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Title: A Description of a New-Invented Stove-Grate
Author: Durno, J.
Language: English
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       *       *       *       *       *


  Both in Point of EXPENCE, and every
  Purpose of a CHAMBERFIRE.

  Printed by J. TOWERS in _Piccadilly_;

  And published by the Inventor, J. DURNO,
  and sold by him at his House in _Jermyn-Street_;
  R. DAVIS, the Corner of _Sackville-Street,
  Piccadilly_; and M. COOPER in
  _Paternoster-Row_. 1753.

  [Price Six-pence.]

       *       *       *       *       *



The State of the Weather in this Island is so extremely variable and
uncertain, that the Inhabitants are obliged to keep Fires to sit by
near Eight Months in the Year.

AND ever since the Duty laid upon Coals, the Article of Fire has been
so very expensive in many Parts of the Kingdom, particularly in this
Metropolis, that it is to be hoped, any Attempt to make our Rooms more
warm and comfortable, and that at a much less Expence than usual;
always free from Smoke, and equally chearful as with the common Fires;
will meet with the Favour of the Publick.

THESE are some of the Advantages proposed by a new-invented
STOVE-GRATE, the Description and Uses whereof are contained in the
following Sheets.

AND surely, if ever any Invention, discovered by a Mechanick,
deserved the Attention of the Publick, this may justly lay claim to
it; since not only every Family, but every Individual, is in some
degree interested in it; and more especially as it is not offered as
uncertain Theory, but its Uses and Advantages, over all others, have
been confirmed by Trial and Experience: For one of the smallest Size
of these STOVE-GRATES has been set up, ever since the beginning of
last Winter, in a common Room at the Inventor’s House, where several
curious and ingenious Persons have been to see and observe the Effects
of it; and it has appeared to the Satisfaction of the best Judges, that
this same Room, built of common Quartering, and covered with Laths and

           Feet. Inches.
  Long      26  :  6 : 0
  Broad     13  :  0 : 0
  High      10  :  6 : 0

with a Pair of large folding Doors at one End, and a Door opening to
the Stair Case at the other End, in which four or five Pecks of Coals
had usually been consumed every Day in a common Grate and Chimney,
has been kept warm, ever since the New Stove was erected, with no
greater Quantity than one Peck of Coals a Day; and with this singular
Advantage, that the Warmth is diffused, more regularly and uniformly,
over the whole Room, than it was before.

THOSE who will take the Trouble of calling, will be able to form a more
distinct Idea of the Construction and Use of this Machine, than can
be conveyed by Writing: But as many People have neither the Curiosity
or Opportunity for occular Inspection, I shall give a particular
Description of it, as well as of all the other Machines, that have been
contrived for the like Purposes; and it will appear, by a fair and
impartial Comparison, that this is attended with greater Advantages,
and fewer Inconveniences, than any that has ever yet been offered to
the Publick.

BUT, for the better understanding of what follows, it will be necessary
to explain some of the Properties of Air and Fire.

THE chief Properties of Air, are Fluidity, Gravity, and Elasticity.

_First_, THE Air is a Fluid, consisting of Parts which have not any
sensible Attraction or Cohesion betwixt themselves; but of such a Shape
or Form, as to glide one over another, and yield to the slightest
Impression: Of this we need no other Proof, than the Ease and Freedom
with which Animals breathe this Element, and pass through it, without
any sensible Resistance.

_Secondly_, THAT the Air does gravitate, or act upon inferior Bodies
by its Weight, is demonstrable by a great many Experiments, and
particularly the Barometer, which by the rising and falling of the
Mercury, shews the greater or lesser Weight of the Column of Air
incumbent upon it.

_Thirdly_, NOR is the Elasticity of the Air less demonstrable than
either its Fluidity or Gravity.

AIR is an elastick Body, for if it be confined or compressed within a
less Space than its natural State requires, it will, the Moment the
Restraint is removed, dilate and expand itself so as to fill the same
Space as before; and that too with such Force, as to break in Pieces
the Glass or Earthen Vessel that contained it; as may be seen by the
common Experiment of a Bottle full of common Air, strongly cork’d,
and put under the Receiver on the Air-Pump, when the Air surrounding
the Bottle is pump’d out. But what is particularly remarkable with
reference to the Subject we are treating of, is, That Air is rarified
by Heat, and condensed by Cold; First, Air rarified and expanded by
Heat, becomes specifically lighter than it was before, and will ascend
in Air of greater Density: As Matter specifically lighter than Water,
Cork for Instance, if placed at the bottom of an empty Vessel, will, if
Water be poured into the Vessel, ascend above the Surface of the Water;
so rarified Air will rise in common Air till it comes to Air of equal
Weight, or is by Cold reduced to its former Density.

FOR the same Reason, if a Fire be kindled in an open Place, the Heat
thereof will rarify the next circumambient Air; and that which is more
remote being heavier, will press every where, and in all Directions,
upon the Air that is rarified, and drive it to the Fire; the Flame and
Sparks whereof will, together with the rarified Air, ascend in a conic
Form, like the Flame of a Candle, in a trembling Motion, as it is more
or less acted upon by the Pressure of the cold Air: And the Reason why
the Flame is more contracted at the Top than Bottom, is, that the Heat
at Top being less intense, the next adjacent Air is less rarified, and
the gross Air confines it more.

THEREFORE, when a Fire is lighted in a Chimney, the Heat rarifies the
Air over and next the Fire, and makes it rise in the Funnel, and the
common Air in the Room immediately supplies its Place, is rarified in
its turn, and rises also.

THIS Motion being thus generated, is continued by small Inlets of Air,
through the Doors and Windows of the Room; and the larger the Fire, the
greater will be the current of Air through their Crevices. If the Doors
and Windows are so well fitted in their Frames, that all the Inlets
together cannot supply so much Air as is wanted to carry off the Smoke,
it will then hang about the Fire, gradually diminish, and at length
totally extinguish it.

VARIOUS are the Improvements that have been made in the Construction
of Chimneys, to increase the Degree of Heat, to prevent Smoke, and to
save in the Article of Fuel.

AND notwithstanding the many Attempts to remedy the Defects in one
or other of these Respects, the same have hitherto come short of the
End proposed. Take the Article of Smoke for Instance: No Builder of
Character will pretend to insure all the Rooms in a new-built House
from smoking, appears from this, that they generally at first finish
the Chimney Tops with what they call Roundings, and if, upon Trial,
those do not answer, they either Hovel, or fix Earthen Pots, like
a hollow Cylinder, or plant Tin Tubes on the Tops, not much unlike
Organ-Pipes inverted; all which Methods, not only spoil the Symmetry of
the Building, but what is still worse, they often leave the Chimnies as
Smoky as they were at first, after a considerable Sum has been spent on
a Cure.

IN order to remedy all, or some of the Inconveniences already
mentioned, a great Variety of Chimnies, Stove-Grates, and Close-Stoves
have been invented. I shall describe some of the principal ones that
have fallen under my Observation; and shall endeavour, as I go along,
to point out their Advantages and Defects.

FIRST, Mons. _Gauger_ has described seven sorts of Chimnies, which,
however, all agree in general as to the Construction and Disposition of
the principal Parts.

HIS Manner of Performance is by Plates of Iron, Copper, and Brass,
placed in the Chimney, after its being prepared to receive them, at
four Inches from the Back, Jambs, and Hearth, with a Communication to
the external Air; which first entered under the Hearth-Plate, and made
several Turnings and Windings, through Partitions between the inside
of the Chimney, and those Plates representing, as it were, a re-curved
Canal; one End whereof joins the outward Air, and the other comes out
of the Top of one of the Jambs of the Chimney. The Use and Intent of
these Chimnies is only for burning of Wood, the Heat whereof is more
diffused than that of Turf or Peat.

THE Invention was extremely ingenious, the Room was warmed, in all its
Parts, with great Equality; cold Air was prevented rushing through
Crevices; the Funnel was supplied by a Trap-Door, or Bellows, upon the
Hearth-Plate; and much less Wood served to make a Fire: but the Expence
was found to be so great, especially in old Chimnies, that they never
came into much use, and are now entirely laid aside: The upright Heat
was likewise all lost in all those Chimnies.

SECONDLY, the ingenious Dr. _Desaguliers_ gives the Construction of two
kinds of Chimnies; one for burning Turf and Peat upon the Hearth, and
the other for Sea-Coal in a Stove-Grate, made in a particular Manner.

IN the Description of the First, he says, That in Chimnies where Wood
is burnt the Cavities behind the Back and Sides, after the Manner
that the _French_ Author directs, are very useful; but where you have
the Heat very strong, it will be proper to make the Cavities as near
the Fire as possible; and tho’ the Course of the Air will be shorter,
yet the great Heat it acquires in that Case will make Amends for the
Shortness of the Passage.

THE Shape and Manner of the Chimney is the same as directed by Mons.
_Gauger_, with this difference, that the Doctor’s has no Cavity
under the Hearth; only a divided Box made of Plate-Iron, upon which
the Fire is placed, and an horizontal Cavity behind the Back, faced
with Plate-Iron; so low, that the Fire lies against it: Through this
Preparation comes a Stream of external Air, in several Turnings and
Windings, and from thence is carried up a Passage within the Brick-Work
in one of the Corners, as high as the Mantle-Piece; from the Corner
it is brought forward to the under side of the Mantle-Piece, where
it makes several Turnings in a Tin Canal, from which it is at last
convey’d into the Room.

HE likewise recommends the Trap-Bellows in this Construction of Stoves.

THE Construction of the Second Sort consists of a Grate of a particular
Make, with a Box of Plate-Iron behind the Back, that has only three
Cavities; one End communicates with the outward Air to bring it through
those Cavities, obliquely, to the Corner in the Brick-Work; from thence
it is brought forward in the upper part of the Jamb, quite into the
Tin Canal, behind the Mantle-Piece, as in the last Construction; but
the same Inconvenience attends both these sort of Chimnies, that the
upright Heat, which is at least three-fourths of what proceeds from
the Fire, is almost wholly lost; as it is in all the open Fire-Places.

THIRDLY, the _Dutch_ and _German_ Stoves, which are very different.

THE _Dutch_ Stove has a Flue proceeding from the Top, which is
sometimes bent downwards, and then goes into the Chimney, through a
false Back, at about four Inches from the true Back: That Space has a
Communication with the Funnel, and all the other Parts of the Chimney
are wholly closed up.

AND there are others which have the Flue straight upward, that goes
into the Chimney, and all the Funnel closed up round the Flue of the
Stove. The First Sort, in my Opinion, is the best; for there is not so
much of the upright Heat lost as in this, and the Chimney cannot so
readily smoke; because the Space between the false Back and the true
Back obstruct, in some degree, the Passage of the Air down the Chimney.
Both these sorts have a small Iron Door into the Room, which in some
degree changes the Air as it flows to that Opening; part of which goes
off with the Smoke, and its Place is supplied by the entering Air from
Doors, Windows, and Crevices. But as there is so small a Change of Air,
the Room will soon be warm, the Chimney being wholly closed up; very
little Air is required to supply the small Door of the Stove, and that
only can enter at the Door or Windows of the Room: Little Fuel serves,
for almost all the Heat is saved. This small change of Air makes these
Stoves wholesomer, or at least pleasanter, than the _German_ Stoves,
but there is little sight of the Fire; and no other Use can be made
of it but to warm the Room: And if any ill Smell should happen in the
Room, it is not easily carried off, by Reason of the slow change of Air
at the little Iron Door; and the Room is always somewhat suffocating,
especially to those who are not accustomed to it.

THE _German_ Stove is not unlike a Chest for Cloaths set upon one End,
and is fixed into the Wall, with the Top turned outwards, or into
another Room, which open and shut as there is occasion for making and
mending the Fire: it warms a Room all over in a very little Time, with
little Fuel to make a Fire; no fresh Air can enter the Room if the
Door be left open, no more than it would in an open Oven, because there
is not the least Discharge of Air in the Room. But there is not any
Appearance of Fire to be seen in these Stoves, and they who used them
were obliged to breathe the same unchanged elemental Air, mixed with
that inspired by all the Company.

FOURTHLY, the Chimney, in the House of Lords, which was designed by way
of an Improvement upon the Sieur _Gauger_’s Chimnies.

FOR _First_, the outward Air, from below the House, in the Passage,
enters under the Iron Plate, (commonly called the Hearth-Plate) which
is prepared to receive it into a re-curved Canal, and from thence
passes up the back Plate of Iron, in the like Turnings and Windings,
near to the Top, where it is divided, and enters into two Tubes
of Copper, one placed on each side of the Funnel, of a sufficient
Length to appear above the Cornish; there they are joined to other
Conveyances; one of which is carried round the Throne, and ends
over-against the Fire; and the other Conveyance is continued to the
Window, above the Cornish, made of Tin, in form of a right-angled
Triangle, and is perforated to let out the Air. There is likewise a
Valve in each of these Copper Pipes or Tubes, placed at a considerable
distance from the Fire, to open and shut at pleasure, by a Thumb-Latch,
which being shut, imprisons the Air in its Passage upwards, until it
be hot, and when opened, discharges this warmed Air near the Cieling,
through those perforated Conveyances.

ACCORDING to the Construction of this Fire-Place, it is next to an
Impossibility to warm that House with the greatest Fire that can
be made in it: For all the upright Heat is lost, occasioned by the
continual Current of Air coming in at the Doors and Crevices, which
forcibly drives almost all the Heat up the Chimney.

_Secondly_, THE Streams of cold Air which enters under the Hearth and
Back Plates, (where a large Stove-Grate stands) in its various Turnings
and Windings, behind these Plates, and through those Tubes, is but very
little warmed in its Passage above the Fire in the Conveyances to the
Cieling; and it cannot receive any Heat from the Hearth-Plate, unless
the Fire was made upon it, as mentioned before; for the bottom Bars of
the Stove-Grate are at so great a distance from the Iron Hearth-Plate,
that the Fire, with its downward Heat, cannot reach it; and not above
Eight superficial Feet of the Back-Plate is warmed by the Fire, and
considering the distance from the hot part, to where the warm Air is
discharged into the House, nothing is clearer, than that it cannot
receive any considerable degree of Heat, in its Passage through the
Copper Pipes, that convey it to the Cieling; and where it is suspended,
and mixes slowly and imperceptibly with the colder Air in the lower
part of the House, so that little or no Warmth can be obtained by this

_Thirdly_, FROM hence it appears, that it would have been of much
greater Use to have discharged the hot Air immediately from the hot
Iron Back-Plate into the Room; its Effects in that Case would have been
sensibly felt, and it would then have ascended naturally, without the
help of Pipes, and warmed the circumambient Air as was intended; and
likewise would have supported the Fire, without the Assistance of any
Air from the Doors and Crevices.

FIFTHLY, Stoves, placed at the End of long Rooms, Coffee-Houses, and
Tradesmen’s Shops, warm the Room in a little Time; but the Smoke and
upright Heat are both conveyed thro’ one and the same Tube of Iron,
jointed in several Pieces, to bring them round the Wall and Turnings
of the Chimney, where they are discharged: but never fail to send out
some part of the Air impregnated with Sulphur, so as to occasion a
disagreeable Smell, and often, Head-achs and Lowness of Spirits to
those that are not accustomed to these Stoves.

SIXTHLY, The _French_ Stoves are much the same as the _Dutch_; and I
am informed, that they have many from _Holland_ and _Germany_; but
they have another Sort, which is the Mode at present; it resembles an
old-fashion’d low Chest of Drawers with a flat Top, and has swelling
or rising Mouldings on all Sides, which represent the Drawers: It is
composed of several Pieces of burnt Earth, in the manner of our Earthen
Ware, and is placed upon a Frame of Iron at Bottom, and all the Parts
are luted together to complete the Body: It is likewise bound about
with two Iron Belts to keep all tight, and has a little Door at one End
like a _Dutch_ Stove, where the Fire is put into it; it projects into
the Room some distance from the Chimney, and gives Heat from the four
Sides as well as the Top; There is a Flue proceeds from the back Part,
and an Iron Pipe fixed upon it, to reach the Chimney; which carries the
Smoke up the Funnel, and the Chimney is closed up all round the Iron
Pipe; it is on the same Principles as the _Dutch_ Stove, and is subject
to many more Inconveniences, which are not necessary to be mentioned.

SEVENTHLY, The _Pensilvanian_ Stove-Grate comes lastly to be
considered, which is a curious Invention indeed, contrived about
Twelve or Fourteen Years ago, and particularly described by Mr.
_Franklin_ of _Philadelphia_, in a Treatise intitled, _An Account of
the New-Invented_ Pensilvanian _Fire-Places_, _printed at_ Philadelphia
_in_ 1744. I have lately examined one that was made in that Country,
all of cast Iron, which I believe to be the only one in _England_; and
at the same time I saw a perfect Model of it, which discovered the
whole Work at one View.

THIS Stove-Grate must infallibly cure most of the Inconveniences, with
which the other sorts before-mentioned are attended, if the Smoke
Passages can be kept clean. You have a full Sight of the Fire, nor
does it lose any of the upright Heat, as in common Fire-Places, and
smoky Chimnies will be often cured by it. This Stove has likewise the
Advantage of a constant Supply of fresh Air, coming in warm through a
Canal, in the Manner before described by Dr. _Desaguliers_, with this
difference, that here the warm Air comes out on each Side of the Stove,
and is better adapted to warm the lower Air of the Room, than if it
came out higher in the Chimney.

IN this Machine the Smoke first ascends, and then passing over the Iron
Plates that compose the warm Air Box, descends to the Bottom, where it
passes under a false Back, about three or four Inches from the true
Back of the Chimney; then ascends a second time up the Funnel of the
Chimney, and passes out at the Top. The Chimney is closed up on all
Sides, between the false Back and Breast of the Chimney, except only in
one Place, where is an Opening, with an Iron Door, large enough for a
Chimney-Sweeper to creep through, to sweep the Funnel; but at all other
times this Door is kept shut. There is also a Register fixed in the
Smoke-Passage, to give more or less Vent, as shall be required.

THE whole is a compleat Piece of Machinery, and was first intended for
burning of Wood, which is the common Fuel of that Country; but, for
that Reason, is not so well adapted to burn Sea-Coal, whose bituminous
Quality would soon close up the narrow Smoke-Passage, and would often
require cleaning, and become very troublesome, it being difficult to
come at the Smoke-Passage; for if there be a Trap-Door made upon the
Hearth, you cannot clean the Smoke-Passage any farther than to the
Register, and there is no coming at the upper part without lifting up
the Top of the Machine, which is always luted down, and fastened with
Screw Nuts.

THE Defects and Inconveniences that I have occasionally pointed out, in
the Chimneys and Stoves already described, put me upon contriving a new
Machine-Grate, which, upon Trial, answers all the Ends that I proposed
by it.

IT is built, indeed, and constructed upon almost the same Principles
with the _Pensilvanian_ Stove, but with greater Advantages; for instead
of the narrow Passage for the Smoke in the _Pensilvanian_ Stove, there
is a Chamber made in the Brick-Work which effectually warms the
Air-Box, and is all covered over like an Oven, except a narrow Passage
made of Plate-Iron, with a Register in it, which has a Handle into
the Room, and may be turned upon its Axis to such a Degree of Vent,
as either to support or diminish, or even to extinguish the Fire. The
Register is so contrived, that it will probably want no cleaning in two
or three Years; but if it should, by lifting up the Chimney-Sweeper’s
Door, it is done in one Minute; and is equally adapted to burn Coals
or Wood, with more Safety and Ease than in a common Fire-Place. The
Chamber behind the Stove is cleaned when the Chimney is swept, by
taking out a Piece of concealed Iron, rabited into the Brick-Work at
the Side of the Stove, and always whiten’d over with the Brick Back.
The Chamber behind is of greater Use than warming the Air Box; for
being almost all closed up, it is not only Proof against the Influence
of the Houses and Chimnies about it that stand higher, but even against
Eddy, or Whirl-winds, if they should come down the Chimney; the Force
whereof is broke by the Top of the Chamber; and what comes through the
small Opening where the Register is placed, is immediately expanded and
loses its Force.

THE whole of my Machine is less complex, and of more easy Construction
than any others I have mentioned, and which is all I have ever seen or
heard of; but has Advantages besides that, which no former Invention
can pretend to.

_First_, IT warms the Room equally all over, and the Fire appears the
same as in a common Stove-Grate; yet any Place in the Room will be as
warm as that by the Side of the Fire.

FOR this there is occular Demonstration, because Thermometers placed
in the remotest Parts of the Room will not differ above one Degree,
(a Difference which every body knows has scarce any Effect) from one
placed by the Side of the Chimney.

_Secondly_, THE Chimney is so intirely closed up, that if you sit near
the Fire-Place, there is not the least cold Air from the Door, Window,
or any Crevice, that can offend you, as in common Fire-Places; where,
at the same time that you are burnt before, you are ready to freeze
behind: but, on the contrary, the warm Air here goes out at the Door
when opened, and will make you sensible of its Approach at Four or Five
Feet distance before you enter the Door.

THE Doors, indeed, ought to be kept shut; because otherwise the warm
Air will be wasted, as with common Fires; but there is no manner of
Occasion for Skreens of any sort, because the Fire cannot hurt the
Face; neither can the cold Air offend the Back, as in common Rooms,
where there is a common Stove-Grate, and a large Draught up the Chimney.

_Thirdly_, TO be soon and agreeably warmed, is not the only Advantage
we have from this Invention; but we are better warmed, at less than one
Third of the usual Expence, at a moderate Computation. When the Mercury
in my Thermometer, that was placed without Doors, stood the last Winter
at Four Degrees below the Freezing Point, a Peck of Coals (_i. e._ the
144th Part of a Chaldron,) was sufficient to warm the Room for the
whole Day, from Eight in the Morning to Eleven at Night. During all
that Time the Mercury within the Room stood from 60 to 64 Degrees; much
the same Degree of Heat with that of the 25th Day of last _June_, 1752,
at Two o’Clock in the Afternoon; and, when that Observation was made,
the Weather was as warm as usual at that Time of the Year.

BUT before I set up this Stove, which is one of the smallest, there was
seldom spent, in the Room, less than a Bushel of Coals, and sometimes
more, in one Day, according to the Degree of Cold; and then we were
obliged to have a Skreen to keep off the cold Air from the Backs of
those who sat near the Fire; and only that Part of the Room was warm
which was nearest the Fire.

THE Air that enters the Room, through the Iron Canal of the Air-Box, is
both fresh and warm; and computing the Swiftness of its Motion with the
Area of its Passage, it will appear, that Ten Barrels, or near 60 Cubic
Feet of Air is hourly introduced from the external Air, if the Door of
the Room be shut.

THIS warm Air comes into the Room with such Rapidity from the hot Iron
Canal, that it turns several Paper Wheels with great Velocity, which
are placed near the Opening that lets it into the Room. But as soon
as the Door of the Room is opened, all the Wheels stand still; which
proves what has been said before, That much warm Air is wasted in
opening the Door; because the warm, or rarified Air, rushes through
the cold Air with great Force: And the cold Air that comes in at the
Door, being an over-balance to the Air entering from the hot Iron Canal
of the Stove, entirely stops it from coming into the Room while the
Door is open.

IN like manner, if the Door of the Room be shut, and the Register that
is fixed in the Smoke-Passage be turned so near as almost to shut it
up, which may be done when the Coals upon the Fire are burnt to a Coke,
then the whole Heat of the Fire will be forced into the Room, the warm
Air will be stopt from coming through the hot Canal, and the Paper
Wheels will stand still, as they did when the Door of the Room was open.

THIS may seem a little unaccountable, but, when considered, it is
plain, that the warm Air from the hot Canal cannot come into the Room,
which is already full of Air, and in a perfect State of Rest, because
there is no Passage for it to go out at; the Register having closed up
the Funnel, and the Doors and Windows of the Room being shut.

THE Room, in this Case, will soon become suffocating, in the manner
of a _German_ Stove Room, and does exactly point out the Difference
between that Stove and mine.

WHEREAS, on the contrary, when the Doors of the Room are shut, and the
Register gives a proper Vent to the Fire, the warm Air, in this Case,
is at Liberty to act as before, by warming the circumambient Air in its
Passage from the Mantle-Piece to the Cieling, where it mixes slowly and
imperceptibly with the grosser Air of the Room, which, in its turn,
flows towards the Stove and Fire; part whereof feeds the Fire, and
passes off with the Smoke; and the other part, after being rarified
by the Heat of the Stove and Fire, ascends by the Mantle-piece to the
Cieling, as it did before; repeating the like Circulation as long as
there is any Heat in the Stove. By which it appears, that the warm Air
that comes from the hot Iron Canal of the heated Air-Box, is sufficient
to support the Fire, and carry off the Smoke, without the Assistance of
any Air from the Crevices of the Doors and Windows of the Room.

BY this Means, the Air in the Room is continually changed, and an
Advantage gained that could never be obtained by any former Contrivance
of the Kind; that at all Times the Air in the Room is as wholesome as
the external Air; and, in some Respects, more so: For it is apparent,
that the Air issuing into the Room through a hot Canal of Iron, can
never acquire any noxious Quality; and, on the contrary, in damp
Weather, when the Air is replete with Moisture, and noxious Particles,
it will be purified in its Passage, and the Moisture and Vapours will
be condensed, fall, and stick upon the Sides of the hot Canal.

UPON this, as well as other Accounts, this Stove will be extremely
useful in Hospitals, and the Rooms of sick Persons, with great
Advantage to the Patients: But this I submit to those who are better
qualified to judge of such Matters.

_Fourthly_, IN Common Stoves and Chimnies, the upright Heat (which has
been computed to be Three Fourths of the whole) is intirely lost, as
to the Purpose of warming the Room, or those that are in it. On the
contrary, in this Stove-Grate, a very inconsiderable part of the Heat
ascends with the Smoke, and all the rest is diffused gradually, and
equally, over the whole Room.

_Fifthly_, THIS Fire-Place, thus prepared, prevents Smoke so
effectually, and so certainly, in all Degrees and Variations of
Wind and Weather, that the Inventor is willing to give his Machine,
_Gratis_, if ever the least Smoke is perceived in any Room where it is
erected; unless it may happen at the first lighting of the Fire, before
the Air in the Funnel is put in Motion; but I have never yet seen that

THERE is no Occasion for Chimney-Boards in Summer, for by turning the
Register, the Air is shut out; so that both in Summer and Winter, the
Furniture and Gilding, is preserved from Smoke and damp Air; which are
the chief Causes of the one and the other’s being spoiled.

_Sixthly_, IT will be obvious to every Person, who examines the
Construction of this Machine, that the Chimney will not require
sweeping in less than two or three Years; and that it is morally
impossible the Chimney can ever take Fire.

_Seventhly_, IT has been already observed, that no part of the current
of Air, that passes continually through the Fire, is supplied from
the Doors, Windows, or Crevices of the Room: For the same Reason, the
Candles, in all sorts of Weather, will burn clear; the Light will be
pleasant, equal, and steady; and there will be a considerable Saving in
that Article.

_Eighthly_, WHEN the Room is thoroughly warmed in the Day-time, it
will cool but a few Degrees during the Night; and by shutting up the
Fire-Place over Night, and excluding the external Air, the Fire will be
found in the Morning without any sensible Diminution, ready to blaze
out, by the Addition of a Stick of Wood, or a few Coals; which every
body knows is an Advantage, that never could be obtained in common
Chimnies, with a Coal Fire, without a great Expence, and much Danger.

THESE, and many other Advantages, that would be tedious to enumerate at
present, will be found to result from this useful Invention. Several of
the Stove-Grates are already set up; and Orders given for the erecting
others in many Houses in _London_ and the Country.

SOME are of Cast Iron, in its plain, natural Colour; and others have a
Case, richly ornamented, that is put on, and taken off, at Pleasure.
The Inventor hopes he shall be permitted to publish the Names and
Places of Abode, of those Noblemen and Gentlemen, who have encouraged
this undertaking.

BY this Method it will be in the Power of those who incline to become
Purchasers, to inform themselves of the Truth of every Particular, by
Persons of undoubted Credit and Veracity; and to know, with Certainty,
what they are to expect, without laying out their Money, upon what they
might suppose, an unexperimented Project; the Success whereof might
otherwise be uncertain.

THERE are Three Sizes of these Stove-Grates, adapted to the Dimensions
of the Rooms where they are set up. They are all made of Cast Iron,
which will endure longer, and come much cheaper, than if they were made
of wrought Iron.

                                           _Ft._ _In._ _Pts._
  The smallest        { High                 2     3     0 }
  Size, Price         { Broad in Front       1     5     0 } over all
  7_l._ 7_s._ set up  { Depth from Front to  1     0     0 }
      The Space that contains the Fire within this Stove,
        Broad in Front                       1     3     0
        Depth of the Bars                    0     5     6
        From Front to Back                   0     5     6
  Middle Size,        { High                 2     4     6 }
  Pr. 10_l._ 10_l._   { Broad in Front       1     9     0 } over all
  set up              { Depth from Front to  1     0     0 }
      The Space that contains the Fire within this Stove,
        Broad in Front                       1     7     6
        Depth of the Bars                    0     8     0
        From Front to Back                   0     8     0
  Largest Size,       { High                 2    10     0 }
  Pr. 13_l._ 13_l._   { Broad in Front       0     2     4 } over all
  set up              { Depth from Front to  1     4     6 }
      The Space that contains the Fire within this Stove,
        Broad in Front                       2     3     0
        Depth of the Bars                    0    10     6
        From Front to Back                   1     0     0

I FIND, by my own Experience, that the smallest Size of these Stoves,
will warm a Room of Twelve or Fourteen Foot Square, or the largest
Dressing Closet. The Middle-sized Grate will warm a Room of 20 Feet +
26, and 12 or 14 Feet high. The largest Size will warm a Room of 50
Feet by 25, and about 20 or 22 Feet high.

AS I have not advanced any thing, but what I have proved from my own
Experience, I shall omit what might be said from the Testimony of
others, to Time, and the real Merit of the Machine; which, in all
Respects, will answer for itself. For the Beginning of this Attempt was
founded upon Theory and Mechanick Principles, supported by Observation
and Experience of what had happened before.

BUT had not the same Observation and Experience, likewise confirmed
the Use of this, and all the Advantages mentioned, I should not have
offered it to the Publick.

_Jermyn-Street, March 22, 1753._

       *       *       *       *       *


The Inventor of this Stove-Grate has contrived a Stove for a Laundry,
which answers all the Ends desirable, without any other Fire, and at
one Third part of the usual Expence that keeps a Fire in the common
Way. It is moveable to any part of the Room; and stands on a boarded
Floor with the greatest Safety. It likewise may be placed in a Room
where there is no Chimney, and will serve for Airing large Rooms, far
preferable to the common Braziers; it warms a Room sooner, with greater
Safety, and much less Expence: For Half a Bushel of Coals will go
farther than a Bushel of Charcoal in the common Way.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Punctuation has been made consistent.

Variations in spelling and hyphenation were retained as they appear in
the original publication, except that obvious typographical errors have
been corrected.

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