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Title: Pilgrim Guide Book to Plymouth, Massachusetts - With a Brief Outline of The Pilgrim Migration and Settlement at Plymouth
Author: Atwood, William F.
Language: English
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                            OFFICIAL PILGRIM
                               GUIDE BOOK
                       To Plymouth, Massachusetts


                                                                     25¢

    [Illustration: HISTORIC PILGRIM PLYMOUTH
    A GUIDE MAP SHOWING PRINCIPAL STREETS AND HISTORIC SHRINES]



                          _Pilgrim_ GUIDE Book
                                   To
                                PLYMOUTH
                             MASSACHUSETTS


    _With a Brief Outline of The Pilgrim Migration and Settlement at
                               Plymouth_

                      _By_ William Franklin Atwood

“_What your fathers with so much difficulty attained, do not basely
relinquish._”
      Inscription on gravestone of Gov. William Bradford on Burial Hill.

         Copyright, 1940, by PAUL W. BITTINGER, Plymouth, Mass.
                          All Rights Reserved.
                        Sixth Edition, May, 1957

    [Illustration: Facsimile of original Seal of the Plymouth Colony. It
    disappeared during the administration of Sir Edmund Andros, who, in
    1686 was sent by King James to rule over the Dominion of New
    England. It has never been recovered.]

Note: Dates used, except those in quotations, accord with the new style
calendar adopted by England in 1752, although having been in use in
Holland since 1583.

                                 * * *


                            PUBLISHER’S NOTE

For those who may desire further information regarding the Pilgrims in
England and Holland, their motives and aspirations leading to the
migration and final settlement at Plymouth, reference is suggested to
The Pilgrim Story, of the Pilgrim Book Series, a condensed history from
the writings of Governor Bradford, Governor Winslow and other
authoritative sources, by William F. Atwood.

                                 * * *

Cover design by Leo Schrieber, Plymouth, Mass. Cover photo from oil
painting in Pilgrim Hall depicting Departure of Pilgrims from
Delfthaven. Illustration, inside front cover, scene of two modern
Pilgrim Misses from annual Thanksgiving Pageant held in Plymouth
Memorial Building on Thanksgiving Day.

                              Published by
                           THE MEMORIAL PRESS
                            Plymouth, Mass.

          This publication is one in the Pilgrim Book Series.



                                CONTENTS


  Page
  Brewster Garden                                                     33
  Brewster Spring                                                     34
  Burial Hill                                                         16
      Old Fort                                                        18
      Grave of William Bradford                                       21
      Site of Watch Tower                                             17
      Old Graves                                                      19
  Cole’s Hill                                                         40
  Court House                                                          6
  Edward Winslow House                                                44
  Harlow House                                                        61
  Howland House                                                       59
  Industries                                                           6
  Kendall Holmes House                                                62
  Leyden Street                                                       32
  Massasoit Statue                                                    43
  Mayflower Passengers                                                65
  Major John Bradford House                                            7
  Memorial Fountain                                                   40
  Memorial Seat                                                       42
  Morton Park                                                         57
  National Monument to Forefathers                                     9
  Old Colony Club                                                      5
  Pilgrim Hall                                                        49
  Pilgrim Maiden                                                      34
  Pilgrim Society                                                     55
  Plimoth Plantation                                                  13
  Plymouth Rock                                                       37
  Plymouth Memorial Building                                           6
  Postoffice                                                           6
  Registry of Deeds                                                   47
  Sarcophagus                                                         41
  Sandwich Street                                                     60
  Sparrow House                                                       57
  Standish Guards                                                      6
  Summer Street                                                       57
  Tabitha Plasket House                                               48
  Training Green                                                      60
  The Compact                                                         70
  Town Square and Churches                                            29
  Town Brook                                                          32
  Watson’s Hill                                                       56

    [Illustration: CARVER AND NORTH STREETS, LOOKING TOWARD SHIRLEY
    SQUARE—North Street was laid out before 1633, and has been variously
    called, in old deeds, New Street, Queen Street, North Street, and
    Howland Street. Carver Street, once part of North, runs around
    Cole’s Hill, and connects with Leyden, oldest Plymouth street.]



                           PLYMOUTH—THE TOWN


    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

The Town of Plymouth, made famous as the permanent settlement of the
Pilgrims, is the county seat of Plymouth County in southeastern
Massachusetts. It is 37 miles southeast of Boston and is reached by
rail, and by Routes north via the Old Colony Division of the N. Y., N.
H. & H. R. R., and by automobile over routes No. 3 and No. 3A. It
overlooks Cape Cod Bay and a well protected harbor. Its year ’round
population is approximately 14,000. It has an area of 108 square miles,
the largest in the State.

In addition to its historical association and its old records, among
which one may browse at pleasure, the town has a fine public school
system, public library, many churches, an excellent water system,
several banks and theatres, an adequate fire and police department, a
modernized hospital and high quality of public service. There are fine
bathing beaches and recreational centers, hotels and accommodation for
tourists.

Fraternal organizations are numerous. The Old Colony Club, organized
1769, the oldest social organization in America, is located on Court
Street, opposite the Court House. Other active societies are the
Plymouth Woman’s Club, the Plymouth Antiquarian Society, the Cordage
Men’s Club, the Plymouth Country Club, the Girls’ Club, the Boys’ Club,
the New Century Club, and the Manomet Village Club.

The Plymouth County Court House occupies a commanding position facing
Court Street with the Registry of Deeds near at hand on North Russell
Street and easily accessible to visitors. A new Federal Post Office
Building stands at the historic corner of Leyden and Main Streets. A
commodious armory on Court Street accommodates the National Guard. At
one time this building was the headquarters of the Standish Guards, the
local militia company organized and chartered in 1818.

Opposite the armory is Plymouth’s Memorial Building, dedicated in 1926
to the men of Plymouth who served in all the wars in which the country
has been engaged. It has a large hall with a seating capacity of 2000
and was built at a cost of $300,000. This building is a few steps north
of Pilgrim Hall, that sacred depository of Pilgrimiana, a mecca for
modern day Pilgrims, visited every year by thousands from the world
over.

The town has diversified industries. Its mills and factories are devoted
principally to the production of high grade woolens, cordage, tacks and
rivets, and zinc products.

    [Illustration: AN ISLAND IN ONE OF PLYMOUTH’S MANY PONDS]

Over 300 ponds of sparkling clear water lie within the town’s
boundaries, and these together with its woodlands offer almost unlimited
facilities for hunting and fishing, while salt water fishing is equally
available.

Yes, Plymouth has much to offer as a place for permanent residence and
as a summer resort.

The door is open and the word is _Welcome_.

Approaching Plymouth from the north and passing through Kingston, it is
both convenient and of interest to visit the Major John Bradford House.
This house stands on a knoll on Landing Road overlooking Jones River and
the marshes. It was built in 1674 by Major John Bradford, son of Major
William Bradford, Deputy Governor and Grandson of Governor William
Bradford.

_Legend:_

During the King Philip War this house was partially burned while Major
Bradford was moving his family to a place of safety. Upon his return
Indians were seen surrounding the house, one of whom the Major shot
while he was in the act of warning his comrades of the approach of the
whites. This Indian, while wounded, crawled behind a fallen tree and
some years later told Major Bradford of the circumstances of his escape,
showing at the same time the bullet wound in his side received at the
time.

Another fact of interest is that this house gave shelter for something
like twenty-five years to the now famous “History of Plimouth
Plantation,” sometimes spoken of as the “Bradford History” written by
Governor Bradford and preserved in the State House in Boston.

Entering Plymouth through Court Street and passing the plant of the
Plymouth Cordage Company, one comes to another old house. This house is
known as the William Crowe House. It is located on the east side of the
highway and was probably built in 1664 as in that year William Crowe
married Hannah, daughter of the first Josiah Winslow. A deed dated 1665
from Francis Billington to William Crowe refers to the estate “on which
Mr. Crowe now lives.” This undoubtedly establishes the house as one of
the very oldest of Plymouth’s old houses.

Mr. Crowe’s widow married John Sturtevant. Her daughter Hannah
Sturtevant married Josiah Cotton, a grandson of Rev. John Cotton. In
1709 Mr. Cotton became the owner, and in 1723 built the two-story
addition.

Proceeding south through Court Street and turning west at Allerton or
Cushman Street brings one to the National Monument of the Forefathers.

... This monument, towering high in its massive splendor, occupies a
commanding position overlooking the town and harbor, with Duxbury,
Clark’s Island, the Saquish and the Gurnet in the background.

The central figure is _Faith_, which stands on the main pedestal, one
foot resting on a replica of Plymouth Rock. In the left hand is a Bible,
while the right hand points heavenward. The whole attitude is symbolic
of faith in a divine power, as the smaller statues below are
representative of the principles enunciated by the Pilgrims themselves.

The plan of the base is octagonal. There are four protruding wings, on
each of which is a figure seated. One representing Morality holding the
decalogue in the left hand and the scroll of Revelation in the right. On
the one side is a Prophet and on the other the Evangelists.

On the next pedestal is the figure representing Law with Justice on one
side and Mercy on the other, symbolizing justice tempered with mercy.
Education has on the one hand the wisdom of maturity and on the other
Youth following experience. The fourth figure represents Freedom, a
consequence of which is peace, represented on the one hand, while on the
other is represented the overthrow of tyranny.

The main pedestal has four polished faces, on two of which are inscribed
the names of the Mayflower Pilgrims, while another bears the inscription
“National Monument to the Forefathers. Erected by a grateful people in
remembrance of their labors, sacrifices and sufferings for the cause of
civil and religious liberty.” There is one panel left for future use.


                  INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE MONUMENT

  Largest granite statue in the world.
  Designed by Hammatt Billings.
  Built of Maine granite.
  Cost $150,000.
  Statue of Faith cost $31,300; was given by late Gov. Oliver Ames.
          Other contributors: United States Government, States of
          Massachusetts and Connecticut, together with 11,000
          individuals of this and other countries.
  Corner stone laid August 1, 1859.
  Monument dedicated on August 1, 1889.
  Height from ground to top of head, 81 feet.
  Outstretched arm measures, from shoulder to elbow, 10 feet, 1½ inches;
          from elbow to tip of finger, 9 feet, 9 inches; total length of
          arm, 19 feet, 10½ inches.
  Circumference of head at forehead, 13 feet, 7 inches.
  Circumference of left arm below sleeve, 6 feet, 10 inches.
  Length of finger pointing upward, 2 feet, 1 inch.
  Circumference of finger, 1 foot, 8½ inches.
  Circumference of thumb, 1 foot, 8½ inches.
  Length of nose, 1 foot, 4 inches.
  216 times life-size.
  Weight, 180 tons.

    [Illustration: JOHN ALDEN HOUSE, 1653, DUXBURY

    John Alden married Priscilla Mullins in 1622. They first lived in a
    log house below Burial Hill where their first three children were
    born. The family later moved to Duxbury where they built and
    occupied the present house. This house is open to visitors.]

    [Illustration: A CUTAWAY DRAWING of the original Mayflower by John
    Seamans of Weymouth, Mass., from plans drawn by William A. Baker,
    Hingham marine architect and authority on ancient ships.]

  KEY TO DRAWING
  1 Main Deck
  2 Galley
  3 Upper Deck
  4 Main Hatch
  5 Forecastle
  6 Waist
  7 Bosun’s Stores
  8 Shallop
  9 Sail Store
  10 Crew’s Quarters
  11 Main Hold
  12 Cargo
  13 General Stores
  14 Water Barrels
  15 Spirits
  16 Store
  17 Cabins
  18 Radio Room—A radio for the crossing was required by law.
  19 Chart House
  20 Steering Position
  21 Gun Port
  22 Main Deck
  23 Upper Deck
  24 Quarter Deck
  25 Poop Deck
  26 Beak
  27 Bowsprit
  28 Foretop
  29 Maintop
  30 Mizzenmast
  31 Mainmast
  32 Foremast



                    PLIMOTH PLANTATION—MAYFLOWER II


    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

On a 100-acre tract, formerly part of the beautiful Hornblower estate, a
replica of the Pilgrim First Street (now Leyden Street) with its
original nineteen thatched dwellings is being erected under the auspices
of Plimoth Plantation, Inc. When complete the project will have cost an
estimated million dollars.

Nearby, in a bend in the Eel River, is the permanent anchorage of the
Mayflower II, an exact reproduction of the original Pilgrim ship, built
and financed by popular subscription in England.

The idea of reproducing a full-size, 92-foot 180-ton Mayflower replica
was conceived during the North African fighting in World War II by a
Londoner, Warwick Charlton. His dream was to memorialize the common
heritage of English-speaking peoples, and to express his country’s
gratitude for American aid in times of great stress.

Mayflower II was constructed of English oak and Oregon pine at an
ancient shipyard in Brixham, Devon, using plans drawn up, after five
years of research, by William A. Baker, shipyard executive with
Bethlehem Steel. More than a quarter million English people contributed
shillings and pence to the Project Mayflower fund.

    [Illustration: PLIMOTH PLANTATION IN SOUTH PLYMOUTH
    This is how the replica of the original Pilgrim settlement will look
    when finished.
    Mayflower II is shown at its permanent anchorage in lower left
    center.]

  Museum
  Parking
  Fort
  Gardens
  Trading Post
  Indian Village
  Mayflower
  Grist Mill-Jenney
  Eel River Pond
  To the Ocean

The Pilgrim village is located on a park-like site sloping up from Eel
River. When complete it will include a trading post, grist mill, Indian
village, and a fort meeting house, as well as dwellings identical with
those occupied by Governor Bradford, Elder Brewster, Myles Standish,
John Alden, and the rest. The work is being supervised by Charles R.
Strickland, Plimoth Plantation architect.

The Plantation homes are designed to have the vertical planked siding,
thatched roofs, and sheepskin parchment windows of Tudor times. They are
being furnished with trestle tables, benches, trundle beds, sea chests,
and the like. Women in costume working at old looms will weave
linsey-woolsey, and dye it with butternut hull and hemlock bark
decoctions.

Mayflower II comes to its permanent berth in the Eel River after an
Atlantic crossing, and exhibitions at New York and elsewhere, under the
command of Alan Villiers, of grain-ship fame. The ship will symbolize
the wellsprings of American democracy. It will vividly recall the ideas
forever shrined in the Compact, whereby the little company of dissenters
bound themselves to live together by the law and under God.

All America will want to see how their nation was cradled, and so more
keenly appreciate the noble tradition to which they are heir.



                              BURIAL HILL


    [Illustration: CANNON OF THE PILGRIM ERA ON BURIAL HILL]

    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

Leaving the Monument and passing south through Allerton Street, crossing
Samoset Street, and continuing straight over the hill to the Cornish and
Burton Schools, we arrive at the northwest entrance to the old burial
ground. Rising 165 feet above sea level this hill commands a fine view
of the harbor and bay from Kingston and Duxbury on the north to the Pine
Hills on the south. At the base of the hill is Town Square where in the
immediate foreground rise the spires of the First Church (Unitarian) and
the Church of the Pilgrimage, with Leyden Street leading to the harbor
beyond.

    [Illustration: Site of the
    Watch Tower
    On Burial Hill

    Burial Hill, once called “Fort Hill,” is one of the most historic
    and beautiful spots in Pilgrim Plymouth. There are convenient seats
    under the shady trees where one can rest and look out over Plymouth
    Harbor and Cape Cod Bay. Here on the “Hill” are the graves of the
    early colonists, the site of the Watch Tower, the Replica of the
    Powder House, the site of the “Fort.” People come here from all over
    the world to search for the graves of their ancestors. The guide
    map, giving location of all the graves, which is included in the
    Pilgrim Book of Burial Hill and Its Epitaphs, is invaluable to those
    who wish to get the most out of their visit to Pilgrim Plymouth. In
    leaving Burial Hill by the Town Square entrance, note the view down
    Leyden Street, first street in New England, and remember that down
    this same path once walked the Pilgrims of Plymouth.]

    [Illustration: PLYMOUTH HARBOR AND CHURCH OF THE PILGRIMAGE

    From Burial Hill, where the early graves are located and where the
    Fort and Watch Tower and Powder House were built by the Pilgrims]

From this vantage, and before the day of steam trawlers, Plymouthians
have viewed the fleet of white-winged mackerel vessels as they sailed to
and fro within easy vision against a background of blue sea.

On clear days the sand dunes of Cape Cod as well as Provincetown may be
seen.

It was on this hill that the Pilgrims built their fort in 1622 and a
watch tower in 1643 and another and larger fort during the King Philip
War in 1675 as a defence against Indian attack.

There is no record of its first use as a burial ground. There are six
stones bearing dates of the 17th century, the oldest that of Edward Grey
(1681). It is known that William Bradford died in 1657 and a monument
erected in 1825 bears evidence to that fact. Also that John Howland died
in 1672 and his present stone was erected (circa) 1850. It is presumable
that there were many burials here prior to these dates, although the
first burials were on Cole’s Hill just above the shore.


                A TRIBUTE IN VERSE FROM PILGRIM PLYMOUTH

  Oft’ have I stood on Plymouth’s sacred hill
  That overlooks both harbor and the town;
  Its first laid street, a Pilgrim mecca still,
  Steeped in historic precept and renown.
  Where bay in iridescence greets the eye,
  Flecked by ocean breeze and white-winged sail.
  While in the foreground looking toward the sky
  Are silent emblems of a past travail.
  Hallowed the ground whereon they humbly dwelt,
  Where now in honor sleep our reverend sires;
  Where once in life they oft’ devoutly knelt
  And asked for guidance only faith inspires.
  What wealth of legend, yea, what wealth of lore,
  Abounds along this tranquil Pilgrim shore!

The oldest stones in order of dates on the hill are those of:

  Edward Grey                                    1681
  William Crowe                                  1683-4
  Hannah Clark                                   1687
  Thomas Cushman                                 1691
  Thomas Clark                                   1697
  The children of John and Josiah Cotton         1699
  The stone of Nathaniel Thomas                  1697

    [Illustration: ONE OF MANY OLD STONES ON BURIAL HILL]

There is a doubt concerning the last named as the inscription is now
illegible, but his death is supposed to have occurred in 1697.

Near the northwest entrance through which we entered is the replica of
the old Powder House built in 1770 and later demolished. The present
structure was a gift of the Massachusetts Society of the Sons of the
American Revolution.

Burial Hill was well chosen as the site of the first fort. As it was
easily approachable from First Street (now Leyden) and commanded the
surrounding territory for some distance in all directions, it served as
an excellent defense against attack by Indians. The locations of the
fort and watch tower are marked by appropriately inscribed tablets.

But a few steps away to the north is the grave of Gov. William Bradford
(numbered 32) over which stands a marble shaft erected in 1825, bearing
the Latin inscription, the free translation of which is: “What our
Fathers with so much difficulty attained, do not basely relinquish.”

The inscription on the south side reads:

  H. I. William Bradford of Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. Was the son
  of William and Alice Bradford. He was Governor of Plymouth Colony from
  1621 to 1633, 1635 to 1637, 1639 to 1643, 1645 to 1657.

The inscription on the north side follows:

  Under this stone rest the ashes of William Bradford, a zealous Puritan
  and sincere Christian Gov. of Ply. Col. from 1621 to 1657, (the year
  he died, aged 69) except 5 yrs. which he declined.

There is also a text in Hebrew, now almost obliterated, which has been
translated,

  “Let the right hand of the Lord awake.”

Descendants of Governor William Bradford are buried in the immediate
vicinity.

No. 33—Major William Bradford, Dep. Gov. of Plymouth Colony, and a son
of Gov. Bradford. The inscription on this stone is as follows:

  Here lyes ye body of ye honorable Major William Bradford who expired
  Feb’ ye 20th. 1703-4 aged 79 years.

  He lived long, but still was doing good,
  And in his country’s service lost much blood,
  And a life well spent, he’s now at rest,
  His very name and memory is blest.

At the grave of Joseph Bradford, another son, the inscription on the
stone reads as follows:

  Here lyes ye body of Joseph Bradford, son of the late Honorable
  William Bradford, Esq., Governor of Plymouth Colony, who departed this
  life July the 10th, in the eighty-fifth year of his age.

No. 35—Stone over the grave of John Howland, the last of the Mayflower
passengers who lived in Plymouth. The inscription on this stone reads as
follows:

  Here ended the Pilgrimage of John Howland, who died February 23,
  1672-3 aged above 80 years. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John
  Tilley, who came with him in the Mayflower Dec. 1620. From them are
  descended a numerous posterity.

  “He was a godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ.
  Hee was one of the first comers into this land and was the last man
  that was left of those that came over in the Shipp called the
  Mayflower that lived in Plymouth.” (Plymouth Records.)

No. 44—Stone at grave of William Crowe bearing dates 1683-84.

  For complete story of Burial Hill and detailed guide map showing name
  and location of all the graves the reader is referred to The Pilgrim
  Guide to Burial Hill and Its Epitaphs, available at most Plymouth
  stores. The map is indispensable in locating the graves.

No. 40—Stone to Thomas Clark 1697.
Stone to Hannah Clark 1697.

Near the stone of Thomas Clark is stone to Nathaniel Clark, his son. The
latter was a councilor to Sir Edward Andros, Governor of New England.

No. 38—Stone to John Cotton 1699.

Graves of the Cottons. Three sons of Rev. John Cotton and seven sons of
Josiah Cotton.

The Cushman gravestone 1691. This noted gravestone is one of the six
bearing date in the seventeenth century. This ancient landmark was
removed by the descendants of Elder Thomas Cushman to make room as they
say “for a more enduring memorial.”

The Cushman monument on the north side of the hill was erected in 1858
in memory of Robert Cushman, his wife Mary, and Thomas Cushman, the
latter for many years a ruling elder in the First Church.

The foregoing are the oldest stones on the hill.

Others are: No. 31—Thomas Faunce 1646-1745. Elder First Church
1699-1745. Town Clerk 1685-1723.

No. 36 is the grave of Nathaniel Jackson. The stone is the oldest
Masonic stone on the hill. It is dated 1743.

No. 37—Stone over the grave of Francis LeBaron 1704. The “Nameless
Nobleman.”

No. 41—Grave of sailors from brig Gen. Arnold who perished in Plymouth
Harbor. James Magee of Boston was the unfortunate commander of this
ill-fated ship. The site is marked by a monument erected through the
generosity of Stephen Gale of Portland, Maine. This is on the west side
of the hill.

No. 42—Tabitha Plasket, June 10, 1807. (Epitaph on following page).

No. 43—Gen. James Warren lot. Patriot and Soldier.

No. 45—Site of fort built in 1622; the lower part was used for a church;
also fort built in 1675—100 ft. square with palisades 10½ ft. high.

There are many peculiar epitaphs, some in prose and some in verse, and
expressive of about every shade and degree of sentiment. A few of these
follow:

(Blue stone, slate. Top and right-hand corner gone) Capt. Ellis Brews——
and Nancy —— wife died Dec. 13, 189— aged —4 years (where lines appear
letters and figures are obliterated). The name, however, is Brewster,
and originally read—Son of:

  “He listen’d for a while to hear
  Our mortal griefs then turned his ear
  To angel harps and songs and cried
  To join their notes celestial sigh’d and dyed.”

(Low blue slate. Sound and compact. Symbol). In memory of Frederic, son
of Mr. Thomas Jackson and Mrs. Lucy, his wife who died March 15, 1788,
aged 1 year and 5 days.

  O! happy Probationer! accepted, without being exercised!—It was thy
  peculiar Privilege not to feel the slightest of these Evils, which
  oppress thy surviving kindred.

(Blue slate; pyramidal; good condition. At top bust of female under
curtain drapery. The epitaph is from Young’s Night Thoughts,
“Narcissa.”)

Fanny Crombie, daughter of Mr. Calvin Crombie and Mrs. Naomi, his wife.
Departed this life June 25th, 1804, in the 8th year of her age.

  As young as beautiful and soft as young
  And gay as soft and innocent as gay.

Note: In quoting these epitaphs the writer has referred to book compiled
      in 1894 by the late Benjamin Drew of Plymouth.

(Blue slate. Good condition. Weeping willow and urn.)

To the memory of ISAAC COAL, son of Mr. Isaac Coal and Mrs. Sarah, his
wife, who died Aug. 28, 1825, in the 17th year of his age.

  Friends and Physicians could not save
  His mortal body from the grave
  Nor can the grave confine him here
  When CHRIST shall call him to appear.

(Blue slate. Good condition. Weeping willow and urn).

In memory of Mrs. Tabitha Plasket, who died June 10, 1807, aged 64
years.

  Adieu vain world I have seen enough of thee
  And I am careless what thou say’st of me
  Thy smiles I wish not;
  Nor the frowns I fear
  I am now at rest my head lies quiet here.

(Stone of blue slate. Moss grown. Defaced. Cleft Broken Symbol.)

  —ere lyes Buried—body of Mrs. Sarah Atwood, wife of Deacon John ——
  died Jan. ye 22d 1725 in ye 37th year of her age.

(Purplish blue slate. Nearly covered with moss. Symbol surrounded with
blossoms.)

The memory of the Just is Blessed.

  Here lyes the Body of Mr. John Atwood who died on the 6th of August A
  D 1754 AEtatis 70 years. He was a Man of Piety & Religion Adorned with
  every Christian grace & virtue & therefore well qualified for ye
  office of a Deacon which he discharged in ye first Church of Christ in
  this Town for about 40 Years with Honesty & uprightness and in the
  Course of his Life adorned the Doctrine of His Saviour by a well
  ordered Conversation.

Some are truly inspirational as shown by the following:

(White marble, fair condition, Urn.)

  Patience C. Holmes, Daug. of Nathan and Ruth Holmes. Died April 1,
  1845, in her 24 y’r.

  “Shed not for her the bitter tear
    Nor give the heart to vain regret,
  ’Tis but the casket that lies here;
    The gem that fill’d it sparkles yet.”

Monument

  In memory of Seventy two seamen who perished in Plymouth harbour on
  the 26 and 27 days of December 1778, on board the private armed Brig,
  Gen. Arnold, of twenty guns, James Magee of Boston, Commander, sixty
  of whom were buried on this spot.

(On the northwesterly side.)

Capt. James Magee died in Roxbury, February 4, 1801; aged 51 years.

Note: This monument was erected by Stephen Gale of Portland, Maine, a
      stranger to them, as a memorial to their sufferings and death.

One of the most recent burials here was that of Judge Thomas Russell who
was buried here at his special request.

Judge Russell was a native of Plymouth, the son of Thomas and Mary Ann
(Goodwin) Russell. He was a noted jurist, was appointed by President
Grant United States Minister to Venezuela and was President of the
Pilgrim Society on the occasion of General Grant’s visit to Plymouth.
His stone of native granite bears the inscription: Thomas Russell, born
Sept. 26, 1825, Died Feb. 9, 1887.

The brass cannons shown above are on the east side of Burial Hill near
the site of the old fort. They were presented to the Town of Plymouth by
the British Government as an expression of Good Will during the
Tercentenary period and were transmitted through the Ancient and
Honourable Artillery Company of London to the Ancient and Honorable
Artillery Company of Massachusetts. On the right is a “Minion.” On the
left a “Sakeret,” both of the mid-16th century era. They were formerly
in the collection of the British National Artillery Museum and are
similar to the cannons mounted on the first fort to protect the colony
from attack of Indians.

    [Illustration: PILGRIMS PROGRESS, presented each Friday in August by
    the Plymouth Antiquarian Society. This is a colorful event,
    impressive and inspirational in its simplicity.]



                        TOWN SQUARE AND CHURCHES


Leaving the hill at the southeast slope and following down the terraced
brick and granite walk, we step into Town Square. This is the logical
center of the town and it may well be said, for generations the seat of
government with the Town House on the south side, bearing its
descriptive tablet. Just ahead is the first street leading to the water
and reaching to the north is Main Street.

Let us here face about. As we look up the square we face the First
Church (Unitarian), so called by virtue of its succession of unbroken
records, the oldest volume of which may be seen in Pilgrim Hall. This
church was dedicated on Dec. 21, 1899. Its arched portal is an elaborate
copy of the portal of the church at Austerfield, England, in which Gov.
Bradford was christened. A tablet near the entrance bears the following
inscription:

  The Church of Scrooby, Leyden, and the Mayflower gathered on this
  hillside in 1620, has ever since preserved unbroken records and
  maintained a continuous ministry, its first covenant being still the
  basis of its fellowship. In reverent memory of its Pilgrim founders
  this fifth meeting house was erected A. D. MDCCCXCVII.

At the east end of the church is a memorial window representing John
Robinson delivering his farewell address to the Pilgrims. This window is
an artistic masterpiece. It was designed by Edward P. Sperry and since
its installation it has been an object of much interest to visitors to
Plymouth. Numerous other windows are commemorative of historic events.

The wood church of Gothic design occupying this site previous to
erection of the present edifice, was built in 1830 and was destroyed by
fire on Nov. 22, 1892.

On the right of the square is the Congregational Church, or Church of
the Pilgrimage, erected in 1840, on which is a tablet with the following
inscription:

  This tablet is inscribed in grateful memory of the Pilgrims and of
  their successors who, at the time of the Unitarian controversy in
  1801, adhered to the belief of the Fathers, and on the basis of the
  original creed and covenant perpetuated, at great sacrifice, in the
  Church of the Pilgrimage, the evangelical faith and fellowship of the
  Church of Scrooby, Leyden, and the “Mayflower” organized in England in
  1606.

The first meeting house was erected in 1637 near the Gov. Bradford
House. This building contained a bell, as did the more pretentious
building erected in 1683 with its diamond leaded windows, Gothic roof,
etc. In 1744 still another place of worship was erected nearer the site
of the present First Church, and this remained until 1830, when the
church that preceded the present church was built.

Considering Town Square as a focal point, there are several divergent
routes one may take, each contributing its legacy of historical
interest.

    [Illustration: TOWN SQUARE—Old view. Looking down Church Lane.
    Leyden Street (first street) and ocean in distance.]



                             LEYDEN STREET


Let us now leave Town Square and wend our way along Leyden Street, so
named in 1823, originally called First Street and later Great and Broad
Street. On the right as we move easterly toward the water we see, on the
site of the Elder Brewster homestead, the new Federal Building, in which
is located the Customs House and Post Office. This is on the corner of
Leyden Street and Main Street Extension, the latter extending over Town
Brook referred to in Bradford’s History as “a very sweete brooke,” and
which runs parallel with Leyden Street, emptying into the harbor just
below.

    [Illustration: OLD LEYDEN STREET HOUSES

    With gardens bordering the brook, popularly called, after the Dutch,
    “Meersteads”]

    [Illustration: PILGRIM MAID AND POOL
    Brewster Gardens]



                            BREWSTER GARDENS
                             A BEAUTY SPOT


    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

A spot both picturesque and historical lies to the south of Leyden
Street bordering Town Brook. It covers land first allotted to William
Brewster, John Goodman and Peter Brown in the original lay-out. The
gardens in the rear extended downwards to the brook.

In the early days the estuary at the mouth of the stream was
sufficiently wide and deep at high tide to permit the passing of fishing
boats to what is now the third bridge. Many small craft “tied up” here
during the winter months and periods of bad weather. Later a dam was
built at the mouth of the stream and for generations water extended over
an area of several acres.

The reclamation of this area was a part of the Tercentenary program. It
was drained and graded, and the brook now follows its natural course
through the park, now known as Brewster Gardens. The old English or
Dutch gardens in the rear of the houses fronting on Leyden Street
present a decided contrast.

Near the brook stands Henry H. Kitson’s statue of the Pilgrim Maiden
mounted upon a native boulder and impressive in its sublimity. It seems
to symbolize the courage and determination with which the adversities
confronting the colonists were met and overcome. It was presented to the
town by the National Society of New England Women, and bears the
inscription—“To those intrepid English women, whose courage, fortitude
and devotion brought a new nation into being, this statue of the Pilgrim
Maiden is dedicated.”

Close at hand is the spring that supplied “sweete water” in the days of
the Pilgrims. Water from this spring has been piped to the street above
and supplies a drinking fountain near the Post Office.

A flight of stone steps designed by Fletcher Steele leads to this park.

Another memorial not to be overlooked is the stone seat also designed by
Fletcher Steele and presented to the town by the National Society of
Daughters of the American Colonists who came in the ship Ann in 1623.

    [Illustration: PLYMOUTH POST OFFICE (Early Photo)
    Corner Leyden Street—First Street in New England]

Much of the credit for reclaiming this area so closely associated with
the lives of the Pilgrims and developing this beautiful park is due Mrs.
William H. Forbes of Milton whose father, Ralph Waldo Emerson, married
Miss Lidian Jackson, daughter of Charles Jackson, in the old Winslow
House shown on another page. This park is reached from both Water Street
and Main Street Extension.

The points of greatest historical interest are so closely related in
regard to location that to attempt to prescribe a definite route would
be extremely difficult.

The most important points of interest are within easy walking distance.
As a suggestion, however, one might follow Water Street from Brewster
Gardens north and find the historic Rock within a two minutes’ walk.

During the Tercentenary celebration many changes were made in this
section. The old wharves and buildings that had characterized this spot
for generations, are gone and the immediate surroundings have been
converted into a state reservation. It is a ground made sacred to the
memory of the Pilgrims as is evidenced by the many memorials and markers
in the vicinity, gifts of the various historical societies throughout
the country.

    [Illustration: PERISTYLE OVER PLYMOUTH ROCK]



                             PLYMOUTH ROCK


    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

The magnificent peristyle shown here was designed by the architects
McKim, Mead & White and was a gift of the National Society of the
Colonial Dames of America on the 300th anniversary of the Landing of the
Pilgrims.

It encloses the historic “Rock” on which the Pilgrims first set foot.
The foundation wall is open on the water side allowing the free wash of
the flood tides around the rock as it lies in its original bed.

    [Illustration: PLYMOUTH ROCK—A NATIONAL SHRINE]

Plymouth Rock, emblematic and suggestive of the Pilgrim associations has
been viewed by countless thousands of people, not only from our own
states, but the world over. It has been photographed, painted, and
reproduced in bronze. On this rock the Pilgrims first stepped foot,
December 21st, 1620. To those who may be prone to scepticism it can be
stated that its interesting history has been handed down from generation
to generation from Elder Thomas Faunce, who was born in Plymouth in
1647, and who died in 1746, aged 99 years. A few years before his death,
at a time when removal or covering up of the rock was under
contemplation, he made vigorous protest at what he termed the
desecration of an object of deep veneration, stating that his father,
John Faunce, who came over in the Ann in 1623, had told him that it was
on that rock that the forefathers landed, as stated by them to him.

It is further possible that an early age some of the eldest of the
Mayflower passengers may have imparted this information to Elder Faunce
directly. During the war of the Revolution, an attempt was made to
remove the rock to Town Square, there to be viewed as an emblem of
liberty, civic and religious. In the operation of lifting, the upper
portion split away, leaving the base in its original bed. This top
portion was, however, transferred to the square, where it remained until
1834, when it was taken to Pilgrim Hall and placed within an iron fence
at the left of the entrance. In 1880 it was moved back and cemented to
its original base.

In the vicinity where the Rock now rests there were once many wharves
and industrial enterprises. Plymouth was then an active and busy seaport
but all this was changed when the Commonwealth of Massachusetts bought
this land in 1920 and made it into a reservation.

The memorial pictured below, standing close to the Rock and Peristyle,
is symbolic of the part played by the women of the Plymouth Colony in
shaping the destinies of this, the first permanent settlement. Their
courage and fortitude fill a glorious page in the annals of American
colonization.

    [Illustration: MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN
    By C. T. Jennewein

    “Erected by the National Society Daughters of the American
    Revolution in Memory of the Heroic Women of the Mayflower
    1620-1920.”]



                              COLE’S HILL


    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

Rising directly back of the landing place is Cole’s Hill, named after
James Cole who settled here in 1633 and who died in Plymouth in 1692.
Here lie those who died the first fateful winter. The hardships of the
voyage and the lack of proper accommodations after the landing developed
much sickness, which made frightful inroads on the little colony, their
number being reduced one-half during the first few months, and those
remaining being “scarce able to bury the dead.”

    [Illustration: SARCOPHAGUS—COLE’S HILL]

They were reduced so fast and to such an extent that it was deemed wise
to conceal the graves, so they planted corn that Indians might remain in
ignorance of their great losses. At various times in the process of
excavating, human remains have been uncovered. These were carefully
re-interred and a granite slab bearing an appropriate inscription now
marks the spot and conveys to the visitor a mute attest to the
sacrifices of those who contributed their part in shaping the destinies
of our country.

Remains that were found during excavations for a water main on Carver
Street in 1855 were, upon their identification as those of the Caucasian
race as distinguished from the native Indians, placed in a vault on
Burial Hill. Later, upon completion of the canopy over Plymouth Rock in
1867, they were placed in a receptacle in the top of that memorial. They
now repose in the Sarcophagus erected under the direction and at the
expense of the General Society of Mayflower Descendants.

During the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 batteries were
implanted on the brow of the hill to protect the town from approach by
water.

A memorial seat on Cole’s Hill was erected in 1917 by the descendants
and to the memory of James Cole, born in London, England, 1600. Died
Plymouth, 1692. First settled on Cole’s Hill, 1633. A soldier in Pequot
War, 1637.

Occupying a commanding position on Cole’s Hill is the statue of
Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags and friend of the colonists.

It was done in bronze by Cyrus Dallin and is mounted upon a native
boulder with a tablet bearing the following inscription:

                               Massasoit
                              Great Sachem
                                 of the
                               Wampanoags
                             Protector and
                            Preserver of the
                                Pilgrims
                                  1621
                             Erected by the
                             International
                              Order of Red
                                Men as a
                            Grateful Tribute
                                  1921

    [Illustration: MASSASOIT
    “Friend of the Pilgrims”]

    [Illustration: THE EDWARD WINSLOW HOUSE]

Winslow Street curves north from lower North Street and enters Water
Street a short distance beyond. At the apex of the curve stands the
house built in 1754 by Edward Winslow, great-grandson of Gov. Edward
Winslow of the Plymouth Colony. The timbers used in its construction
were brought from England. As shown, the house is an elaboration of the
house in its original form. The trees in front of the house were planted
by Edward Winslow’s daughter in 1760.

This property has been acquired by the National Society of Mayflower
Descendants.

The above picture shows the Winslow House in its reconstruction. It was
in this house that Ralph Waldo Emerson married Miss Lidian Jackson,
daughter of Charles and Lucy (Cotton) Jackson who, at the time, occupied
the house. It was later the residence of Rev. George Ware Briggs, long
identified with the First Church in Plymouth.

Passing up North Street, shaded by its arch of lindens, we come to the
house of Gen. John Winslow, built in 1730. This building stands at the
corner of Main and North Streets and is now a business block. It was
upon Gen. Winslow, who was a brother of Edward Winslow, that fell the
unpleasant burden of removing the neutral Arcadians from Nova Scotia.
This historic building was later the home of James Warren, President of
the Provincial Congress, who married Mercy Otis, sister of James Otis,
the brilliant champion of American rights.

We are now in Shirley Square, the town’s business center.

It may be observed that North Street and Leyden Street run parallel
toward the water, Carver Street following the curve on Cole’s Hill
connecting with both streets at the north and south sides of the hill.
Middle Street, starting at Main, runs between North and Leyden Streets
and ends at the hill.

To those who have not visited Plymouth in recent years, the transition
of Court and North Streets from their quiet residential charm, to
avenues of commercial enterprise, will be noticeable. It is the
inevitable contribution to expansion and progress.

Let us turn right here and proceed north on Court Street. A few steps
takes us to the Plymouth County Court House and the Registry of Deeds.

The Plymouth County Court House stands between North and South Russell
Streets with its wide expanse of lawn extending to Court Street. From
here one looks down Brewster Street to the harbor. On the northerly
corner of Brewster and Court Streets is the Methodist Church. On the
southerly corner, the home of the Old Colony Club.

The Court House was erected in 1820 and was remodeled in 1857. It
contains, beside the court rooms, accommodations for the various county
offices.

During recent years the houses on the south side of South Russell Street
running westerly from School Street have been removed and Burial Hill
has been extended to the corner. This change brings the historic hill
into view across the Court House lawn as one approaches from the north.



                         THE REGISTRY OF DEEDS


    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

On North Russell Street stands the Registry of Deeds, a fireproof
building erected in 1904. To the antiquarian and those interested in
historical data, this building would rank next to Pilgrim Hall, if not
first in importance. It contains papers of unusual interest, including
many signed by Pilgrim hands, as well as those bearing the identifying
signs or marks of the native Indians.

There are deeds in the native language, Gov. Bradford’s order for trial
by jury, various laws pertaining to the guidance of the colony and of
the division of land, including a plan of the laying out of the first
street (now Leyden Street).

The second patent, dated 1629, granted by the Earl of Warwick, may be
seen in the original box in which it came from England.

The distribution of milk from the cows imported from England is even
provided for. This was a matter of much concern as the supply was short
and the demand great, to which these papers bear attest. The Registry of
Probate occupies the second floor of the building.

Continuing along Court Street to Chilton Street we come to Pilgrim Hall,
stopping at the Tabitha Plasket House on the way.

    [Illustration: TABITHA PLASKET HOUSE]

This house, pictured above, was built in 1722 by Consider Howland,
great-grandson of John Howland, who came in the Mayflower. A
considerable part of the original structure still remains. It was
occupied for some years by Tabitha Plasket, said to have been the first
woman school teacher, and a person of strong personality and rigorous
discipline. It is recorded that she hung unruly scholars to the wall by
placing a skein of yarn under the arms as a corrective measure. The
house is located on the east side of Court Street, between the Court
House and Pilgrim Hall.

    [Illustration: PILGRIM HALL]

    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

One is awakened to the realism of the early life of the Colony with a
visit to Pilgrim Hall, that shrine of all lovers of Pilgrim history,
where repose many articles brought over in the Mayflower and closely
associated with the daily life of the Pilgrims.

    [Illustration: INTERIOR VIEW OF PILGRIM HALL MUSEUM]

This building on the easterly side of Court Street, a short distance
north of the Court House, was erected by the Pilgrim Society in 1824 in
memory of the Pilgrims and as a depository for historical relics; In
1880 material improvements were made in the original structure, largely
through the generosity of the late Joseph Henry Stickney of Baltimore
who had always taken an intense interest in matters concerning the early
colony. At the time, the top portion of Plymouth Rock, which had for 46
years been resting at one side of the entrance to the hall, the latter
part of the time enclosed by an iron fence, was moved back to its
original bed and placed on the base where it has since remained. Later
in 1911-12 the Pilgrim Society spent approximately $15,000 in completing
the work already inaugurated by Mr. Stickney, making the building
practically fireproof with its steel beams, terra cotta and cement
tiles, marble floors, etc. Its Doric portico is impressive in its
dignity and will be easily recognized as one approaches from either
direction.

    [Illustration: MAYFLOWER FOUNTAIN

    Located in garden in rear of Pilgrim Hall. Gift of the General
    Society Daughters of the Revolution]


                        AN HISTORICAL COLLECTION

The following are only a few of the interesting treasures within the
hall:

Picture of the “Landing,” in vestibule of Hall. Given by R. G. Shaw of
Boston.

Picture of the “Landing,” 13 x 16 feet, by Henry Sargent of Boston and
presented by him in 1834. On east wall of hall.

Copy of Weir’s Embarkation from Delft Haven. Painted by Edgar Parker.
South wall of hall.

Departure from Delft Haven, by Charles Lucy. Presented by Alexander H.
Rice, former governor of Massachusetts. This picture won first prize of
one thousand guineas at an exhibition in England. Of great value. West
wall.

Original of Weir’s Embarkation of the Pilgrims from Delft Haven.
Purchased by the Society in 1914 (Weir’s picture in the rotunda of the
Capitol at Washington is an enlargement from this study).

W. F. Halsall’s fine painting of the Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor hangs
on the north wall inclosed by portraits of the Winslow family.

Many engravings of historic interest, including the Signing of the
Compact.

Patent of the Plymouth Colony. This is the oldest state document in New
England. It bears the date of June 1, 1621, was granted to John Peirce
and came over in the ship Fortune in November, 1621. It shows the seals
and signatures of the Duke of Lenox, the Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl
of Warwick, Lord Sheffield and Sir Fernando Gorges. Several parts of
this ancient document have broken away, including the seal of Hamilton
and the seal and signature of John Peirce, the party of the second part
thereto. This charter includes the territory in and around Cape Cod Bay,
outside that allotted in the first charter which had covered the
territory to the south in the neighborhood of the Virginia Capes. This
second charter was granted by the Council for New England, which had
been created by royal authority after the departure of the Pilgrims from
Plymouth, England.

    [Illustration: GOV. CARVER’S CHAIR IN PILGRIM HALL MUSEUM]

Bible of Governor William Bradford printed in Geneva in 1592.

Chairs of Elder Brewster, Gov. Carver and Gov. Winslow.

Carved back of pew taken from parish church at Scrooby, Eng.

The famous sword of Captain Myles Standish dating back several centuries
before the Christian era; captured from the Persians by the Saracens in
637 at Jerusalem and bearing the inscription in Arabic, “With peace God
ruled His slaves (creatures) and with the judgment of his arm He
troubled the mighty of the wicked.”

Portraits of Dr. James Tucker, first secretary of the Pilgrim Society;
Joseph Henry Stickney, generous contributor to the Society, hanging over
bronze tablet; George Washington; Edward Everett; Edward Winslow,
Governor of Plymouth Colony in 1633-36-44; Josiah Winslow, son of Edward
Winslow, Governor, 1673-1680; Penelope Winslow, wife of Governor Josiah;
Gen. John Winslow (great grandson of Edward); Dr. Isaac Winslow. These
portraits are grouped about the picture of the Mayflower (by Halsall),
hanging on the north wall of the hall.

Portrait of the Hon. Daniel Webster.

Original manuscript, including Miss Felicia Heman’s “The Breaking Waves
Dashed High.”

In the fireproof annex, which holds the library, are over three thousand
volumes of great value, dating back as far as 1559.

There is a basement in which are stored relics of a somewhat later
period. In fact, the building is so filled with interesting reminders of
the early Colonial days that it would be useless to enumerate them here.
There is a complete catalogue obtainable at the hall which will be a
great aid to the visitor as each article is described in detail. The
Hall is open daily to visitors. Admission twenty-five cents.


                          THE PILGRIM SOCIETY

The Pilgrim Society held its first meeting after incorporation in the
Court House in Plymouth on May 18th, 1820, and elected Mr. Joshua Thomas
its first president. It was the result of a previous meeting of Plymouth
gentlemen at the home of Mr. Thomas, who were inspired with a desire to
perpetuate the memory of the first settlers.

Four years later the original home of the society was erected upon its
present location and upon plans of Alexander Parris, architect of the
Boston Cathedral of St. Paul. This building as before stated was
remodeled in 1880 and the wing which now houses the library and other
Pilgrimiana was added in 1904. The present granite facade was a gift of
the New England Society in New York in 1922.

Across the street from Pilgrim Hall and a little to the north is the
Armory previously referred to, while a few steps beyond is St. Peter’s
Catholic Church. At this point on the east side of Court Street is the
Plymouth Memorial Building, also previously described. This building
stands on the lot formerly occupied by the colonial residence built in
1809 by Major William Hammett and later and for many years occupied by
Mr. Thomas Hedge and family. When the erection of the Memorial Building
was decided upon, this house was moved back and now faces Water Street
and the harbor. It is reminiscent of the early 19th century and is
maintained and kept open to visitors during the summer by the Plymouth
Antiquarian Society.


                             WATSON’S HILL

Market Street, which parallels Main Street Extension, runs from Town
Square southward, converging with Sandwich and Pleasant Streets at its
base. Beyond and to the right is Watson’s Hill from which place
Massasoit and his braves approached the settlement, crossing the brook
at the ford below on their way to the Common House where the famous
treaty was consummated. An excellent view of the town is to be had from
this elevation, originally a corn field and for generations a section of
attractive homes.

    [Illustration: OLD DOORWAYS ON SUMMER STREET]


                     SUMMER STREET AND MORTON PARK

Summer street leads westerly from Market Street, being one of the first
streets laid out. Here may be seen two of the oldest houses in Plymouth,
viz.: the Richard Sparrow House on the left of the street and a short
distance from Market Street and the Leach House a few steps beyond at
the Corner of Spring Street, once known as Spring Lane. This house was
built by George Bonum in 1679.

The Sparrow House is presumed to have been built by Richard Sparrow in
1640. If so, it is the oldest house in Plymouth. Inside it is
distinctive of the early 17th century era with its great fireplace and
its brick oven.

Note: Spring Street has been referred to as Spring Lane and Baptist
      Hill, the latter designation derived from the fact that a Baptist
      chapel occupied a lot for many years on the west side a few steps
      from Summer Street.

This house is now used as craftsman’s shop by the Plymouth Potters, and
is open to visitors.

Plymouth Pottery is unique in that it is made up of local red-firing
clay by former pupils of a State Vocational Project—now organized into a
co-operative guild.

Many pieces have an early American flavor and the hand-ground glazes
give interesting and unusual effects. Many persons have called these
pieces “heirlooms of the future.”

Summer Street follows the brook along which were many manufacturing
concerns a short generation ago. It leads to the wooded area of the town
past Oak Grove and Pine Hills Cemeteries to Morton Park, a woodland
sanctuary of nearly 340 acres situated about a mile from the town’s
center. This land was given to the town by a group of Plymouth citizens
in 1889, headed by Mr. Nathaniel Morton, who was himself a generous
contributor.

The Park includes two lakes of sparkling fresh water, Little Pond which
covers approximately 40 acres and where accommodations are provided for
picnics and bathing, and Billington Sea, covering an area of over three
hundred acres.

    [Illustration: THE HOWLAND HOUSE—Built in 1666—Restored 1941
    The only house in Plymouth where Pilgrims once lived]


                           THE TRAINING GREEN

Lying just below Watson’s Hill between Pleasant Street on the west and
Sandwich Street on the east, is an open square known as Training Green,
from the fact that in the earlier days companies of militia were trained
there in the manual of arms. In the center stands the Soldiers’
Monument, erected in 1869 to the memory of Plymouth men who served in
the army and navy and who gave their lives during the Civil War. This
tract of land was used before the arrival of the Pilgrims by the Indians
for growing corn. It has contributed its share of arrow heads and other
Indian relics, as have the other hills and fields in the immediate
neighborhood.


                      SANDWICH STREET, OLD HOUSES

Sandwich Street runs southeasterly from the foot of Market Street,
formerly Spring Hill. Near this point on the west side of Sandwich
Street, near the head of Water Street, is the Howland House, built in
1666. It was the home of Jabez Howland, son of John Howland of the
Mayflower, who died in 1672.

This house is now owned by the Society of Howland Descendants which
holds annual reunions for the purpose of keeping alive the family
intercourse and the traditions of the early colonial days.


                            THE HARLOW HOUSE

    [Illustration: HARLOW HOUSE (1677)

    The Harlow House, now a museum of 17th century life, is maintained
    by the Plymouth Antiquarian Society]

Just beyond on the west side of Sandwich Street (No. 119) is the William
Harlow House, built in 1677.

A transfer of land on which this house stands is in the town records
under date of July 29, 1669, as follows: “att this meeting a quarter of
an acre of land was granted to William Harlow being a little Knowle or
smale psell of land lying nere his now dwelling house on the westerly
syde of the Road Way To sett a new house upon.” (sic) Timbers used in
the construction of this house were taken from the old fort on Burial
Hill.

The Plymouth Antiquarian Society acquired this property with the object
of preserving a fine example of the homes of the early settlement. Here
may be seen the spinning wheel, the pots and kettles and other articles
of domestic use necessary to the family upkeep three centuries and over
ago.

The Society also maintains the Antiquarian House on Water Street, which
is preserved as it was in early Colonial days and is well worth a visit.


                        THE KENDALL HOLMES HOUSE

This house was built by William Harlow in 1654 and later acquired by
Kendall Holmes. It is located on Winter Street, east of Sandwich Street.
The house stands as originally built except for the ell which was added
later. In both furnishings and construction it provides a fine example
of the houses of the early colonial period.

A short distance beyond is Jabez Corner. Here the roads diverge, the
road to the right leading to Chiltonville, once known as Eel River, an
attractive community village one and one-half miles distant.

Straight ahead Warren Avenue follows the shore. This is one of
Plymouth’s most picturesque and delightful residential sections with its
view of harbor and bay, and its expanse of unbroken terrain as it slopes
toward the water, all within easy access to the business center.

One mile to the south is the Plymouth Beach Club and a short distance
beyond at the point where Plymouth Beach extends along the inner harbor
and Eel River enters the harbor, are the splendid facilities for public
bathing provided by the Town of Plymouth. A half mile beyond, near Hotel
Pilgrim, is the 18-hole golf course of the Plymouth Country Club, one of
the finest in the country.

Here the roads diverge again. The road to the left follows the shore,
although at points high above the water, while the road to the right
runs directly over the Pine Hills.

These hills were included in the early division of land designated as
the “Great Lots” in 1711-12, and later transferred by deed at various
times and to various ownerships. At points they reach an altitude of 400
feet above sea level. The roads running nearly parallel, meet at the
point three miles south where the Manomet church stands at the southeast
corner of the intersection.

One-half mile to the east is White Horse Beach which, during the past
few years, has developed into a large summer colony. The beach between
White Horse and Manomet Point affords excellent bathing, and boats with
tackle for sea fishing are readily obtainable.

Nearby to the south is Hotel Mayflower, and at the “Point” below, the
Manomet Coast Guard Station. Manomet Village lies to the west, and on
the bluff overlooking the bay is Hotel Idlewild (formerly the Barstow
House).

Southward stretch wide acres of fields and meadows, hills and vales
dotted here and there by farms and gardens, a variation of landscape
that is typical of New England. Hundreds of acres devoted to cranberry
culture may be seen from the highway, an indication of the high state of
development this industry has reached.

From many points of vantage along the entire shore, coastwise traffic
via the Cape Cod Canal may be seen heading north and south.

The Town of Plymouth is fortunate in having this wide expanse of
adaptable terrain within its confines. The entire area with its scenic
beauty, its woods, its lakes, its bay, its beaches, its rocks, its
foliage and flowers, is a natural heritage, which, combined with man’s
handiwork, is becoming more and more inviting, not only as a haven of
rest and recreation, but as the ideal American homesite.



                        THE MAYFLOWER PASSENGERS


                    Prepared by George Ernest Bowman
                  Editor of “The Mayflower Descendant”

There were only one hundred and four (104) Mayflower Passengers. Every
one of them is included in the two lists following. There were no other
passengers.

The 50 passengers from whom descent can be proved:

  John Alden
  Isaac Allerton
    wife Mary
    daughter Mary
    daughter Remember
  John Billington
    wife Eleanor
    son Francis
  William Bradford
  William Brewster
    wife Mary
    son Love
  Peter Brown
  James Chilton
    wife ——
    daughter Mary
  Francis Cooke
    son John
  Edward Doty
  Francis Eaton
    wife Sarah
    son Samuel
  Edward Fuller
    wife ——
    son Samuel
  Dr. Samuel Fuller
  Stephen Hopkins
    2nd wife, Elizabeth
    son Gyles (by 1st wife)
    daughter Constance (by 1st wife)
  John Howland
  Richard More
  William Mullins
    wife Alice
    daughter Priscilla
  Degory Priest
  Thomas Rogers
    son Joseph
  Henry Samson
  George Soule
  Myles Standish
  John Tilley, and wife ——
    daughter Elizabeth
  Richard Warren
  William White
    wife Susanna
    son Resolved
    son Peregrine
  Edward Winslow

The 54 passengers from whom descent cannot be proved.

  Bartholomew Allerton
  John Allerton
  John Billington
  Dorothy Bradford
    (1st wife of William)
  Wrestling Brewster
  Richard Britterige
  William Butten
  Robert Carter
  John Carver
  Katherine Carver
    (wife of John)
  Maid servant of the Carvers
  Richard Clarke
  Humility Cooper
  John Crakston
    son John
  —— Ely
  Thomas English
  Moses Fletcher
  Richard Gardiner
  John Goodman
  William Holbeck
  John Hooke
  Damaris Hopkins
  Oceanus Hopkins
  John Langmore
  William Latham
  Edward Leister
  Edmund Margeson
  Christopher Martin
    wife ——
  Desire Minter
  Ellen More
  Jasper More
    (a boy) More
  Joseph Mullins
  Solomon Prower
  John Rigdale
    wife Alice
  Rose Standish
    (1st wife of Myles)
  Elias Story
  Edward Thomson
  Edward Tilley
    wife Ann
  Thomas Tinker
    wife ——
    son ——
  William Trevore
  John Turner
    son ——
    son ——
  Roger Wilder
  Thomas Williams
  Elizabeth Winslow
    (1st wife of Edward)
  Gilbert Winslow

    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

The migration of the Pilgrim company was the result of years of friction
between the adherents of the established Church of England with its
perfunctory ritualisms and those who demanded the right to worship
according to their conscience and the simplicity of the gospel as
exemplified in the scriptures.

This determined attitude on the part of the dissenters was met by
arbitrary rulings on the part of the reigning monarch, King James I, of
England and the bishops who received their support from the crown. The
oppression became so great that in 1608 the congregation of the Pilgrim
Church at Scrooby moved to Amsterdam, Holland, whence in 1609 they moved
to Leyden, twenty-two miles distant. Here they remained for twelve
years. It was a temporary refuge, however. There was the constantly
growing fear of assimilation into Dutch life and habits as well as the
absorption of a language foreign to themselves and their posterity. They
preferred to remain English men and women although their relations had
been friendly with the Dutch who commended their industry and their
peaceful contacts. Nevertheless, King James was beginning to exercise
his influence in the low countries again much to their discomfiture.

Finally deciding to leave Leyden, application was made to the Virginia
Company which had been established in 1606, and held patents to land
along the Atlantic coast of North America from the 34th to 45th degrees
of north latitude, for a patent to land suitable for settlement.

Having secured their patent, estates were liquidated and, with the
proceeds therefrom, together with money subscribed by the London
company, styled the Merchant Adventurers, with whom they had formed a
business alliance, the Speedwell, a small vessel of sixty tons, was
secured and sent to Delfthaven to transport the colonists to Southampton
where the Mayflower, a vessel of one hundred and eighty tons, was to
join them.

On the 15th of August, 1620, both vessels left Southampton, but the
Speedwell proving unseaworthy, they were obliged to return, putting into
the harbor of Dartmouth for repairs. A second attempt resulted in
abandoning the Speedwell at Plymouth, from which port the Mayflower
sailed alone on the 16th of September. After a tempestuous voyage of
sixty-six days, refuge was taken in Cape Cod harbor (Provincetown) on
November 21st, 1620.

From here exploring parties set out in the shallop (small boat) to
locate a suitable home site and on December 21st a landing was made at
Plymouth, the Mayflower following on December 26th. And here a permanent
settlement was established.

    [Illustration: THE DEPARTURE FOR AMERICA]

As the patent they held covered land in the vicinity of the Virginia
capes, and settlement was made outside the limits defined therein, a
second patent was obtained covering land contiguous to Cape Cod Bay.
This second patent was brought over in the Fortune in 1621 and is now
preserved in Pilgrim Hall.

It was while the Mayflower lay in Provincetown harbor that, to quote
from Mourt’s Relation under date of November 23rd, 1620, “Our people
went on shore to refresh themselves and our women to wash as they had
great need.” This was on Monday, and is supposed to be the origin of our
national “Wash Day.”

    [Illustration: SCENE OF LANDING]

It was here also that the famous document referred to by Bradford as a
“combination” but later known as the Compact was drawn and signed. This
document has often been referred to as the genesis of our present form
of constitutional government as expounded in the Constitution of the
United States and later expressed by Lincoln as “of the people, by the
people and for the people.” It anticipates future growth and development
and the enactment of laws necessary to meet changing conditions as “by
vertue hereof to enacte, constitute and frame such just & equall lawes,
ordinances, Acts, constitutions & offices, from time to time, as shall
be thought most meete & conuenient for ye generall good of ye Colonie.”
(sic)

It has been said of the Pilgrims that “They builded better than they
knew.” This should not be interpreted too literally. They laid a solid
foundation upon which future generations could and did build, and upon
this foundation rests the security of the structure that is our present
form of government.

The literal text of this immortal document follows:


                              THE COMPACT
       (Copied from Bradford’s “History of Plymouth Plantation”)

    [Illustration: {Illustrated capital}]

In ye name of God Amen. We whose names are underwriten, the loyall
subjects of our dread soueraigne Lord King James, by ye grace of God, of
Great Britaine, Franc, & Ireland king, defender of ye faith, &c. Haueing
undertaken, for ye glorie of God, and aduancemente of ye christian faith
and honour of our king & countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in
ye Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly & mutualy
in ye presence of God, and one of another; couenant, & combine our
selues togeather into a ciuill body politick; for our better ordering, &
preseruation & furtherance of ye ends aforesaid; and by vertue hereof to
enacte, constitute, and frame such just & equall lawes, ordinances,
Acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought
most meete & conuenient for ye generall good of ye Colonie; unto which
we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we haue
hereunder subscribed our names at Cap-Codd ye .11. of Nouember in ye
year of ye raigne of our soueraigne Lord King James of England, France,
& Ireland ye eighteenth, and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. Ano: Dom.
1620.

  John Carver
  William Bradford
  Edward Winslow
  William Brewster
  Isaac Allerton
  Myles Standish
  John Alden
  John Turner
  Francis Eaton
  James Chilton
  John Crakston
  John Billington
  Moses Fletcher
  John Goodman
  Samuel Fuller
  Christopher Martin
  William Mullins
  Degory Priest
  Thomas Williams
  Gilbert Winslow
  Edmund Margeson
  Peter Brown
  Richard Britterige
  George Soule
  Edward Tilley
  John Tilley
  Francis Cooke
  Thomas Rogers
  Thomas Tinker
  John Rigdale
  Edward Fuller
  Richard Clark
  Richard Gardiner
  John Allerton
  William White
  Richard Warren
  John Howland
  Stephen Hopkins
  Thomas English
  Edward Doty
  Edward Leister

During the first year the colony was reduced nearly one-half through
exposure and disease. These losses were later offset by arrivals in the
Fortune in 1621 and the Little James in 1623.

In April, 1621, a treaty was made with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag
Indians, who occupied the surrounding territory. This was brought about
through the good offices of Samoset and Squanto, two friendly Indians,
the former having learned some English from contact with fishermen along
the coast of Maine whence he had come, while the latter had been taken
with a number of others by a Captain Hunt who had “got them under cover
of trucking with them and carried them away and sold them as slaves.” He
had made his escape and returned to his home with the Nausets on Cape
Cod.

This treaty was held inviolate during the life of Massasoit and
thereafter until the outbreak of the King Philip War in 1675.
Precautionary measures were taken however to protect the settlement, and
in 1622 a fort was erected on Burial Hill. This was supplemented by a
watch tower in 1643. During the King Philip War a larger fort was
erected on the same site. Fortunately the Plymouth colony escaped Indian
attack although in 1676 a small community to the south near Eel River
was attacked and eleven settlers killed.

It is hard to realize in these days of material comforts, not to speak
of luxuries, the hardships of our forebears. It was a case of work for
survival. And there must have been work for by December, 1621, “seven
dwelling houses and four for the use of the plantation” had been
erected. The harvest of 1621 had been successful and a season of
Thanksgiving had been observed, wherein some of the friendly Indians had
participated, this being the origin of our present Thanksgiving Day.

Nevertheless their existence was fraught with uncertainties. Their
stocks of provisions were soon depleted and the problem of food supply
became one of increasing concern. The very life of the colony depended
upon the success of their crops. Corn had become increasingly valuable,
not only as an article of food but as a medium of exchange, the
colonists having little or no money.

Up to 1623 they worked together on company land, sharing the fruits of
their combined labor. This year owing to the shortage of crops “they
begane to think how they might raise as much corne as they could and
abtaine a better crope than they had done that they might not still thus
languish in miserie.”


                              LAND DIVIDED

And so “to every family was assigned a parcell of land according to the
proportion of their number for that end (but made no provision for
inheritance) and ranged all boys & youths under some family. This had
very good success for it made all hands industrious, so as much more
corne was planted then other waise would have bene by any means the
Governor or any other could use.”

This was followed the next season by a division of land wherein “to
every person was given only one acre, to them and theirs, as near the
towne as might be, and they had no more till the seven years were
expired.”

Note: This was in accordance, at least in spirit, with the imposed
      provisions of their contract with the English company of Merchant
      Adventurers who had financed their expedition.

A further division of land, following a division of livestock, was made
in 1627, wherein “every person or share should have 20 acres of land
divided unto them, besides the single acres they had already.” (sic).

              —Quotations from Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation


                             THEY CARRY ON

Fortified by faith and grim determination the colonists carried on in
the face of great adversity, yet getting more and more firmly
established.

In 1636, owing to the growth of the original colony or plantation and
the establishment of separate settlements at Scituate and Duxbury, the
purely democratic rule which had obtained under the Mayflower Compact,
wherein matters pertaining to the interests of the colony were settled
in general assembly, was superseded by a law passed providing for
government by deputies representing the several towns.

The first legislative body met in 1639 and brought together
representatives from the outlying towns of Sandwich, Barnstable,
Yarmouth, Taunton, Scituate, Duxbury and Plymouth.

In 1643, for mutual interests and against the menace of Indian attack, a
confederation was formed between the Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies
in combination with Connecticut and New Haven as separate units, with
authority vested in commissioners.

This remained in force until 1672 when a new compact was made upon the
union of Connecticut and New Haven, which gave less authority to the
commissioners.

In 1686 Sir Edmund Andros was sent by King James to rule over the
Dominion of New England, to which in 1688 New York and New Jersey were
added, the seat of government remaining in Boston.

Conditions under Andros with his autocratic assumptions and restrictions
were not pleasant. It is interesting to note in this connection that
Clark’s Island which had for some time been used for the support of the
poor, was turned over by Andros to one of his followers who had been
attracted by its natural beauties.

The ascension of William III to the throne of England in 1689 had much
to do with shaping the destinies of the colonists. The regime of Andros
continued until word was received that the landing of William, Prince of
Orange, in England threatened the overthrow of the Stuart dynasty when
the citizens of Boston revolted, took possession of a British ship in
the harbor and overthrew the crown’s despotic representative. Plymouth
again acquired Clark’s Island and later the proclamation of William and
Mary established once more the freedom the colonists had previously
enjoyed.

In 1692 came the union of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies.
Sir William Phipps was appointed by the crown chief magistrate over the
Massachusetts Colony with which the Plymouth Colony was united under one
royal charter.



    [Illustration: A&P]


                         The Light Refreshment

    [Illustration: Pepsi-Cola]

               Pepsi-Cola Bottling Co., Inc. of Plymouth
                  124 Sandwich St.    Plymouth, Mass.



                  PLYMOUTH ROPE, THE NATION’S SERVANT

Plymouth ropes have helped to write exciting chapters in American
history.

Beginning in 1824, they have sailed the seven seas aboard packet and
whalers, the China clippers and war privateers. Today they go aboard
majestic ocean liners and modern battle ships. They’re even on the
atomic powered submarines.

The products of Plymouth Cordage Company are intertwined in many other
phases of the American economy ... in agriculture and fishing, in the
construction, manufacturing, aircraft and petroleum industries, the
public utilities and numerous other fields.

There’s a Plymouth rope serving the nation every minute of every day.

                        PLYMOUTH CORDAGE COMPANY
                                                 Plymouth, Massachusetts
                                                        Established 1824


    [Illustration: {uncaptioned}]

                       Myles Standish Restaurant
                                   •
                         _Catering to Parties_
                                   •
                        OPEN 10 A.M. to 10 P.M.
                                   •
                          _Home Cooked Foods_
                                   •
                             HALL’S CORNER
                         Telephone Duxbury 800



    [Illustration: FIRST NATIONAL Stores]


                          A PILGRIM DISCOVERY

    [Illustration: {uncaptioned}]

Cranberries, growing wild on Cape Cod, were made into cranberry sauce by
an unknown Pilgrim housewife. The Indians ate their cranberries raw, but
the Pilgrim ladies stewed them with sugar as they did other fruits ...
thus, cranberry sauce!

Ocean Spray still follows this original, simple recipe in the
preparation of famous Ocean Spray Cranberry Sauce. Ocean Spray Cranberry
products: Jellied Sauce, Whole Sauce, Cranberry Juice Cocktail and
Dietetic Cranberry as well as Fresh Cranberries in season make it
possible to enjoy the flavor of cranberries all year ’round.



    [Illustration: OUR HOME SINCE JULY, 1952]

           Main Building 1803    Addition and Renovation 1952
                   _Organized 1882—Federalized 1937_

For 75 years this financial institution has contributed to the community
welfare of Plymouth and vicinity. It has encouraged ... and made
possible, home ownership for many. It has extended a financial helping
hand to broaden the cultural, educational and social horizons of its
citizens. It is aiding many to acquire security and independence through
systematic saving. We welcome long term investment funds seeking sound
placement at better than average yield.

                   Each account insured up to $10,000

                        Plymouth Federal Savings
                          and Loan Association
                       COURT AND RUSSELL STREETS
                        PLYMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS



                  _Enjoy_ THIS TRIP ON A _Real Train_
                           EDAVILLE RAILROAD


    [Illustration: {map}]

  A PHOTOGRAPHERS PARADISE
  SANTA’S WORKSHOP
  MT. URAH
  STEEPEST GRADE
  PARKING AREA
  PARKING AREA FOR THOUSANDS OF CARS
  CRANBERRY JUNCTION
  PARKING AREA
  CRANBERRY BOG
  BERRIES ARE SCOOPED AT HARVEST TIME IN SEPTEMBER
  PINE WOODS
  PEACEDALE A MINIATURE NEW ENGLAND VILLAGE
  LARGE RESERVOIR NEEDED TO FLOOD CRANBERRY BOGS IN TIME OF FROST
  CRANBERRY COVE
  PLANTATION CENTER
  EDAVILLE FLOAT BOAT
  THRILLS THOUSANDS AS IT SKIMS ALONG THE FLOODED BOGS TO STIR UP LOOSE
          CRANBERRIES
  DROPPED BY PICKERS DURING HARVEST TIME. IT’S PROPELLED BY AN AIRPLANE
          ENGINE AND PROPELLER.
  SUNSET VISTA
  SAVERY AVENUE—SAID TO BE THE FIRST DIVIDED HIGHWAY IN THE U.S.
  ROUTE 58
  TO ROUTE 25 AND CAPE COD
  TO ROUTE 44 AND PROVIDENCE, R.I.
  AND HISTORICAL PLYMOUTH, MASS.
  WHISTLE POST TRAIN WHISTLE BLOWS TWICE IN MEMORY OF THE LATE ELLIS D.
          ATWOOD, FOUNDER OF “EDAVILLE R. R.”
  EDAVILLE GENERAL OFFICES
  EDAVILLE STATION AND SNACK BAR
  PRIVATE RECEPTION CAR
  KIDDIES’ PLAYGROUND
  STEAM LOCOMOTIVE ON DISPLAY
  TURN TABLE
  WATER TANK
  #100 STEAM LOCOMOTIVE ON DISPLAY
  ENGINE HOUSE
  GIFT SHOP
  REPAIR DEPOT
  BARBECUE AREA SERVING A DELICIOUS CHICKEN ’N CRANBERRY BARBECUE
  RAILROAD MUSEUM ANTIQUE CARS, GUNS & FIRE EQUIPMENT
  FIRE TRUCK RIDES
  ICE CREAM & TONIC CONCESSION
  BATH HOUSE
  SWIMMING POOL
  PICNIC AREA
  REST ROOMS
  RECREATION FIELD (DIFFERENT EVENTS SUCH AS HORSE PULLS ARE PUT ON
          HERE)
  CRANBERRY BOGS ONE OF THE LARGEST INDEPENDENTLY OWNED PLANTATIONS IN
          THE UNITED STATES
  P.S. GREENWOOD
  PLYMOUTH, MASS.

                                SCHEDULE
                            TRAINS RUN DAILY
                    April 6, 1957 thru Jan. 5, 1958
                   (Subject to Change Without Notice)

                        _All Main Highways from
                      Boston and Cape Cod lead to_
                           EDAVILLE RAILROAD
                     RT. 58 • SOUTH CARVER • MASS.



                                CONTENTS


                      Exclusive Detailed Guide Map
         Location and Description of Historic Places Including:


—Plymouth Rock

—Pilgrim Hall

—Howland House

—Antiquarian House

—Burial Hill

—Cole’s Hill

—Town Square

—National Monument to the Forefathers

—Old Fort

—Pilgrim Progress

—Pilgrim Maiden

—The Compact

—List of Mayflower Passengers

—Town Square and Churches

—Brief Chronicle of the Pilgrims


And all else of interest.

                              ILLUSTRATED

    [Illustration: Cover image]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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