the British Museum. These three specimens are the only parts of
the jaws of the Iguanodon, with the exception of a fragment of the
angular bone, that I have had the opportunity of examining. The other
portions of the skeleton hitherto discovered are the following: the
tympanic bone;[134] cervical, dorsal, lumbar, and caudal vertebræ,
and chevron bones; ribs; the iliac bones, and sacrum composed of
six anchylosed vertebræ;[135] the coracoid, scapula and clavicles;
humerus, radius? metacarpals; femur, tibia and fibula, metatarsals
and ungueals. The cranium, carpals, and tarsals, have not been
discovered.

[Footnote 134: This may or may not belong to the Iguanodon: no
tympanic bone has been found in such connexion with other parts of
the skeleton as to afford certain proof that this maxillary element
is referable to the Iguanodon.]

[Footnote 135: In the Megalosaurus, the sacrum consists of five
anchylosed vertebræ.]

With the exception of the assemblage of bones promiscuously grouped
together in a block of _Kentish rag_ (of the greensand formation),
found in a quarry near Maidstone, by Mr. Bensted,[136] a few
connected caudal vertebræ, and two or three instances in which
a femur, tibia, and fibula and some metatarsals, were found in
contiguity, all the bones were isolated. They have been obtained
from the quarries in St. Leonard's and Tilgate Forests, near
Loxwood, Rusper, Horsham, Cuckfield, and Battel; and from the cliffs
at Hastings, and in Sandown, and Brixton, and Brook Bays, on the
southern shore of the Isle of Wight.

[Footnote 136: This most instructive specimen is in a glass-case
on the floor near the window, in the middle room of the Gallery of
Organic Remains in the British Museum. All the Wealden reptilian
remains of a large size, collected by me when residing in Sussex, are
in the upright glass cases in the same apartment.]

So anomalous is the osteology of the Iguanodon compared with that of
existing saurians, that from my discovery of the first vestige of
this reptile--a fragment of a tooth--thirty years ago, to the recent
important acquisition of the jaws, I have had to contend with the
opposition of eminent naturalists, who have refused assent to the
physiological inferences suggested by the specimens which were from
time to time brought to light, because the modifications of structure
in a colossal herbivorous reptile, essentially differed from the
hypothetical archetype skeleton of the class to which it belonged.
When the first discovered teeth were shown to Baron Cuvier, he
pronounced them to be the incisors of a Rhinoceros; the metatarsals,
those of a Hippopotamus; the fragment of a femur, with a medullary
canal, that of some large mammalian. But the candour and liberality
of the founder of Palæontology were worthy of his transcendent
genius; upon receiving further evidence, he immediately acknowledged
the error, and expressed his conviction that the teeth and bones
belonged to an herbivorous reptile more extraordinary than any that
had previously been brought under his notice.[137]

[Footnote 137: See Cuvier's Ossemens Fossiles, tom. v. part. ii. It
is much to be wished that those who aspire to emulate this great
man in scientific fame, would also endeavour to imitate him in the
yet nobler attributes of his character. It is stated by Professor
Owen, in Brit. Assoc. Reports on Fossil Reptiles, that the bones
of the Iguanodon were interpreted by me with the aid of Cuvier and
Clift. This is a mistake. Baron Cuvier died before I had obtained any
considerable portion of the skeleton; and neither Mr. Clift nor Mr.
Owen at that time could afford me any assistance in determining the
nature of the isolated bones I occasionally brought to the Hunterian
Museum for comparison. Any aid I ever received in my investigations
is most fully acknowledged in my works.]

Even the lower jaw, which presents characters so peculiar as to
admit, as I conceive, of but one interpretation--that enunciated in
my memoir on the teeth and jaws of the Iguanodon,[138]--has been
adduced as affording a signal instance of the incorrectness of my
physiological deductions. And why? Because in the entire class of
living reptiles there is not a single species that has cheeks and
flexible lips, which, according to my view of the subject, the
Iguanodon must have possessed. But I do not hesitate to affirm
that the structure and arrangement of the teeth, and the mammalian
character of the bones of the extremities, are in perfect accordance
with my exposition of the probable structure and functions of the
maxillary organs of the original. The naturalists who advance these
objections, forget that among the existing mammalia there is one
genus, the _Ornithorhynchus_, or Duck-billed Platypus, that exhibits
as striking a deviation from the typical maxillary structure of its
class, as does the Iguanodon. If before the discovery of New Holland
the jaw-bones of the Ornithorhynchus had been found in a fossil state
in the strata of Tilgate Forest, and I had ventured to infer that the
original, though a true mammalian, and giving suck to its young, had
the extremities of the jaws covered with flat horny beaks, like those
of a duck, instead of with the fleshy lips and integuments which are
the peculiar attributes of its class, what censures would not my
temerity have called forth! We cannot too often be reminded of the
profound remark of William Penn: "Experience, which is continually
contradicting theory, is the only test of truth."

[Footnote 138: See Philosophical Transactions, Part II. 1848.]

The following are the physiological inferences relating to the
structure and habits of the Iguanodon, which Dr. Melville and myself
conceive our investigations have established: the discovery of the
cranium, and of perfect examples of the upper and lower jaws with
both successional and mature molars in their natural position, may
modify, but, we believe, will in no material respect invalidate these
conclusions.

In instituting a comparison between the maxillary organs of the
Iguanodon, and those of the existing herbivorous lizards, we are at
once struck with their remarkable deviation from all known types
in the class of reptiles. In the _Amblyrhynchi_ (of the Galapagos
Islands), the most exclusively vegetable feeders of the Saurian
order, the alveolar process beset with teeth is continued round the
front of the mouth: the junction of the two rami of the lower jaw at
the symphysis presenting no edentulous interval whatever, the lips
not being more produced than in other reptiles; but this creature
only bruises its food; it cannot grind or masticate it. In fact, the
edentulous, expanded, scoop-shaped, procumbent symphysis of the lower
jaw of the Iguanodon, has no parallel among either recent or fossil
reptiles; and we seek in vain for organs at all analogous, except
among the herbivorous mammalia. The nearest approach is to be found
in certain _Edentata_; as for example in the _Cholæpus didactylus_,
or Two-toed Sloth, in which the anterior part of the lower jaw is
destitute of teeth, and much prolonged. The correspondence is still
closer in the extinct gigantic _Mylodons_, in which the symphysis
resembles the blade of a turf-spade, and has no traces of incisor
sockets; and were not this part of the jaw elevated vertically
in front, and the two sides confluent, it would present the very
counterpart of that of the Iguanodon. The great number and size of
the vascular foramina distributed along the outer side of the dentary
bone in the Wealden reptile, and the magnitude of the anterior
outlets which gave exit to the vessels and nerves that supplied the
front of the mouth, indicate the great development of the integuments
and soft parts with which the lower jaw was invested.

The sharp ridge bordering the deep groove of the symphysis, in
which there are also several foramina, evidently gave attachment
to the muscles and integuments of the under lip; and there are
strong reasons for supposing that the latter was greatly produced,
and capable of being protruded and retracted so as to constitute,
in conjunction with a long extensile tongue, a suitable instrument
for seizing and cropping leaves and branches, which, from the
construction of the teeth, we may infer was the food of the Iguanodon.

Thus we find the mechanism of the maxillary organs of the Wealden
herbivorous saurian, as demonstrated by recent discoveries, in
perfect harmony with the remarkable dental characters which
rendered the first known teeth so enigmatical. In the Iguanodon we
have a solution of the problem, how the integrity of the type of
organization peculiar to the class of cold-blooded vertebrata was
maintained, and yet adapted by simple modifications to fulfil the
conditions required by the economy of a gigantic terrestrial reptile,
destined to obtain support exclusively from vegetable substances;
in like manner as the extinct colossal sloth-like Edentata of
South America. In fine, we have in the Iguanodon the type of the
terrestrial herbivora, which in that remote epoch of the earth's
physical history--the _Age of Reptiles_--occupied the same relative
station in the terrestrial fauna, and fulfilled the same general
purposes in the economy of nature, as the Mylodons, Mastodons, and
Mammoths, of the tertiary periods, and the large pachyderms of modern
times.

Although some important data are still required to complete our
knowledge of the structure of the Iguanodon, we are warranted in
concluding that this colossal herbivorous reptile was as bulky as the
elephant, and as massive in its proportions: for, living exclusively
on vegetable substances, the abdominal region must have been largely
developed. Its limbs must have been of proportionate size to support
and move so enormous a carcass. The hinder extremities probably
presented the unwieldly contour of those of the Hippopotamus, and
were based on strong short feet, protected by broad horny ungueal
phalanges, or nails. The fore-legs appear to have been less bulky,
and adapted for seizing and pulling down plants and branches: the
teeth and jaws demonstrate the nature of its food; and the fossil
remains of coniferous trees, arborescent, ferns, and cycadeous
plants, with which its relics are commonly associated, indicate the
character of the flora adapted for its sustenance.[139]

[Footnote 139: Philosophical Transactions, for 1848, pp. 196-198.]


XVIII. The Pelorosaurus.--The humerus of a terrestrial reptile of
enormous magnitude, has lately been discovered by Mr. Peter Fuller
of Lewes, in the quarry near Cuckfield, from which many remains of
the Iguanodon and Hylæosaurus were obtained in my early researches.
This bone more nearly resembles the humerus of the Crocodiles, than
that of the Lizards. It Is four and a half feet in length, and of
corresponding proportions; it has a large medullary canal. As to
the size of the animal to which it belonged, while disclaiming the
idea that any certain conclusion can be drawn from a single bone, I
may mention, with the view of conveying some general notion, that
in a Gangetic crocodile eighteen feet long, the humerus is one
foot: according to this scale the fossil animal would be eighty-one
feet in length. I have proposed the name of _Pelorosaurus_ (from
πἑλωρ--_pelòr_--monster), or Colossal-saurian, for this new genus of
reptiles which Inhabited the country of the Iguanodon.[140]

[Footnote 140: A memoir on this fossil was read before the Royal
Society, Feb. 14th, 1850; an abstract has been published in the
Proceedings of the Society. It is entitled, "On the Pelorosaurus;
an undescribed gigantic terrestrial reptile, whose remains are
associated with those of the Iguanodon and other saurians in the
strata of Tilgate Forest." It will appear in the Phil. Trans. Part
11. 1850.]


XIX. Silicification, _or petrifaction by flint_.--The various forms
in which silex occurs have depended on its state of fluidity. In
quartz crystals the solution was complete; in agate and chalcedony
it was in a gelatinous state, assuming a spheroidal or orbicular
disposition according to the motion given to its particles. Its
condition appears also to have been modified by the influence of
organic matter. In some polished slices of siliceous nodules,
the transition from flint to agate, chalcedony, and crystallized
quartz, is beautifully shown. The curious fact that the shells of
Echinites In chalk are almost invariably filled with flint, while
their crustaceous shells are changed into calc-spar, is probably
in many instances to be attributed to the animal matter having
undergone silicification; for the most organized parts are those
which appear to have been most susceptible of this transmutation.
In some specimens the oyster is changed into flint, while the shell
Is converted into crystallized carbonate of lime. In a trigonia
from Tisbury, formerly In the cabinet of the late Miss Benett, of
Norton House, near Warminster, the body of the mollusk was completely
metamorphosed into pure chalcedony, the branchiæ or gills being
as clearly defined as when the animal was recent. In specimens of
wood from Australia (presented to the British Museum by Sir Thomas
Mitchell), which are completely permeated by silex, there are on
the external surface some spots of chalcedony, that have apparently
originated from the exudation of the liquid silex from the interior
in viscid globules filled with air, which burst, and then collapsed,
and became solidified in their present form.

In silicified wood, the permeation of the vegetable tissues by the
mineral matter appears to have been effected by solutions of silex of
a high temperature. In some examples mineralization has been effected
simply by replacement: the original substance has been removed, atom
by atom, and the silex substituted in its place. One of the most
eminent naturalists and mineralogists of the United States, Mr. J.
D. Dana,[141] suggests that the reason why silica is so common a
material in the constitution of fossil wood and shells, as well as in
pseudo-morphic crystals,[142] consists in the ready solution of silex
in water at a high temperature (a fact affirmed by Bergman[143])
under great pressure, whenever an alkali is present, as is seen at
the present time in many volcanic regions, and its ready deposition
again when the water cools. A mere heated aqueous solution of silica,
under a high pressure, is sufficient to explain the phenomenon of
the silicification of organic structures. Mr. Dana states that "a
crystal of calc-spar in such a fluid, being exposed to solution from
the action of the heated water alone, the silica deposits itself
gradually on a reduction of temperature, and takes the place of the
lime, atom by atom, as soon as set free. Every silicified fossil
is an example of this pseudo-morphism; but there seems to be no
union of the silica with the lime, for silicate of lime is of rare
occurrence."[144]

[Footnote 141: American Journal of Science, for January, 1845.]

[Footnote 142: Pseudo-morphic crystals are crystals moulded in the
cavities left by other crystals, which they have replaced. See Dr.
Blum on pseudo-morphous minerals; and Mr. Jefferey's experiments on
the solution of silica in heated vapour; Wonders of Geology, p. 100.]

[Footnote 143: Bergman first determined the solubility of silex in
simple water, aided by heat, and demonstrated its existence in the
Geysers, and other boiling springs of Iceland. _Parkinson_, _Org.
Rem._, vol. i. p. 324.]

[Footnote 144: See my "Notes on a microscopical examination of chalk
and flint," Annals of Natural History, August 1845.]


XX. Stigmaria, Sigillaria, &c.--The most remarkable peculiarity
of the flora of the carboniferous period is the immense numerical
preponderance of the vascular or higher tribes of cryptogamic plants,
which amount to two-thirds of the species described. With these
are associated a few Palms, Coniferæ, Cycadeæ, and dicotyledonous
plants, allied to the _Cacteæ_ and _Euphorbiaceæ_. The number and
magnitude of the vegetables bearing an analogy to the _Ductulosæ_,
but differing from existing species and genera, constitute therefore
the most important botanical feature of the carboniferous flora. Thus
we have plants allied to the Equisetum, or mare's-tail (_Calamites_),
eighteen inches in circumference, and from thirty to forty feet high;
Zamia-like coniferæ (_Sigillariæ_) fifty feet high; and arborescent
club-mosses (_Lepidodendra_) attaining an altitude of sixty or
seventy feet. Of this ancient flora, the fossil plants whose stems
have been named _Sigillaria_ (see Plate XXI.), and their roots
Stigmaria, are especially remarkable in consequence of the peculiar
circumstances under which upright examples of these trees are
occasionally met with. Referring for details to "Wonders of Geology,"
Lecture VII., I purpose describing in this place the facts recently
brought to light, which prove that certain species of Stigmaria are
the roots of Sigillariæ; while others in all probability belong to
Lepidodendra:--an opinion maintained more than thirty years ago by
the Rev. H. Steinhauer.[145] To the late Mr. Binney we are indebted
for the first confirmation of the inference of my friend, M. Adolphe
Brongniart, (derived from an examination of the structure of those
bodies,) that the Stigmariæ are the veritable roots of Sigillariæ.
At St. Helen's, near Liverpool, Mr. Binney discovered, in 1844, an
upright trunk of a Sigillaria, nine feet high, to which were attached
ten roots, several feet long, that extended into the under clay in
their natural position;[146] and these roots were unquestionable
Stigmariæ, the tubercles with their attached rootlets being clearly
displayed. In the floor of the Victoria Mine at Dunkinfold, near
Manchester, at the depth of 1,100 feet from the surface, Mr. Binney
also discovered a magnificent specimen of Sigillaria, which exhibited
on its stem the respective characters of three supposed species, and
had stigmaria-roots extending twenty feet.

[Footnote 145: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society,
New Series, vol. i.]

[Footnote 146: See Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 143.]

In the Sydney coal-field at Cape Breton, Mr. Richard Brown has
observed several upright stems of Sigillariæ and Lepidodendra, with
stigmaria-roots attached; and the same fact has been noticed in the
Picton coal, in Nova Scotia. The following figures and notes from Mr.
Brown's description of these interesting phenomena, will place the
subject before the reader in a clear point of view.[147]

[Footnote 147: "Description of an upright Lepidodendron with
Stigmaria-roots in the roof of the Sydney Main Coal, in the Island of
Cape Breton. By Richard Brown, Esq."--_Geological Journal_, No. 13,
for June, 1847, p. 46.]

The main bed of coal is six feet in thickness, and is overlaid, as
usual, by a roof of shale abounding in foliage and fragments of
branches. As the coal is dug out, large masses of the shale fall in,
and occasionally hollow spaces, called by the workmen _pot-holes_,
are left in the roof; the fallen masses being the roots and truncated
stems of Sigillariæ and other trees, which separate at the parting
formed by the coaly bark covering the roots, when the supporting coal
is removed.

The following sketch represents one of the specimens of the base of
a stem of a Lepidodendron, with the roots (_stigmariæ_) attached.
This figure (1) shows the position of the tree above the bed of main
coal, with the inclination and length of two of the principal roots,
so far as they could be distinctly traced; and the following sketch
(2) represents the trunk, with its branching roots, constructed from
careful measurements of the dimensions and position of each root,
drawn on the spot. The stem at the part marked A, was encrusted with
a coaly bark, covered by the usual cicatrices of the Lepidodendra,
and the roots at B, C, D, with a similar carbonaceous investment,
impressed with the characteristic pits or areolæ of Stigmariæ.

[Illustration: _Fig. 1._

STEM OF LEPIDODENDRON WITH ROOTS.]

[Illustration: _Fig. 2._]

In the Instance of the upright stems of Sigillariæ in the same
coal-field, the roots were also unequivocally Stigmariæ. Fig. 3,
represents one of these erect stems, sixteen Inches high and twelve
inches in diameter at the top, which dropped from the roof of the bed
after the coal had been removed. Part of the coaly bark remains at
_c_. The decorticated part of the trunk is covered with minute scales
as far as the point _h_, a few inches below the first ramification of
the roots. The carbonaceous crust investing the roots was thick at
the upper part, but gradually became thin, and at _a_, and _b_, was a
mere friable pellicle, that fell off upon the slightest touch.

[Illustration: _Fig. 3._

STEM OF SIGILLARIA ALTERNANS, 1/12 _natural size_.]

[Illustration: _Fig. 4._]

The exact position of the tree in relation to the underlying coal is
shown in the above section. Fig. 4. Immediately over the coal there
is a bed of hard shale, six inches in depth, in which no fossils are
found; this is overlaid by a softer shale abounding in coal-plants;
all the upright stems were rooted in the six-inch shale. Upon
clearing the base of this tree, a complete set of conical tap-roots
was discovered, arranged as in the annexed sketch. Fig. 5. There are
four large tap-roots in each quarter of the stump, and five inches
below these another set of smaller tap-roots; the total number
amounting to eighteen. The horizontal roots are seen to branch off in
a regular manner, the base being divided into four nearly equal parts
by deep channels, extending from the centre to the points _i, k, l,
m_.

[Illustration: _Fig. 5._

_The under surface of Fig. 3, showing the conical tap-roots of the
tree, 1/12 natural size._]

Mr. Brown remarks, that these short thick tap-roots were evidently
adapted only to a soft wet soil, such as we may conceive was the
nature of the first layer of mud deposited upon a bed of peat
which had settled down slightly below the level of the water. He
supposes, from the presence of a layer of shale without fossil plants
immediately over the coal, that the prostrate stems and leaves which
occur in such large quantities in the next superincumbent bed, fell
from trees growing on the spot, and were entombed in layers of mud
held in suspension in the water, which at short intervals inundated
the low marshy ground on which they grew; for had the plants been
drifted from a distance, he conceives they would also occur in the
first layer of shale, as well as in those higher up.

[Illustration: _Fig. 6._

STEM OF A SIGILLARIA BROKEN OFF CLOSE TO THE ROOTS, 1/12 _natural
size_.]

Having thus shown that the _Sigillaria alternans_ was provided
with roots adapted for a soft muddy soil, Mr. Brown next describes
the specimen represented in Fig. 6, which is the stem of the same
species of tree broken off near the roots; the hollow cylinder of
bark (_a_) having been bent down and doubled over by the pressure
of the surrounding mud, so as effectually to close up the aperture,
leaving only a few irregular cicatrices, of three or four inches
in length, converging at the apex; the structure, arrangement, and
number of the tap-roots, as well as the horizontal ramifications, are
similar to those in Fig. 5. This fossil clearly explains the nature
of the "_dome-shaped_" plant figured in the "Fossil Flora of Great
Britain."[148]

[Footnote 148: The figures 3, 4, 5, 6, and the descriptions, are from
the paper of Richard Brown, Esq., published in the Journal of the
Geological Society of London, for March, 1849, entitled, "Description
of erect Sigillariæ, with conical tap-roots, found in the roof of the
Sydney Main Coal, in the Island of Cape Breton."]

"The roots of the preceding fossils repeatedly ramify as their
distance from the stem increases, and ultimately terminate in broad
flattened points. The whole of the spreading roots of these trees
(the _Sigillariæ_) cover only an area of thirty square feet each;
whilst those of the Lepidodendron (Fig. 1), whose stem is only two
or three inches larger in diameter, covered a space of two hundred
square feet. Since it is well known, from numerous examples, that
the Lepidodendra were lofty trees, with spreading branches, which
therefore required wide bases for support, may we not conclude that
Sigillariæ of the species described were, on the contrary, trees of
low stature, without heavy branches?"

I cannot quit this subject without again adverting to the remarkable
phenomenon mentioned In a previous note, namely, that in the bed of
pulverulent earth--the _under-clay_--on which the coal invariably
reposes, the roots (or Stigmariæ) of large trees are generally the
only organic remains met with. The constant occurrence of these
fossils in the under-clay, and their rarity in the coal and shale,
was long ago pointed out by Mr. Martin, Dr. Macculloch, and other
geologists; but the importance of the fact was not appreciated till
Mr. Logan drew attention to it. In the Welsh coal-field, through a
depth of 1,200 feet, there are sixty beds of coal, each of which lies
on a stratum of clay abounding in Stigmariæ. In the Appalachian coal
formation of the United States, the same phenomena occur.

Thus it appears that the under-clay is the natural soil in which
the roots (_Stigmariæ_) of the Sigillariæ and Lepidodendra grew;
the coal above it is composed of the carbonized stems and foliage
of those trees; and the roof or coal-shale is formed by the
leaves and branches of a forest overwhelmed and buried beneath
the transported detritus of distant rocks. These phenomena may be
explained by supposing that a plain, densely clothed with a luxuriant
intertropical vegetation, was either inundated by an irruption
of the sea, or overwhelmed by a flood, from the sudden breaking
up of the barrier of an inland lake; or by the subsidence of the
country on which the forests grew. But when we find an uninterrupted
series, in which triple deposits of this character are repeated
through many thousand feet, the solution of the problem is beset
with difficulties, which the hypothesis of repeated periodical
subsidences, however ingenious, does not, in my opinion, remove.[149]

[Footnote 149: See Wonders of Geology, pp. 669, 718, 731.]

∵ Jaw of the Iguanodon.--_Additional note to_ p. 194.--Since
the preceding pages were struck off, I have, through the kindness
and liberality of Samuel H. Beckles, Esq., of Hastings, obtained
two portions of jaws from the Wealden of the Sussex Coast. One of
these is a fragment of the left side of the lower jaw, with six
well-defined dental sockets; the other specimen exhibits the position
of the mature molars and the successional teeth in the upper jaw;
and confirms the accuracy of the views of Dr. Melville and myself as
to the ruminant character of the arrangement of the dental organs in
the upper and lower jaws of the Iguanodon, as described in my memoir
on the structure of the jaws and teeth; Philos. Trans. 1848, p. 183.
When this specimen is completely developed, it will probably exhibit
distinctly the relative position of the germs and mature teeth, and
the form of the inner alveolar parapet.



INDEX.


  A.

  Acrodus, tooth of, 160.
  Actinocrinus, 121.
  ---- triacontadactylus, 121.
  Adelosina, 143.
  Age of reptiles, 193.
  Alethopteris decurrens, 81.
  ---- lonchitidis, 25.
  ---- Serlii, 25.
  Algæ, fossil, 191.
  Alveolina elliptica, 142.
  Ammonites, 139.
  ---- latus, 139.
  ---- Mantelli, 139.
  ---- ovalis, 139.
  ---- Walcotii, 139.
  Ananchytes ovatus, 127.
  Annularia brevifolia, 27.
  Anoplotherium commune, teeth of, 163.
  Antarctic ocean, diatomaceæ of, 191.
  Aphyllum asperum, 69.
  ---- cristatum, 65.
  Apiocrinus ellipticus, 113.
  ---- Parkinsoni, 119.
  ---- rotundus, 119.
  Aptychus, 147.
  Area, fossil, 144.
  Artis, Mr., on fossil botany, 175.
  ---- work of, 16.
  Asaphus caudatus, 156.
  Aspidiaria cristata, 65.
  Asterias, fossil, 125.
  Asterophyllites, 27.
  Astrea ananas, 93.
  ---- arachnoides, 95.
  ---- geometrica, 109.
  ---- Tisburiensis, 95.
  ---- undulata, 95.


  B.

  Baculites Fraujasii, 139.
  Bahia Blanca, fossils of, 184.
  Bears, fossil teeth of, 165.
  ---- fossil, 169.
  Beckles, S. H., Esq., fossils by, 202.
  Belemnitella mucronata, 138, 139.
  Belemnite, description of, 169.
  Belemnites, 137, 138, 139.
  ---- coniformis, 138.
  ---- cylindriformis, 138.
  ---- fusiformis, 138.
  ---- giganteus, 137.
  ---- Puzosianus, 171.
  Belemnoteuthis antiquus, 170.
  Bellerophon costatus, 141.
  Bellinurus bellulus, 156.
  Benett, Miss, the late, fossils by, 197, 95.
  Bergman, on Silica, 198.
  Big-bone Lick, account of, 167.
  Biloculina ringens, 143.
  Binney, Mr., on Stigmariæ, 198.
  Birds, fossil remains of. New Zealand, x, 172.
  Botanical arrangement of fossil plants, 175.
  Bourgeticrinus, 113.
  Bovey coal, 19.
  Bowerbank, J. S., Esq., on fossil fruits of Sheppey, 29, 31.
  Brachiopoda, fossil, 153.
  Bradford encrinite, 119.
  Brickenden, Capt. Lambart, discovery of jaw of Iguanodon, 194.
  Brongniart, M., fossil botany of, 178.
  ---- on fossil fruits of Sheppey, 31.
  Brown, Mr. Richard, on upright Sigillariæ, 198.
  Buckland, Dr., on Belemno-sepia, 170.
  ---- on Stigmariæ, 55.


  C.

  Calamites approximatus, 49.
  ---- decoratus, 51.
  ---- dubius, 23, 45.
  ---- ramosus, 43.
  ---- Suckovii, 47.

  Calceola sandalina, 154.
  Calymene Blumenbachii, 156.
  ---- variolare, 156.
  Cancer Leachii, 155.
  Cannibalism of New Zealanders, 175.
  Cap Encrinite, 116, 117.
  Cape Breton, coal-field of 199.
  Carboniferous deposits, 181.
  Carcharias megalodon, 160.
  Cardinia Listeri, 147.
  Cardita senilis, 147.
  Cardium Hillanum, 147.
  Carpenter, Dr., on foraminifera, 142.
  Carpolithus marginatus, 83.
  Caryophyllia annularis, 91.
  ---- centralis, 91.
  Catenipora escharoides, 89.
  Caves, ossiferous, 169.
  Cephalopoda, fossil, 141, 180.
  Ceratodus, 157.
  Ceriopora, 99, 114.
  Chain-coral, 89.
  Chama squamosa, 149.
  Chara, fossil seeds of, 143.
  Cheilanthes microlobus, 25.
  Cheilanthites, 75, 79.
  Chelonia breviceps, 157.
  Chenendopora fungiformis, 107.
  ---- Parkinsoni, 101.
  ---- subplana. 111.
  Choanites Königi, 103, 107.
  Cidaris Blumenbachii, 131.
  ---- claviger, 131.
  ---- corollaris, 126.
  ---- coronatus, 126.
  ---- crenularis, 126.
  ---- fossil, 126.
  ---- glandiferus, 131.
  ---- granulosus, 126.
  ---- Königi, 126.
  ---- Parkinsoni, 125.
  ---- saxatilis, 129.
  ---- sceptrifera, 131.
  ---- Schmidelii, 131.
  ---- vesiculosus, 126, 131.
  Clapp, Dr., fossil corals by, 89.
  Cliona, of New Zealand, 99.
  Clionites, 99.
  Clypeaster, 127.
  ---- altus, 131.
  Clypeus sinuatus, 127.
  Cnemidium rimulosum, 107.
  Coal, 182.
  Coal measures, 181.
  Cololites, 133.
  Comatula, fossil, 125.
  ---- pectinata, 126.
  Conulus albogalerus, 127.
  Coprolites of fishes, 30.
  Coral marble, 95.
  Corals, fossil, 182.
  ---- fossil, from the Ohio, 89.
  Corbula gallica, 153.
  ---- revoluta, 147.
  Coronulites diadema, 154.
  Crabs, fossil, 155.
  Crania personata, 153.
  Crassatella tumida, 147.
  Crenatula, fossil, 151.
  Crinoidea, 111.
  Cristellaria galea, 144.
  ---- rotulata, 143.
  Crustacea, fossil, 155.
  Cucullæa decussata, 147
  Cucumites, 29, 30.
  Cupanoides, 30.
  Cuvier, Baron, discoveries of, 183.
  Cyathocrinite, 121.
  Cyathocrinus rugosus, 117.
  Cyathophyllum dianthus, 93.
  ---- fungites, 95.
  ---- turbinatum, 91, 95.
  Cyclopteris orbicularis, 27.
  Cyphosoma correlare, 126.
  ---- Milleri, 126.
  Cyrena deperdita, 147.


  D.

  Dana, J. D., Esq., on silicification, 197.
  Dapedius, scales of, 154.
  Darwin, Mr., Journal of, 184.
  ---- on fossil Edentata, 185.
  Deane, Mr. Henry, on Rotaliæ, 188.
  Derbyshire Cap Encrinite, 117.
  Desmidiaceæ, 190.
  Dianchora, 149.
  Diatomaceæ, 190.
  Dinornis of New Zealand, x, 172.
  Dinotherium, tooth of, 163.
  Disaster ovalis, 129.
  Discoidea, 127.
  ---- subuculus, 127.
  Discospira, 142.
  D'Orbigny, M., on foraminifera, 186.
  Dudley fossil locust, 156.


  E.

  Echinanthites orbicularis, 127.
  Echinanthus altus, 131.
  Echini, fossil, 127, 129, 131.
  Echinital spines, fossil, 131.
  Echinodiscus bisperforatus, 127.
  ---- laganum, 129.
  ---- subrotundus, 129.
  Echinites lapis cancri, 129.
  ---- pyriformis, 129.
  Edentata, fossil, 184.
  Eggs of Dinornis, 174.
  Elephas primigenius, teeth of, 161.
  Elk fossil, of Ireland, 161, 189.
  Encrinital limestone, 91.
  ---- marble, 117.
  Encrinites, 117.
  ---- monileformis, 115.
  Essex reversed Whelk, 133.
  Eugeniacrinus caryophyllatus, 114.
  Euomphalus pentangulatus, 133.
  ---- rugosus, 133.
  Euphorbites vulgaris, 57.
  Explanaria flexuosa, 97.


  F.

  Faringdon, fossil zoophytes of, 93.
  Fasciolites, 142.
  Favosites Gothlandica, 97.
  Feet of Moa, x, 174.
  Ferns, fossil, 25, 27.
  Ficoidites furcatus, 59.
  ---- major, 63.
  ---- verrucosus, 61.
  Filicites decurrens, 81.
  ---- Miltoni, 77.
  ---- Osmunda, 73.
  ---- plumosus, 79.
  ---- trifoliatus, 75.
  Fishes, fossil, 157, 159.
  Fistulana, fossil, 149.
  Flint, fossils in, 185.
  Flustra, structure of, 183.
  Foraminifera, account of, 186.
  ---- fossil, 142, 143, 188.
  ---- ---- of India, 188.
  ---- ---- of New Zealand, 188.
  Forbes, Prof E., fossils by, 143.
  Fossil plants, arrangement of, 175.
  Fowlestone, Mr., fossils by, 107, 194.
  Frontispiece, description of, x.
  Fruits, fossil, of Isle of Sheppey, 29, 31.
  Fuller, Mr. Peter, fossils by, 197.
  Fungia, fossil, 91.
  ---- numismalis, 91.
  ---- polymorpha, 105.
  Fusus contrarius, 133.


  G.

  Galerites, 127.
  Galeus pristodontus, 159.
  Gloucestershire Pentacrinite, 111.
  Goniaster Mantelli, 125.
  ---- Parkinsoni, 125.
  ---- semilunata, 125.
  Gonoplax Latreilli, 156.
  Gorgonia bacillaris, 109.
  Gryphea incurva, 151.
  Guard or rostrum of Belemnite, 171.
  Gyrogonites, 143.


  H.

  Hamites intermedius, 141.
  ---- plicatilis, 141.
  ---- rotundus, 141.
  Hamsey, near Lewes, fossils from, 141.
  Harris, W., Esq., on Charing deposits, 188.
  Helix arbustorum, 149.
  Hemicidaris crenularis, 126, 131.
  Hermit crab, fossil, 155.
  Hippopotamus, fossil teeth of, 163.
  Hippurites bioculatus, 137.
  Hoffman, M., discovery of Mosasaurus, 192.
  Honey-stone, 19.
  Hooker, Dr., on Diatomaceæ, 191.
  Hybodus, tooth of, 159.
  Hydatica columnaris, 37.
  ---- prostrata, 39.


  I.

  Iguanodon, 193, 202.
  ---- discovery of, 193.
  Inachus Lamarckii, 155.
  Infusorial earths, 189.
  Insects, fossil, 155.
  Ireland, fossil Elk of, 189.
  Ironstone nodules, 25.


  J.

  Jaw of Iguanodon, 194, 202.
  Jerea excavata, 104.
  ---- pyriformis, 105.


  K.

  Kentucky crinoidea, 114.
  Kilkenny marble, 95.
  Knorria taxina, 35.


  L.

  Lamna, tooth of, 159.
  Lapis syringoides, 33.
  Leaves, dicotyledonous, in travertine, 23.
  Lepidotus, 157.
  Lepidodendron, 19, 23, 69.
  ---- upright, 199.
  ---- with stigmariæ, 199.
  Lepidostrobi, 69.
  Lepidostrobus ornatus, 35.
  Lignite, 19.
  Lily encrinite, 115.
  Lima gigantea, 147.
  Limulus trilobitoides, 156.
  Lithodendron fasciculatum, 95.
  Lithodomi, fossil, 149.
  Lithostrotion striatum, 93.
  Lituites lituus, 133.
  Lituola nautiloidea, 143.
  Lobophora biperforata, 127.
  Lumbricaria colon, 133.
  Lychnophorites superus, 71.
  Lycopodites squamatus, 30.
  Lyell, Sir Charles, on Apiocrinites, 119.
  ---- on Big-bone Lick, 167.
  Lysianassa literata, 147.


  M.

  Maestricht, fossil reptile of, 191.
  Mammalia, fossil teeth of, 161.
  Manon favosum, 93.
  Mantell, Mr. R. N., fossils by, 170.
  ---- Walter, Esq., on fossil birds of New Zealand, x, 173.
  Marsupites Milleri, 113.
  Martius, M., fossil flora of, 178.
  Mastodon, tooth of, 167.
  Megaceros Hibernicus, antlers of, 161.
  Megalonyx, tooth and claw of, 163.
  ---- Jeffersoni, 163.
  Megaphyton distans, 67.
  Megatherium Cuvieri, 165.
  Mellite, 19.
  Melville, Professor, on the Iguanodon, 195.
  Michelinia, 91.
  ---- tenuisepta, 93.
  Micraster cor anguinum, 129.
  ---- lacunosus, 129.
  Miliobatis, fossil, 160.
  Millepora ramosa, 99.
  Miller, Mr., on Belemnite, 170.
  ---- on Crinoidea, 115.
  Moa, or Dinornis, of New Zealand, x, 172.
  Morris, Mr., on Clionites, 100.
  ---- on Discospira, 142.
  Mosasaurus, 157, 159, 191.
  Murchison, Sir R. I., Silurian System, 155.
  Mya literata, 147.
  Myriophyllites gracilis, 41.


  N.

  Natica Gentii, 133.
  Nautilus centralis, 135.
  ---- Parkinsoni, 135.
  ---- truncatus, 135.
  Nerita conoidea, 133.
  Neuropteris, 19, 25.
  ---- auriculata, 73.
  New Zealand, fossil birds of, x, 172.
  Nipa, fruits of, fossil, 29.
  Nipadites, 29, 30, 31.
  ---- Parkinsoni, 31.
  Nodosaria raphanistrum, 138.
  Nodules with leaves, 25.
  Notidanus microdon, 157.
  Nucleolites, 127.
  ---- pyriformis, 129.
  Nucula ovum, 147.
  Nummulina, animal of, 187.
  ---- Dr. Carpenter on, 14.
  ---- lævigata, 142.
  Nummulites, 141.
  ---- complanata, 142.
  ---- dispansa, 142.
  ---- obtusa, 142.


  O.

  Ogygia Buchii, 156.
  Ohio, Falls of the, 89.
  Ophiura, 125.
  Ophiuræ, fossil, 126.
  Orbitolites, 142.
  Ormoceras, 137.
  Ornithorhynchus, 195.
  Orthoceras annulatum, 135.
  ---- duplex, 137.
  ---- pyriforme, 137.
  ---- undulatum, 135.
  Orthocerina clavulus, 143.
  Osselet of Belemnite, 171.
  Ostrea Marshii, 151.
  ---- carinata, 151.
  ---- gregarea, 151.
  Otodus, tooth of, 159.
  Owen, Professor, on Belemnites, 170.
  ---- ---- on Dinornis, x, 173.
  ---- ---- Elephants' teeth, 161.
  Ox, fossil teeth of, 161.


  P.

  Pagurus Faujasii, 155.
  Palæotherium medium, teeth of, 163.
  Pampas, 185.
  Pandanocarpum Parkinsonis, 31.
  Panopæa Aldrovandi, 149.
  Parish, Sir Woodbine, fossils by, 165.
  Parkinson, Mr., notice of, 13.
  Pear encrinite, 119.
  Pearce, Channing, Esq., fossils by, 119.
  ---- on Belemnites, 170.
  Pecopteris, 25, 27.
  ---- heterophylla, 81.
  ---- Miltoni, 77.
  ---- oreopteridis, 27.
  ---- plumosa, 79.
  Pelorosaurus, 197.
  Peneroloplis opercularis, 143.
  Pentacrinites, 120, 121, 123.
  Pentacrinus, 111.
  ---- basaltiformis, 114, 121.
  ---- Briareus, 122, 123.
  ---- scalaris, 114, 121.
  Pentagonaster regularis, 125.
  Pentamerus, 154.
  Pentremites florealis, 114.
  Perna quadrata, 151.
  ---- maxillata, 151.
  Petraia, 91.
  Petrifaction by flint, 197.
  Petrified figs, 31.
  ---- melons, 35.
  Phragmocone of Belemnite, 171.
  Platycrinus lævis, 122.
  Plicatula spinosa, 145.
  Polystomella crispa, 144.
  Porites pyriformis, 97.
  Productus, 145.
  ---- antiquatus, 145.
  ---- Martini, 154.
  Psaronius, 33.
  Ptychodus decurrens, 157.
  ---- polygurus, 160.
  Pulley-stone, 117.


  Q.

  Quadrupeds, fossil, of Montmartre, 183.
  Quinqueloculina ringens, 143.
  ---- opposita, 143.


  R.

  Radiolites agariciformis, 153.
  Rangatapu, 174.
  Reptiles, fossil, 157, 159, 192.
  ---- ---- of the Wealden, 193.
  Rhinoceros leptorhinus, 163.
  Rhizolithes, 21.
  Rhodocrinus verus, 117.
  Rhytidolepis fibrosa, 55.
  Rotalia Beccarii, 143, 144.
  ---- trochiliformis, 143.


  S.

  Salenia scutigera, 126.
  ---- stellulata, 126.
  Scaphites costatus, 141.
  Scelidotherium, 185.
  Schlotheim, Baron, fossil botany, 176.
  Scyphia articulata, 105.
  ---- costata, 107.
  Seed-vessels, fossil, 31, 35.
  Serpula antiquata, 157.
  ---- conica, 135.
  ---- filiformis, 135.
  Serpulite, 135.
  Shark's teeth, fossil, 159.
  Shells, fossil, 133, 135, 137, 139, 141, 145, 147, 149, 151, 153.
  Shrimp, fossil, 155.
  Shropshire Encrinite, 117.
  Shumard, Dr., on Geology of Kentucky, 89.
  Sigaretus, fossil, 133.
  Sigillaria, 57.
  ---- alternans, 200.
  ---- appendiculata, 65.
  ---- fibrosa, 55.
  ---- tesselata, 27.
  ---- upright, 200.
  ---- with stigmariæ, 199.
  Siliceous nodules, fossils in, 185.
  Silicification, 197.
  Siliquaria, fossil, 135.
  Siphonia, 97, 103.
  ---- pyriformis, 104.
  Spatangites ovalis, 129.
  Spatangus cor marinum, 129.
  ---- lacunosus, 129.
  ---- purpureus, 129.
  ---- radiatus, 129.
  Sphenophyllum erosum, 27.
  Sphenopteris, 25.
  ---- trifoliata, 27, 75.
  Spherodus, tooth of, 159.
  Spherulites, 137.
  Spicules of fossil sponges, 97.
  Spines of Echinites, 131.
  Spiniferites, 191.
  Spirifer cuspidatus, 154.
  ---- striatus, 154.
  Spirolina depressa, 143.
  ---- cylindracea, 143.
  Spongites labyrinthicus, 105.
  ---- lobatus, 97.
  ---- ramosus, 97.
  Staarenstein, 33.
  Star-fishes, fossil, 125.
  Starry-stone, 33.
  Steinhauer, Rev. J., on Stigmariæ, 198.
  Stems, fossil, 33, 35.
  Steneosaurus, 157, 159.
  Sternberg, Count, fossil flora of, 176.
  Sternbergia transversa, 53.
  Stigmaria, 198.
  ---- ficoides, 23, 59, 61, 63.
  ---- in under-clay, 181.
  ---- with lepidodendron, 199.
  Stigmariæ, with sigillariæ, 200.
  Streptospondylus, 157.
  Syringopora geniculata, 87.
  ---- ramulosa, 89.


  T.

  Teeth, fossil, of Anoplotherium, 163.
  ---- ---- Bears, 165.
  ---- ---- Dinotherium, 163.
  ---- ---- Elephants, 161.
  ---- ---- Hippopotamus, 163.
  ---- ---- Mastodon, 167.
  ---- ---- Megalonyx, 163.
  ---- ---- Ox, 161.
  ---- ---- Palæotherium, 163.
  ---- ---- Rhinoceros, 163.
  ---- of Sharks, fossil, 159.
  Terebratula coarctata, 153.
  ---- diphya, 153.
  ---- triquetra, 153.
  Teredina personata, 149.
  Teredo, fossil, 33, 149.
  Tisbury, fossil corals of, 95.
  Tortoise encrinite, 113.
  Toxodon, 185.
  Trigonellites, 147.
  ---- lamellosa, 147.
  ---- lata, 147.
  Trigonia alæformis, 145.
  ---- clavellata, 145.
  ---- costata, 145.
  ---- dædalea, 145.
  ---- excentrica, 145.
  ---- rudis, 145.
  ---- sinuata, 145.
  ---- soft parts silicified, 197.
  ---- spinosa, 145.
  Trigonocarpum olivæforme, 31.
  Trilobites, 155.
  Triloculina trigonula, 143.
  Tubipore, fossil, 87.
  Turban encrinite, 117.
  Turbinolia complanata, 91.
  ---- mitrata, 91.
  Turrilites costatus, 141.
  ---- tuberculatus, 141.
  Turtles, fossil, 157.


  U.

  Under-clay, 181.
  Ursus spelæus, teeth of, 165, 169.
  ---- priscus, 169.


  V.


  Vaginella depressa, 144.
  Ventriculites, 103, 105, 109.
  ---- alcyonoides, 105.
  ---- racemosus, 109.
  Vermetus ampullacea, 135.
  ---- Bognoriensis, 135.
  ---- concavus, 135.
  Victoria barrier, 191.


  W.

  Waikouaiti, 174.
  ---- fossils from, x, 174.
  Waingongoro, 173.
  Wenlock limestone corals, 89.
  Wetherellia, 29.
  Williamson, Mr., on Polystomella, 188.
  Wood, fossil coniferous, 19, 23.
  ---- calcareous, 19, 29.
  ---- cupreous, 29.
  ---- jasperized, 21.
  ---- pyritous, 29.
  ---- silicified, 21.


  X.

  Xanthidia, 191.


  Y.

  Yandell, Dr., fossil corals by, 89.


  Z.

  Zamia pectinata, 23.


K. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.



       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Note


Minor typos were corrected. Illustrations were relocated so as to
avoid splitting paragraphs. Some tables were rejoined and page splits
moved above or below them.





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