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Title: A sentimental & practical guide to Amesbury and Stonehenge
Author: Antrobus, Florenace Caroline Mathilde
Language: English
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AMESBURY AND STONEHENGE***


Transcribed from the 1908? edition, by David Price.

                   [Picture: Map of the Amesbury area]



                        A SENTIMENTAL & PRACTICAL
                          GUIDE TO AMESBURY AND
                           STONEHENGE, COMPILED
                             BY LADY ANTROBUS


                                * * * * *

                          DEDICATED TO MY MOTHER
                         GEORGINA ALICIA SARTORIS

                                * * * * *

                             _TENTH THOUSAND_

                                * * * * *

                      ESTATE OFFICE: AMESBURY, WILTS



PREFACE.


IN compiling this little Guide Book, I have somewhat departed from the
ordinary lines, but I venture to hope that the traveller to Amesbury and
Stonehenge will not like it the worse on that account.  I am much
indebted to the kindness of Mrs. GORDON and of Messrs. MURRAY, BARCLAY,
STORY MASKELYNE, and HEWITT, for allowing me to quote from their works,
also to the Editor of the _Ladies’ Realm_, for permission to use an
article by me which appeared in the February number of that magazine,
and, above all, to Miss CLARISSE MILES, for the charming photographs
which illustrate my book.

                   FLORENCE CAROLINE MATHILDE ANTROBUS.

_Amesbury Abbey_,
      _Salisbury_, 1900.



GUIDE TO AMESBURY AND STONEHENGE.


Leaving Salisbury by what is called the “Upper Road” to Amesbury, one
travels across a tract of bleak and rather uninteresting downs.  About
two miles from Salisbury (on the left) Old Sarum stands up conspicuously,
and is the only object of interest till one arrives at Amesbury, eight
miles distant from Salisbury.  Amesbury calls itself a town, and boasts
of several shops and the telegraph.  A railway station is in process of
construction.  In Aubrey’s times Amesbury was celebrated for its tobacco
pipes, marked with a gauntlet, the name of the maker.  Of these, several
specimens are to be found in the museum at Salisbury.

Returning to Salisbury from Amesbury, and taking “the Bourne” route,
there is a beautiful drive winding along the banks of the Avon.  I give a
short account of the most interesting places the traveller meets with on
his homeward journey.



OLD SARUM.


LIES two miles from Salisbury, and stands up, making a bold outline in
the surrounding open country.  It is a hill, bare now, save for some
trees, encircled with entrenchments, with a central mound peering above
them.  But centuries ago this spot was crowded with buildings—religious,
military, and domestic, and was one of the most important in our island.
Some say that the ancient British name was _Caer Sarflag_, the “City of
the Service Tree.”  Its Roman name was _Sorbiodunun_, the Saxon
_Sarobyrig_.  The face of the hill is smooth and very steep.  The summit
is fenced by a mighty earthen rampart and ditch, protected by a lower
raised bank outside of it, the height from the top of the one to the
bottom of the other being 106 feet.  The surface of the hill is an
elongated circular area of 27½ acres.  In the centre of the area is a
second circular earthwork and ditch 100 feet high, and within these stood
the citadel.  On the top of the earthwork surrounding the citadel was a
very strong wall 12 feet thick, of flint embedded in rubble, and coated
with square stones, of which some portion remain.  To the great outer
earthwork there were two entrances—one (guarded by a hornwork still
remaining) on the western, another (the postern) on the eastern side.
The site of the citadel is now overgrown with briers and brushwood; the
rest of the area is partly in a state of nature, partly cultivated.
“Celt and Roman alike had seen the military value of the height from
which the eye sweeps nowadays over the grassy meadows of the Avon to the
arrowy spire of Salisbury; and, admirable as the position was in itself,
it had been strengthened at a vast cost of labour.  The camp on the
summit of the knoll was girt in by a trench hewn so deeply in the chalk
that, from the inner side of it, the white face of the rampart rose 100
feet high, while strong outworks protected the approaches to the fortress
from the west and from the east.”

Though there may have been a British stronghold here, still, it is the
opinion of good antiquaries that there is now no British work to be seen;
that the Romans took possession of the hill and defended it by a simple
escarpment, without any ditch, but with outworks at the entrances; and
that the ditch now on the face of the scarp, as well as the central
citadel and its defences, were added by the Saxons, and perhaps by
Alfred, who, in his war with the Danes, certainly paid great attention to
strengthening the position.  There are Roman roads to Silchester,
Winchester, Dorchester, Uphill, on the Bristol Channel, and others, it is
believed, to Bath and Marlborough.  Cynric the Saxon won a victory over
the Britons in 552.  In 960, Edgar held his Council here.  In 1003,
Seweyn and the Danes are said to have stormed it.  In the time of the
Confessor a monastery of nuns was established.  It was not till 1072 that
it became the seat of a bishop.  The kingdom of Wessex originally formed
one diocese, and the see being fixed 683, St. Hædde being bishop, the see
was removed to Winchester.  In 705, the diocese was divided, a new see
for the district of E. Selwood being fixed at Sherborne, whose first
bishop was St. Ealdhelm.  A further subdivision took place in 909, a new
see for Berks and Wilts being created at Ramsbury, which was reunited to
Sherborne by Bishop Herman 1045, who in 1072 transferred the see to Old
Sarum.  In 1070 William the Conqueror, as the closing act of his
conquest, reviewed his victorious army on the plain below Old Sarum,
where now the modern city stands, rewarding its leaders with lands and
gifts.  The Castellanship of Sarum he gave to his kinsman, Osmund, who
afterwards, taking Holy Orders, succeeded Herman in the see.  In 1086 the
King assembled here, the year before his death, all the chief landowners
of the realm to swear that “whose men soever they were they would be
faithful to him against all other men,” by which “England was made ever
afterwards an undivided kingdom.”

Bishop Osmund finished his new cathedral in 1092, “and established the
new ritual ‘ad usum Sarum.’”  The foundations of the cathedral were
visible in the very dry summer of 1834.  It was in the form of a cross
270 feet long by 70 feet wide, the transept of the same width and 150
feet long.  Its plan is remarkable for having a square instead of an
apsidal East end, and a Galilee or Atrium at the West end.  Within a few
days of its consecration a thunderstorm seriously injured the roofs and
walls.  Robert of Gloucester, alluding to the fifth year of the reign of
William II., sings:—

    “So gret lytnynge was the vyfte yer so that al to noghte
    The rof of the Chyrch of Salesbury it bronte
    Rygh even the vyfte day that he y hawled was.”

Henry the First’s celebrated chancellor, Bishop Roger, improved both the
church and its fortifications.  In the reign of Stephen the place began
to decline.  The soldiers and priests, cooped up into so small a space,
could not agree.  The situation was cold and windy, and water was scarce.
Bishop Richard Poore is said to have been directed in a vision to build
upon the maer (or boundary) field, called in some accounts Miry-Field or
the Merrifield, where a new church (the present cathedral) was begun.
The citizens migrated, the great travelling road was diverted to the new
site, and the days of Old Sarum were numbered.  A charter granted to the
new town sealed its fate.  Very little, however, is known about the real
history of the transference of the people from one place to the other.
There are some reasons for believing that a new town had been growing up
by degrees long before the cathedral was built at New Sarum.  Being only
1600 feet in diameter, Old Sarum must have afforded small space for a
cathedral, bishop’s palace, a garrison, streets and houses.  The
cathedral was taken down in 1331 (Edward III.), and its materials used in
building the new spire, Close Walls, &c.  Leland (temp. Henry VIII.)
reports some portions of the building as visible in his time, but says:
“There is not one house neither within or without Old Saresbyri
inhabited.  Much notable ruinus building of the castell yet ther
remaynith.  The ditch that envirined the old town was a very deepe and
strong thynge.”  The walls remained till 1608, and served as a quarry.
Fisherton old county jail (inter alia) was built out of them.  The great
hollow enclosure of Old Sarum, girt by its frowning earthwork (not unlike
the crater of a volcano), is certainly a solemn and desolate place.
Pepys, passing by, and not knowing what it was, desired to examine it.
“I saw a great fortification,” he says, “and there light and to it and in
it, and find it so prodigious so as to frighten one to be in it all alone
at that time of night.”  A subterranean passage was discovered in 1795.
The foundations of towers may be traced, and many Roman coins have been
met with.  Old Salisbury has given a title to the families of d’Eureux or
Devereux, Longespee, Montacute, Nevill Plantagenet, and the Cecil family,
who still enjoy it.  The ground ceased to be Crown property in 1447, when
it was granted by James I. to the Lords Stourton; on forfeiture by them,
it was granted by James I. to the Cecils.  They sold it to Governor Pitt,
and the Earl of Chatham sold it to the Earl of Caledon.  It was
subsequently purchased by the Ecclesiastical Commission.  Its dignity as
the resort of kings and seat of councils ceased with the growth of the
younger city; but it long retained one relic of its former greatness, the
right of returning two members to Parliament, which was duly exercised
until the passing of the Reform Bill, although for many a year only two
or three cottages had existed.  The elections were held at the foot of
the hill on Election Acre, where a tent was pitched beneath the branches
of an elm-tree, which is still pointed out as occupying the site of the
last remaining house.

       [Picture: Saint Mary’s, Amesbury.  (Photo Miss Weed Ward.)]



STRATFORD-SUB-CASTLE.


LIES close under the hill of Old Sarum, and derives its name from the
Roman “street” or road which here “forded” the river on its course to
Bradbury Rings and Dorchester.  The manor house was the residence of
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, who was first returned to Parliament
(1735) as member for those vacant mounds on the hill above.  Governor
Pitt purchased the manor in 1690 for 1500_l._, and Lord Grenville, who
had married the sister of Thomas Pitt, Lord Camelford, afterwards sold it
for 65,000_l._ to Lord Caledon.  In 1801 John Horne Tooke was returned by
Lord Camelford, and in his case the question of the disability of
clergymen to sit as Members of Parliament was tried and settled.  The
doorhead of the quaint gabled parsonage bears the inscription, “Parva sed
lapsa domino 1675.”  A charming lime avenue leads from the parsonage to
the church, which contains an hour glass stand for the pulpit.



THE CHURCH, AMESBURY.


          DEDICATED TO THE MEMORIES OF ST. MARY AND ST. MELORUS.

ONE of the finest in Wiltshire.  A fourteenth century nave roof covers a
Norman nave, and a thirteenth century chapel possesses a beautiful
window, with two lights, and slender delicate column and sculptured leafy
cap.  Archæologists dispute as to whether this is the abbey church (a
Benedictine order founded by Queen Elfrida to expiate the murder of her
step-son at Corfe) or merely the parish church.  I consider that there
can be _no_ doubt that it is the abbey church, and in my next edition I
hope this fact will be proved from excavations to be made under the
superintendence of Mr. Detmar Blow, the architect for the structural
repairs that are, unfortunately, necessary, the four angles of the church
tower and the voussoirs of the arch having become separated, &c.  Only
1400_l._ is needed, and subscriptions will be gratefully acknowledged by
the Manager of the Wilts and Dorset Bank, Amesbury, Wilts; or Lady
Antrobus, Amesbury Abbey.  An unfortunate “restoration” was made in 1853,
which swept away the furnishings of the Early Romantic period.

                                                  FLORENCE C. M. ANTROBUS.

 [Picture: Amesbury Abbey, seat of the Duke of Queensbury.  (From an Old
                               Engraving.)]



AMESBURY ABBEY.


                                                                SALISBURY.

SINCE writing the above little note on Amesbury church, the necessary
repairs to the tower have been most sympathetically carried out by Mr.
Detmar Blow.  No changes are to be noticed from the exterior—the test of
a good architect’s work applied to old buildings.  The underpinning
disclosed the remains of a Saxon pillar embedded in the masonry of the
nave wall—may not this fact go to prove that the present building stands
on the site of Elfrida’s church?  At the completion of Mr. Blow’s work,
which includes the underpinning of the tower, repairs to the nave, and
the rehanging of the bells, further repairs were found to be necessary.
The Rev. F. Windley (the new vicar) held a meeting, dismissing Mr. Blow
and appointing Mr. Warre as architect in his place, with most unfortunate
results.  The roof of the exquisite little chapel has been removed and
altered to a higher pitch, inferior flint work used, and crude yellow
stones instead of the beautiful silvery-grey old coping.  This act of
vandalism was done against the wishes of the Society for the Protection
of Ancient Buildings, and my own.  No “restorations” (so called) should
ever be allowed for these buildings, only “repairs.”  The pitch of the
old roof should not have been altered, even if originally higher, as, so
to speak, the whole thing had grown together; also nothing but old stones
for coping should have been used, and grey flints instead of black ones.
It is extraordinary to see the damage done to the rare and beautiful
buildings in this neighbourhood.  Yellow stones, hideous in colour, put
in with still more hideous plaster, is the local idea of suitable
“restoration.”  The vandal architect Butterfield buried (in 1853) under
the chancel the memorial tablets, at the same time breaking up the lovely
old font and burying its remains.  This latter has been beautifully
mended by Mr. Kite, builder.  The memorial tablets, some very beautiful,
have not yet been rehung, as they should be, in the body of the church.

                     [Picture: Amesbury Abbey, 1900]

I was requested to give a cross for the altar.  I had a copy made of the
celebrated Celtic “Cross of Cong.”  I also presented an altar-cloth of
old crimson Italian damask (from Florence).  A dove, embroidered in
different tones of gold and silver thread, decorates the frontal.  Mr.
Windley thought fit to cut and alter this altar-cloth, adding an
unsuitable top and fringe, and spoiling the effect of the chancel by
covering the pink alabaster with cheap, ugly, woven materials.  The
effect of the delicate lines of the Celtic cross and the crimson damask
are by this treatment utterly ruined.

                                                  FLORENCE C. M. ANTROBUS.

_February_ 9_th_, 1908.



AMESBURY ABBEY: ITS HISTORY, ANCIENT AND MODERN.


THE river Avon, on its course to the sea, passes through a beautiful,
thickly wooded valley in Wiltshire, in which lies Amesbury, or, to follow
the old spelling, Ambresbury, signifying the land of Ambrosius.  This
fascinating place, and the wild country surrounding it, possess a charm
and beauty all their own, and those born and bred there ever pine for the
breezy downs, as the Swiss for their mountains or north-country people
for the moorland; and no one who has walked or ridden on some glorious
summer morning over the fine, close grass clothing these Wiltshire downs
can ever forget its delicious “springy” quality underfoot.  A talented
modern artist once happily christened Amesbury “The Golden Valley;” he
saw it in the spring, at which season of the year the whole country-side
seems ablaze with brilliant yellow flowers.

                     [Picture: The Palladian Bridge]

Amesbury lies eight miles north of Salisbury, and we may consider that it
occupies a space in the midst of that vast tract of undulating country
that (somewhat erroneously to my mind) is given the name of “Salisbury
Plain.”  I now propose to trace, as briefly as I can, some of the history
of this interesting and beautiful place.  Its antiquity is so great as to
take us back to pre-historic times.  In its near neighbourhood many
desperate battles were fought between Briton, Saxon, and Roman with
varying success.  Lewis, in his ancient _History of Britain_, says: “In
the reign of Vortigern, 461 A.D., a Conference was appointed to take
place near the Abbey of Ambri, with Hengist the Saxon, and it was agreed
that both parties should come without armour.  But Hengist, under colour
of peace, devised the subversion of all the nobility of Britain, and
chose out to come to this assembly his faithfullest and hardiest men,
commanding every one of them to hide under their garment a long knife,
with which, when he should give the watchword, every one should kill the
Briton next him.  Both sides met upon the day appointed, and, treating
earnestly upon the matter, Hengist suddenly gave the watchword and caught
Vortigern by the collar, upon which the Saxons, with their long knives,
violently murdered the innocent and unarmed Britons.  Thus were 460 earls
and noblemen of the Britons treacherously murdered.  They were buried in
the convent at Amesbury.  This massacre took place near Stonehenge, where
repeated battles were fought between Ambrosius and Hengist.” {10}

There is a fanciful legend, told by an old writer called Geoffrey of
Monmouth, about Stonehenge.  He says that Ambrosius, wishing to
commemorate those who had fallen in battle, thought fit to send for
Merlin the Wizard, to consult him on the proper monument to be erected to
the memory of the slain.  On being interrogated Merlin replied, “Send for
the ‘Giants’ Dance,’ which is in Killarus (Kildare), a mountain in
Ireland; they are stones of a vast magnitude, and if they can be placed
here quite round this spot of ground they will stand _for ever_.”  At
these words Aurelius laughed and said, “How was it possible to remove
such stones from so distant a country, and had not Britain as good
stones?”  Merlin replied “that they were mystical stones and had a
medicinal virtue,” whereupon the Britons resolved to send for them and to
risk a battle.  Upon landing in Ireland, the removal of the stones was
violently opposed by Gillomanius, a youth of wonderful valour.  At the
head of a vast army, he exclaimed, “While I have life they shall not take
from us the least stone of the Giants’ Dance.”  A battle ensued, which
was won by the Britons.  They then proceeded to Killarus, where the sight
of the stones filled them with joy and admiration, and, while they were
all standing round, Merlin asked them to try and remove the stones.
Their efforts proving futile, he laughingly proceeded with his own
contrivances, and took down the stones with incredible facility.  This
done, they set sail to Britain, and repaired to the burial-place with the
stones, Aurelius ordering Merlin to get them up in the same manner as
they had been in the mountain of Killarus, which he accordingly did.

Queen Elfrida, who performed many penances and built monasteries in
atonement for the crime of the murder of her step-son, Edward the Martyr,
founded a Benedictine nunnery at Amesbury in 980.  This nunnery
flourished for many years, until the ill-conduct of the nuns caused King
Henry II. to expel them (1177), and place them under stricter discipline
in other religious houses.  He then gave the monastery of Ambresbury to
the Abbey of Fontevrault, in Normandy.  This order was founded by Robert
d’Arbrissel about the end of the eleventh century.  It is looked upon as
a singularity in the church, some finding it strange to see an abbess
exercising equal authority over men as well as women.  Before his death
d’Arbrissel appointed Petronilla de Craou Chemille as head and chief of
his order, of which he drew up statutes, putting them under the order of
St. Benedict.  Under the new rule, this monastery increased in splendour
and royal favour, King John conferring upon it important privileges.
Eleanor, only daughter of Geoffrey, Earl of Bretagne, was buried,
according to her own request, at Ambresbury in 1241.  Mary, sixth
daughter of Edward I., together with thirteen young ladies of royal
birth, took the veil in 1283; and two years afterwards, anno 1287,
Eleanor, queen of Henry III., entered the order, and died and was buried
at Ambresbury in 1292.  The monastery continued to prosper, and became
one of the richest in England.  The following names of the prioresses
have been preserved:—Isabella of Lancaster, fourth daughter of Henry,
Earl of Lancaster; Joan de Gennes; Sibilla de Montacute; Katherine of
Arragon lodged within the convent walls on her first arrival in England
in 1501.

                     [Picture: Chinese Summer House]

At the time of the Reformation, the last prioress (but one), Florence
Bormewe, refused to surrender her monastery to the King’s emissaries.
They wrote: “Albeit we have used as many ways with her as our poor wits
could attain, yet in the end we could not by any persuasion bring her to
any conformity, but at all times she resteth and so remaineth in these
terms.”  She answered, “If the King’s Highness command me to go from this
house I will gladly go, though I beg my bread, and as for pension I care
for none.”  The death of this brave prioress saved her from further
humiliation.

Joan Darell was abbess at the time of the Dissolution; she surrendered to
King Henry VIII. Dec. 4th, 1540.

The old Chronicle of Geoffrey of Monmouth gives Amesbury as the place of
Queen Guinevere’s penitential retirement.  The modern poet, Tennyson,
takes the same view:

    “Queen Guinevere had fled the Court and sat
    There in the holy house at Almesbury.”

Antiquarians disagree as to whether the fine church now standing—with its
lancet windows, pointed arches, and massive turret—is the old abbey
church, or only that of the parish.  In an obscure corner at the back of
the church is found a window of quite another description—very beautiful,
and more approaching to the “rose” style of architecture.  Of the old
stained glass only a few broken fragments remain.  On one piece is a
picture of a fair-haired, long-necked woman suppose to represent Queen
Guinevere.

The churchyard (lying to the south of the old church), with its grey
tombstones and dark green yew-trees, has a solemn, calm and peaceful air.
Over a grave is found the following epitaph:—

    “Altho’ his body here doth lye
       Till the last trump doth it raise,
    His soul is now in heaven high
       And sings Jehovah’s praise.”

I now finish my description of Amesbury’s monastic period and turn to the
modern years.  According to a good authority, Henry VIII. bestowed
Amesbury upon Edward, Earl of Hertford, afterwards Duke of Somerset and
Lord Protector in the succeeding reign.  After his trial, death sentence,
and execution, the lands were confiscated by the Crown till the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, who probably restored them to the Protector’s son,
Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford.  This gentleman was thrice married, his
last wife being a widow of fascinating beauty and charm.  She had
previously been engaged to Sir George Rodney, who loved her madly, but,
being ambitious, she left him for Lord Hertford.  The day before the
marriage, Sir George Rodney travelled to the inn at Amesbury and waited
for the home-coming of the bride and bridegroom.  All the night he
occupied himself by composing a dying love song written with his own
blood.  Upon the arrival in the village of his false love, he went to
greet her, and fell upon his sword and expired at her feet.  I give the
following extract from the poem, which is somewhat long and tedious:—

    “Sir George Rodney before he killed himself—
       What shall I do that am undone,
       Where shall I fly myself to shunne?
       Ah mee! myselfe must kill,
       And yet I die against my will.
       In starry letters I behold
       My death in the Heavens enrolled.
       There finde it wrytt in skyes above
       That I (poore I) must die for love.
       ’Twas not my love deserved to die,
       O no! it was unworthy I.
       I for her love should not have dyde,
       But that I had no worth beside.
       Ah mee! that love such woe procures,
       For without her no love endures.
       I for her vertues her doe serve,
       Doth such a love a death deserve?”

Lady Hertford presented a bell to the parish of Amesbury.  An inscription
on it runs thus:—

    “Be stronge in faythe, prayes God well.
    Frances, Countess Hertford’s bell.”

                          [Picture: Kent House]

After the Seymour period, the Amesbury estates passed through different
hands, belonging in 1720 to Henry, Lord Carleton; he having purchased
them from Charles, Lord Bruce, son of the Earl of Ailesbury.  Lord
Carleton left them by will to his nephew, Charles, Duke of Queensberry,
in 1724, who married the charming Lady Catherine Hyde in 1720.  This
couple spent much time at Amesbury, altering and improving it in various
ways, and entertaining their friends.

The poet Gay was a devoted friend and admirer of the Duchess, who,
indeed, seems to have been an attractive woman of immense spirit and wit.
She offended George II. and his Queen by her defence of Gay’s play, the
_Beggars’ Opera_, and was forbidden the Court for some time; but she,
standing firmly by her friend, refused to retract or alter her
sentiments, and finally forced the Court to receive and forgive her.
Here is a copy of her message to the King:—

                                                     “_Feb._ 27_th_, 1729.

    “That the Duchess of Queensberry is surprised and well pleased the
    King has given her so agreeable a command as to stay from Court,
    where she never came for diversion, but to bestow a civility upon the
    King and Queen.  She hopes, by such an unprecedented order as this,
    that the King will see as few as he wishes at his Court, particularly
    such as dare to think or speak truth.  I dare not do otherwise, and
    ought not nor could not have imagin’d that it would not have been the
    very highest compliment that I could possibly pay the King, to
    endeavour to support truth and innocence in this house.

                                                (Signed) “C. QUEENSBERRY.”

The following is an extract from a letter from Gay to Swift:—“To the lady
I live with I owe my life and fortune; think of her with respect, value
and esteem her as I do.  She hath so much goodness, virtue, and
generosity, that if you knew her you would have a pleasure in obeying her
as I do.”  In another letter from Gay to Swift, the former presses his
coming to join the party at Amesbury, saying (speaking of the
Duchess):—“I think her so often in the right, you will have great
difficulties to persuade me she is in the wrong.  The lady of the house
is not given to show civility to those she does not like.  She speaks her
mind and loves truth, for the uncommonness of the thing.  I fancy your
curiosity will prevail over your fear, and you will like to see such a
woman.  But I say no more till I know whether her Grace will fill up the
rest of the paper.”  P.S. by the Duchess: “Write I must, particularly
now, as I have an opportunity to indulge my predominant passion of
Contradiction.  I do, in the first place, contradict most things Mr. Gay
says of me to deter you from coming here, which, if ever you do, I hereby
assure you that, unless I like my own way better, you shall have yours;
and in all disputes you shall convince me if you can.  But, by what I see
of you, this is not a misfortune that will always happen, for I find you
a great mistaker.  For example, you take prudence for imperiousness.
’Tis from this I first determined not to like one who is too giddy-headed
for me to be certain whether or no I shall ever be acquainted with him.
I have known people take great delight in building castles in the air;
but I should choose to build friendship on a more solid foundation.  I
would fain know you, for I often hear more likeable things than ’tis
possible any one can deserve.  Pray come that I may find out something
wrong, for I, and I believe most women, have an inconceivable pleasure to
find out any faults except their own.”  P.S.—“Mr. Gay is very peevish
that I spell and write ill, but I don’t care, for neither the pen nor I
can do better!”

                          [Picture: The Diamond]

This Duchess also attracted the attention of Prior, who wrote the
well-known ballad:—



THE FEMALE PHAETON.


                                      I.

    Thus Kitty beautiful and young,
       And wild as colt untam’d,
    Bespoke the Fair from whence she sprung
       With little rage inflam’d.

                                     II.

    Inflam’d with rage at sad restraint,
       Which wise mamma ordained,
    And sorely vex’d to play the saint
       Whilst wit and beauty reigned.

                                     III.

    “Shall _I_ thumb holy books confin’d
       With Abigails forsaken?
    Kitty’s for other things design’d,
       Or I am much mistaken.

                                     IV.

    “Must Lady Jenny frisk about
       And visit with her cousins?
    At ball must _she_ make all the rout
       And bring home hearts by dozens?

                                      V.

    “What has _she_ better pray than I,
       What hidden charms to boast,
    That all mankind for her should die
       While I am scarce a toast?

                                     VI.

    “Dearest mamma, for once let me
       Unchain’d my fortune try:
    I’ll have an Earl as well as she
       Or know the reason why.

                                     VII.

    “I’ll soon with Jenny’s pride quit score,
       Make all her lovers fall;
    They’ll grieve I was not loos’d before,
       _She_ I was loos’d at all.”

                                    VIII.

    Fondness prevailed, mamma gave way,
       Kitty, at heart’s desire,
    Obtained the chariot for a day
       And set the world on fire.

This lady’s luck and happiness appear to vanish in later life, both her
sons meeting tragic deaths; the eldest, Viscount Drumlanrig, shooting
himself, the second, Lord Charles Douglas, dying of consumption at
Amesbury, having just escaped the perils of the great earthquake at
Lisbon.

The Duchess died July 19th, 1777, aged 77, and the Duke the following
year.

The title of Duke of Queensberry descended to the Duke’s cousin, William,
Earl of March and Raglin.  In 1778 he succeeded his cousin Charles as 4th
Duke of Queensberry, and in 1786 was created a British peer, taking the
title of Baron Douglas of Ambresbury.  This eccentric nobleman never
married, and was commonly known by the nickname of “Old Q.”  He died in
1810, the Amesbury estate passing to Archibald, Lord Douglas of Douglas,
whose executors sold it in 1824 to Sir Edmund Antrobus, Bart., my
husband’s great-great-uncle.

No record is to be found of the destruction of the Abbey, Lord Hertford
apparently building himself a house in Amesbury.  In “Vitruvius
Britannicus” there is a picture of a fine mansion in the Palladian style,
built for Lord Carleton from designs by Inigo Jones, the architect being
Mr. Webb, nephew of Inigo Jones.

The Queensberrys added wings to this house, and caused a beautiful bridge
to span the river Avon, which runs through the grounds.  A pretty old
house stands in the park, near an old entrance: tradition tells us the
Duchess of Queensberry used this lodge as a dairy.  It possesses two
octagon rooms (one over the other), and an underground passage is
supposed to connect it with the river.  The park is small, but extremely
pretty; one enters it through splendid old gates supported by Palladian
pillars.

Opposite the dwelling house is a high bank cut into a fantastic shape and
known as “The Diamond.”  The cave in which the poet Gay loved to write is
hollowed in this bank.  The wild-bird-frequented Avon {18} runs below,
and above it is crowned by a beautiful wood planted over what is called
“Vespasian’s Camp.”  In this wood are found two avenues of beech-trees,
and walking through the old deer park and across the Downs, at a mile and
a half’s distance, glorious Stonehenge bursts upon one.

Returning to Amesbury, and following the course of the river in the
opposite direction, one comes upon a little house built of flints, with
quaint pointed roof and tower, in which the floor of a small upper
chamber is found to be movable; outside, over a door, the stone moulding
bears this inscription:

    “Diana, her hovs—1600.”

Diana certainly possessed a picturesque dwelling, but I can find no clue
to her identity.  After the death of the last Duke of Queensberry,
Amesbury House remained uninhabited for sixty years, except during the
tenancy of Sir Elijah Impey, and when some French nuns occupied it for a
short period.

My husband’s grandfather, on inheriting Amesbury from his uncle (the
first Sir Edmund Antrobus), wished to enlarge and restore the old house,
but finding it in too dilapidated a state, decided to pull it down, and
in 1838 began to build an entirely new house (closely resembling the old
one) of handsome cut stone, with a grand loggia, supported by beautiful
pillars and ornamented with carved stonework of fine design.  This house
is supposed to stand on the site of the old Abbey, and many traces of
cells were discovered, underground, when digging foundations.  To-day not
a single stone of the old Abbey remains above ground to remind us of its
former existence and splendour; it having once covered, tradition says, a
space of thirteen acres.

                                * * * * *

NOTE.—Some beautiful coloured tiles decorated with different intricate
patterns were dug up near the present house at Amesbury.  We suppose them
to be from the cells of the old Abbey.  Some have designs of the
_Fleur-de-lys_ on them.



PRICELESS STONEHENGE—SOME IMPRESSIONS.


                     (From _Ladies’ Realm_ Magazine.)

THE Great Druidical Temple, or (as some hold) Phœnician Observatory,
composed of gigantic, beautifully-coloured, hewn stones, stands in the
middle of Salisbury Plain.  These stones have been measured, counted,
defaced, praised, depreciated, commented upon, by numerous authorities on
countless occasions, but (to my knowledge) no account of their poetical
and picturesque aspects, at different seasons of the year, has been
attempted.  I shall feel satisfied if I succeed in conveying feebly in
words what David Cox (the artist) did ably in colours, with his glowing
brush.  I do not propose to enter into any statistics, as to the “Market
value of Stonehenge to the nation,” or to tell you the number of miles
that lie between it and the town of Salisbury, the goodness or
inferiority of the roads to it, the number of visiting tourists, &c.; I
only wish to place before you some impressions I have felt of its
grandeur and charm, through many seasons, in all sorts of weather, and
varying moods.

There is always a constant surprise and delight to me in the manner in
which Stonehenge bursts upon one, approach it as one may, from various
points across the undulating Plain which surrounds it.  Starting upon
one’s “Pilgrim’s Path” to visit it, from any side, at first there is
nothing to be seen but the crisp crackling grass underfoot, and the white
glittering roads; then, as one advances nearer, unexpectedly, dark,
mysterious forms seem to start up, which gradually shape themselves into
the incompleted circle we call “Stonehenge.”

The late spring, and early summer, are enchanting periods; myriads of
starry white flowers, and gorgeous yellow and blue ones, wave together
with a glowing harmony of colour, as they are swayed by soft breezes,
whilst a “Hallelujah Chorus” of skylarks sing overhead, making the air
full of scent and sound.  In this setting, the old stones seem all yellow
and grey in the brilliant sunshine.  Picturesque shepherds, wrapped in
their great dark-blue cloaks, appear upon the horizon; tinkling sheep
bells are heard, reminding one of the Roman Campagna; evening falling,
brings a sense of peace and stillness, chimes from the old Church at
Amesbury float across the valley.  The light comes and goes, and the
world seems far away.

               [Picture: Stonehenge and a Great Trilithon]

                                * * * * *

To my mind the magic of Stonehenge is never more powerfully felt than
during the wild, tempestuous autumnal gales, that usually sweep across
the Plain in October.  Great clouds roll above, enfolding the circle in a
shadowy purple mantle, sometimes tipped with gold.  Thoughts rise up
suddenly, of the many tragedies, feasts, sacrifices, mysterious rites
that must have been enacted here in far-off bygone days.  One wonders if
beautiful golden-haired Guinevere passed this way, on her flight to
safety, at the Convent at “Ambresbury” (the Land of Ambrosius), or if sad
King Arthur tarried there on his lonely homeward journey?

I prefer to picture to myself, Stonehenge, in happy, thoughtless Pagan
days, Druid priests and priestesses forming grand processions; crossing
the “rushing Avon” and winding up from the valley to Stonehenge, clothed
in pure white, and holding gleaming sickles in their hands, chanting
hymns on their way to perform the sacred rite of cutting the mistletoe.
Perhaps they sang and chanted through the short summer night, waiting for
the sun to rise (over the pointed outlying stone) on the day which marks
the solar half-year (June 21st), and which bathes the altar-stone in
golden light.  Probably this was the signal for sacrifice, the death of
the victim, and the appeasing of wrathful gods.  In mid-winter the stones
appear like black masses, in the midst of driving snows.  The least
interesting time of year, in this enchanted place, is the bright, clear,
commonplace summer, when no mysteries abound (except by moonlight).  The
old gods are sleeping, everything is orderly, agriculture and its
implements surround us, and Romance seems dead for the moment.  Farewell.

                                      FLORENCE CAROLINE MATHILDE ANTROBUS.

In approaching’ the momentous and deeply interesting subject of
Stonehenge, I considered it best and wisest to collect the thoughts and
opinions of several learned authors on this subject, and submit them to
the reader, who thus will have an opportunity of comparing for himself
the truth and merits of the different theories presented to him for
judgment.

Various explanations of the name “Stonehenge” have been forthcoming; but
the true etymological significance seems to be: A.S. “Stàn,” used as an
adjective, and “henge,” from A.S. “hòn” _i.e._, stone hanging-places,
from the groups of stones resembling a gallows.  This was long ago
suggested by Wace, the Anglo-Norman poet, who writes:—

    “Stanhengues ont nom en Englois
    Pierres pendues en François.”

As to the date of Stonehenge, opinions vary.  It is supposed Hecatæus
(500 B.C.) mentioned it as the “Round Temple” (Translation of Extract
from Diodorus Siculus, about B.C. 8).

Hecatæus, the Milesian, and others, have handed down to us the following
story:—“Over against Gaul, in the great ocean stream, is an island not
less in extent than Sicily, stretching towards the north.  The
inhabitants are called Hyperboreans, because their abode is more remote
from us than that wind we call Boreas.  It is said that the soil is very
rich and fruitful, and the climate so favourable that there are two
harvests in every year.  Their fables say that Latona was born in this
island, and on that account they worship Apollo (Apollo would signify the
sun to the Latins) before all other divinities, and celebrate his praise
in daily hymns, conferring the highest honours upon their bards, as being
his priests.  There is in this island a magnificent temple to this god,
circular in form, and adorned with many splendid offerings.  And there is
also a city sacred to Apollo, inhabited principally by harpers, who in
his temple sing sacred verses to the god, accompanied by the harp, in
honour of his deeds.

“The language of the Hyperboreans is peculiar, and they are singularly
well affected towards the Greeks, and have been so from the most remote
times, especially to those of Athens and Delos.  It is even said that
some Greeks have travelled thither, and presented offerings at their
temple inscribed with Grecian characters.  They also say that Abaris in
former times went thence to Greece, to renew their ancient friendship
with the Delians.  It is related, moreover, that in this island the moon
appears but a short way from the earth, and to have little hills upon it.
Once in nineteen years (and this period is what we call the Great Year)
they say that their god visits the island; and from the Vernal Equinox to
the rising of the Pleiades, all the night through, expresses his
satisfaction at his own exploits by dances and by playing on the harp.

“Both the City and the Temple are presided over by the Boreadœ, the
descendants of Boreas, and they hand down the power in regular succession
in their family.”

The first author who is considered to make unmistakable mention of
Stonehenge is Henry of Huntingdon (twelfth century).  In his Chronicle he
speaks of it as the second wonder of England, and calls it Stanenges.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (1138) wrote of it about the same time; he believed
it to have been erected by Aurelius Ambrosius, King of Britain, and
called it Hengist’s Stones.  Giraldus Cambrensis, a contemporary of
Geoffrey, also makes mention of it.

Among more modern authors, may be quoted Sir Philip Sidney’s lines:—

    “Near Wilton sweet, huge heaps of stones are found,
    But so confused that neither any eye
    Can count them first, nor reason try
    What force them brought to so unlikely ground.”

Then Wharton’s sonnet:—

    “Thou noblest monument of Albion’s isle!
    Whether by Merlin’s aid from Scythia’s shore
    To Amber’s fatal plain Pendragon bore,
    Huge frame of giant hands, the mighty pile,
    To entomb his Britain’s slain by Hengist’s guile;
    Or Druid priests, sprinkled with human gore,
    Taught ’mid thy massy maze their mystic lore;
    Or Danish chiefs, enriched with savage spoil,
    To victory’s idle vast, an unhewn shrine,
    Reared the rude heap; or in thy hallowed round
    Repose the kings of Brutus’ genuine line;
    Or here those kings in solemn state were crowned
    Studious to trace thy wondrous origin,
    We muse on many an ancient tale renowned.”

To descend to prose.  Langtoft, in his Chronicle, says:—“A wander wit of
Wiltshire, rambling to Rome, to gaze at antiquities, and there screwing
himself into the company of antiquarians, they entreated him to
illustrate unto them that famous monument in his country called Stonage.
His answer was that he had never seen it.  Whereupon they kicked him out
of doors, and bade him go home and see Stonage.”

The immortal Pepys says the stones are “as prodigious as any tales I have
ever heard of them, and worth going this journey to see.”

The archæologist, Mr. Edmund Story Maskelyne, fixes the date of
Stonehenge at 900 or 1000 B.C.  I quote what he says from a lecture, read
1897, “On the Age and Purpose of Stonehenge”:—

    “It is of consequence that we should recognize that Stonehenge was
    built about nine or ten hundred years B.C., and not 700 A.D., as many
    writers would have us believe.  For instance, Dr. W. M. Flinders
    Petrie, in his book, ‘Stonehenge, 1880,’ states his opinion that it
    was erected A.D. 700±200, that is, between A.D. 500 and 900.  The
    date of Stonehenge will be of great interest if there is found at
    Avebury remains sufficiently perfect to determine astronomically the
    date when that monument was erected.  For it cannot be but
    interesting to ascertain when the two cults—that of the sun, pure and
    simple, as exemplified in the original Temple at Stonehenge; and the
    cult of the sun in connexion with the serpent, as exhibited at
    Avebury—respectively prevailed in this country.”

Mr. Story Maskelyne’s reasons for his theory that Stonehenge was built by
the Phœnicians are as follows:—

    “I should like to add some reasons for my belief that Stonehenge was
    built by the Phœnicians.  In the first place, I cannot think of any
    other people that could have either designed or executed such a
    monument, which required both science for its conception and skill
    for its erection.  The Phœnicians, with their perfect familiarity
    with masts, and cordage, and pulleys, could easily lift the imposts,
    of which the largest—being about 11 ft. long, 4 or 6 wide, and 3 ft.
    thick—would weigh less than ten tons; and the Phœnicians must have
    known how the Egyptians raised masses of stone many times heavier.

    “The trilithon {24} standing clear seems to have had some fascination
    for these people.  They are found still standing in Tripoli in Libya,
    as described in ‘The Hill of the Graces,’ a record of investigation
    among the Trilithons and Megalithic sites of Tripoli by Mr. Cowper,
    F.S.A., 1897, and specimens exist on the Continent of Europe, in
    Normandy and in Brittany.  One may be seen in the Island of Ushant,
    and another in St. Nazaire on the probable route they adopted for the
    passage of tin.

       [Picture: Great Circle and Leaning Stone, as it was—now upright]

    “Another peculiarity can be seen to this day by any one at Stonehenge
    in the large trilithon impost, namely, that the under surfaces of the
    imposts which rested on the uprights are smoothly cut and slightly
    bevelled, so as to throw the principal weight of the mass of the
    impost on its outside edge, thus excluding rain, &c., and this very
    contrivance was employed by the Egyptians in the pyramids, and it is
    certain that the Phœnicians had free intercourse with Egypt.
    Finally, the Phœnicians had founded Cadiz, their Gadir in the
    eleventh century B.C., more than two centuries before the date which,
    from astronomical considerations, I assign for the building of
    Stonehenge.  We know that they sailed along the shores of Spain and
    Gaul and to the Baltic, and though they preferred coasting as a rule,
    the straight cut across from Cherbourg to Poole or Christchurch in
    fine weather would not be a long voyage; and as they certainly did
    trade with Britain, and it must have been hazardous for British
    coracles to sail across the open sea, laden with tin, we may conclude
    that Phœnician ships did cross the Channel.  We know also that the
    Phœnicians made, more or less, homes for themselves wherever they
    landed; and it is probable that they did so at Poole or Christchurch,
    also that they would build them a temple where they found it
    convenient to stay.”

Mr. Story Maskelyne considers the Greeks reformed the Temple later on.
“Within 500 years of the latest of the above-mentioned dates the
Phœnician or Tyrian Empire had ceased to exist, and her numerous colonies
had been absorbed by the nationalities surrounding them.  About B.C. 400
the Greeks supplanted the Phœnicians in their trade with Britain, and
probably for some time continued to use the same mart and sea route the
latter had used—we may assume from Cherbourg to Poole or Christchurch,
whence they bore away the tin in their coracles from Cornwall.  Now
commenced a new era for Stonehenge.  It must have been a noted Temple,
and I cannot doubt that Hecatæus did allude to it as cited by Strabo,
when he wrote, in the sixth century B.C., of the Round Temple to Apollo
in the land of the Hyperboreans.  Now the festivals of the Greeks were
more connected with the months than with the year, and their calendar
months were alternate, full and hollow, where the thirty pillars were
doubtless used by them for the daily sacrifice in the months of thirty
days and the spaces between them, omitting the entrance, for the hollow
months, of twenty-nine days.  Owing to the precession of the stars,
Stonehenge no longer answered some of the purposes for which it has been
founded.  The Greeks had adopted with ardour the Metonic Cycle discovered
by them B.C. 430, and they reformed the old Sun Temple by the addition of
the inner horseshoe of blue stones which represented that Cycle, for they
were in number nineteen.  As to how, or why, the blue stones came to be
imported, I imagine they are native to Brittany or Normandy, whence they
might easily have been brought as ballast in Greek ships, which took back
tin in their stead from Poole or Christchurch, and from the latter port
they might easily have been taken in rafts to Amesbury.”

 [Picture: The stone and flint implements discovered at Stonehenge during
                         the excavations in 1902]

                          [Picture: Hele Stone]



THE DATE OF STONEHENGE.


IN printing this second edition of my little guide-book, I think it will
be found interesting and necessary to leave all the former evidence and
opinions that I collected as to the date of Stonehenge.  Since the
excavations in 1901, I think we may consider the age of Stonehenge to be
between three and four thousand years.  Mr. W. Gowland judges from the
implements or tools found, Sir Norman Lockyer and Dr. Penrose from
astronomical observations, based on the fact that the avenue (“Viâ
Sacra”) to Stonehenge from the east of the ancients was in a line with
the Altar Stone, so that the sun, rising on the day of the solar
half-year (June 21st) and creeping over the horizon, shed his beams on
the Altar Stone, thus marking the solar half-year.  Of course, the east
of the ancients is not our east, but the difference between the position
of the sun _now_ and then to the avenue gives, according to these
gentlemen’s calculations, a date of 3700 years old to Stonehenge.



THE FINDS AT STONEHENGE, 1901.


THE implements found during the excavations made for the underpinning of
the “Leaning Stone” are thus classified by Mr. W. Gowland:—

(1) Haches roughly chipped, longer and shorter.  (2) Axe-hammers.  (3)
Hammer-stones with blunt edge.  The above are of flint.  (4) Regular
hammer-stones of compact sarsen.  (5) Mauls of the same rock, weighing
from 37 to 64 lbs. each.  There were also found chippings from the
monoliths, and, near the surface, coins and animal bones.

Only one trace of copper or bronze occurred other than coins and
superficial finds, a mere strain on a block of sarsen.  So we may
consider Stonehenge to belong to the late Neolithic, or early Bronze
Period.  These objects have been lent by Sir Edmund Antrobus to the
museum at Devizes for a period of six months.

                                * * * * *

In the January, 1902, number of _Man_, Mr. W. Gowland’s interesting paper
will be found, describing the excavations, methods of trimming and
erecting the stones practised by the ancients.

As to the kinds of stone actually employed in the building of Stonehenge,
the whole of the outer circle and the four stones lying beyond that
circle are undoubtedly “Sarsen” (which are the boulder stones left by the
ice-sheet of the glacial period on the Wiltshire downs).  There are, in
the inner circle, four stones which have been called “horn-stone.”  The
remainder are “diabase,” commonly called “bluestones,” and similar are
found in Wales, and in parts of Cumberland and Cornwall, the so-called
Altar Stone being a kind of grey sandstone, not sarsen.  The large
outlying stone, known traditionally as the “Friar’s Heel,” from a legend
that when the devil was busy erecting Stonehenge he made the observation
that no one would ever know how it was done.  This was overheard by a
friar lurking near by, and he incautiously replied in the Wiltshire
dialect, “That’s more than thee can tell,” and fled for his life; the
devil, catching up an odd stone, flung it after the friar, and hit him on
the heel.  This stone is also named the “Pointer,” because from the
middle of the Altar Stone the sun is seen at the summer solstice (21st of
June) to rise immediately above it.  The Hele Stone is the true name,
“Hele” meaning “to hide,” from Heol or Haul of Geol or Jul, all names for
the sun, which this stone seems to hide.  From the Friar’s Heel it is
about 66 yards to a low circular earthen boundary, enclosing the area
within which Stonehenge stands.  Just within the entrance to this earthen
ring lies a large prostrate stone called the “Slaughter Stone,” supposed
by some to have been used for the slaughter of victims about to be
offered in sacrifice at the altar.  The Slaughter Stone (at the end
nearest to the Friar’s Heel) bears evidence of tool-marks, there being
six small round cavities made in it by blows from a flint tool.  On the
margin of the earthen ring, one 55 yards on the left, the other 95 yards
on the right of the entrance, are two small, unhewn stones.

  [Picture: Ground plan as presumed to have been originally.  A.  Small
  Trilithon of Syenite.  That it stood here is only conjecture.  It now
                         lies as marked A below]

 [Picture: A.  Trilithon fell 1797.  B.  Upright with capstone fell, Dec.
                               31st, 1900]

                 [Picture: Great Trilithons (as it was)]

Stonehenge stands about 440 feet above the sea-level.  The outer circle
measures 308 feet in circumference, and is supposed to have been formed
originally of thirty upright stones, seventeen of which are still
standing, and the remains of nine others are to be found fallen to the
ground.  These stones formerly stood 14 feet above the surface of the
ground, but now are of different heights.  Their breadth and thickness
also vary: the former averaging 7 feet, the latter 3½.  The stones were
fixed in the ground at intervals of 3½ feet, connected at the top by a
continuous line of thirty imposts forming a corona or ring of stone at a
height of 16 feet above the ground, and were all squared and rough hewn,
and cleverly joined together.  The uprights were cut with knobs or
tenons, which fitted into mortice holes hewn in the undersides of the
horizontal stones.  About 9 feet within this peristyle was the “inner
circle,” composed of diabase obelisks; within this, again, was the “great
ellipse,” formed of five, or, as some think, seven trilithons of stones,
each group consisting of two blocks placed upright and one crosswise.
These structures rose progressively in height from N.E. to S.W., and the
loftiest and largest attained an elevation of 25 feet.  Lastly, within
the trilithons was the “inner ellipse,” consisting of nineteen obelisks
of diabase.  Within the inner ellipse we find the Altar Stone.  At the
present moment, there remains of the outer circle or peristyle sixteen
uprights and six imposts; of the inner circle, seven only stand upright
of the great ellipse—there are still two perfect trilithons and two
single uprights.  The Duke of Buckingham, in his researches in 1620, is
said to have caused the fall of a trilithon.  He was at Wilton in the
reign of James I., and he “did cause the middle of Stonehenge to be
digged, and under this digging was the cause of the falling down or
recumbency of the great stone there, twenty-one foote long.”  “In the
process of digging they found a great many horns of stags and oxen,
charcoal batter-dishes (?), heads of arrows, some pieces of armour eaten
out with rust, bones rotten, but whether of stagge’s or men they could
not tell.”

In 1797, on a rapid thaw succeeding a severe frost, another trilithon
fell; of the inner ellipse, there are six blocks in their places; and in
the centre remains the so-called Altar Stone.

In Sir R. C. Hoare’s “History of Wiltshire,” he mentions that Inigo Jones
observed a stone, which is now gone, in the inmost part of the cell,
appearing not much above the surface of the earth and lying towards the
east, four feet broad and sixteen long, which was his supposed Altar
Stone.  Also “Philip, Earl of Pembroke (Lord Chamberlayne to King Charles
I.), did say ‘that an altar stone was found in the middle of the area
here, and that it was carried away to St. James’s.’”

The entrance to Stonehenge faced the N.E., and the road to it, “Viâ
Sacra,” or avenue, can be traced by banks of earth.

It is the opinion of competent authorities that many of the stones should
be underpinned in the manner of the “Leaning Stone,” as any violent
storms, such as periodically sweep across the Plain, might bring them
down.  The fall of two of the stones from the outer circle (supposed by
the superstitious to foretell the Queen’s death) on December 31st, 1900,
the last day of the old century, and 103 years after the last stones
fell, was caused by a gale from the west.

There are the two opinions as to the right course to pursue regarding
Stonehenge—some people considering it would be well to leave it to fall
down, so that eventually it would appear like a jumbled heap of ninepins,
others (myself among the number) that the necessary steps for its
Preservation, _not_ Restoration, should be taken.

                                                  FLORENCE C. M. ANTROBUS.

_April_, 1902.



PARTICULARS OF THE STONES.

     58  stones of the Sarsen circle: 30 piers, 28 lintels.
     26  ,, ,, Bluestone circle (2): this includes 1 impost.
     15  ,, ,, Sarsen trilithons: 10 piers, 5 imposts.
     19  „ Inner bluestones.
      1  Sun stone.
      1  Altar stone.
      1  Slaughter stone.
      1  Stones of the Earth Circle.
    123  Total

.

The question arises whether there were formerly other stones belonging to
the earth circle.  From probing the ground, there is reason to believe
that a stone on this bank may once have marked the direction of the axis.



SARSEN CIRCLE.


17 piers _in situ_, 8 prostrate or fragments, 5 missing.

6 lintels _in situ_, 2 fragments, 20 missing.



BLUESTONE CIRCLE.


12 stones or stumps _in situ_, 10 prostrate, 4 missing.



SARSEN TRILITHONS.


5 piers _in situ_, 3 prostrate, 5 missing.

From this list of missing blue stones we may safely deduct two; two
pieces of rock are known to be beneath the turf, and there may be others.
The most satisfactory derivation of Sarsens or Sassens is from the
Anglo-Saxon word for a rock or stone—_ses_, plural _sesen_ or _sesons_.
The Inner Circle of blue stones and Inner Horse-shoe are composed of the
“Blue Stones,” igneous rocks.



DERIVATION OF AMESBURY.


“On Salisbury Plain stand the ruins of the weird Circle of Revolution,
Cor y Coeth in Welsh, the Circle of Dominion, the holy anointed stones of
Ambresbiri (_ambree_, anointed; _biri_, Hebrew for holy ones), at once a
sanctuary and a sundial (3000 years ago the only clock in Britain),
regulated by the sun and moon for days and years.  But the beautiful old
British names since the sixth century have been blotted out by the
terrible title _Stonehenge_ or stone gallows—Stanhengen in Anglo-Saxon.
A permanent gallows of stone was used by the Saxons for the execution of
criminals, and wishing to aim a death-blow at British power, no surer way
was found by the invaders than by hanging British leaders upon the
consecrated stones of their revered temple.  The road from the village of
Amesbury to the Circle is still called Gallow’s Hill.”

                                            _From Mrs. Gordon’s Pamphlet_.



DERIVATION OF DRUID.


An Arabic (and Persian) word meaning Holy Men come from the valley of the
Euphrates.  Mrs. Gordon considers Merlin (the Bismarck of his age) as the
builder of Stonehenge; also that Aurelius Ambrosius, by his own wish, was
buried within the Circle of Stonehenge.



DERIVATION OF BARROWS.


Barrow, a Hebrew word for grave Mounds.  Literally, the “thrown-up pit of
lamentation.”



DERIVATION OF WILTSHIRE.


Wiltshire, in the Saxon Chronicles Wiltunseir, in Doomesday Wiltescire,
derives its name from the town of Wilton, from the Wit-saetas (_saetan_ =
settlers or inhabitants), the West Saxon tribe who made it their home.



MENTION OF AMESBURY IN MALORY’S “MORTE D’ARTHUR.”


“And thus upon a night there came a vision unto Sir Launcelot, and
charged him, in remission of all his sins, to haste him towards
Almesbury.  ‘And by that time thou come, there thou shalt find Queen
Guenever dead; and therefore take thy fellows with thee, and also purvey
thee a horse bier, and bring you the corpse of her, and bury it by her
lord and husband.’  Then Sir Launcelot took his seven fellows with him,
and on foot they went from Glastonbury, which is little more than thirty
miles.  And when Sir Launcelot was come to Almesbury, within the nunnery,
Queen Guenever died but half an hour before.”

Timbs, in his “Abbeys and Castles in England,” says: “At Amesbury, says
Bishop Tanner, quoting from Geoffrey of Monmouth, there is said to have
been an ancient British monastery for 300 monks, founded, as some say, by
the famous Prince Ambrosius who lived at the time of the Saxon invasion,
and who was therein buried, destroyed by that cruel pagan, Gurmendus, who
overran all this country in the sixth century.”  This alludes to a
monastery prior to the one founded by Elfrida, with which I begin my
account of Amesbury Abbey.



THE AVENUE OR VIÂ SACRA


is orientated to the midsummer sunrise, and points 50° east of north
point.  It leads uninterruptedly to the circular space formed by the
earth circle in which Stonehenge stands, the enclosing bank being
discontinued in this direction.  It is noteworthy that the sun stone, as
well as the slaughter stone, are not placed in the centre of the avenue
or approach, but lie towards the eastern side of it.  The avenue is made
by two parallel lines confining ditches, the earth having been thrown
inwards so as to slightly raise the roadway.  These ditches, though
shallow, are distinct.  The avenue thus formed descends the gradual
incline of the Down, until at about one thousand five hundred feet from
the sun stone the ditches become indistinguishable.  Here the descent is
more rapid and leads to a gentle valley in the Down, where the avenue
divided into two branches.  It is now impossible to trace this point of
division with any certainty.



THE CURSUS AVENUE.


This is now completely obliterated.



THE LONG AVENUE.


The branch which turned to the right, forming the eastern slope of the
valley, went over its crest and continued in a straight line in the
direction of some high land to the north of Vespasian’s Camp.  The plough
at work year after year has completely effaced all traces of this avenue,
and we have to rely on Dr. Stukeley’s account written 150 years ago.



THE PARALLEL BANK.


At 1200 feet from the sun stone “the approach” is intersected at an angle
approximating roughly to a right angle by parallel banks about two feet
in height and forty feet apart; the roadway thus formed continues about
600 feet to left and right; to the east it is continued by a causeway
across the valley already spoken of, and it is used by carts passing that
way, required in the cultivation of fields to the west of the avenue.



THE CURSUS.


                   _Discovered by Dr. Stukeley_, 1723.

This great enclosure lies to the north of Stonehenge, and veers 6° from
due east and west.  Like the avenue it is formed by banks thrown up from
an outer ditch.  It is 9000 feet in length, with a width of 350 feet at
its centre, but towards its extremities it narrows.  To the west, the
southern boundary is irregular.  The northern ditch, on the contrary,
makes a fairly straight line.  Its eastern end is headed by a long mound
now difficult to trace.  Near its western extremity, and within the
enclosure, are two small tumuli irregularly placed.  The greater part of
this earthwork being on the uncultivated Down is fairly well defined,
especially to the west; to the east it has been obliterated by the
plough.



THE LESSER CURSUS.


To the north-west of the Great Cursus and over 7000 feet distant from
Stonehenge, is an earthwork apparently the beginning of a second cursus.
It is ill defined, and at 1200 feet from its enclosed end the ditches
cease.  It appears to be an abandoned scheme for an enclosure similar to
the Cursus.

From “Stonehenge,” Mr. Edgar Barclay.  At page 66 he says:—“The Cursus is
irregular in shape, nevertheless there remains a very strong probability
that it is an adjunct of Stonehenge, and was designed with it, and is not
an independent earthwork as Sir R. Colt Hoare maintains.”

From Mr. J. F. Hewitt’s “Ruling Races of Pre-historic Times”:—“A
hippodrome can still be traced about half a mile north of the Temple,
with which it is connected by an avenue about forty cubits wide.  This is
divided into two branches, about 1700 feet from the Temple, the eastern
hand going eastward to Radfin, a ford on the Avon, and the western
curving round to the ancient chariot-course.  It was here the seasonal
games took place, said by Macrobius to have been celebrated by the
Druids, when sacrifices were offered to the gods.  This ancient _campus
martius_, running east and west, is about 10,000 feet or 6000 Druidical
cubits long, and 350 feet or 200 Druidical cubits wide, and on the east
side is a long bank, extending nearly its whole length, which must have
served as a place for spectators; while on the west side is a curve to
allow for the turning of the competing chariots.  There can be no doubt
whatever that this racecourse represents the ancient site of the national
games; instituted by the Sons of the Horse, which are said in Greek
tradition to have been founded by Akastus, king of Iolcus, after he had
driven out Jason and Medea the sorceress.”



EARTHWORKS ON SALISBURY PLAIN.


Tumuli, or Barrows, are the most simple kind of sepulchral monument; they
consist of a mound of earth or stones raised over the dead.

Sir Richard Colt Hoare thus classifies them in his “History of
Wiltshire”:—

1.  The Long Barrow.  Differing considerably in their construction.

2.  The Bowl Barrow.  The most ordinary shape.

3.  The Bell Barrow.  This, from the elegance of its form, seems a
refinement on the Bowl Barrow.  They abound near Stonehenge.

4.  Druid Barrow (1st class).  I consider these tumuli were appropriated
to the female tribes.  The outward vallum with the ditch within is
beautifully moulded, and in most instances found to contain small cups,
small lance heads, amber, jet, and glass beads.

5.  Druid Barrow (2nd class).  In external form these resemble the
preceding, but their circumference is not so large.  The tumulus within
rises to a point from the edge of the vallum.

6.  Pond Barrow.  They differ totally from all others, and resemble an
excavation made for a pond.  I can form no conjecture as to their use.

7.  Twin Barrow.  They are not very common, and, by being enclosed in a
circle, seem to denote the interment of relations.

8.  Cone Barrow.  The only one I have seen is at Everley.  The tumulus
rises immediately from the ditch, and the apex is higher and more
pointed.

9.  Broad Barrow.  Resembles the Bowl Barrow, but is higher and flatter
at the top.

Mr. Edgar Barclay, in “Stonehenge,” says:—“The presence of barrows (near
Stonehenge) would enable marriages to be celebrated on the spot.  A feast
at the family tomb was an opportunity for a young woman about to marry to
be formally introduced to the domestic worship of the family she was
about to enter.  That feasts did occur at Stonehenge Barrows we have
proofs.  We find also that Irish Fairs in honour of the Sun God were held
in proximity to extensive burial-places.  The arrangement of the avenues,
the placing of the cursus, the placing of the sun stone and slaughter
stone, the break in the lintel circle, &c.: these characteristics point
out to us the probable procedures at times of festival.  The midsummer
festival solemnized the holy espousals of the Sun God with the land.”

In “The Ruling Races of Pre-historic Times,” Mr. Hewitt says:—“The deer
worshippers were the mixed race formed from the union of the sons of the
mother-tree, the mother-bear and wolf, the lordly boar and the prolific
sow, the mother-cow, the mother-mountain, and father firestone, the
people who looked on the Sun God of the equinoxes and solstices as the
god who made their crops to grow and who ripened their barley, the seed
of life (_zi_), the Zeus of the Greeks, which gave its name to the Deus
of the Latins and the Theos of the Greeks, the Manx god Ji.  This father
sun god was the god on the grey white horse, the clouds, the white horse
in Zend mythology of Tishtrya, the star of the summer solstice which
succeeded the golden horned bull of the bull race, as the adversary and
conqueror of the black horse, and the black bull or dragon, the cloud
which will not give up its rain, which was in Northern mythology the
winter frost giant.  It was this white horse—the sun god of the
limestone, flint, and chalk country—which was the god of Stonehenge, the
temple whose ruins still remain to set before us, with absolute certainty
of the correctness of the deduction in its main details, the complete
ritual of this primæval worship.”

_Note_.—The white sun horse is still worshipped and fed daily at Kobe, in
Japan.

The worshippers of the sun god who built this temple are proved to have
belonged to the Bronze age by the number of round barrow tombs within
twelve miles of it; and Stukeley (A.D. 1723) counted one hundred and
twenty-eight as visible from a hill close by.



VESPASIAN’S CAMP.


A name given by Dr. Stukeley to the (probably) British earthworks,
locally known as “the Ramparts,” which crown a hill in the demesne of
Amesbury Abbey.  Its ancient lines of defence, enclosing thirty-nine
acres and boldly scarped towards the west, environ the summit in the form
of a scalene triangle.  This hill is densely wooded, containing two
beautiful avenues of beech-trees, and as it descends to the Avon, is cut
into a fanciful shape, supposed to resemble a diamond.  I have described
this in “Amesbury Abbey.”



WEST AMESBURY HOUSE.


A pretty old house on the road-side, belonging to Sir Edmund Antrobus,
built of stone and flint.  The interior has been much altered and spoilt.
Traces of a monastic building exist in the beams supporting the roof, and
in a church doorway at the top of the staircase.  These date from the
fifteenth century.  Aubrey informs us that this house and property, along
with Stonehenge, once formed the dowry of the wife of Lord Ferrers of
Chartley.  The village of West Amesbury possesses some picturesque
thatched cottages, and on an outside wall of one is a rude sketch of
fighting cocks and their backers.



WILSFORD HOUSE.


A house on the banks of the Avon, built by the late Mr. Loder, of
Salisbury, two miles from Amesbury.  It is of the modern “villa”
description.  In 1898 Mr. Young purchased it from Sir E. Loder, and
re-sold it to Mr. Edward Tennant in 1900.  None of the places described
along the Avon Valley are open to the public, but they can be seen from
the high road.

                          [Picture: Lake House]



LAKE HOUSE,


situated on the banks of the Avon, is in the parish of Wilsford, and
about three miles south of Amesbury.  The exact date of its foundation is
uncertain.  Its main features are Elizabethan, but an old letter in the
possession of the family clearly suggests an earlier date.  “As to ye
date of ye house,” says the correspondent, “I do not remember anything in
that beautifully written deed to which you refer that would bear on it.
Great weight would belong to any opinion expressed by ye late J. H.
Parker, and you told me that you thought it might be as early as Edward
VI. or earlier, and probably Parker judged only by what he saw, and ye
architectural features that remain have in them nothing distinctive in
comparison with those what have vanished.”  Lake House is one of the most
beautiful in this neighbourhood, and is built of the usual stone and
flint; it possesses yew hedges and delightful old-fashioned gardens
sloping to the river.  It was purchased in 1591 by George Duke, and it
remained in the Duke family till 1897, when (just in time to save the old
house from utter ruin) it was bought by Mr. J. N. Lovibond, and most
beautifully restored by the architect, Mr. Detmar Blow, according to the
views of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings.  There are
barrows in the park at Lake, and many curious objects, such as amber
necklaces, &c., were discovered in them about fifty years ago during
excavations made by the late Mr. Duke.  Some of the things then found are
in the British Museum.  A cottage industry is now carried on in the
village of Lake: a sort of rough tweed in pretty colours being made in
hand looms by the women.  This tweed is called “Stonehenge” cloth, and is
not expensive.



GREAT DURNFORD CHURCH.


Leaving Amesbury, and following the eastern banks of the Avon, we come to
Great Durnford.  Its name is derived from the British word “dur,”
signifying water.  The church is most picturesque, and is built of stone
and flint, with very rich Norman north and south doorways and chancel
arch.  The font is Norman, with an interesting arcade.  The pulpit is of
oak and dated 1619, and has a very old velvet cover with 1657 worked on
it.  Built into the wall of the church is a stone coffin containing a
skeleton, supposed to be that of the founder.  Traces of two doors
leading to the rood loft can still be seen, and in one window are the
remains of some very old glass.  Inside the south door are several
curious crosses, supposed to be dedication crosses.  In the chancel is a
leper’s window.  The altar rails are of oak, and date back to the
sixteenth century.  The pattern on the walls is the same as that found
some years ago under the plaster and whitewash.  There is a curious brass
to the memory of Edward Young, his wife, and fourteen children, dated
1670.  In the chancel, chained to an ancient desk, is a copy of Jewel’s
“Apologie of the Church of England,” ordered by Convocation after the
Reformation, 1571.



GREAT DURNFORD HOUSE


was once a seat of the Hungerfords.  Evelyn notes in his Diary, July,
1654:—“We dined at a ferme of my Uncle Hungerford’s called Darneforde
magna, situate in a valley under the plaine, most sweetly watered,
abounding in troutes, catched by speares in the night when they come
attracted by a light set in ye sterne of a boate.”

It is in the French château style on a small scale, and has lovely
old-fashioned gardens, quite unspoiled, with some rare trees growing in
them.  At the end of the last garden flows the Avon, and picturesque
Durnford Church stands close by.  In 1869 Mr. Pinckney bought the house
and some of the estate from the Earl of Malmesbury.



OGBURY CAMP.


On the eastern side of the Avon is a very ancient earthen work called
Ogbury Camp.  Sir Richard Colt Hoare thus describes it:—“On this hill we
recognize the very early and simple handiwork of the Britons, unaltered
by their successors and conquerors, the Romans and Saxons.  Here we see a
large tract of sixty-two acres enclosed within a single rampart, and
without any fosse to strengthen it against the attacks of an enemy, and
we perceive within the area the evident marks of enclosures, and only one
entrance to the east.  On the northern side the ramparts followed the
windings of the hill, and are interrupted by the plantations of Lord
Malmesbury’s demesne.  The area contains sixty-two acres and a quarter.
The circuit of the outer ditch is one mile, one furlong and fifty-five
yards, and the depth of the vallum is thirty-three feet.  On the
south-east and west sides the ramparts are very much mutilated.  I cannot
consider Ogbury as a camp or work of defence against an invading enemy,
but rather as an asylum or place of refuge, whither the Britons, in times
of danger, retired with their families and herds of cattle.  On digging
within this area we could not find any marks of ancient residence, but on
some high ground adjoining the extraordinary verdure of the turf induced
us to dig into the soil, where we immediately found numerous bones of
animals with fragments of the rudest British pottery.”

                          [Picture: Heale House]



HEALE HOUSE, MIDDLE WOODFORD.


_The Residence of the Honourable Louis Greville_; _bought by him from Sir
                             E. Loder_, 1894.

This house, beautifully built of small red bricks, has stone-coped
windows in the Dutch style of architecture introduced into this country
by William III., and is quite unlike the usual stone and flint
“chequered” houses of the neighbourhood.  You enter the grounds through
old wrought-iron gates and down an avenue of elm-trees.  The river Avon
flows through the garden.  This property formerly belonged to the
Errington and Hyde families.  Inside the house little remains of the old
decorations but some carved woodwork.  A cupboard in a bedroom is shown
as the hiding-place of Charles II. after the battle of Worcester.  He is
said to have visited Stonehenge from Heale, and there met friends who
were to conduct him to the coast of Sussex prior to his escape from
England.  He is supposed to have proved to his own satisfaction the
fallacy of the notion of the impossibility of counting the stones
composing Stonehenge.

“In 1721 Robert Hyde bequeathed Heale to his sister, Mrs. Levinz, widow
of the Bishop of Sodor and Man, and she, by will, devised the estates to
her son-in-law, Michael Frampton of Oxford, and he, in his turn, left
them to his nephews, Thomas Bull, rector of Porton, and Edward and Simon
Polhill and their heirs in succession, in default thereof to William
Bowles; in seventeen years after the death of the testator, Canon Bowles
was in full possession of the property.”  Several members of the Bowles
family lie buried in Salisbury Cathedral.  Heale Hill is remarkable for a
circle on the summit and traces of a British village on the south slope.

                        [Picture: Little Durnford]



LITTLE DURNFORD HOUSE.


Built of stone and flint, successively the property of the families of
Pregers, Wodhull, and Tropnell, afterwards Yonge or Young.  In 1795 it
was sold to Edward Hinxman, whose descendants sold it in 1897 to Mr.
Devenish (the present owner).  The Avon, flowing through the grounds, has
been artificially widened in one place, forming a miniature lake in front
of the house.



ENVOI.


With much regret I find myself at the end of my little book, which, I
hope, will help to describe a beautiful and interesting country.  It has
been compiled from various learned sources, and only a small portion of
it can claim to be original.  I shall consider myself fortunate if the
traveller finds _any_ pleasure in reading what has given me great
pleasure to write.

                                      FLORENCE CAROLINE MATHILDE ANTROBUS.

_June_, 1900.



APPENDIX.
THE RECENT WORK AT STONEHENGE. {43}


AT a meeting held last March at Stonehenge, and attended by
representatives of the Society of Antiquaries, of the Society for the
Protection of Ancient Monuments, and the Wiltshire Archæological Society,
various plans and measures were discussed and suggested for the better
preservation of Stonehenge.  The whole state of the surrounding
neighbourhood being changed from its former quietude by the introduction
of new elements, such as the military camps at Bulford, &c., the making
of the new branch line of the South-Western Railway (from Grateley to
Amesbury), it became necessary to meet the altered circumstances by the
exercise of greater precautions for the care of the beautiful old Sun
Temple standing in the midst of the grass-clothed downs—a thing of wonder
and mystery to behold.  The advice given to Sir Edmund Antrobus by the
representatives of these societies was as follows, published in the
_Times_ of April 3:—

                              _Resolutions_.

(1)  That this Committee approves of the suggested protection of
Stonehenge by a wire fence not less than 4 ft. high, following on two
sides the existing roads and crossing on the west from the 331-foot level
on the north road to the 332-foot level on the south road shown on the
O.S. map (1-2, 500), Wilts sheet liv. 14.

(2)  That the Committee recommends, without prejudice to any legal
question, that the local authorities be requested to agree to divert the
existing track-way or ridge-way from Netheravon now passing through the
earth circle so as to pass from the 302-foot levels in the O.S. map
immediately west of Stonehenge.

(3)  That stones 6 and 7 with their lintel, and stone 56 (according to
the numbering on Mr. Petrie’s plan) be first examined, with a view of
maintaining them in a position of safety.

(4)  That, in the opinion of this Committee, stone 22 should be replaced,
stone 21 be made safe, and the lintel of 21 and 22 be replaced in the
most safe and conservative manner.  The Committee also recommends the
re-erection of stones 57 and 58, and their lintel 158.

(5)  That the instructions to custodians already in force be approved
with a few suggested alterations.

(6)  That this Committee feels that it is impossible to overstate the
value of the assistance which the County Council of Amesbury can give to
the efforts made to preserve this unique monument.

(7)  That these resolutions be sent to Sir Edmund Antrobus with the
earnest thanks of the Committee, for the part he is proposing to take in
the preservation of Stonehenge, also that it be left to him to
communicate with the Press.

                                * * * * *

The fence was erected by Whitsuntide, and is 1700 yards in circumference,
and composed of lightest barbed wire of a neutral tint, and absolutely
invisible at a distance, so that the traveller gets the whole effect of
Stonehenge in its full grandeur instead of, as in former days, the view
of the stones mingled with two or three flys, a cart, an old waggonette,
and photographer’s van, &c., to say nothing of picnic luncheons, spread
out within the sacred circle.  This fence encloses as large an area as
possible, being well outside the vallum, except on the west side, where a
right of way interferes with the true circle.  The next work
undertaken—the most difficult and important of the whole—was the raising
of the “leaning stone”—the largest monolith in England except Cleopatra’s
needle—to an upright position.  This stone formed one of the uprights of
the trilithon, the fall of which was said to have been caused by the
digging and researches of the Duke of Buckingham in 1620.  The horizontal
and the other upright (the latter broken in two pieces) now lie prostrate
across the altar stone.

      [Picture: The work at Stonehenge.  Raising the Leaning Stone]

The great stone leaned considerably towards the N.E. and appeared to rest
upon (actually touching at one point) a beautiful little pillar stone of
syenite, the danger being that in some storm, especially after a heavy
fall of snow and sudden thaw, the great stone would break in three pieces
(having three veins) in falling, and also crush the smaller stone beneath
it.

That a forward movement was continually taking place is shown by
observations taken by Mr. Flinders Petrie some years ago.  It then leaned
at an angle of 66, which has been increased to one of 60.5 degrees
lately.  The work of the raising of the stone was begun on August 18th
and finished September 25th, and was under the direct supervision of Mr.
Gowland, Mr. Detmar Blow, architect, and his assistant Mr. Stallybrass,
and Mr. Carruthers, engineer.  The first thing done was to make a fitting
to the stone of a strong timber cradle, so as to protect it from injury
by the immense iron chains and ropes placed round it, these being
attached to winches worked by men, so that the stone was actually “wound
up,” so to speak, into an upright position.  Hydraulic jacks were also
used.  The whole thing was most carefully and slowly done, and devotedly
watched over by the workers.  A rectangular excavation was made in front
of the stone, a square excavation at the back.  A frame of wood with
numbers at equal distances apart was placed over the ground, which was
excavated in sections, and the earth was most carefully sifted in layers
through four grades of sieves in such a manner that the position of every
object found could be recorded.  The excavations round the base of the
stone are now filled with concrete, and the large struts which uphold it
will remain in their positions for six months, until the concrete be
thoroughly set.

The objects found were one Roman coin and one George III. penny at a
shallow depth, and many chippings of both the blue and sarsen stones.
Numerous flint axe-heads and large stone hammers were also found at a
depth of from two feet to four feet six inches underground; all tending
to prove the great antiquity of Stonehenge—at least Neolithic.  But all
this will be discussed scientifically later on.

                                                  FLORENCE C. M. ANTROBUS.

                                * * * * *

                                                       1904.  A.  No. 335.



In the High Court of Justice.
CHANCERY DIVISION.
MR.  JUSTICE FARWELL.


                                _Writ issued the_ 1_st day of March_ 1904.

BETWEEN HIS MAJESTY’S ATTORNEY-GENERAL at and by the relation of FRANK
TUCKER, THOMAS MERCHANT, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE GEORGE JOHN SHAW LEFEVRE,
SIR JOHN TOMLINSON BRUNNER, Bart., and WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PETRIE
and the said FRANK TUCKER, THOMAS MERCHANT, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE GEORGE
JOHN SHAW LEFEVRE, SIR JOHN TOMLINSON BRUNNER, Bart., and WILLIAM MATTHEW
FLINDERS PETRIE . . . _Plaintiffs_

AND

SIR EDMUND ANTROBUS, Bart. . . . _Defendant_.


STATEMENT OF CLAIM.


Delivered the 17th day of March 1904 by HORNE & BIRKETT of 4 Lincoln’s
Inn Fields in the County of London Solicitors for the Plaintiffs.

1.  On Stonehenge Down in the Parish of Amesbury in the County of Wilts
there are a group of stones and surrounding earthworks which are together
known as Stonehenge.  Stonehenge which is of very great antiquity
originally formed an ancient building and place of assembly for public
worship the burial of the dead deliberation on public affairs or other
public purposes and since it has ceased to be so used has remained a
national monument and place of resort of great public interest.

2.  Until the acts of the Defendant hereinafter complained of there was
and there now ought to be free access for the public to Stonehenge by
means of roads running up to and through the same the sites of which
roads are shown on the plan hereunto annexed and are thereon coloured
green.

3.  The said roads were at the time of the said acts and are public
highways for all His Majesty’s liege subjects to go and return on foot
and with horses and carriages at all times of the year at their free will
and pleasure.

4.  Stonehenge is subject to a trust created by a grant or declaration of
trust which if in writing has been lost or by a Statute which has been
lost for the free user by the public of Stonehenge as a place of resort
and for the free access of the public thereto by means of the said roads
and the site of Stonehenge has since the creation of such trust been held
by the owners thereof for the time being subject to the said trust.

5.  The Defendant has lately erected and maintains and threatens and
intends to maintain upon Stonehenge Down aforesaid fences along the lines
shown upon the said plan and thereon coloured red.  The said fences
obstruct the said roads or some of them at the points marked respectively
A. B. C. D. and E. on the said plan and are obnoxious to and interfere
with the rights and privileges of His Majesty’s liege subjects referred
to in paragraphs 3 and 4 hereof.

6.  The Defendant has been requested to remove the said fences but he has
refused and still refuses to do so and threatens and intends to maintain
the same and the obstructions hereinbefore complained of.

The Plaintiffs therefore claim—

1.  An order that the Defendant remove the said fences where they
respectively obstruct the said roads or any of them.

2.  An injunction to restrain the Defendant his servants workmen and
agents from erecting upon the said lands or any part thereof any fence or
other erection so as to obstruct and from in any way obstructing the said
roads or any of them.

3.  Costs.

                                                                C. GURDON.

R. B. FINLAY.

                                * * * * *

                                                        1904.  A. No. 335.



In the High Court of Justice.
CHANCERY DIVISION,
MR. JUSTICE FARWELL.


BETWEEN HIS MAJESTY’S ATTORNEY-GENERAL at and by the relation of FRANK
TUCKER, THOMAS MERCHANT, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE GEORGE JOHN SHAW LEFEVRE,
SIR JOHN TOMLINSON BRUNNER, Bart., and WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PETRIE
and the said FRANK TUCKER, THOMAS MERCHANT, THE RIGHT HONOURABLE GEORGE
JOHN SHAW LEFEVRE, SIR JOHN TOMLINSON BRUNNER, Bart., and WILLIAM MATTHEW
FLINDERS PETRIE . . . _Plaintiffs_

AND

SIR EDMUND ANTROBUS, Bart. . . . _Defendant_.


DEFENCE.


1.  As to paragraph 1 of the Statement of Claim it is not admitted that
Stonehenge was made or ever used for such purposes as in the said
paragraph mentioned or any of them or for any public purpose.  Stonehenge
is and has been from time immemorial and in fact at all times private
property and not national or public property and resort thereto by the
public has always been by permission of the owner of the land and not as
of right.

2.  As to paragraph 2 the principal part of Stonehenge lies in an angle
between and near to two public roads leading from Amesbury to Shrewton
and to Winterbourne Stoke respectively.  A public way or track leading
from Netheravon to Lake crosses these two roads and also crosses part of
Stonehenge but except the right to use this way or track (which is
outside the fence erected by the Defendant and has not been in any way
obstructed by him) there never has been any access for the public to
Stonehenge otherwise than by permission of the owner of the land on which
it is situate.  The alleged road running up to and through Stonehenge the
sites of which are purported to be shown on the plan annexed to the
Statement of Claim and are thereon coloured green (except the way or
track from Netheravon to Lake aforesaid) do not exist either in law or in
fact and never have existed.

3.  Paragraph 3 of the Statement of Claim is denied except as to the way
or track from Netheravon to Lake aforesaid.

4.  Paragraph 4 is altogether denied.  Stonehenge is not and never was
subject to any trust for user or access by the public or to any public
trust.

5.  As to paragraphs 5 and 6 the Defendant has for the better
preservation of Stonehenge erected and maintains a fence round the land
lying within the triangle formed by the said two public roads and the way
or track from Netheravon to Lake not obstructing or interfering with any
public right of way.  Save as aforesaid paragraphs 5 and 6 of the
Statement of Claim are denied.

                                                       F. VAUGHAN HAWKINS.

Delivered the 27th day of April 1904 by FARRER & Co. of 66 Lincoln’s Inn
Fields in the County of Middlesex Solicitors for the Defendant.

                                * * * * *

This case commenced in the High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, on
Tuesday, March 28th, and continued on the 29th and 30th.  Again on the
4th, 5th, 6th, and 11th and 12th of April.  Mr. Justice Farwell delivered
his considered judgment on the 19th, concluding as follows:—

“I hold, therefore, that the access to the circle was incident only to
the permission to visit and inspect the stones, and was, therefore,
permissive only, and, further that the tracks to the circle are not
thoroughfares, but lead only to the circle, where the public have no
right without permission, and, therefore, are not public ways.  The
action accordingly fails, and ought never to have been brought.  It is
plain that the vicinity of the camp and the consequent increase of
visitors compelled the defendant to protect the stones if they were to be
preserved; and he has done nothing more than is necessary for such
protection.  I desire to give the relators credit for wishing only to
preserve this unique relic of a former age for the benefit of the public,
but I fail to appreciate their method of attaining this.  The first claim
to dispossess the defendant of his property is simply extravagant, so
much so that, although not technically abandoned, no serious argument was
addressed to me in support of it.  The rest of the claim—for rights of
way over the network of tracks shown on the plaintiffs’ plan—if
successful would defeat the relators’ object.  If these ways were left
unfenced and heavy traffic passed through the circle, there would be
great risk of injury, and even without such traffic there is great risk
from the increased numbers of passers-by.  As Sir Norman Lockyer (whose
interesting application of the Orientation theory to Stonehenge has
recently appeared) says in one of his articles:—‘The real destructive
agent has been man himself—savages could not have played more havoc with
the monument than the English who have visited it at different times for
different purposes.’  I feel no confidence that the majority of tourists
have improved, nay, rather,—‘Aetas parentum, pejor avis, tulit Nos
nequiores.’  It is only fair to the defendant to say that he is not
acting capriciously but on expert advice for the preservation of the
stones.  If, on the other hand, the roads are all fenced off, the general
appearance would be ruined, and no human being would be in any way the
better.  It is not immaterial to remark that this is not the action of
the District or the County Council to preserve rights of way, but is
brought on the relation of strangers on the score of the public interest
in Stonehenge.  The action is dismissed with costs.”

Mr. Warmington:—“My Lord, there is only one matter with regard to costs I
think, and that is the question of the Commission. {52}  My Lord, those
were reserved, and they will be costs in the action.”

Mr. Justice Farwell:—“Yes.  I may say this—it sometimes saves trouble,
and it is not unusual, I have done it before, and I think I may say it
now—that this is a case in which the taxing master should allow three
counsel.”

Mr. Warmington:—“If your Lordship pleases.  I was instructed to apply;
but according to the practice it is done after taxation.”

Mr. Justice Farwell:—“I know it is.  But I have done it before.  You see
the matter is now fresh in my recollection, and a summons to vary might
come before other Judges.”

Mr. Warmington:—“If your Lordship pleases.”



HOTELS AT SALISBURY.


THE WHITE HART (_near the Cathedral_).


Carriages and horses for Stonehenge, Wilton, and the New Forest may be
had.

PRICES FOR STONEHENGE, &C.—The complete drive _viâ_ Amesbury to
Stonehenge and back by Lake House and the Valley.

                                       _£_    _s._    _d._
One horse carriage,   for 2 persons       0      13       0
,, ,, ,,              ,, 3 ,,             0      18       0
Two ,,                ,, 2 ,,             1       1       0
„ „ „                 „ 3 „               1       5       0
„ „ „                 „ 4 „               1      10       0

These prices include the driver and waiting, baiting, &c.

TARIFF OF PRICES:                             Per day.
                                          _s._    _d._
Sitting-rooms from                           5       0
Bedrooms from                                2       6
                                             Per head.
Plain breakfast                              2       0
Breakfast with chop or steak                 2       6
,, fish, ham and eggs                        3       0
LUNCHEONS:
Bread and cheese                             0       9
Sandwich                                     1       0
Light soups                                  1       0
Cold meat                                    2       6
DINNERS:
Soup and chop, vegetables, and cheese        3       6
With either soup or fish and entrée          4       0
Ditto with sweets                            4       6
TEAS:
Plain                                        1       6
With eggs                                    2       0
Single cup of tea                            0       6
           Servants’ board, 5_s._ per day.

Gentlemen’s coffee-room, ladies’ drawing-room, smoking and billiard-room.

Visitors are requested, if possible, to write to the Manager for
accommodation.

Table d’Hôte, Breakfasts, 3_s._; Luncheons, 2_s._ 6_d._; Dinners, 5_s._
These meals run for two hours, and are served at separate tables.



CATHEDRAL HOTEL.

                            Per day.
Bedrooms from               2      6
Sitting-rooms               3      6
BREAKFASTS OR TEAS:        Per head.
Plain                       1      3
With eggs                   1      6
With meat or fish           2      6
DINNERS:                  From 3_s._
                           per head.
Cold baths                  0      6
Hot                         1      0
  Servants’ board, 5_s._ per day.

Carriages with experienced drivers for Stonehenge and other places of
interest.



RED LION HOTEL, SALISBURY.
(_Headquarters of the Cyclists’ Touring Club_.)

APARTMENTS:                                s.      d.
Bedrooms per day                              2       6
Double bedroom                                4       0
Baths in bathroom                             1       0
Baths in bedroom                              0       6
BREAKFAST:                                    Per head.
Plain                                         1       3
With eggs                                     1       9
With fish, steak, ham and eggs                2       6
LUNCHEONS:
Soup                                          1       0
Sandwiches                                    0       6
Cold joint, cheese and salad                  2       0
Ditto, sweets                                 2       6
Chop and vegetables                           2       0
DINNERS:
Joint and vegetable                           2       6
Ditto, with sweets                            3       0
Ditto, soup or fish, joint, and sweets        3       6
TEAS:
Cup of tea or coffee                          0       6
Teas with eggs, &c. same as breakfast.
  Servants’ board per day, 5s.  Bedroom, 1_s._ 6_d._

Excellent Chemists: Messrs. Read & Orchard, Market Place, Salisbury.

Sly, Watch-maker, Market Place.

Good Booksellers: Brown, Canal, & Simmonds, High Street.

Messrs. Pinckney, Bankers, Market Place.



AMESBURY.

“Queensberry House”—Boarding House, Tea and Luncheon   F. Tucker.
Room
“Ivy Dene”—Private Hotel                               A. Fleming.
“The Phœnix”—Temperance House                          E. Cockle.
Drapery and Millinery                                  F. Tucker.
Drapery and Fancy Bazaar                               B. Hale.

THE GEORGE INN.


Good flys, one and two horses, can be procured here, also bedrooms and
sitting-rooms, luncheons, and dinners, and teas.

                                * * * * *

                                * * * * *

      PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LTD., LONDON AND BECCLES.



FOOTNOTES.


{10}  Aurelius Ambrosius succeeded to the kingdom of Britain on the death
of Vortigern in the year 465; he was of Roman extraction, though educated
in Britain.

{18}  The Avon is the beloved haunt of thousands of wild duck, many
herons, kingfishers, &c.

{24}  Trilithon, a monument (or part of a monument) consisting of three
large stones.

{43}  “Nature,” vol. 64, p. 602.

{52}  This refers to the Committee of the County Council appointed to
hear the complaint against the enclosure of Stonehenge, and it met early
in 1902.





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