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Title: An Essay on the State of England - In Relation to its Trade, its Poor, and its Taxes, for - Carrying on the Present War against France
Author: Cary, John
Language: English
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Project ID: COALESCE/2017/117 (Irish Research Council)



AN
ESSAY
ON THE
STATE
OF
ENGLAND,
In Relation to its
TRADE,
Its Poor, and its Taxes
For carrying on the present War
against FRANCE.


By JOHN CARY, Merchant
in Bristoll.


BRISTOLL:

Printed by W. Bonny, for the Author, and are to be sold in London by Sam.
Crouch, at the Corner of Popes Head-Alley in Cornhill, and Tim. Goodwin,
at the Queen's Head, near the Temple; also by Tho. Wall, and Rich.
Gravett, near the Tolzey, in Bristoll, Novem. 1695.



TO THE
KING's
Most Excellent
MAJESTY.


May it please Your Majesty,

IT is not a Desire to appear in Print hath made me to write, or a fond
Opinion of what I have written, to affix Your Great Name to these Papers,
but a true Affection to my _Native Country_, and the Cause Your Majesty
is now engag'd in; A War, on whose good Success depends the Security of
Religion, Liberty, and Property, both to Your own Subjects, and likewise
to all the _Protestant_ Interest in _Europe_; A War, as it is absolutely
necessary, and must be carried on with Vigour, so it is like to be long
and chargeable, and so much longer, as we abate in Our Vigorous
Prosecution; A War, which may strain the _Nerves_ and _Sinews_ of our
Treasure before it be ended, and therefore as in _Martial Discipline_
great Wisdom must be used to secure those Posts where the Enemy bends
most of his Forces, so here 'tis Prudence to strengthen our Treasure, by
advancing and securing our _Trade_ which must bring it in; If this was
done, Taxes would be easily paid, and little felt, and without it this
_Nation_ will at last become Bankrupt, when its Expences exceed its
Profits.

The Foundations of the Wealth of this Kingdom are, _Land_,
_Manufactures_, and _Foreign Trade_, these are its Pillars, which ought
not to be overshaken, they have hitherto borne the Burthen, and felt the
Smart of the War, and 'tis time now they should slide their _Necks_ out
of the _Collar_, other ways may be found out to raise a greater Summ
annually than Your Majesty's Occasions will require, without Four
Shillings _per_ Pound on the first, Excises on the second, or a Tunnage
Bill on Ships on the last, an Act which lighted heavy on the Merchant,
and left no room to consider whither he gained or lost by the Voyage, or
whither the Ship returned home full or empty.

The Methods for Raising Money must be easie, when the annual necessary
Summs are to be so great, therefore it would be Policy in our Law-makers
to make use of those which may least hurt any part of our Vitals, such as
_Land_ and _Trade_ are; I mean that part of _Trade_ which is useful to
the Publick God, not that which is managed only for private Men's
Advantage; it may be possible to rate the Trader, and yet to spare the
_Trade_.

There are two things which seem to be of great Importance to this
_Nation_, and very necessary to be look'd into.

First, The better securing our _Plantation Trade_, so as it may more
absolutely depend on this Kingdom than it hath hitherto done; this will
not only encourage our _Navigation_, when all their Product shall be
imported hither, but also much advance Your Majesty's Revenues, when such
quantities of Tobacco shall not be carried thence directly to foreign
Markets; to prevent which, and secure Your Majesty's Duties when
Imported, plain and practicable Methods may be proposed; and the
Consequence thereof would be, that this Kingdom being the Mistress of
that Commodity, Your Majesty's Coffers would be filled, not only from its
Home Expence, but also by a Tribute raised from Foreign Nations, where it
would very much lie in Your Majesty's Power to set its Price; I do not
think new Imposts upon the Importer will so much advance Your Majesty's
Revenue as they will discourage the Merchant, 'twould be better to take
away those already laid, and instead thereof to raise a far greater Summ
on the Consumer, which may be done without the Clog or Oppression of
Officers, in such a manner, that it shall scarce be felt, either by the
Retailer or Spender.

The next thing is the securing our Wool at Home, and making this a Market
for all the Wool of _Christendom_, whereby _England_ would soon become
the Queen of _Europe_, and flourishing in its _Manufactures_ grow Rich by
the Labour of its People, and consequently might better afford to import
Commodities to be spent on _Luxury_; I take it to be one great Reason why
the Kingdom of _Spain_ still continues poor notwithstanding its _Indies_,
because all that the Inhabitants buy is purchased for its full Value in
_Treasure_ or _Product_, their Labour adding nothing to its Wealth, for
want of _Manufactures_; I am apt to think greater Steps may be made in
this than have hitherto been done, and our Wool may be kept at home, not
by punishing the Exporter with Death, but by apt Methods to prevent his
doing it; and when a Lock is put on _Ireland_ and _Rumny-Marsh_, Foreign
Countrys will more easily be prevailed on to send us theirs.

These things seem worth the Consideration of the ensuing _Parliament_, a
great many Members of the last to my certain Knowledge began to be much
in Love with _Trade_, and have often lamented the dark Notions That
_House_ had of it, for want of being put into a better Light by those who
ought to have represented it truly to them.

Which hath been a great Inducement to me in the writing this _Tract_,
that I might set forth the Interest of _England_ in Relation to its
Domestick and Foreign Traffick, and how both may be better improved to
the Advantage of the Nation.

King _Solomon_, who was pleased to encourage _Trade_ in his Dominions by
his Royal Example, soon found it to be the weightiest Jewel in his
Dyadem, bringing him in more Treasure from abroad, than all the Tribute
he received from _Judea_; The _Trade_ of this Kingdom hath always been a
profitable Ornament to the Crowns of Your Royal Predecessors, Kings and
Queens of this Realm, and it may be still so to Your Majesty's, if the
Causes of its languishing were inquired into, and apt Methods applyed for
its Recovery.

That it may please God to make this Nation happy, by giving Your Majesty
a long Life, crown'd with Victories over the Enemies of its Peace and
Tranquility, is the Prayer of

    Your Majesty's most Faithful,
        And most Obedient Subject,
            John Cary.



TO THE
HONOURABLE
THE
Commons of England
IN
Parliament Assembled.


May it please Your Honours,

IT is the greatest Happiness of the People of _England_ that the Laws by
which they are govern'd cannot be made without the Consent of their
_Representatives_, who as they obtain good Ones from the Favour of their
Prince, so 'tis their own fault if they pass such as are bad.

Amongst all our Laws none tend more to the promoting the Wealth of this
Nation than those which advance its _Trade_ and _Manufactures_, by the
latter we not only imploy our Poor, and so take off that Burthen which
must otherwise lie heavy on our _Lands_, but also grow Rich in our
Commerce with Foreign Nations, to whom we thereby sell our _Product_ at
greater Prices than it would otherwise yield, and return them their own
Materials when wrought up here, and encreased in their Value by the
Labour of our People.

This little _Tract_ I humbly offer to this _Honourable House_, not to
direct, but with all Humility to lay before Your Honours an Anatomy of
the _Trade_ of _England_, dissected and laid open so as to discover its
Vitals, which have seemed to be struck through by some late Acts.

Whatever doth Prejudice to our _Manufactures_, or burthens our Foreign
_Trade_ above what it is well able to bear, stabs them to the Heart, and
where _Taxes_ are thus laid, they disable the _Subject_, and consequently
are so much more burthensome as they make him less able to pay them; But
when our _Manufactures_ are encouraged, and our Foreign _Trade_ made
easie, and well secured, the Lands of _England_ will be advanced, and
_Taxes_ paid without Discontent, because they will scarce be felt,
especially when equally laid; and in such a Manner, that every Man shall
pay his Proportion in a Regular way.

If what I have written may be serviceable to this _Honourable House_, I
shall think my Time and Labour well imployed.

That God will direct your Councels, to the Advancement of his Glory, and
the Welfare of this Nation, shall ever be the Prayer of

    Your Honours most truly
        Devoted Servant,
            John Cary.



THE
PREFACE
TO THE
READER.


THE following Treatise was the Imployment of some leisure Hours which I
thought could not be better spent, than in digesting so copious a Subject
as Trade is, I am sure could be no way more advantageously imployed to
the Nation's Interest, than by proposing Methods for its Improvement; I
have herein considered the State of England in respect to its Trade, its
Poor, and its Taxes for carrying on the present War: The first I have
divided into the Inland and Outland Trade; the Inland into three parts,
viz. Buying and Selling, Husbandry, and Manufactures; Under the former
Head I have comprehended all those Imployments whereby Men get by one
another, without making any Addition to the Wealth of the Nation in
general: Husbandry I have divided into Pasture and Tillage, and have been
the longer thereon to shew from how small Foundations the Primums or
Principles of all our Trade are derived; which indeed is wonderful, when
we consider that the Lands of England according to the Act of Four
Shillings in the Pound cannot come to above Eight Millions Five Hundred
Thousand Pounds sterling per annum, that whole Tax with Personal Estates
amounting to Nineteen Hundred and Seventy Thousand Pounds, whereof I
compute about Two Hundred and Seventy Thousand Pounds to be raised on
Personal Estates, so the Remainer is Seventeen Hundred thousand Pounds,
which being the fifth part of the whole (if that Tax were equally and
justly laid) the Computation is rightly made; but suppose they are worth
Thirteen Millions per annum, 'tis a very small Summ if compared with the
vast Expences of this Nation, which, with the Charges of carrying on the
War, maintaining the Civil List, and the Profits laid up by particular
Men, cannot be less than One Hundred Millions per annum, the rest is
raised by Manufactures, Trade, and Labour; the first of which (though the
third in my Division) is the most profitable part of our Inland Trade,
being That whereby our Product is advanced in its value, and made fit
both for our own use, and also for Foreign Markets; from whence are again
Imported hither sundry other Materials, the Foundations of Manufactures
different in their Natures from our own; these I have handled under
several Heads, and likewise shew'd by what Methods they may be improved,
and so have closed the Inland Trade: Before I enter'd on the Outland, I
have consider'd Navigation as the Medium between both, and given my
Thoughts how some Evils that attend and discourage it may be removed; I
have then proceeded to our Foreign Traffick, or the Trade we drive with
other Nations, which I have spoken to under several Heads, viz.
East-Indies, West-Indies and Africa, Maderas, Ireland, Scotland,
Canaries, Spain, Portugal, Turky, Italy, Holland, Hamburgh, Poland,
Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and France, and have endeavour'd to shew
how we get or lose by each, and by what Methods they may be improved, and
made more advantageous to this Kingdom.

As to the second part of this Discourse, the Poor, I have shewed how this
Habit of Laziness and Begging first crept in amongst us, how it may be
prevented from spreading farther, how Imployments may be provided for
those who are willing to work, and a force put on those that are able,
and how the Impotent Poor may be maintained, and those whose Labour will
not support their Charge assisted.

In the last place, I have proposed general Rules for raising of Taxes to
carry on the present War, and better Husbanding the Money when raised,
wherein I have rather aimed to shew that these things may be done, than
published Methods for doing them, which (because they would swell this
Discourse above it designed Brevity) are omitted here, as being more
proper to be laid before a Committee of Parliament.



AN
ESSAY
ON
TRADE, &c.

[Sidenote: Trade in general.]

THE general Notions of a _National Trade_ whereby it may be Discovered
whither a Kingdom Gets or Looses by its Managment are things well worth
our Consideration. It being possible for a Nation to grow Poor in the
Main whilst private Persons encrease their Fortunes: For as in the Body
Natural, if you draw out Blood faster then the Sangufying parts can
suply, it must necessarily wast and decay. So where the Exports of a
Nation in Product and Manufactures are outballanced by Imports fit only
to be consumed at home, though one Man may get by the Luxury of another;
the Wealth of that Nation must decay, all one as a private Person whose
Expences exceeds his Incomes, though he may for some time live on the
Main, yet in the end he must fall to ruin.

The Profits of _England_ arise Originally from its Product and
Manufactures at home, and from the grouths of those several _Plantations_
it hath setled Abroad, and from the _Fish_ taken on the _Coasts_, all
which being Raised by the Industry of its _Inhabitants_ are both its true
Riches, and likewise the Tools whereon it Trades to other Nations, the
Products coming from the Earth, and the Manufacturing them being an
Addition to their value by the Labour of the People. Now where we Barter
these Abroad only for things to be Eat and Drank, or wasted among our
selves, this doth not Increase our Wealth, but it is otherwise where we
change them for _Bulloin_, or _Commodities_ fit to be Mannufactured again.

[Sidenote: Its Original.]

The first Original of _Trade_ both _Domestick_ and _Forreign_ was
_Barter_; when one private Person having an Overplus of what his
Neighbour wanted, furnished him for its Value in such Commodities the
other had, and he stood in need of. The same when one Nation abounding in
those Products another wanted supply'd it therewith, and received thence
things equally necessary in their Roomes, and by how much those Products
exceeded the Expence, so much both the one and the other grew Richer, the
remainder being sold for _Bulloin_, or some _Staple Commodities_ allowed
by all to have the same Intrinsick Value. And as People increased so did
Commerce, this caused many to go off from _Husbandry_ to _Manufactures_
and other ways of living, for Convenience whereof they began Communities,
this was the Original of Towns, which being found necessary for _Trade_,
their _Inhabitants_ were increased by expectation of Profit; this
introduced _Forreign Trade_, or _Traffick_ with Neighbouring Nations;
this _Navigation_, and this a desire to settle rather on some _Navigable
Rivers_, then in remote Inland Places, whereby they might be more easily
supply'd with Commodities from the _Country_, and disperse those they
Imported from abroad.

[Sidenote: The Trade of England.]

I shall now take the _Trade_ of _England_ as 'tis divided into
_Domestick_ and _Forreign_, and consider each, and how they are
Advantagious to the _Nation_, and may be made more so.

[Sidenote: Inland Trade.]
[Sidenote: Buying & Selling.]

The _Inland Trade_ of _England_ consists either in Husbandry,
Manufactures, or Buying and Selling, the last of which is of least
Advantage to the Nation, and rather to be allowed for Conveniency then
encouraged, whereby one Man lives on the Profits he makes by another
without any Improvement to the Publick, Peoples Occasions requiring
Commodities to be Retailed to them by such small parcels as would fit
their Necessities, they were willing to give a profit to him who bought
them in greater. And as this way of _Trade_ came more in use, so the
first Buyer not only sold his Commodities to the Consumer at home, but
also dispersed them amongst those who were seated in the Country at a
distance in order to supply the Inhabitants there, who allowed them a
profit on what they bought; this begat the Ingrosing of Commodities, and
thence came in skill and cunning to foresee their Rise and Falls
according to their Consumption and prospect of supply; hence came the
vitiating our Manufactures, every one endeavouring to under buy that he
might under sell his Neighbour; which way of living being found in time
to have less of Labour and more of Profit than Husbandry and
Manufactures, was the occasion so many fell into it. From these Bargains
Differences arising encreased another sort of People which were thought
useful, whose business was either by their Wisdoms to persuade, or by
their Knowledge in the Laws to force the unjust Person to do right to his
fellow Trader, an Honourable imployment at first, and is still so in
those who keep to the strict Rules of its Institution, which Differencies
being to be Decided in the _Courts_ of _Justice_ (at first setled in
_Westminster-Hall_, and afterwards for the Subjects ease carried into the
_Country_ by Itinerent _Judges_) these _Orators_ were desired by the
Complainants to present their Suites to the King in those _Courts_, to be
heard and determined by his _Judges_, and to set forth the Case of the
_Plantiff_, and Produce Evidence to prove the Truth thereof against the
_Defendant_, who also appeared by another to make his Defence. But as
Suites increased, it was thought necessary to confine all to one Method
of Proceeding, which was called _The Practice of the Court_, therefore
another sort of People called _Attorneys_ were appointed to observe that
Mechanical part of the _Law_, and see that all was Regularly and Formally
managed; hence arose _Sollicitors_, who were to attend both, as well to
represent the Matter rightly to the _Orator_ or _Council_, as to see the
_Attorney_ fit things for a hearing, and also to Reward them for their
pains, so that this Produced another way of living seperate from
Husbandry and Manufactures: And as Trade increased so _Courts_ of
_Justice_ were Appointed in several great _Towns_ and _Cities_, which
being of different Natures, Multitudes of People gave Attendance,
expecting to get livelihoods by them.

Trade brought Riches, and Riches Luxury, Luxury Sickness, Sickness wanted
Physick, and Physick required some to seperate themselves to Study the
Natures of _Plants_ and _Simples_, as also those several Diseases which
bring Men to their ends, who in requital for their Advise and Medicines
received Gratuities from their _Patients_: These brought in
_Apothecaries_ and _Chirurgeons_ as necessary Attendants to their
Imployments, all which were maintained by preserving People in their
Healths; many also of ripe Parts were fitted for the Service of the
Church, others of the State; great numbers were Imployed in providing
Necessaries of Meat Drink and Apparel both for themselves and other
People, such as _Butchers_, _Bakers_, _Brewers_, _Taylors_, &c. Others to
fit things for their Pleasures and Delights, and by this means leaving
Husbandry and Manufactures flockt off daily to Livelihoods which may seem
to come under the third Head, who though useful and convenient in their
respective Stations, yet these Men cannot be said to Augment the Riches
of the Nation, only live by getting from one another, those two being the
profitable Imployments out of whose Product and Improvement it gathers
its Wealth.

[Sidenote: Husbandry.]

The next part of the _Inland Trade_ of this Kingdom is Husbandry, which
Anteceded Buying and Selling in point of time, though the other hath the
Precedence in this Discourse, and this consists either in _Feeding_ or
_Tillage_, by both which we raise great Store of Cattle, Corn, and
Fruits, fit for the Food, Service, and Trade of the Inhabitants.

[Sidenote: Feeding.]

To begin with _Feeding_; and here it would be endless to enumerate the
various sorts of Cattle raised and bred by the care of the _Husbandman_,
but those of most Note as they have relation to our Trade, are

I. The _Beef_; which as it Transcends the whole World in the goodness of
its Flesh, so it affords many Necessaries for our use and Trade, besides
its Service in _Tillage_, with this we both nourish our Inhabitants at
home, Victual our Ships for Forreign Voyages, and load them with the
several Manufactures wherewith it doth supply us, from the Milk we make
Butter and Cheese, from the Flesh Beef, from the Skin Leather, from the
Fat Tallow, and of the Horns several usefull Necessaries, of all which
the overplus above our home Consumption we Transport and sell in Forreign
Markets.

II. The _Sheep_; whose Golden Fleece being the _Primum_ of our Wollen
Manufactures does thereby Imploy Multitudes of our People, which being of
different lengths and finenesses, makes them of different sorts, whereof
they afford us a yearly Crop whilst living, and at their Deaths Bequeath
us their Flesh and Skins, the first serves for our Food, and the latter
we make fit to be used at home, and Traded with Abroad.

III. _Horses_; whose Labour is so necessary that we could neither carry
on our Husbandry or Trade without them, besides their fitness for War,
being the boldest in the World, and for all these uses are Transported
abroad, for the former to our _Plantations_ in the _West Indies_, for the
latter to some of our Neighbouring Nations; but their Flesh is of no use,
their Skins of little, the Leather made thereof is very ordinary, only
the longest of their Hair is used in _Weaving_.

There are many other sorts of Beasts, some whereof require no care in
raising, others little, others are more tender, such are the _Stag_, the
_Dear_, the _Rabbit_, the _Hare_, the _Fox_, the _Badger_, the _Goat_,
whose Skins are necessary for our Trade, and assist in our Manufactures.

[Sidenote: Tillage.]

_Agriculture_ is that whereby we raise our Corn by turning up the Earth,
the several sorts whereof are _Wheat_, _Rye_, _Barly_, _Pease_, _Beans_,
_Fetches_, _Oats_, which not only afford nourishment to our selves and
the Beasts we use in labour, but serve for Trade, as they give Imployment
to our People at home, and are Transported abroad more or less according
to the overplus of onr expence, and the want of our Neighbours, besides
the great Quantities used in our Navigation.

These Products of both sorts are clear profit to the Nation as they are
raised from Earth and Labour, whose Advantages arise chiefly from their
being Exported either in their own kind or when Manufactered, the
Remainder spent at Home tending only to supplying the use, not advancing
the Wealth of the Nation; now these Exports being according to the Rates
and Prizes they bear in other Countries, and those Rates arising from the
Proportion their Lands hold with ours in their Yearly Rents, are not so
great in specie as when workt up, Butter is the greatest, wherewith we
supply many Forreign Markets, and did formerly more, till by making it
bad and using Tricks to increase its weight, we have much lost that
Trade, and are now almost beat out of it by _Ireland_, which every day
makes better as we make worse, besides they undersell us in the Price, as
they do also in _Beef_, occasioned by the low Rents of their Lands, and
more especially by the _Act of Prohibition_, which put that Nation on
finding out a Trade in Forreign Markets for what they were denyed to
bring hither, which being Exported thence direct yeilds them greater
profit, the sweetness whereof hath encouraged them to take more care, and
this hath raised them from a Sloathful to be an Industrious People. As
for Corn, Forreign Markets are supplyed therewith both from thence and
other places in the Sound, also from the Western _Islands_, cheaper then
the price of our Lands will admit. But our _Plantations_ have still some
Dependance on us for our Product, and would more if that _Act_ was
removed, and _Ireland_ made a _Colony_ on the same Terms with them.

The other _Fruits_ of the Earth, as _Apples_, _Pears_, _Cherries_,
_Plumbs_, together with the _Herbs_ and _Plants_, also the _Fowls_ and
_Fish_ taken in this Land, serve rather for our Delight and Food than
Trade. Some _Cider_ we do Export, also Spirits raised by the _Distiller_
both from some of these, and also from many other things.

[Sidenote: Fish.]

On the _Sea Coasts_ we catch great Quantities of _Herrings_ and
_Pilchards_, which we save, and sell in Forreign Markets.

[Sidenote: Minerals.]

Nor is this all the Product of our Earth, whose Womb being big with
Treasure longs to be Delivered, and after many Throws brings forth
_Lead_, _Tin_, _Copper_, _Calamy_, _Coal_, _Culm_, _Iron_, _Allom_,
_Copperas_, and sundry other _Minerals_, which return us great Treasure
from Forreign Markets whither they are Exported; besides the several
_Shrubs_ and _Trees_ that adorn our Fields, among which the _Oak_, the
_Ash_, and the _Elm_, are the chiefest, these not only serve in Building
our Sips, but do also furnish us with Materials wherewith our _Arificers_
make many things fit for Forregn Commerce, and it were much to be wisht
better care were taken for preserving Timber, lest out Posterities want
what we so Prodigally squander away.

[Sidenote: Manufactures.]

The next thing is our Manufactures, whereby we Improve the value of our
Products by the Labour of our Inhabitants, and make them useful in sundry
manners both for our selves and others, fitting them for such Services as
of their own Natures without the help of Art they would not have been
proper, and those to suit the Necessities and Humours both of our own and
Foreign Countries to which we Export them, where they yield a price not
only according to the true value of the Materials and Labour, but an
overplus likewise suitable to the Necessity and Fancy of the Buyer, and
this adds to the profit of the Nation, and increases its Wealth.

These Manufactures as they Imploy Multitudes of People in their making,
so also in Transporting them, and fetching several Forreign Materials
used with our own, such as _Oyl_, _Dye-stuffe_, _Silk_, _Wool_, _Cotten_,
_Barrilia_, and many others, which are either Manufactured here of
themselves, or wrought up with our Product.

[Sidenote: Sheeps Wool.]

And first to begin with _Sheeps Wool_, whereof either by it self or mixt
with _Silk_ or _Linnen_ we make various sorts of pretty things fit for
all Climates, and proper for the wearing of both Sexes, wherein the
Invention and Imitation of our Workmen is so great that they have no
_Idea_ represented or _Pattern_ set before them that is not soon out
done; from a strong heavy Cloath fit to keep out cold in Winter they turn
their Hands to a fine thin sort which will scarse keep warm in Summer,
_Ladies_ may now wear Gowns thereof so light that they can hardly know
they have them on; from hence they fell on _Perpets_, _Serges_, _Crapes_,
_Stuffs_, _Says_, _Rattoons_, _Gauzes_, _Anthrines_, and many other sorts
fit both for outward Garments and inward Linings, of various Colors
Stripes and Flowers, some of them so fine and pleasant scarse to be known
from _Silk_; besides those multitudes of courser Clothes for the Poor,
also _Rugs_, _Blankets_, and all Furniture for Houses, and such a
Progress have they made in this sort of Manufactures, that a Man may have
his Picture wrought in _Tapestry_ with the same exactness both for Life
and Colors as if drawn with a curious Pencil; for this I refer the Reader
to those _Hangings_ at the _Custom-House_ in _London_, where he may see
the several Officers so lively represented in their Stations, that want
of Motion seems to be the only thing which differs them from their
Originals; One Workman endeavouring to exceed another they make things to
answer all the ends of _Silks_, _Calicoes_, and _Linnen_, of bare Sheeps
Wool, which if they were by Fashion brought into wearing would then be
thought as handsom; fine _Flannel_ for Shirts; white _Crape_ for
Neckclothes, Cuffs, and Head-Dresses; besides the pretty Laces, whereof
we see various sorts used about the Dead; and _Caduce_ of several Colours
in imitation of _Ribbons_; also Hats, Stockings, and many such things are
made of _Wool_ and other Mixtures, both worn at home and Exported abroad.

[Sidenote: Cotton Wool.]

The next Material for our Manufactures is _Cotton-Wool_, which is now
become a great Imployment for the Poor, and so adds to the Wealth of the
Nation; this being curiously pickt and spun makes _Dimities_, _Tapes_,
_Stockings_, _Gloves_, besides several things wove fit for use, as
_Petticoats_, _wastcoats_, and _Drawers_, of different Fancies and
Stripes, and I doubt not our Workmen would exceed the _East Indies_ for
_Calicoes_ had they Incouragment; with all which we supply Forreign
Markets besides the Consumption at home.

[Sidenote: Hemp and Flax.]

_Hemp_ and _Flax_ are the Grounds for another Manufacture, for though
Weaving of _Linnen_ is not so much used here as of _Woollen_, yet several
_Counties_ are maintained thereby, who not only supply themselves, but
furnish those Bordering on them with such Cloth as answers the ends of
_French Linnens_, besides which great Quantities of _Ticking_ of all
finenesses, _Incle_, _Tapes_, _Sacking_, _Girtwhip_, are daily made
thereof, also _Cordage_, _Twine_, _Nets_, with multitudes of other
Manufactures which Imploy the Poor, and bring by their Exports Profit to
the Nation.

[Sidenote: Glass.]

_Glass_ is a Manufacture, lately fallen on here, and in a short time
brought to a great Perfection, which keeps many at work, the _Materials_
whereof its made being generally our own and in themselves of small value
costs the Nation little in Comparison of what it formerly did when fetcht
from _Venice_; those noble _Plate Glases_ of all sizes both for Coaches
and Houses are things of great Ornament, and much used, which also shew
forth the _Genius_ of the _English_ People; and for common uses what
various sorts of Utensils are made of Flint fit for all the occasions of
a Family, which look as well as _Silver_, and 'twould be better for the
Nation they were more used in its stead; besides the ordinary _Glass_ for
Windows, and also _Glass Bottles_; all which find a greater expence both
at home and abroad by their cheapness.

[Sidenote: Earthen Wares.]

And as for Earthen Ware, though the Progress we have made therein is not
suitable to the other, yet it hath been such as may give us cause to hope
that time and Industry will bring it to a perfection equal if not to
exceed the _Dutch_.

[Sidenote: Silk.]

_Silk_ is another Material for a great Manufacture, which being brought
from abroad Raw we here twist, dye, and weave into different goodness,
both plain, stript, and flowered, either by it self, or mix'd with Gold
and Silver, so richly brocadoed that we exceed those from whom at first
we had the Art; besides great Quantities of _Ribbons_, _Silk Stockings_,
and other things daily made not only to serve our selves but also to
Export.

[Sidenote: Distilling.]

_Distilling_ is an _Art_ so exceedingly Improved in a few Years that had
it not met with Discouraging _Laws_ 'twould by this time have attained to
a great height; this brings great profit to the Nation, for next to that
of making something out of nothing is the making somthing of what is
worth nothing, therefore this Art ought to have been Handled very
chearily, to have been trained up with a great deal of gentleness, and
not loaden with _Taxes_ in its Infancy, like the _Hen_ in the _Fable_, we
had not Patience to expect its Treasure as Time and Nature could produce
it, but by our Avarice were like to discourage it in the beginning,
however it hath still bore up under all the weight laid upon it. 'Twas a
great mistake to appoint Measures by _Act of Parliament_ to the
_Distillers_ in their workings, Mens knowledge increases by Observation,
and this is the reason why one Age exceeds another in any sort of
_Mistery_, because they improve the Notions of their Predecessors,
therefore confining _Distilling_ only to Corn was an Error, 'tis true
other things were allowed to be used, but on such Terms and Restrictions
as were next to a Prohibition, had the makers of that _Law_ then
Prohibited _Coffee_ and _Tea_ to be drank in _Publick_ _Houses_ it might
more probably have answered their ends in advancing the price of _Barly_
by a greater consumption of _Ale_, and by degrees the _Distillers_ would
have fallen on that Commodity themselves, using it with other mixtures,
and thereby drawing from it a cleaner Spirit then it doth afford of it
self, which they might in time have Rectified to such a fineness as to
have increased very much its use. No Nation can give more incouragement
to the Mistery of _Distilling_ then _England_, whose Plantations being
many and well Peopled where those Spirits are so necessary and useful for
the Inhabitants, and these depending wholly on us for all things, might
have been supplied with them hence only, besides the great Quantities
used in our Navigation, therefore a total Prohibition of their
Importation from other Nations (who make them generally of such things
which are else of little value) would be very convenient: We have many
Materials of our own Product to work on, such as are _Melasses_, _Cyder_,
_Perry_, Barly, &c. all which in time they would have used, for as the
_Distillers_ found their sales increased they would have made new
_Essays_: It was a great discouragement both to them, and also to the
_Sugar Bakers_ and _Brewers_, to hinder Distilling on _Mellasses_,
_Scum_, _Tilts_, and _Wash_, a fault the _Dutch_ nor no Trading Nation
besides our selves would have been guilty of, and proceeded from ill
Advice given that _Parliament_ by those who under pretence of advancing
Corn designed to discourage _Distilling_, only took it by that handle
they thought would be best received in the House, which being generally
made up of _Gentlemen_ unskilful in Trade lookt no deeper into it than as
it answered that plausible pretence; whereas were Trading _Cities_ and
_Towns_ more careful in chusing Men well Verst in _Trade_ in 'twould be
much better for the Nation: I cannot omit what a worthy _Member_ of the
_House_ once told me in private Discourse, says he, I have always
observed that when we have meddled with Trade we have left it worse than
we found it, which proceeds from want of more Traders in the House, the
places we depend on for them sending such Members as are able to give us
but little Information, and so partial that we can take no true measures
of them; The truth is great Cities are to blame in this, who ought to
think none so fit to represent them in Parliament as those who have their
Heads fill'd with good Notions of Trade, such who can speak well to it,
and be heard when they speak; Trade and Land go Hand in Hand as to their
Interest, if one flourish, so will the other, encourage _Distilling_, and
it will spend Hundreds of things now thrown away.

[Sidenote: Sugar-baking.]

Refining of _Sugars_ hath given Employment to our People, and added to
their value in Foreign Parts, where we found great Sales, till the
_Dutch_ and _French_ beat us out, and this was much to be attributed to
the Duty of Two Shillings and Four Pence _per Cent_ lately laid on
_Muscovado_ Sugars, whereby they were wrought up abroad above Twelve _per
Cent_ cheaper than at home, and though that Law is now expired, yet 'tis
harder to regain a Trade when lost, than keep it when we have it.

[Sidenote: Tobacco.]

_Tobacco_ also hath employed our Poor by Cutting and Rowling it, both for
a home Consumption, and also for Exportation, the latter we decay in
every Year, but Methods may be offered in Parliament to render those two
Manufactures of _Sugar_ and _Tobacco_ more advantageous to the Nation
than ever hitherto they have been.

[Sidenote: Tanning.]

_Tanning_ of _Leather_ is an Employment which ought to be encouraged, as
it furnishes us with a Commodity fit to be manufactured at home, and also
to be transported into Foreign Countrys; I know the Exportation of
_Leather_ hath been much opposed by the _Shooe-makers_ and others who cut
it at home, and represented as attended with ill Consequences, one
whereof is the making it dear here, but would it not be of much worse to
confine and limit that Employment to an _Inland_ Expence, on the other
side would it not naturally follow that when _Leather_ rises to a great
Price the Exportation must cease because _Ireland_ would under-sell us,
and would it not seem an unreasonable Discouragement to Trade if
_Tobacco_, _Sugar_, and Woollen Manufactures were debarred from
Exportation only because they should be sold cheaper here; for suppose
the occasions of the Nation could not consume all the _Leather_ that is
made, to what a low price must _Hides_ be reduced, for no other reason
but that the _Shooemakers_ may get more by their _Shooes_? 'Tis true, if
they could make out that those Countrys must then have their _Shooes_
from us who now have their _Leather_, I should be of their Minds, but it
must needs have a quite contrary effect, especially whilst Ireland is
able to supply them: This proceeds from a very narrow Spirit, and such as
ought not to be encouraged in a Trading Nation; _Ireland_ hath already
made great Progress in this Mistery, occasioned by our Imprudence, and
should we give Encouragement to other Countrys we might too late repent
it. A good Export for _Leather_ would cause a great Import of _Raw
Hides_, which would be more Advantage to the Nation than if they were
tann'd in _Ireland_, and sent abroad thence.

[Sidenote: Iron.]

Nor can I omit _Iron_, which is the great foundation of sundry
Manufactures, not only used at home, but wherewith we supply our
Plantations and other Places abroad, as _Howes_, _Bills_, _Axes_,
_Cases_, _Locks_, _Nailes_, and a thousand such Necessaries, the
Workmanship whereof adds much to their Value.

[Sidenote: Clockwork.]

There are many other things which may be and are daily improved amongst
us; as _Clockwork_, wherein we sell nothing but Art and Labour, the
Materials thereof being of small value; I have seen _Watches_ and
_Clocks_ of great Prizes made for the Courts of Foreign Princes.

[Sidenote: Paper-Mills.]
[Sidenote: Powder-Mills.]
[Sidenote: Artificers.]
[Sidenote: Methods to improve our Manufactures.]

_Paper-Mills_ are a Benefit to the Nation, as they make that Commodity
from things of themselves worth little; so are are _Powder-Mills_; also
Artificers, who bring advantage to the Nation by supplying it with things
which must otherwise be had from abroad for its own use, as also with
others proper to be sent thither for Sales, and when Exported are more or
less profitable as the labour of the Subject adds to their value; In like
manner things are cheaper to us when we pay only for the first Materials
whereof they are made, the rest being work done at home is divided
amongst our selves, so that on the whole it appears to be the great
Interest of _England_ to advance its Manufactures, and this I humbly
conceive may be done these several ways.

[Sidenote: By imploying the Poor.]

1. By providing Work-houses for the Poor, and making good Laws both to
force and encourage them to work; but designing to speak larger to this
before I close this Tract shall referr the Reader to it.

[Sidenote: By freeing the Manufactures from Customs.]

2. By discharging all Customs payable on them at their Exportation, and
also on the Materials used in making them at their Importation; for as
the one would encourage the Merchant to send more abroad, so the other
would enable the Manufacturers to afford them cheaper at home, and 'tis
strange that a Nation whose Wealth depends on Manufactures, and whose
Interest it is to outdo all others (especially in the Woollen) by
underselling them in Foreign Markets, should load either with Taxes.

[Sidenote: Logwood.]
[Sidenote: Dying and dressing our Woollen Manufactures at home.]

Here I cannot but mention that of _Logwood_, a Commodity much used in
_Dying_, which pays Five Pounds _per Tun_ Custom in, and draws back Three
Pounds Fifteen Shillings when shipt out, by which means the _Dyers_ in
_Holland_ use it so much cheaper than ours; now if it was Imported Custom
Free, and paid Twenty five Shillings _per Tun_ at its Export, the _Dyers_
there would use it so much dearer than ours here, and I think it would be
well worth Inquiry, whither a Prohibition either total or in part of
Shipping out our Manufactures thither and to the Northern Kingdoms undyed
or undrest might not be made, I am sure it would be of great Advantage to
this Kingdom if it might be done without running into greater
Inconveniencies, which for my part I do not foresee, the _Dutch_
discourage their being brought in dyed or drest, that they may thereby
give Employments to their own People, and increase their Navigation by
the consumption of great quantities of Dye-stuff, and the same reasons
should prevail with us to dye and dress them here, But this deserves the
consideration of a Committee of Parliament to hear what may be said both
for and against it.

[Sidenote: By not importing things manufactur'd.]

3. By discouraging the Importation of Commodities already manufactured
either from our own Plantations or other Places, such as clay'd and
refined _Sugars_, wrought _Silks_, _Calicoes_, _Brandy_, _Glass_,
_Earthen Ware_, _Irish Frizes_, _Tann'd Leather_, _Gloves_, _Lace_, &c.
and instead thereof we should encourage bringing in the Materials whereof
they are made, to be wrought up here; this may be done by Laws, and also
by being in love with our Home Manufactures, and bringing their Wearing
into Fashion.

[Sidenote: By freeing the Manufactures from Excises.]

4. By freeing the Manufactures from burthensome Excises, which do much
discourage small Stocks, who are not able to carry on their Trades and
make Provision for such great Payments; the _Distillers_ have long
groaned under them, and I fear the _Glass-makers_ now will, especially
those in and about _London_, who have another load by the Duty of Coals,
besides the Swarms of Officers to which we lay open the Houses of those
Men who deserve all the Encouragement we can give them, and ought to have
things made as easie to them as may be; had the like Methods been used to
our Wollen and Leather (as was intended) we might have repented it at
Leisure; Taxes when laid on our Manufactures ought to be raised by such
easie Methods as shall give least trouble to the Makers: Trade ought to
be handled gently, and he that considers the Expences of this Nation at
Five Pounds _per Head_ comes to Forty Millions, and the Lands of
_England_ but to Twelve, will imagine easie Methods may be found out to
raise a greater Tax annually then we pay, without loading either Land or
Trade as now we do, a Scheme whereof may be easily drawn up.

[Sidenote: By not exporting Materials till Manufactured.]

5. By prohibiting as much as may be the Exportation of things to the
Plantations fit to be manufactured there till they are first done here,
thus 'tvvas better _Shooes_ vvere Transported to the Plantations than
_Leather_, so things made of _Iron_, than _Iron_ it self, this vvould
employ our People, and add to the value of vvhat vve ship out.

[Sidenote: By securing the Foreign Trade.]
[Sidenote: Counrts of Merchants.]

6. By defending the Merchants in their Trades who export the
Manufactures, and making it as easie to them as may be; To this end good
Conveys should be allowed, and good Cruisers maintain'd to preserve their
Ships, it being certain that what-ever is diminish'd out of the Merchants
Stock doth so far disable him in Trade, and then consequently lessen his
Exports and Imports; _Courts_ of _Merchants_ should be also erected for
the speedy deciding all differences relating to Sea Affairs, which are
better ended by those who understand them, than they are in
_Westminster-Hall_, where all things are tried by the Nice Rules of Law,
to whom after much Attendance and Expence they are often referred by the
Judges, by this means they would see short ends to their differences, and
not be detained at home to attend long Issues; but there can be no
general Rules given for these _Courts_, which must be settled according
as they best suit the convenience of every Trading City.

I am of opinion that the Trade of this Kingdom might be secured with no
greater Expence to the Government than now 'tis at, but then better
Methods must be taken, and Men employed whose Interests it is to see them
put in Execution: When we first began this War the Nation had many
Difficulties to cope with, the _French_ seemed to vye with us at Sea,
whilst their Armies outnumber'd ours at Land, but now blessed be God the
Scale is turned, we force their Garrisons and storm their Castles whilst
they look on unable to relieve, and at the same time our _Navy-Royal_
blocks up theirs, whilst our smaller Fleets Bombard their Sea-Port Towns,
we not only ride Admirals in the _British_ Seas but also in the
_Mediterranean_, and yet do now suffer more Loss in our Navigation than
formerly we did; The _French_ are come to a new way of fighting, they set
out no Fleet, but their Privateers swarm and cover the Sea like Locusts,
they hang on our Trade like Horse-Leeches, and draw from it more Blood
than it is well able to spare, whilst we still go on as we did, without
new Methods to countermine them; The _French_ King breeds up a Nursery of
_Seamen_ at our Charge, whilst his Subjects are made Rich by our Losses;
the Act for Cruisers was well design'd had it been as well put in
Execution, the Parliament thereby shewed what might secure our Trade, but
left things so discretionary to the Managers, that the Merchant knows not
when he receives the Benefit thereof, or how to complain if he doth not,
and by this means is in a worse Condition than he was before the making
that Law, adventuring larger because he thinks he Trades securer; I
confess for my own part I value nothing that cannot be reduced to a
certainty in its practice, things seem difficult to those who do not
understand them, if we are to Besiege a Town we make use of Soldiers, if
to storm a Castle, Engineers, if to build a Ship, _Carpenters_, and so in
lesser things, and yet Gentlemen are thought fit to sit at Helm, and
steer the Ship wherein is Embarqu'd the Treasure of our Trade, who are
altogether unskill'd therein, on whose good Conduct the Nation's Weale or
Woe depends; Thus things do fall into Confusion, whilst Men undertake
what they do not understand and set the Nation in a flame, whilst they
injudiciously guide the Chariot of the Sun; This makes Foreign
Commodities dear, and advances the Prizes of Materials used in our
Manufactures, so that as Trade grows worse Expences grow greater, and at
the same time no Body is a Gainer, The Merchant pays such high Fraights
and Insurances, that he gets little by Trade tho' he sells his Imports
for great Prizes; and yet the Insurers complain they lose by
underwriting, and therefore advance their _Premios_, which is a new
advance on Trade; and the Owners of Ships get nothing by their Fraights,
because they pay great Wages to the _Saylors_, and meet with such Delays
both at home and abroad that the length of time eats up all their
Profits, so that Fraights must rather rise than fall; nor do the
_Saylors_ get, who generally brought home more Money to their Families in
the time of Peace at three Years end when they served for Twenty-four
Shillings _per Month_ than they now do at Fifty, one lost Voyage bringing
them more behind-hand than two good ones put them forward; Now if Heads
well verst in Trade were set at work, Methods might be thought on to
secure all with little Charge to the Government, and hereby the Kingdom
might flourish, and be supplyed by the Merchant with Commodities cheaper,
whilst the Insurers underwrote for less _Premio_, Fraights let on lower
terms, the Wages of Mariners fallen, and All got more than now they do;
our Numbers of Seamen might then be increased, and every Ship that goes
abroad be a Nursery for the Fleet at home; Privateering, which is now
become a Trade amongst the _French_, must then necessarily sink all
concerned therein, its own Weight and Charge would crush it did we
prevent their taking Prizes; and no doubt the Merchants of _England_
would not oppose such Regulations in their Trades as they saw were to
their Advantage, or refuse to be at some Charge when they saw those
Payments saved Money in their Pockets, and that the management of things
was put into the Hands of Persons engaged in the common Interest of Trade
with themselves: This seems to me of great Importance in our
Manufactures, when the foreign Materials shall be furnished cheaper to
the Maker; besides if Trade were well secured the War would scarce be
felt, Losses by Sea discourage the City, and the ill Consequences thereof
reach the Country, whereby both suffer more than by all the Taxes they
pay towards carrying it on.

[Sidenote: By lowering the Interest of Money.]
[Sidenote: Banks & Lombards.]

7. By falling the Interest of Money; this would very much quicken Trade,
and indeed is the true Measure of it, the Merchant would be better able
to cope with Competitors abroad in the Manufactures when his Interest did
not eat so deep as now it doth, and the Maker would be enabled to sell
them cheaper at Home; if Interest were fallen 'twould make all Trades
flourish, for whilst we stand not on the same Terms with our Neighbours
herein we must expect to be undersold every where by them; the _Dutch_
pay but Three _per Cent_, and are thereby enabled to Trade so much lower
than we can; the truth is 'tis a shame Money should yield more by being
put to Interest than 'twould do if laid out either in Land or Trade; the
first doth not clear Four _per Cent_, the latter will not bring the
Borrower Five for all his Pains and Industry when the Userer is paid,
whilst the other runs little Risque, and is a Drone in the
_Common-Wealth_; as for Orphans and Widdows, (which is the main Objection
against it) let their Expences be lessened suitable to its Fall, and for
all other People, let them employ their Money in Trade if they think
'twill yield more; And here I judge it not amiss to mention Banks and
Lumbards, which I take to be so many Shops to let out Money, for which
they receive such Security, and for such time, as stands most for the
conveniency of Trade, and therefore the more the better, because every
one will endeavour to underdo another.

[Sidenote: By rectifying the Currant Coin.]

8. By rectifying the Currant Coin of this Kingdom, which is now so
debased that Men rather truck than sell for Money, not knowing whither
the next Man they deal with will take what they just before received for
their Goods; this makes Payments precarious, and _Trade_ uneasie, mony
rising and falling on Men's Hands daily, so that now nothing is more
uncertain than that which should be the Rule of certainty in the value of
all other things.

I do not think it convenient to advance our Coyn, but let Bullion be of
the same value when coined as it was before, else we have not the true
worth of the Commodity we sell for it, but are deceived by the Stamp,
which may be counterfeited by the _Dutch_ and other Nations for the
profit of the Overplus, besides it will seem ridiculous for a Man to give
Twenty Shillings worth of Silver for Eighteen Shillings of the same
specie, only because it is medall'd; this will necessarily be followed by
the advance of Silver suitable, the consequence whereof will be the
selling our Manufactures abroad cheaper, as we receive less Bullion for
them, and the whole Profit redound to the King of _Spain_, whose _Indies_
by the advance of his Bullion will be worth more than they were before;
nor will this hinder its being carry'd abroad, perhaps it may keep our
Coin at home, but not our Silver, which will be still carried out in
Specie; not that I am of their Opinions who think the advance of Money
would raise the price of Foreign Commodities among us, our own Experience
shews it will not, we buy and sell as much for Twenty Shillings in
Farthings as for so much Silver Coin; nor will their comparison with the
_Portugal Trade_ hold here, for when that King advanced the value both of
Peeces of _Eights_, and also of his own Coin, the Importer was obliged to
advance the Price of his Goods, because Silver was the Specie wherein he
was to make Returns, which he received not as it was worth in Coin but in
value by the Ounce, whereas had he laid it out in Commodities the Case
had been otherwise, I make a great difference between Money as it is the
Medium of _Trade_, and as it is the Commodity we make returns in; there
are better Reasons than this why Coin should be kept up to its true value.

And for the more easie calling it in when the Parliament shall see fit, I
think 'twere best to cry down all clipt Money at once, only to be
received for six Months by the King in his Taxes, who may send it into
the _Mint_, and if the Computation be allowed that we have about six
Millions of Coined Silver Money in the Kingdom, suppose four of it to be
clipt, the Taxes of _Customs_, _Excise_, _Aids_, &c. which we pay in six
Months will require near that Summ; and if there remain Two Millions
unclipt, it will serve the ordinary Expence till so much new Money can
come abroad, at the end of which time let all the rest be called in by
the same Method; This will bring forth the Broad Money, which is now
hoarded up, and during this Scarcity both the King's occasions and those
of _Trade_ will be very much answer'd by _Gold_ and _Bank_ Notes; and for
better preserving our new-coined Money, let none for the future exceed
Shillings, or at most Half Crowns, and those be made broad and thin, with
the Ring on the Extent of the Circumference, which will prevent both
Clipping and Drilling, and if the Stamp be not deep 'twill prevent
casting.

As for the _Iron_ and _Counterfeit-Money_, (which is supposed to be about
a Million) it must be lost to those who have it; and I suppose a Tax of
about Fifteen Hundred Thousand Pounds will make good the other.

[Sidenote: By discouraging Stockjobbing.]

9. By discouraging _Stockjobbing_; This hath been the Bane of many good
Manufacturies, which began well, and might have been carry'd on to
Advantage if the Promoters had not fallen off to selling Parts, and
slighted the first Design, winding themselves out at Advantage, and
leaving the Management to those they decoyed in, who understood nothing
of the thing, whereby all fell to the Ground; This may be prevented (I
mean so far as concerns Corporations) by Laws framed for that end, or by
Clauses in their Charters.

[Sidenote: By taking away Priviledged Places.]

10. By taking away all Priviledged Places, and making it easier for
Creditors to recover of their Debtors; Men now betake themselves to
Sanctuary, and spend what they have at defiance with those to whom they
owe it; on the other side if Laws were made for the more equal
Distribution of the Estates of those who fall to decay, with a Reserve of
some part thereof to themselves on a fair Discovery, and a force on the
minor part of the Credits to agree with what Composition should be made
by the major, so many People would not then be necessitated to such
Methods, or be ruined by lying in Goals, as now there are, but be enabled
to put themselves again into ways for a future Maintenance; Misfortunes
may and often do befal industrious Men, whose _Trades_ have been very
beneficial to the Nation, and to such a due Regard ought to be had; but
for those who design under the shelter of a Protection or Priviledge to
spend all they have, and thereby cheat their Creditors, no Law can be too
severe.

[Sidenote: By preventing Exportation of Wool.]

11. By strengthening the Laws against Exportation of Wool by such
practicable Methods as may prevent its being done; and such may be
thought on; for when a Nation's Interest doth so much depend thereon, no
Care can be too great, or Methods laid too deep; Laws concerning _Trade_
whose sole Strength are Penalties (and especially such as end in Death)
rarely reach the thing aimed at; but practicable Methods, whereby one
thing answers another, and all conspire to carry on the same Design,
hanging like so many Links in a Chain, that you cannot reach the one
without stepping over the other, these are more likely to prevent
Mischiefs; Its one thing to punish People when a Fact is done, and
another to prevent the doing it by putting them as it were under an
impossibility; now where the Welfare of the Kingdom lies so much at
Stake, certainly it cannot be thought grievous to compel a submission to
good Methods, though they may seem troublesom at first.

Thus there have been severe Laws made against carrying the Plantation
Commodities directly thence to Foreign _Markets_, and stealing the
_Customs_ when brought home, and what effect these have had we all know,
thousands of Hogsheads of _Tobacco_ being yearly Ship'd to _Spain_,
_Scotland_, and _Ireland_, both from _New-England_, and other Places;
whereas Sound and Practicable Methods may and are ready to be laid down
to prevent both, with few Officers, and fewer Penalties.

[Sidenote: The ill consequences of sending our Wool.]

And that we may better see the Mischiefs which attend the carrying abroad
our _Wool_ unwrought to other Nations, let us consider the Consequences
thereof in what is Shipp'd to _France_, whose _Wool_ being very course of
its self, and fit only for _Ruggs_ and ordinary _Cloth_, is by mixture
with ours and Irish used in the making of many sorts of pretty _Stuffs_
and _Druggats_, whereby the Sales of our _Woollen_ Manufactures are
lessened both there and in other places whither we export them, and by
this means every Pack of _Wool_ sent thither works up two besides it
self, being chiefly combed and combing _Wool_, which makes Woofe for the
_French Wool_, and the Pinions thereof serve with their _Linnen_ to make
course _Druggats_ like our _Linsey-Woolsey_, but the _Linnen_ being spun
fine and coloured is not easily discerned, also the finest short _English
Wool_ being mix'd with the lowest _Spanish_ makes a middling sort of
_Broad Cloth_, and being woven on _Worsted Chains_ makes their best
_Druggats_, neither of which could be done with the _French Wool_ only,
unless in Conjunction with ours or _Irish_, _Spanish Wool_ is too fine
and too short for _Worsted Stuffs_, and unfit for Combing, so that
without one of those two sorts there cannot be a piece of fine _Worsted
Stuff_ or middle _Broad Cloth_ made, no other _Wool_ but _English_ or
_Irish_ will mix well with _Spanish_ for _Cloth_, being originally of the
same kind, raised from a Stock of _English Sheep_, the difference in
fineness coming from the nature of the Land whereon they feed; of this we
have Examples in our own Nation, where we find that _Lemster Wool_ is the
finest, next, part of _Shropshire_ and _Staffordshire_, part of
_Glocester-shire_, _Wilts_, _Dorset_, and _Hampshire_, part of _Sussex_,
and part of _Kent_, _Somerset_, _Devon_, and _Cornwall_, these are most
proper for _Cloth_, some small part for _Worsted_; _Sussex_, _Surry_,
_Middlesex_, _Hartfordshire_, and some other Counties produce _Wool_ much
courser and cheaper; But then _Barkshire_, _Buckingham_, _Warwick_,
_Oxon_, _Leicester_, _Nottingham_, _Northampton_, _Lincoln_, and part of
_Kent_ called _Rumny-Marsh_, the _Wool_ in most of these Connties is so
proper for _Worsted_, that all the World except _Ireland_ cannot compare
with it, therefore requires our greater Care to prevent its Exportation,
and more especially from _Ireland_, whence it is often Exported to our
Neighbouring Nations, and sold as cheap as in _England_.

[Sidenote: By making Bonds and Bills Assignable.]

12. By making _Bonds_ and _Bills_ assignable, and being Assigned and
Transferred from one to another, the Assignee to be capable in his own
Name to Prosecute the Debtor whose _Bond_ or _Bill_ it is, without using
the Name of the Assignor, or any _Letter of Attorney_ from him to require
or recover the same; by this means young Men of small Stocks and Credits
may on sale of their Goods and taking _Bills_ for Payment return to
Market again, and purchase with those _Bills_ such Commodities as they
want to carry on their _Trades_; this also will produce a great
Punctuality amongst Traders, for all Men to keep up the Reputation of
their _Bills_ will endeavour to be exact in their Payments, that so they
may be currant, and freely accepted in Commerce, every One's Credit will
then be esteemed according as he is punctual in the payment of his
_Bills_; Besides, this Punctuality will produce another good effect,
those _Bills_ will be bought up by mony'd Men for the Advantage of their
discount, and it will by degrees lessen the Extortion of Usurers.

[Sidenote: By confining to a method in Trade.]

13. By prohibiting Persons from following several Trades at once, _viz._
The Merchant from being a Shopkeeper or Retailer, and the Shopkeeper from
being a Merchant or Adventurer at the same time; hereby each Trade would
be better managed, and with more Advantage to both, for whilst the
Merchant employs his Stock abroad in Exporting the Commodities of the
Kingdom, and supplying it with others, the Retailer would keep his at
home, ready to buy up those Imports, and disperse them into the Country,
and both would go on unanimously in their Trades, because neither would
interfere in the others Business.

[Sidenote: My managing Treaties of Peace to the Advantage of Trade.]

14. By taking Care that in all Treaties of Peace and other Negotiations
with Foreign Princes a due Regard be had to our Trade and Manufactures;
that our Merchants be respected, and not affronted by the Governments
among whom they reside; that all things be made easie to them, and both
their Liberties and Properties secured; that our Manufactures be not
prohibited, or burthened with unreasonable Taxes, which is the same in
effect; that speedy Justice be done in recovering Debts contracted
amongst the Natives, and punishing Abuses put on our Factories by them;
These are pressures our Trade hath long groaned under, whereby the
Merchants abroad and Manufacturers at home have been much discouraged,
and the _English_ Nation hath been forced to truckle under the _French_
in Foreign Parts (especially in _Portugal_, and the Islands belonging to
it) only because that King sooner resented Injuries done to his Traders,
and took more Care to demand Reparation, than our last Reigns have done;
but blessed be God we have now both Power and Opportunity to do the same,
and there is no cause to doubt His Majesty's Royal Inclinations to make
use of both for the Good of his Merchants when things are duely
represented to him.

[Sidenote: Liberty of Conscience.]
[Sidenote: The Quakers in respect to Oaths.]

I should in the last place have added _Liberty of Conscience_, but that
being already settled by Law I need not mention it, only this, that it
were to be wisht some way might be found out to make Methods of Trade
more easie to the _Quakers_ than now they are; I am apt to think that he
who appears in the Face of a Court to give Evidence on his word if he be
a Man of Couscience looks on himself equally obliged to speak the Truth
as if he was sworn, and nothing will deter a dishonest Man like she fear
of punishment.

[Sidenote: The Importation of Materials to be manufactured will encourage
Trade.]

Nor will the prohibiting things already manufactured be any way a
hindrance to Foreign Trade, but rather an Incouragement; more Ships will
be fraighted, and more _Saylors_ imployed by the Importation of
Materials, besides the great Advantage to the Nation in the ballance of
its Trade, which must then be returned in _Bullion_ by so much more as
they cost less abroad than the others; and this will enable us to afford
a greater Consumption of Foreign Commodities spent on our Palates, such
as _Wines_, _Fruit_, and the like, all which fill our Ships, and are fit
Subjects for _Trade_ when the Profits of a Nation enable it to bear their
Expence.

[Sidenote: Navigation.]
[Sidenote: Manning our Ships of War.]
[Sidenote: Pressing Saylors.]
[Sidenote: Embargoes.]

And thus I have run through the several Parts of our _Inland Trade_, the
Profit whereof depends on our Product and Manufactures; Before I proceed
to our _Outland_ or _Foreign Trade_ I shall speak something of
Navigation, which is the _Medium_ between both; This is carried on by
Ships and _Saylors_, the former are the Sea Waggons, whereby we transport
and carry Commodities from one Market to another, and the latter are the
Waggoners which drive or manage them; these are a sort of merry
unthinking People, who make all Men rich save themselves, have often more
Money than is their own, but seldom so much as they know how to spend,
generally brave in their Undertakings, they go through any kind of Labour
in their own way with a great deal of chearfulness, are undaunted by
Storms and Tempests, the Sea being as it were their Element, and are
allowed by all to be the best Navigators in the World; they are our
Wealth in Peace, and our Defence in War, and ought to be more encouraged
than they are in both, but especially in the latter, which might be done
if better Methods were used to engage them in that Service, and better
Treatment when there; Now I should think if a List were taken of all the
_Saylers_ in _England_, and a Law made for every Person who enters
himself on that Imploy at the Age of Years to have his Name registred,
with the place of his Abode, and be obliged to appear on Summons left at
his House, and no Man to be forced into the King's Service till he had
been at Sea three Years, nor to stay therein above three Years without
his free consent, and then to be permitted to take a Merchant's Imploy
for so much longer, and during his being in the King's Service good
Provision to be made for his Family at home, and a Maintenance for them
in case of his death or being disabled, This would encourage them to come
willingly into the Service, which they look on now to be a Slavery
whereto they are bound for their Lives, whilst their Families starve at
home; This and the manner of pressing them discourages many, and hinders
very much the making of _Saylors_, People not caring to put their Hands
to an Oar lest the next day they should be halled away to the Fleet,
though they understand nothing of the Sea; I do not think too much Care
can be taken for the well manning our Men of War, but I would have it
also done with able Seamen, and not with such who will only stand in the
way, and are useless when most wanted, and this must not be done by
pressing, but by practicable Methods which shall draw every Man to take
his turn at Helm; I take _Embargoes_ to be no helps towards it, for many
_Saylors_ do then lie hid, who would appear to serve in Merchant's Ships,
and might be easily met with at return of their Voyages; by this means in
a short time there would be a double set of Mariners, enough both for the
Service of the Fleet and Trade, the latter would every year breed more;
let the Commanders of Merchants Ships on Arrival give in Lists of the
_Saylors_ they have brought home, for whose appearance their Wages should
be Bail, and then those whose turn it is to serve in the Fleet should
after due time allowed for finishing their Voyages be sent thither, and a
penalty on every Master of a Ship who carry'd a Saylor to Sea after his
three Years Prodict was expired; such Laws and Time would bring things
into regular Methods.

[Sidenote: Inconvenience of pressing Saylors from Ships on their Voyages.]

This would also prevent great Mischiefs and Inconveniencies which arise
from pressing Saylors our of Merchants Ships whilst on their Voyages,
many of them being thereby lost at Sea, and others detained in the
_West-Indies_, to the great Discouragement of Trade; whereas better ways
might be found out of supply the Men of War abroad, all Merchants Ships
bound to the places where they are might have a proportionable Number of
Sailors deliver'd them by the Admiralty to be carried out _Gratis_ for
their Use and Service; and this would prevent another Mischief too often
practised abroad, where Captains of Men of War press Saylors from one
Merchants Ship only that they may make profit by selling them to another.

[Sidenote: Short Voyages breed Saylors.]

It's supposed that no Trade raises more Seamen than that of Coals from
_Newcastle_, which imploys many Hundreds of Ships to supply the City of
_London_ and other Ports of _England_, and being a home Trade doth
thereby breed and encourage Saylors more than long Voyages would do.

[Sidenote: Oytland Trade.]

To come now to the Trade which _England_ drives with Foreign Countrys;
here 'tis necessary to enquire how each doth encourage our Product and
Manufactures, how our Navigation, what Commodities we receive in Returns,
and how the Ballance of Trade stands in either; among which I esteem none
to be so profitable to to us as that we manage to _Africa_ and our own
Plantations in _America_, and none so detrimental as that to the
_East-Indies_.

[Sidenote: East-Indies.]

To begin therefore with the _East-India_ Trade, which for many Reasons I
take to be mischievous to the Kingdom.

To clear this we are to consider how a Trade may be advantageous or
detrimental to a Nation, and then to draw Inferences thence applicable to
the above Proposition; I shall therefore lay down such general Notions as
may without dispute be allowed by all unbyassed Persons, which are these:

1. That that Trade is advantageous to the Kingdom of _England_ which
Exports our Product and Manufactures.

2. Which Imports to us such Commodities as may be manufactured here, or
be used in making our Manufactures.

3. Which supplies us with such things, without which we cannot carry on
our Foreign Trade.

4. Which encourages our Navigation, and increases our Seamen.

And consequently that Trade which exports little or none of our Product
or Manufactures, nor supplies us with things necessary to promote
Manufactures at home, or carry on our Trade abroad, nor encourages
Navigation, cannot be supposed to be advantageous to this Kingdom;
especially when its Imports hinder the consumption of our own
Manufactures, and more especially when those Imports are chiefly the
purchase of our _Bullion_ or _Treasure_.

And because I would be rightly understood in my third Proposition, I mean
those Commodities without which we are not able to fit out our Ships for
a Foreign _Trade_, such as are _Pitch_, _Tar_, _Hemp_, _Sail-Cloth_,
_Masts_, _Timber_, and such like; These are so absolutely necessary, that
we must have them though purchased for _Bullion_, as being the chief
Hinges whereon Trade turns, and the Tools by which we Mechannically
navigate our Ships, those Bulky _Mediums_ of Foreign _Trade_; but for
those things which are Imported only in order to be Exported again as
Commodities to trade on, these cannot be so advantageous to this Kingdom
as they may be to the _Dutch_, who having little Land are maintained
rather by Buying and Selling than Manufacturing, whereas _England_ being
a large spot of Ground, and having a great Product of its own, (besides
what comes from our Plantations) capable to be wrought up or manufactured
here, gets by the Imployment of its People, therefore it would be the
great Wisdom of our Government to regulate all Foreign _Trades_ by such
Methods as may best make then useful in the promoting our Manufactures.

[Sidenote: How England may be said to be enrich't by Trade.]

Here it will not be amiss to consider again how and in what manner a
Nation may be said to be enrich'd by _Trade_; for there must be a
difference made between a Nations growing rich and particular Mens doing
so by it, and I humbly propose that it may be possible for private Men to
be vastly improved in their Estates, and yet at the Years end the Wealth
of the Nation not to be a whit greater than at the beginning, and this
both in an _Inland_ and an _Outland_ Trade; for whilst the thrifty
Shopkeeper buys at one Price, and sells at another to the prodigal
_Beaux_, and the industrious Artificer vents his Labour to the idle
Drone, and the politick Contriver outwits the unthinking Bully, one
raises his Fortunes on the other's decay; the same for our _Outland
Trade_, if we Export the true Riches of the Nation for that which we
consume on our Luxury, tho' private Men may get by each other, yet the
Wealth of the Nation is not any way encreased: For suppose by one Hundred
Butts of Wines the Importer gets Five Hundred Pounds, yet when drank
among our selves, the Nation is not thereby Richer but Poorer, and so
much poorer as those Wines cost at first; for if Imported by _English_
Men in _English_ Ships we loose but the first Purchase, the rest being
Freights, Customs, and Profits, are divided amongst our selves, but if
they are brought in by Foreigners, the Nation loses all but the Customs;
I take the true Profits of this Kingdom to consist in that which is
produced from Earth, Sea, and Labour, and such are all our Growth and
Manufactures.

To apply this now to the _East-India Trade_, we will first consider what
are its Exports and Imports, and then inquire _Cui Bono_? whither the
Contest for this Trade doth proceed from a design to serve the Nation, or
from Principles of Self-Interest? or whither the Members of that Company
who strive so much about it, would if in other Circumstances still be of
the same Mind? for Principles that are in themselves true are always so,
we may change our Opinions, but they do not change their Certainty; I
confess as the state of a Nation alters so must our measures in _Trade_,
but then it must appear that the State of the Nation and not our private
Interests makes us to alter them; Now when I find that it is not the true
Interest of this Nation to advance the Product and Manufactures thereof I
shall change my Opinion.

First then to begin with their Exports; and here I need not say much,
it's generally allowed by the Traders themselves that our Product and
Manufactures are the least part thereof, consisting chiefly in Gold and
Silver.

But it's alledged that in Returns they Import such Goods which being
again Exported do bring from Foreign parts much more Treasure in specie;
which leads me secondly to consider what those Imports are, and what
becomes of them; They chiefly are, _Saltpeter_, _Pepper_, _Callicoes_,
_Druggs_, _Indigo_, and _Silks_ both wrought and raw, many of which
Commodities are very necessary as well for our Home Expence as to export
again, others vastly prejudicial to us, as they hinder the consumption of
our own Manufactures both Abroad and at Home, and this latter outweighs
the former; _Calicoes_ and wrought Silks are the things I chiefly aim at,
and hope to make it plainly appear that those two Commodities do us more
prejudice in our Manufactures than all the Advantage they bring either to
private Purses or to the Nation in general, and it were to be wisht the
Wisdom of our Parliament would prohibit their being worn in _England_,
else like the ill-favoured lean Kine they will destroy the use of our
Manufactures, which might be fitted to answer all the ends they serve
for; Nor is the lessening the wearing our own Manufactures at home all
the Mischief _Callicoes_ have done us, their Importation having thrown
out the wearing of _Silesia_, and other _German_ Linnens hath been
attended with as bad a Consequence from thence, where those Looms which
were formerly imployed on weaving them were thereon turned to the Woollen
Manufactures, wherewith they not only furnish themselves but _Poland_,
which hath made those Countrys very careful to increase and improve their
breed of Sheep, whose Wool was generally brought hither before, and used
in making Hatts, but is now much of it wrought up there; for when we
slighted their Manufactures they fell on ours, whereas if we had
encouraged the Wearing their Linnen they would have still depended on us
for Woollen; This hath been a means to abate the Exportation of many
thousand Peeces of Cloth, which would have brought more Advantage to the
Nation than all the Trade we have driven to the _East-Indies_, and will
never be retrieved till we return again to the use of their Linnens.

He that considers how wonderfully Fashions prevail on this Nation may
soon satisfie himself how things of little value come to be prized, and
to justle out those of greater worth; Fashion is Fancy, which as it hath
of late Years brought in a disuse of our native Commodities by Imitation,
so if our Nobility and Gentry would turn their Fancies to them again I
doubt not it would have the same effect, and if our Workmen could receive
Encouragement, no question the Genius of this Kingdom would soon reach to
such a pitch as to answer all the Uses of both those Commodities, even
with a Thread spun out of Sheeps Wool; It was scarce thought about twenty
Years since that we should ever see _Calicoes_ the Ornaments of our
greatest Gallants (for such they are, whither we call them _Muslins_,
_Shades_, or any thing else) when they were then rarely used save in
Shrouds for the Dead, and that chiefly among the Poor, who could not go
to the Price of finer Linnen, and yet were willing to imitate the Rich,
but now few think themselves well drest till they are made up in
_Callicoes_, both Men and Women, _Callicoe Shirts_, _Neckcloths_,
_Cuffs_, _Pocket-Hankerchiefs_, for the former, _Head-Dresses_,
_Night-royls_, _Hoods_, _Sleeves_, _Aprons_, _Gowns_, _Petticoats_, and
what not, for the latter, besides _India-Stockings_ for both Sexes; and
indeed it will be a hard matter to put them out of this Fancy, nothing
but an _Act of Parliament_ or humour of the _Court_ can do it, the latter
is the most natural means, and would easier make way to introduce the
former, for besides that 'twould bring with it the Prayers of the Poor
for those who have cut them out new Imployments, it would likewise
wonderfully tend to advance the Gentlemen's Estates, first by expending
their _Wool_, and next by keeping the Poor at work, who would consume
more _Wheat_ and _Barly_, _Beef_ and _Mutton_ in their Houses, and yet
they need not fear having Labourers enough in their Harvests, though
perhaps at a little higher Rates, which would be abundantly made up by an
Advance on the Product of their Lands, besides what would be saved in the
Poor's Rates, and it hath been a constant Observation grounded on reason
that this Nation never thrives more than when the Labour of the Poor is
at such Prises as they may live comfortably by it.

We will next consider:

1. How far the Manufactures of this Kingdom have been already made to
answer the uses of _Indian Silks_ and _Callicoes_, and what did encourage
it.

2. What farther Improvement may be made thereon, and the means to bring
it about.

3. Why the People of _England_ are so much against their Native
Manufactures as to be more in love with _Calicoes_ and _Indian Silks_.

1. As to the first, I will go no farther than the _Act for Burrying in
Woollen_; how averse were the People of _England_ to it at first? as if
the Dead could not rest easie in their Graves if wrapt in our Native
Commodities, or that it would trouble them _inter Hades_ that they had
occasionally given Imployment to their poor surviving Country-men; no,
the fault was not there, Experience hath taught us that it's all one to
them, and Time hath more reconciled us to that Statute when we saw the
good effects it produced by putting our People on making so many pretty
sorts of Woollen Vestments, as Ornamental to the Dead as the others
formerly were thought to be, and of such different Finenesses and Prizes,
that Qualities are as easily distinguished by them; and since our dead
Friends were to be drest in our native Wool, we thought it most seemly to
imitate them by wearing the same at their Funerals, hence it came to pass
that our Mourning Attire was made of White Crape, a Garb not only Decent
and Profitable, but Honourable to the Nation, as it both shew'd our
Esteem for our Woollen Manufactres, and also how soon those imployed
therein could turn their Hands to any sort of Work.

2. Let us consider what farther Improvements may be made on the
Manufactures of this Kingdom to answer the ends of _Indian_ Silks and
Calicoes, and the means to bring them about; Here let us see what
Progresses have already been made step after step by our Manufactures to
imitate, and in many things to exceed all they have seen from abroad;
witness those noble rich Silks, wherein they have attained to so great a
height; Our brave noble _Arras_ or _Tapestry_ of all Prises, not to be
out-done by those very Nations from whom we at first learned the Art; And
this is allow'd by all, that the _English_ Workmen in great things outdo
their Patterns, and no doubt they may soon turn their Hands to a slight
Manufacture, which People do now chiefly desire, and I take to be as
profitable to the Nation; How are we come from a strong and stubborn to a
slight thin Broad Cloth, from thence to _Stuffs_, _Perpets_, _Sayes_,
_Rashes_, _Shalloones_, _Gauzes_, and lately to _Antherines_, which last
look as handsome as _Indian Silks_, and serve as well in Linings for our
Cloaths, also _Crapes_ of such different sorts both of _Silk_ and _Wool_,
that not only Cloaths for Men and Women are made thereof, but also
_Hatbands_, _Cuffs_, _Neckcloths_, _Hoods_, _Head Dresses_, &c. Now was
there a Law to encourage, or would the Nobility and Gentry of this
Kingdom by their Examples promote the wearing our own Manufactures, no
doubt they might be soon brought to answer all the ends of _Indian Silks_
and _Calicoes_, and I cannot see what reason may be given against a total
Prohibition of their being worn in _England_, which will be the quickest
way to have them disused.

3. The third is to enquire why the People of _England_ are so much
against their Native Manufactures as to be more in love with _Calicoes_
and _Indian Silks_? The chief reason is Fashion and Imitation of One
another, though many others are alledged, as the Ruffness and Ill Colour
of Woollen, which keeps it from answering the ends of _Calicoes_, Its
weight and thickness, which renders it improper for the ends of slight
Silks in Linings; These are not substantial but pretended Reasons, and
would as well serve against _Calicoes_ and _Indian Silks_ were we more
used to our Native Manufactures, and they now to be introduced; for as to
the Ruffness of Woollen, may not that be helpt by its fineness? and are
not course _Calicoes_ altogether as Ruff? A fine Flannen-Shirt feels soft
and pleasant to him that hath been used to wear it, so strange
Impressions do Custom and Fashion make on us; and as for Colour, it is
only Fancy, when Yellow is in Fashion it looks as decent as White, and as
much Art is needful to strike it well as there is Curiosity about the
other, witness when Women wore Yellow Hoods, both Men and Women Yellow
Vestments, besides, no doubt ways might be found out to add to the Native
Whiteness of our Woollen Manufactures, which do not therein fall shorter
of Calicoes than they do of _Hollands_ and _Cambricks_ and as to the ends
of Silks, Thinness and Lightness, I think our Workmen have given very
great Instances in their _Crapes_, _Gauzes_ and _Antherines_ what they
could do had they Encouragement.

But if a Manufacture of _Wool_ will not please, why may not one of
_Cotton_, the _Primum_ of which _Calicoes_ are made, whereof we have
great quantities imported every Year from our own Plantations in
_America_, and no doubt we might in a short time attain to an excellency
therein, not only to supply our selves, but also Foreign Markets; He that
considers how far we have gone in this already will have no cause to
doubt a Progress, and if Encouragements were proposed to that Person who
should spin the finest Thread either in Cotton or Wool, to be adjudged
and paid in each County, 'twould excite Industry and Ingenuity, and no
doubt we might in time make Calicoes equal in their sorts with those
Imported from _India_, and afford them as cheap as that Company now sells
them, enough not only for our home Expenee, but also for Exportation.

We will next see what Employment this Trade gives to Ships as it's now
managed in a Company, and how far it promotes Navigation by making
Saylors; The Number of the first is but small, and I think far from
making Seamen, long Voyages being usually their Bane, those Ships seldom
bringing home so many Saylors as they carry'd forth, whereas shorter
Voyages do more, made out of Land-Men, both the Imployers and the
Imployed being desirous to make their first Tryals on such Voyages;
besides, longer require better Saylors to provide for the Casualties
which attend them, and may be said rather to use Seamen than to make
them; and this is one great Reason why the _Dutch_ raise them so easily,
most of their Imployments being a home Trade.

If then it appears this Trade is no more profitable to the Nation in
general we will next see how it is to that Company in parricular; I do
not say to the particular Members thereof, who by ill Practices have
raised their private Fortunes, many of which have been lately laid open,
but to the Company as such; and here we find that a former failed; the
last is thought to have gotten little, considering the long time they
have been a Monopoly; and what Advantage the new _Fund_ will make Time
must shew, the Tricks used to engage Men therein causes me to doubt
whither 'twill answer the Expectations of the Subscribers.

On the whole let us consider what Arguments can be offered to the Wisdom
of the Nation to limit this Trade to an exclusive Company as was desired,
or (as in truth it is) to turn it into a Monopoly by Law, a thing very
contrary to the Genius of the People of _England_, and seems to barr the
Freedom and Liberty of the Subject.

Were Monopolies to be allowed it must certainly be in One of these three
Respects.

1. That we might put off our own Commodities to other Nations in Barter
for those we received from them.

2. That we might keep down the Prices of their Commodities, whilst we
advanced our own.

3. That as the Consequence of these two we might encourage our
Manufacturers at home, and furnish Foreign Commodities cheap.

But when a Monopoly shall cause quite different Effects it's not to be
allow'd on any Terms.

As for the first; the _East-India_ Company takes off little of our
Manufactures, nor do I think the Trade will admit it, for I cannot see
how that Nation can be supplied with Manufactures hence fit for their
Wearing answerable in Price to their own, except they were a Luxurious
People who cared not what they gave to please their Fancies, which I do
not take them to be, but generally very Provident; for if we consider
that when the _East-India_ Company hath brought their Calicoes and Silks
hither with great Charges, and sold them at an extraordinary advance,
they find vent by their cheapness, how can we believe that any of our
Manufactures can afford them a profit in _India_, where they must be sold
suitable in price to the others first cost; and therefore 'twould not be
amiss if the Government were put on making a narrow Inquiry whither the
Company do _boná fide_ export so much of the Product and Manufactures of
rhis Kingdom and land them in _India_ as they are obliged to do by their
Charter, elfe many ways may be found out to evade it, and the Nation be
deprived of the only Advantage expected from that Monopoly.

The _Dutch_ and we deal not thither on the same Terms, their Manufactures
are small, and so no Matter what they Trade on, besides their Settlements
in the _East-Indies_ are so great, that what they bring thence may almost
be called their own Product, whereof by monopolizing that Trade they make
greater Prices in _Europe_, which being chiefly spent either in Foreign
Markets or by Temporary Residents brings them more Profit; They have also
great Advantages above us in their _East-India_ Trade, being possest of
the whole Traffick to _Japan_, whither they carry _Cloth_, _Lead_, and
other Commodities from _Holland_, _Calicoes_, _Spices_, &c. from _India_,
which they sell for _Gold_ and _Silver_, increasing thereby their Bullion
as we diminish ours; Besides their _East-India_ Company is not settled on
such a narrow Foundation as ours, which being limited to one City
exclusive of all others sells their Commodities for greater Advance than
any other Traders, whither we consider their Risque, or the time they are
out of their Money, which should be the standing Rules in Trade; Nor can
it be otherwise whilst they remain a Company, the Charges both abroad and
at home being much more than when manag'd by private Stocks, besides the
affected Grandeur in all which must be paid by the Nation, whereon I take
that Monopoly to be a Tax so far as it might be supply'd with them on
cheaper Terms if the Trade were laid more open by a Regulation; I know
there is much talk'd by the Company about Forts Castles and Soldiers to
defend their Interests in _India_, but I cannot see the use of them, for
either they are thereby defended against the Natives, or the _Dutch_
their Competitors; the former have no reason to quarrel with them, for
bringing them a Trade so highly their Advantage as the purchasing their
Product and Manufactures with Money, especially if they pay for what they
buy; And as for their Competitors the _Dutch_, if they were not better
defended against them by our Fleets at home, and the Protection of the
Princes they trade with, than by all the Force they have there, the Trade
had been but ill-secured, and must have sunk long ago; Only those great
Words serve to hold us amused, whilst their _Guineas_ in the two last
Reigns were the Support of their Charter.

One thing which I aim at in this Discourse is to perswade the Gentry of
_England_ to be more in Love with our own Manufactures, and to encourage
the wearing them by their Examples, and not of Choice to give Imployment
to the Poor of another Nation whilst ours starve at home.

[Sidenote: West-Indies.]

We will next proceed to the _West-India_ and _African_ Trades; which I
esteem the most profitable of any we drive, and do joyn them together
because of their dependance on each other.

But before we enter farther I will consider of one Objection, it having
been a great question among many thoughtful Men whither our Foreign
Plantations have been an advantage to this Nation; the reasons they give
against them are, that they have drained us of Multitudes of our People
who might have been serviceable at home, and advanced Improvements in
Husbandry and Manufactures; That the Kingdom of _England_ is worse
Peopled by so much as they are increased; and that Inhabitants being the
Wealth of a Nation, by how much they are lessened, by so much we are
poorer than when we first began to settle our Foreign Colonies; Though I
allow the last Proposition to be true, that People are or may be made the
Wealth of a Nation, yet it must be where you find Imployment for them,
else they are a Burthen to it, as the Idle Drone is maintained by the
Industry of the labourious Bee, so are all those who live by their
Dependance on others, as Players, Ale-Houses-keepers, Common-Fidlers, and
such like, but more particularly Beggars, who never set themselves to
work; Its my Opinion that our Plantations are an Advantage to this
Kingdom, and I doubt not but 'twill appear to be so by the consequence of
this Discourse, though not all alike, but every one more or less, as they
take off our Product and Manufactures, supply us with Commodities which
may be either wrought up here, or Exported again, or prevent fetching
things of the same Nature from other Princes for our home Consumption,
imploy our Poor, and encourage our Navigation; for I take _England_ and
all its Plantations to be one great Body, those being so many Limbs or
Counties belonging to it, therefore when we consume their Growth we do as
it were spend the Fruits of our own Land, and what thereof we sell to our
Neighbours for Bullion, or such Commodities as we must pay for therein,
brings a second Profit to the Nation.

These Plantations are either the great Continent from _Hudson's Bay_
Northward to _Florida_ Southward, containing _Newfound-land_,
_New-England_, _Virginia_, _Mary-land_, _New-York_, _Pensilvania_,
_Carolina_, &c. and also our several Islands, the chief whereof are
_Barbadoes_, _Antigua_, _Nevis_, _St. Christophers_, _Montserat_, and
_Jamaica_; the Commodities they afford us are more especially Sugars,
Indigo, Ginger, Cotten, Tobacco, Piamento, and Fustick, of their own
growth, also Logwood, which we bring from _Jamaica_, (though first
brought thither from the _Bay_ of _Campeacha_ on the Continent of
_Mexico_ belonging to the _Spaniard_, but cut by a loose sort of People,
Subjects to this Kingdom, Men of desperate Fortunes, but of wonderful
Courage, who by force have made small Settlements there and defend
themselves by the same Means) besides great quantities of Fish taken the
Coasts of _Newfound-land_ and _New-England_; These being the Product of
Earth Sea and Labour are clear Profit to the Kingdom, and give a double
Imployment to the People of _England_, first to those who raise them
there, next to those who prepare Manufactures here wherewith they are
supplied, besides the Advantage to Navigation, for the Commodities
Exported and Imported being generally bulky do thereby imploy more Ships,
and consequently more Saylors, which leaves more room for other labouring
People to be kept at work in Husbandry and Manufactures, whilst they
consume the Product of the one and the Effects of the other in an
Imployment of a distinct Nature from either.

This was the first Design of settling Plantations abroad, that the People
of _England_ might better maintain a Commerce and Trade among themselves,
the chief Profit whereof was to redound to the Center; and therefore Laws
were made to prevent the carrying their Product to other places, or their
being supply'd with Necessaries save from hence, and both to be done in
our own Ships, navigated by _English_ Saylors, except in some cases
permitted by the Acts of Navigation, and so much as the Reins of those
Laws are let lose, so much less profitable are the Plantations to us; The
Interest therefore of this Kingdom being to prevent any practices
contrary to the first Design, it would be the great Wisdom of the
Parliament to frame such Laws as may more effectually do it than any yet
made; I do not mean Laws whose chief Strength shall be their Penalties,
but such whose plain Methods being capable to be reduced to Practice may
do it without Oppression of Officers, for I esteem them so far weak as
they need the Support of either the one or the other; and it were to be
wisht that both our Customs and all other Taxes might be raised with less
Charge and Burthen than now they are, for which ways might be sound out
if it were well considered of, and then Multitudes of useless People
might be sent into the Vineyards of Husbandry and Manufactures.

Among these Plantations I look on that of _New-England_ to bring least
Advantage to this Kingdom, for being setled by an industrious People, and
affording few Commodities proper to be transported hither, the
Inhabitants imploy themselves by trading to the rest of the Plantations,
whom they supply with Provisions and other their Products, and from
thence fetch their respective Growths, which they after send to Foreign
Markets, and thereby injure the Trade of _England_; Now as to the first
part, it's neither convenient for them nor the Plantations that they
should be debarr'd it, what they carry thither being for the most part
Fish, Deal-Boards, Pipe-staves, Horfes, and such like, which the others
cannot be well supplyed with hence, also Bread, Flower, and Pease; but
then they should be obliged to make their Imports hither, I mean to bring
all the Good; they load at those Plantations to this Market, and from
hence let them be supply'd again with what thereof shall be necessary for
their Home Expence, as they are with all _European_ Commodites; by which
means _England_ would become the Centre of Trade, and standing like the
Sun in the midst of its Plantations would not only refresh them, but also
draw Profits from them; and indeed it's a matter of exact Justice it
should be so, for from hence it is Fleets of Ships and Regiments of
Soldiers are frequently sent for their Defence, at the Charge of the
Inhabitants of this Kingdom, besides the equal Benefit the Inhabitants
there receive with us from the Advantages expected by the Issue of this
War, the Security of Religion, Liberty, and Property, towards the Charge
whereof they contribute little, though a way may and ought to be found
out to make them pay more, by such insensible Methods as are both
rational and practicable.

[Sidenote: Methods to render the Plantations more profitable to England.]

Now the means to render these Plantations more profitable to this Kingdom
are by making Laws.

1. To prevent (as much as conveniently may be) the Product of either to
be transported from the place of its Growth to any other place save
_England_.

2. To prevent its being Imported hither after manufactured there.

3. To prevent (as much as may be with Conveniency) the Exporting hence
any simple thing in order to be manufactured there, such as Iron,
Leather, &c. which 'twere better for this Kingdom were first wrought up
here.

4. In Lieu of all to lay open the _African_ Trade, that the Inhabitants
may be supply'd with _Negroes_ on easie Terms.

These are general Rules, but not without some Exceptions; for when I say
the Commodities of one Plantation should not be carried to another, I
mean those only which are fit for Trade, and may be brought hither, and
be hence disperst again, as Sugars, Cotton, Indigoe, Tobacco, Ginger, and
such like; but for Provisions, Timber, Horses, and things of like
natures, they may and ought to be permitted, because this Nation cannot
so conveniently supply them hence; and therefore the _Act of Trade_ gave
leave to transport the former from _Ireland_, which hath laid open a Gapp
to that Peoyle, who carry the first Beef to those Markets, wherein they
anticipate us, and get the best Prises, besides the Charges we are at in
sending our Ships thither to load, which they save; Nor is this all, for
going to the Plantations without giving Bonds to discharge in _England_
what they take in there as the Law doth require, they frequently unload
either all or part of their Loadings elsewhere, in opposition to the the
_Act of Navigation_, therefore if a new Law was made that all Ships
Trading to the Plantations from _Europe_ should first give Bonds in
_England_, and for default thereof be seized on their Arrival there, it
would be a great Step towards preventing this abuse, and then plain and
easie ways may be offered to hinder Landing any part of their Cargoes
elsewhere; And when things are brought to this State, that the Product of
our Plantations shall necessarily be center'd here, we may put almost
what Rates we will on them to our Neighbours; it's true 'tis the Interest
of _England_ that what is consumed among our selves should be sold at
reasonable Prises, but the higher they yield abroad the more Treasure
they bring to the Nation, provided we strain not the Staple so as to be
undersold from other Markets; But there must be a Regard had to our
Fisheries, that the Liberty of carrying that Commodity direct to Foreign
Parts be not restrained.

Next by their being brought home unmanufactured they would give great
Imployments here; _Cotten Wool_ by being spun up and made into several
sorts of pretty things; _Tobacco_ by Cutting and Rowling; and _Sugar_ by
refining; for I would have no _Tobacco_ brought home save in Leaf, nor
_Sugar_ above _Muscovado_; the last would imploy abundance of
Sugar-Houses in _England_ to clay and refine it, not only for a home
Expence, but to be transported to Foreign Markets; a Trade we have been
lately beat out of by the Industry of the _Dutch_ helpt on by our own
Imprudence, for no wise Nation would have given such an advantage to a
Rival Trader as by Law to put their Refiners on terms of working _Sugars_
Three Shillings _per Cent_ cheaper than our own, therefore when the thing
comes to be well weighed, I believe 'twill be found the Interest of this
Nation to suffer all those Commodities to be Imported Custom Free, and to
lay a Duty on what is Exported again unwrought, (I mean all _West-India_
Commodities) and to raise an Excise on what is spent at Home, for which
easie and practicable Methods may be proposed; and this would salve all
those Disputes about running _Tobacco_, or drawing back Debentures after
relanded; which Duty might be collected with few Officers, and little
Charge, and the King might have an Account of every particular Parcel how
it was transferred from Man to Man till 'twas paid.

[Sidenote: Africa.]

But if the _Planter_ should complain at his being denied to Import
wrought _Sugars_, it would be abundantly made up to him by opening the
_African_ Trade, that so he might be supplied with _Negroes_ both in
greater Numbers and at cheaper Rates than now he is; a Trade of the most
Advantage to this Kingdom of any we drive, and as it were all Profit, the
first Cost being little more than small Matters of our own Manufactures,
for which we have in Return, _Gold_, _Teeth_, _Wax_, and _Negroes_, the
last whereof is much better than the first, being indeed the best
Trassick the Kingdom hath, as it doth occasionally give so vast an
Imployment to our People both by Sea and Land; These are the Hands
whereby our Plantations are improved, and 'tis by their Labours such
great Quantities of _Sugar_, _Tobacco_, _Cotten_, _Ginger_, and _Indigo_,
are raised, which being bulky Commodities imploy great Numbers of our
Ships for their transporting hither, and the greater number of Ships
imploys the greater number of Handecraft Trades at home, spends more of
our Product and Manufactures, and makes more Saylors, who are maintained
by a separate Imploy; for if every One raised the Provisions he eat, or
made the Manufactures he wore, Trade would cease, Traffique being a
variety of Imployments Men have set themselves on adapted to their
particular Genius's, whereby one is serviceable to another without
invading each others Province; thus the Husbandman raises Corn, the
Millard grinds it, the Baker makes it into Bread, and the Citizen eats
it; Thus the Grazier fats Cattle, and the Butcher kills them for the
Market; Thus the Shepherd shears his Wool, the Spinster makes it into
Yarn, the Weavet into Cloth, and the Merchant exports it, and every one
lives by each other: Thus the Country supplies the City with Provisions,
and that the Country with Manufactures; Now to advise a Government to
monopolize, and consequently to lessen this Trade, by confining it to a
limited Stock, is the same as to advise the People of _Egypt_ to raise
high Banks to confine the River _Nilus_ from overflowing, lest it should
thereby fertilize their Lands, or the King of _Spain_ to shut up his
Mines, lest he should fill his Kingdom too full of Silver; This Trade
indeed is our Silver Mines, for by the Overplus of _Negroes_ above what
will serve our Plantations we draw great Quantities thereof from the
_Spaniard_; a Trade we are lately fallen into by a Compact of the two
Natious, for which a Factory or _Assiento_ is settled by them at
_Jamaica_, where what their Agent buys is paid for in Pieces of _Eight_,
besides oftentimes Thirty _per Cent_ Cambio for running the risque to the
Continent, all discharged in the same specie with great Punctuality.

Nor is this all the advantage the Nation reaps thereby, it hath
introduced another sort of Commerce, and given us Opportunities of
selling our Manufactures to that People, with whom we now grow into some
sort of Familiarity, and may be a means in time to make way for a larger
Acquaintance, whereby we may reap the best part of the Treasure of those
Mines, _Jamaica_ being now become a Magazine of Trade to _New-Spain_ and
the _Terra Firma_, from whence we have yearly vast Quantities of Bullion
imported to this Kingdom both for the _Negroes_ and Manufactures we send
them, which as it was opened for the sake of their having the former, so
when that supply ceases, it will be removed to some other place, and our
industrious Neighbours are ready to receive it, who would perhaps take
more care to encourage it than we have done; for by the slow steps of the
_African_ Company, and the Hardships they have put on the Interlopers or
private Traders, the number of _Negroes_ imported thither hath been so
small, and so much below our promises and the _Spaniards_ Expectations,
that this profitable _Assiento_ or Factory hath for some time stood on
Tiptoe, ready to waft it self to another Island, as it certainly had done
long since if the Interlopers had not given a better Supply than the
Company.

We will now inquire what Reasons should perswade any Government to
monopolize or limit this Trade, and what have been the Consequences
thereof?

As for the first; the necessity of having Forts Castles and Soldiers to
defend the Trade, which could not be carried on without great Charge and
a joynt Stock, these and such like Arguments attended with a Cloud of
Guineas had force enough to prevail on an easie Prince, who though of a
temper not inclined to Mischief, and had natural parts capable to
understand both his own and the Nation's Interest, yet being perswaded by
those _Harpyes_, who like so many Horse Leaches constantly hung upon him,
and required more Treasure than his Income could afford, he was many
times allured to do things which his own Judgment would not allow, so
mischievous are evil Councellors (especially of the fair Sex) to the
good-natur'd Prince.

But let us consider what these Fort Castles and Soldiers now settled by
the Company are, their Use, and whither good Securities for the Trade may
not be made by a regulated Company, out of Stock to be raised on its
Members, to those to be admitted for small Fines, and to pay a Duty on
the Goods they Export, such as the _Court of Assistants_ shall think fit
to settle; which Stock to be imployed for Buying or Building Forts where
thought necessary, and defraying all publick Charges for carrying on the
Trade.

I do not remember that the greatest number of Soldiers proved at the
Committee appointed by the Honourable _House of Commons_, to enquire into
that Affair did exceed one Hundred and Twenty on the whole Coast; nor did
their Forts and Castles appear to be any thing else save Settlements for
their Factors, which (to secure their Goods from the Natives, and the
sudden Insults of other Nations) they guarded both with Men and Guns, all
which was proposed to be done by a regulated Company; Besides, when more
Factories are settled, consequently there will be more People, which will
soon exceed their number of Soldiers, and be more formidable, whilst
every Man fights for his own Interest, whereas those Soldiers (as it was
there proved) were ill provided for, worse paid, and kept only by
Constraint.

It was never made out (or indeed pretended) before that Honourable
Committee that those Forts and Castles were to wage a National War, or to
secure against a National Invasion, the defence of their Guns could not
exceed their reach, which was not above a Mile at most; nor were there
any Magazines of Provisions laid up to expect a Siege from the Natives;
neither could they hinder Interlopers who traded on the Coasts of what
Nation soever; but for that end the Company had obtained Frigats from the
Government, who by illegal Commissions destroyed our own Merchants Ships
(unless permitted on the payment of Forty or Fifty _per Cent_ at home on
the Goods they carried out) whilst they let others alone; This being
seconded by their Factors in the several Plantations, who seized them and
their Cargoes there if they escaped the former, discouraged our private
Traders, who else found no Difficulties, the Natives receiving them as
Friends, and choosing rather to deal with them than the Company; whose
Factories also being at remote distances from each other, great part of
that Coast was unguarded, and untraded too by them.

Nor do I see what need there was to fight our way into a Trade altogether
as advantageous to the Natives as to us, for whilst we supply'd them with
things they wanted, and were of value amongst them, we took in exchange
Slaves, which were else of little worth to the Proprietors; and it cannot
be thought that the People of _England_ who have setled such large
Colonies on the Continent of _America_ (besides its several Islands)
where there was no reasonable Prospect of Encouragement, and have
increased their Numbers so as to be able to defend their first Footings
without the help of a Company, not only against the Natives where they
found any, but likewise against all other Nations, should fall short in
carrying on this Trade, which doth at the first view offer the Prospect
of so great a Profit.

Let us now consider the Inconveniences that have attended this Monopoly,
and consequently the Conveniencies which would come to the Nation by
digesting it into an open and free, tho' a regulated Company; sure if
confining the working in a Golden Mine to one day in a week which would
afford the like Treasure every day to the Nation cannot be its advantage,
no more can the limiting this Trade; for if we send more Ships we fetch
more _Negroes_, and vend more Commodities for their Purchase; besides
every _Negro_ in the Plantations gives a second Imploy to the
Manufacturers of this Kingdom, and had we many more to spare the
_Spaniard_ would buy them, so there can be no Ground for putting this
Trade into few Men's Hands, except 'tis designed those few shall grow
Rich, whilst for their sakes the Nation suffers in its Trade and
Navigation; The Company have made this detrimental advantage of their
Charter, that they have thereby been enabled to buy up our Manufactures
cheaper at home, and to make the _Planters_ pay dearer Rates for
_Negroes_ abroad, than could have been done if there had been more Buyers
for the former, and Sellers of the latter; besides the ill Supply they
gave the Plantations, and the partiality in their Lots and Dividends
there, the effect whereof was that one Planter who was befriended grew
Rich by having good _Negroes_, whilst another was ruined by having none
but bad; and this drew with it another ill Consequence, their Factors as
it were Monopolized Trade to themselves, by obliging the Planters to deal
with them for other things if they expected favour when the _Negro_ Ships
arrived, so that the rest of the Merchants were forced to look on whilst
the others had any thing to sell, and all because they were restrained by
a Monopoly from supplying the Planter with the same Commodity, for which
likewise the Company expected ready Pay, whilst the others gave long time.

This was sully proved before the Honourable Committee at one of their
Meetings, to whom I heard an eminent Merchant of _London_ of an undoubted
Reputation and well acquainted with the Trade to _Africa_ affirm, That on
a former little relaxation of the severity of their Charter, which was
then called in question by the Honourable _House of Commons_, some of our
Woolen Manufactures fit for that Trade rose instantly Fifty _per Cent_ to
his certain knowledge, occasioned by the Multitudes of Buyers, whereof he
was one; and indeed it is not to be wondered at, for whilst that Company
was in power many of the _English_ Interlopers were forced to fit in
_Holland_, where they also furnished their Cargoes, it being thought
cause sufficient to stop a Ship here if any part of the Goods entered out
gave Suspicion she was bound for the Coast of _Guinea_, which would have
made a Stander-by to have thought that the _Dutch_ had given Pensions in
that Court as well as the _French_.

It is not to be doubted but that the Vendding our Product and
Manufactures and promoting our Navigation on advantageous terms is the
true Interest of this Nation, and all Foreign Commerce as it advances
either is more or less profitable, now the Confinement of the _African_
Trade to a limited Stock promotes the ends of neither, and I believe 'tis
one reason why we know so little of that large Continent, because the
Company finding ways enough to employ their Fund among those few
Factories they had setled on the Sea Coast never endeavoured a farther
_Inland_ Discovery, whereas if it was laid open, the busie Merchant that
Industrious Bee of the Nation would not leave one River or Creek untraded
to, from whence he might hope to make Advantage.

It's to Trade and Commerce we are beholding for what Knowledge we have of
Foreign Parts, and it is observable that the more remote People dwell
from the Sea the less they are acquainted with Affairs abroad; _Africa_
is a large Country, and doubtless the Trade to it might be much enlarged
to our Advantage, and better Settlements made and secured if good Methods
were taken; Use and Experience make us at last Masters of every thing;
and tho' the first Undertakers of a Design fall short of answering their
private Ends, yet they may not the Ends of the Nation, by laying open a
beaten Path for Posterity to tread in with Success where they miscarry'd;
when all places in _England_ may freely send Ships, and be permitted to
the management of their own Affairs, this encourages Industry, and sets
Peoples Heads at work how they may outdo each other by getting first into
a new Place of Trade; besides, the more Traders the more Buyers at Home
and Sellers Abroad, and by this means our Plantations on that large
Continent of _America_ would be better furnished with _Negroes_, for want
of which the Inhabitants there could never arrive to those Improvements
they have done in the Islands, the Company having given them little or no
Supply, who rather chose to send them to the latter, because they were
able to make better Pay; But the Interlopers have done it, tho' under
great discouragements from the Company and their Factors, who like the
Dog in the Fable, would neither supply those Plantations themselves, nor
suffer others to do it.

As for the other Commodities brought in Returns from _Africa_, Wax and
Teeth, one serves for a Foreign Trade without lessening the Expence of
our own Product, the other imploys our Manufacturers at home, and is
afterwards Exported to other Markets; and as for the Gold brought thence,
I need not mention how much it doth advance our Wealth, all agree it to
be a good Barter.

On the whole I take the _African_ Trade both for its Exports and Imports,
and also as it supplies our Plantations, and advances Navigation, to be
very beneficial to this Kingdom, and would be made much more so, and
better secured, were it laid open by being formed into a Regulated
Company.

[Sidenote: Maderas.]

The next thing we will enter on is the Trade driven to _Maderas_; and
here tho' I must confess I am in my own Judgment no Friend to Monopolies,
and have not yet seen any reason to alter my Opinion, yet as that
destructive Element of Fire may and often is used to Advantage in its
proper place, and Poyson with Correction makes good Physick, so the ends
of a Monopoly being truly answered, it may sometimes be very serviceable,
such as are the vending our own Manufactures at good Rates in Foreign
Markets, whilst for them we receive in Barter the Product of another
Nation at reasonable Prices; And this effect cannot be produced by
incorporating any Trade into a joynt stock so naturally as that of
_Maderas_, where by the late ill management of our Factors things are
come to such a Pass, that nothing less than this can recover it into a
good Method, the Inhabitants of that Island by the others Imprudence have
gotten so much Advantage of us that they take off little of our Woollen
Manufactures, whilst on the other side we buy their Wines for Money,
which heretofore we purchased in Truck; a Commodity loaden off thence
chiefly by the _English_ Nation, for the _Dutch_ ship little, the
_French_ less, the remainer (except what is spent on the Island, or sent
to Brazile) is drank in our Plantations; and yet we are treated by them,
not as though they depended on us, but rather as if they thought we could
not live without their Wines, prohibiting sometimes one part sometimes
another of our Manufactures, instead whereof they supply themselves from
_Lisbon_, with things tho' not so good, yet such as they content
themselves with to promote Manufactures of their own, so wise are other
Nations to choose rather to wear what is made amongst themselves than
what is brought by Strangers, tho' better in its kind; whilst we preferr
any thing that comes from abroad, only because it does so.

But then great care must be taken that the Profit of this Monopoly doth
redound to the Nation, and not only to the enriching private Persons, and
that it be continued no longer than it appears to be for the public Good,
and a fair Account must be given that the quantity of Manufactures
carried hence do in some measure equalize the Wines loaden thence, also
that the Plantations abroad be supply'd at reasonable Rates; By this
means the _English_ being the only Buyers, and they having put the Trade
into one Hand, may sell their Manufactures for better Prices, and set the
Rates of the others Wines, and consequently afford them cheaper in our
Islands; Thus whereas those two Monopolies of the _East-India_ and
_African_ Companies prey only on their fellow-Subjects, this would make
its Profits on a Foreign People; besides it would as it were create a new
Market in a place where our Manufactures are almost disused.

I confess could it be done any other way I should not advise this, but I
know none, unless those Wines were for some time prohibited to be carry'd
to the Plantations, which would be very inconvenient for the Inhabitants,
who cannot well subsist without them; the heat of the _Climate_ spends
Nature apace, which must be supported, and nothing hath been found so
agreeable to their Constitutions as the Wines brought from that Island.

[Sidenote: Ireland.]

We come now to speak of _Ireland_; which of all the Plantations setled by
the _English_ hath proved most injurious to the Trade of this Kingdom,
and so far from answering the ends of a Colony, that it doth wholly
violate them; for if People be the Wealth of a Nation, then 'tis certain
that a bare parting with any of them cannot be its Advantage, unless
accompanied with Circumstances whereby they may be rendred more useful
both to themselves, and also to those they left behind them, else so far
as you deprive it of such who should consume its Product and improve its
Manufactures you leffen its true Interest, especially when that Colony
sets up a Separate, and not only provides sufficient of both for its
self, but by the Overplus supplys other Markets, and thereby lessens its
Sales abroad; This to a Kingdom so much made up of Manufactures as
_England_ is must needs be attended with great Disadvantages, and yet to
maintain a good Correspondence with _Ireland_ is very convenient, I shall
therefore consider what Topicks may be laid down as general Rules for the
Advantage of the former, and best agreeable with the true Interest of the
latter.

It was a Question once put by _Pilate_, what is Truth? And when he had
said this he went out again unto the _Jews_, &c. which Question seems to
me rather to arise from a Perturbation in his own Mind occasioned by the
fluctuating of several Interests, than from any Desire he had to receive
an answer, for we do not find he staid to expect it; and the Consequence
shew'd 'twas so, for his being willing to do the _Jews_ a pleasure, and
fearing lest he should not be accounted a Friend to _Cæsar_, made him
pass Sentence against his Judgment on an innocent Person, of whom he
confest, he found no fault in him; Interest doth generally biass our
Judgments in such a manner that the very supposing a thing to be so makes
us uneasie under any Discourse that perswades only to enquire into it;
but Truth is the same still, and the easiest way to discover it is by
walking in the Paths of Plainness; Falshood wants Sophistry to lacker and
set it off, therefore Men usually represent their private Interests under
the name of a public Good, and thereby endeavour to guild the Pill they
would have go down.

The Heads I shall proceed on are these Two.

1. To shew that _Ireland_ as things now stand is very destructive to the
Interest of _England_.

2. That the Methods which may be used to render it more serviceable to
the Interest of this Nation will also render it more serviceable to its
own.

These are plain Propositions, understood by every Man, and I hope to make
them out with the same plainness.

1. As to the first, that _Ireland_ is now destructive to the Interest of
_England_, I think it will admit of little Dispute; for as long as that
People enjoy so free and open a Trade to Foreign Parts, and thereby are
encouraged to advance in their Woollen Manufactures, they must
consequently lessen ours, than which they cannot do us a greater
Mischief, being the Tools whereon we Trade, when they sink our Navigation
sinks with them.

Now the Advantage _Ireland_ hath above _England_ in making the Woollen
Manufactures will soon give them opportunities of outdoing us therein,
first as it produces as good or rather better Wool, and next as it
furnishes all Provisions cheaper to the Workmen, which renders them able
to live on easier terms than ours can here, and this will in short time
give Invitation for many more to remove thither.

2. But 'tis the second Proposition which will not be so easily allowed;
how the true Interest of _Ireland_ will be advanced by such means as
shall be used to promote that of _England_.

Here we must consider, what is the true Interest of _Ireland_, and
wherein it doth consist? Whither in Trade and Manufactures, or in
Improvement of its Lands by a good Settlement? And I doubt not but on a
strict Scrutiny it will appear to be the latter; for indeed till that is
made, no Trade can be serviceable to any People farther than it doth help
towards it; Nor is it the Advantage of an ill-peopled Colony whose Riches
are to be the Fruits of the Earth to divert any number of the Inhabitants
from its Cultivation, whilst they can find Vent for their Product, and be
supply'd with conveniencies another way; had our _American_ Plantations
done so, they had never been well setled, but much more of their Lands at
this time unimproved; and this I take to be one great Reason why the
_English_ in _Ireland_ have always lain open to the Insults of the
Natives there, the Country being slenderly peopled in the more Inland
Parts; if so, then certainly whatever hinders the Peopling, and
consequently the cultivating and improving the Lands of _Ireland_, doth
so far hinder the advancing its true Interest.

Now nothing doth this more than Trade Abroad, and Manufactures at Home.

1. As they divert great Numbers of People which cannot be spared from
Husbandry.

2. As they so far lessen the Strength and Security of that Island.

The true Interest then of _Ireland_ being Husbandry, Trade and
Manufactures stand diametrically opposite thereto; for Trade being of it
self less laborious, and the Poor maintained thereby living more easie
than such as are employed in the Field, doth invite them rather to settle
in that way than the other; this is the reason why such Multitudes of
People daily flock into Cities from the Country, if they have either
Encouragement themselves, or can foresee any for their Children, whereas
few withdraw from Trade to the Labour of a Country Life; of this we have
an eminent Example in _New England_, which tho' it was the first peopled,
and by its Trade hath drawn thither great Numbers of Inhabitants, yet
that large Colony hath not cultivated so much Ground as far less Numbers
have in other Plantations much later setled; for whereas in them the
Product was thought to be their Wealth, and therefore the Setlers
disperst themselves, and with all the Assistance they could get
endeavoured to clear and fit the Ground for breaking up, these took
another Course, and by keeping together chose rather to live on Buying
and Selling, by which means their Improvements are very small, and their
Product of no value suitable to their Numbers, so that it seems at
present rather a Magazine of Trade, their chief Imployment being to
supply the other _American_ Plantations with Fish catch'd on the Coasts,
and some other things raised near the Seaside, and in Returns bring
thence the Commodities of their Growth, which they again barter with us,
or Ship to Markets themselves, and here it is to be noted that the great
Ballance of their Ttade is Ships, which (having plenty of Timber) they
build on reasonable Rates, either for Sale, or to be imployed for
transporting their own Commodities, which being generally bulky, such as
Timber, Mackrill, Bread, Horses, for the Plantations, and Codfish for
_Europe_, great part of their value arises from their Freights; This was
indeed their oversight at first, and now scarce to be retrieved; for had
they then began with Planting, and followed that closely for some time,
they might in all probability long since have made themselves Masters of
a greater Product, which would have laid the foundations of a much larger
Trade both to _Europe_ and other places in _America_; they are indeed a
thrifty sort of People, but want Commodities of their own Product, and
the Profits of a Nations Trade being very much limited according to that,
if the Parliament should think fit by new Laws to hinder the Freedom they
now enjoy in our _American_ Plantations (which I judge absolutely
necessary, because so much abused by their carrying those Commodities to
Foreign Markets without touching first in _England_, to the lessening our
Customs, and discouraging our Merchants here) their Trade must sink, and
they see their error too late.

2. And as Foreign Trade and Manufactures lessen the Number of Husbandmen
in _Ireland_, so secondly it lessens the Strength and Security of that
Island, which lies in a good Number of hardy People, enured to Labour,
who with it defend their own Interests, and cannot depart thence without
leaving their All; whereas Merchants and Traders being but Temporary
Residents may and often do leave a place when it most requires their Stay
for its Defence; an Instance of this we had lately, when the trading Part
of the Inhabitants thereof who could remove their Effects left it
soonest, whilst the Men of Land came more uneasily away, because they
left their Estates behind them, and had no Methods of maintaining
themselves in _England_ but by living on what they brought with them,
whereas the others soon fell into Trade here, and tho' they changed the
place were still in their Employments; now the Security of the
Freeholders of _Ireland_ is to engage as many as they can in the same
Interest with themselves, which may be done by dividing the Lands into
particular Farmes, in bigness suitable to the Stocks of such as undertake
them; by this means they fix their Roots in the Ground, and bind them
with a Band of Iron; nor would many of their People (if Trade were
discouraged) return to _England_ again, but imploy themselves and their
Stocks in improving such Farms as they should purchase either for Lives
or Years at easie Rents, or making themselves Freeholders.

And as the security of _Ireland_ is lessen'd at Land by Trade, so
likewise at Sea, for which they depend on the Kingdom of _England_; now
can it be thought this Nation will be at continual charges only to raise
a People which shall vye with them in their Trade? Or that we can be able
to do it when our Navigation decays? which it must do as the others
increases, who afford us few Saylers towards Manning our Fleet, whilst
our own are harrast by continual Presses; for let them be sure if the
_French_ King could have marched an Army thither as easie as he could to
_Flanders_, the Lands of _Ireland_ might long since have had other
Landlords, maugre all the defence they could have made.

Nor does the Profit of this Trade and Manufacture redound to the
Free-holders, but only to the Traders, who as I hinted before are a
separate Interest, and remove at their Pleasures.

But if the People of _Ireland_ think _England_ is bound to defend them
against a Foreign Invasion an Account of its own Interest and Security,
they must be allow'd to be in the right, yer let them consider also that
we have power to limit their Trade so as it may be least prejudicial to
our own, which in my Judgment cannot better be done than by reducing that
Kingdom to the State of our other Plantations, confining the Exportation
of their Product only hither, and that also unmanufactured, and
preventing their being supplied with Necessaries from other Nations; this
will make _Ireland_ profitable to _England_, and in some measure
recompence the vast Charges we have been at for its Reduction and
Delivery out of the Hands of Foreign Powers and _Popish_ Cut-throats, and
that not less than twice in forty Years, all paid by the People of
_England_, a Guess whereat may be made by this, that the last cost above
Three Hundred and Forty Thousand Pounds only in Transport Ships, for
which we now pay Interest; and if the Charge of Transporting our Army
thither with their Provisions and Ammunition cost so much, what did the
pay of the first and Purchase of the latter amount unto? Now 'tis very
reasonable the Nation should some way or other receive Satisfaction for
its Expences, and none seems more just and equal than this, which would
only limit the Profits of a few Merchants, who carry on a Trade to the
Prejudice of _England_; As for the Freeholders, they would be supply'd
with Necessaries on as cheap terms as now, and find Chapmen for their
Product, which would be bought up by Factories setled from _England_, or
they might send them hither themselves if they thought fit, and by this
means all would be manufactured here, and Foreign Markets must be
supply'd hence as they are now thence.

This is the way to prevent transporting their Wool for other Places to
the Prejudice of our Manufactures, and Importing Tobacco with other of
our Plantation Commodities directly thence to the prejudice of our
Customs and Merchants; this also would imploy our Navigation, and by its
short Voyages make Multitudes of Seamen; In short, we cannot imagine the
Advantages it would bring to this Kingdom till Experience hath shew'd us.

[Sidenote: Act of Prohibition.]

But then the _Act of Prohibition_ must be repealed, there must be free
Liberty to bring in Cattle both alive and dead, and all things else which
that Land produces; and here I must again renew the Question, _What is
Truth_? 'Twill be as difficult to perswade the Gentlemen of _England_
that this is their true Interest, as it is those of _Ireland_ that theirs
does not consist in Trade and Manufactures, one being byassed by the
breeding part of this Nation, as the others are by their Merchants, who
represent their private Profits as the Nations; and it is not to be
wondred they have Success therein when it carries so much the face of a
present advantage; but that the Gentlemen of _England_ should be still
fond of that Act after so many Years smarting under it seems to me very
strange, than which I know no Law in my time hath been more pernicious to
the Traffique of this Kingdom; 'twas this first put those of _Ireland_ on
that Trade which hath since almost eat out ours; 'twas this set them on
Manufactures, which were so far advanced before the late troubles, that
the sales of one Market as I have been informed came to a Thousand Pounds
_per_ Week; for so long as they had Liberty of Importing their Product
hither, and found a constant Sale when Imported, they were contented
therewith, but being put on a necessity of finding out Foreign Markets
for their Provisions, this made their Merchants (who were before
generally Factors to those of _England_, and are to give them their due
an ingenious prying People) dive deeper, and since we refused to take the
Flesh, they chose to keep the Fleece, and either to Ship it to Foreign
Countrys where 'twould yield a greater Price, or by a Manufacture to
render it fit for those Markets wherein they vended the other; 'Twas this
that hath produced such great Quantities of Wool in _Ireland_ as have at
least equalled if not exceeded _England_, for the greatest part of the
Lands of that Kingdom by reason of the thinness of its Inhabitants being
turned rather to pasture than Tillage, and this Prohibition discouraging
the raising black Cattle, put the People on stocking them with Sheep;
which Overplus would again decrease if _Ireland_ becoming better peopled
in its _Inland_ Parts by laying aside Trade fell more on Tillage, or by
repealing this Act the Inhabitants received Encouragement to betake
themselves again to breeding black Cattle; now if it be true that not the
quantity of a Commodity at Market but the Demand when there makes it bear
a Price, it will appear that the Makers of that Law were out in their
Politiques, by not considering that the Product of _Ireland_ must be
consumed somewhere, and if sent to Foreign parts formerly supplied hence
'twould abate the Exportation of ours, the Consequence whereof would be
the lessening their Expence abroad more than it was increased at home;
nor did they at the same time take care to put us on any footing equal
with the others by abatement in the Customs on Exportation, and thereby
enabling the Merchants of _England_ to sell suitably with those of
_Ireland_, but still continued Three Shillings _per_ Barrel on Beef, and
Four on Pork, whilst the others paid much less there, the same on Butter,
Bread, Flower, and other Provisions, so that a Stander by would have
thought this Law had been contrived for the Advantage of _Ireland_; all
which proceeded from the mistaken Interest of one part of the Kingdom,
which (were it true) ought not to prevail to the Detriment of a National
Trade, and the true Interest of the Remainer.

Nor will it be reasonable unless this Liberty be given to bind up
_Ireland_ from a Foreign Trade, and consequently to confine the
consumption of its Product to a Home Expence, except what we shall
occasionally fetch from them to carry Abroad; This as it will discourage
the Freeholders there, so will it Industry here, and the Trade must be
managed by great _Funds_, small Stocks not being able to engage in
transporting the Commodities they receive in Barter to Foreign Markets,
which they might in bringing them to _England_, being a shorter Voyage;
and so consequently the Product of _Ireland_ would have more Buyers, and
the Inhabitants be supplyed with Necessaries on cheaper Terms by this
free Trade, than when their whole Dependance should be on those
Monopolizers.

The next Question will be what effect the taking off this Prohibition
will have on our native Product? Whither it will lessen its Consumption?
I am of opinion it will not, because our Exports must be increased as
theirs from _Ireland_ are lessened, unless we do imagine Foreign Markets
will not consume the same quantities they did before, or will find out
new ways to be supplied with them from other places; besides, by how much
more charges are added to the Products of _Ireland_ (as those of Freight
and other petty Expences on such bulky Commodities will be if brought
hither) so much will ours be put on the same Footing with them, and bear
a better price.

It's well known that the Exporting our Wool to Foreign Markets hath by
the ill Consequences thereof abated its Price at Home; This hath been
observed by Calculations made by considering Men, and the reason was,
because those Countrys were thereby enabled to work up much larger
Quantities of their own into various sorts of Manufactures, which both
fitted their occasions at Home, and supplied Markets abroad where we
generally vended ours; by this means our Sales growing slack, and finding
new Competitors in our Trade, we were forced to sell our Manufactures
cheap, and this was done by making them slighter, and by lessening the
Prices both of Wool and Labour; whereas had we kept our Wool at Home
these Mischiefs had been prevented, and the _French_ and other Nations
could not have made such a Progress in Manufactures as they have done;
their Wool being unfit to be wrought up by its self (unless mixt with
_English_ or _Irish_) must have sought a Market here, and been returned
again to them in Manufactures, which is the true way to enrich this
Kingdom; This would have drawn over great Numbers of People to be
employed in the Cloathing Trade, who would likewise have consumed our
Product; and as these had increased so also had their Imployment, which
would have kept up the Price of _Wool_, things being of value in Markets
according as they are supply'd by Nation's standing in competition for
Trade, and it must be allowed that it was not the Interest of _England_
to fall its Manufactures abroad had we been the only Sellers, for
according as they yielded there, so much is the Wealth of this Nation
advanced; This our Fore-fathers knew when they made Laws not only to
prohibit the Exportation of _Wool_ hence, but also from _Ireland_, which
Laws cannot be too strong, on whose due observation depends our Wealth or
Ruin; now if the Trade of _Ireland_ was reduced to that of our other
Colonies, and the same Care taken about the Commodities of its growth,
our danger from that Kingdom in Relation to this would be at an end, when
Methods may also be used to prevent its being Exported hence.

Nor is there any reason to be offered why _Ireland_ should have greater
Liberty than our other Plantations, the Inhabitants whereof have an equal
Desire to a free Trade, forgetting that the first design of their
Settlement was to advance the Interest of _England_, against whom no
Arguments can be used which will not equally hold good against _Ireland_.

1. As it was settled by Colonies spared from _England_.

2. As it hath been still supported and defended at the Charge of
_England_.

3. As it hath received equal Advantages with the other Plantations from
the Expence _England_ hath been at in carrying on Wars Abroad and
Revolutions at Home; And on this last there is greater Reason against
_Ireland_ than any of the rest, we having lately paid more Money for the
Purchase of that Trade than the Profits thereof may bring to us and our
Posterities for many Generations; so that 'twould be a piece of great
Ingratitude for the Free-holders of _Ireland_ unwillingly to submit to
any thing whereby the Interest of _England_ may be advanced, to the
Inhabitants whereof they are indebted for their Lands, who have laid down
their Lives and spent their Treasures to reinstate them in their
Possessions.

As for Corn, Fish, and Horses, whither a Liberty may not be allowed to
transport them thence direct for other Markets on Ships first entring
here in _England_ is a point worth serious Consideration.

But the main objection as to _England_ is yet behind, a great part of the
Gentlemen of this Kingdom thinking it will sink the Rents of their Lands
if _Irish_ Cattle are admitted to be brought over alive, others that the
Importation of Provisions thence will fall the Price of our own; and
though in the former they do not so generally agree, differing according
as their Lands are Scituated, and proper for Breeding or Feeding, yet in
the latter they more unanimously consent, and cry out, _This is the great
Diana of the Ephesians_, the less Provisions are brought in, the more our
own will be expended, whereas if they did impartially consider, they
would find it an empty _Idol_; Nothing will advance their Lands like
Trade and Manufactures, therefore what-ever turns the Stream of these
elsewhere lessens the Number of Inhabitants who should consume their
Provisions, and when those increase so do the others, which (besides a
home consumption by People engaged in Imployments distinct from
Husbandry) doth always invite many Foreigners hither, who being Temporary
Residents spend our Product, it being a sure Maxim that _where the
Carcass is there will the Eagles be gathered together_.

Besides, when the _Irish_ Provisions are broughr hither, those Markets
which were supply'd with them thence before will then have them hence,
tho' perhaps at dearer Rates, and with them great Quantities of our own;
No Man can imagine what Expence there would be of _English_ Cattle were
we once fallen into the Trade of making Provisions here, _England_ as
well in its Beef as Manufactures exceeding all other Countrys, with this
farther Advantage, that the former for Goodness and Price cannot be
supplied from any other place save _Ireland_; nor do I suppose it so much
the Interest of this Kingdom when Provisions are advanced only by a Home
Expence, as when 'tis done by a Foreign Export, the first makes
particular Men grow Rich by preying on their Neighbours, but the Nation
grows Rich by the latter, when we vend them abroad at good Prices; nor
would our Plantations which now take off the greatest part of the Cattle
slaughter'd in _Ireland_ spend one Barrel less if kill'd here.

All Trade had a beginning, occasioned by some lucky Accident which put
People on new Projects, and why _England_ which hath so many Plantations
depending on it should suspect a consumption for its Cattle I cannot
imagine; we might then set the Rates of Provisions there, and the
Merchants afford to give better Prices for them here, when they shall
load them at Home, and save the Charges of going to _Ireland_, without
fear of having their early Markets forestall'd thence; and the Planters
being now grown rich are likewise able to give greater Rates for them
than they could at their first Settlement; _England_ had never a fairer
Opportunity of making an Entry on this Trade than now it hath, which
would soon consume great Numbers of Cattle, and consequently give
Encouragement to our Breeding Countrys as well as the Feeding.

But if a Manufactury is thought fit for _Ireland_, and its Circumstances
will admit thereof, let that of Linnen be encouraged, this may draw over
Multitudes of _French_ Refuges, and put them upon an Imployment wherewith
they were formerly acquainted, which we must assist by the benefit of
Importation Custom free, and the Advantage of Fashion; and then these two
Kingdoms encouraging different Manufactures will be serviceable to each
other, for which Stocks would not be wanting even from the People of
_England_, who would delight to see _Ireland_ thrive when their
Manufactures crost not ours; This would in time alter the Ballance of our
Trade with _France_, when we shall send thither more Woollen, and receive
thence less Linnen.

If the wisdom of the Parliament shall think fit by these or any other
Methods to make _Ireland_ more serviceable to the Trade of _England_ it
will advance both the Lands and Traffick of this Kingdom, and so make us
all better able to pay the Charge of this long and expensive War.

[Sidenote: Scotland.]

I shall next say something to the Trade of _Scotland_, which hath
formerly consumed more of our Woollen Manufactures than now it doth,
since that Nation is fallen on making them there, which they do out of
their own Wool, with the help of what they get from us, also of
_Spanish_, both from hence and from _Holland_.

But their chief Manufactures are Linnen, Butter, and Herrings; 'twere to
be wish'd the former was more encouraged by this Government, with Liberty
to bring it hither Custom free, provided they would send us also their
Wool, and then our Manufactures would not justle with each other; King
_James_ the II. limited their Trade to his Pleasure by Act of Parliament,
which I take to be a great reason why that People were so much at his
Devotion, but the Liberty of a free Trade was made one of the Terms
whereon his present Majesty received the Crown, who hath since given them
Encouragement to settle Plantations abroad, such as they shall either
plant, or buy from Foreign Princes, which he hath promised to enfranchise
with the same Rights and Priviledges he doth grant in like Cases to the
Subjects of his other Dominions.

They have also fallen lately on the thoughts of Codd-Fishing, whereof
they have great shoals about their Coasts, which formerly they used to
pickle and send away in Casks, but now intend to cure after the manner
'tis done in _Newfoundland_.

And doubtless these three things would much encourage Trade had they
Stocks to manage them, but those they want; I have heard it discours'd
that the Cash of that Kingdom amounted to One Million of Pounds Sterling,
but I scarce believe it does to One Half, perhaps not one Third which
properly belongs to its Inhabitants; therefore they propose to carry on
the Woollen Manufactures Plantations and Fishery by _English_ Stocks, the
two last by Companies, which will consist chiefly of _Londoners_, who
first promoted the Designs, and will furnish Monies for managing them;
Now I cannot think any Nation can settle Plantations abroad to advantage
which wants Stock and Manufactures of its own to supply them, the great
Profit of Plantations being to encourage Manufactures at Home, and the
means to settle them is by giving long Credits to the Planters abroad,
and when this is done by Money taken up at Interest from another Nation
the whole Profit will redound to the Lenders, so that the _Scotch_ may
make Settlements abroad, but if neither the Stock nor Manufactures are
their own, they will have only the name of being Proprietors whilst
others carry away the Profits, like a Gentleman who pays as much for
Interest yearly as the Rents of his Lands bring in, he may have the
Possession, but the Userer has the Income of his Estate; so for their
Fishing, which being managed on _English_ Stocks will bring them only so
much as shall pay for the labour of those imployed about it; The same for
their Woollen Manufactures.

On the other side if the Trade to these Plantations is driven by an
_English_ Corporation, the _Scotch_ indeed will get Imployments for their
Saylors, but all the Product will be other Men's, who will take care for
their own advantage to keep the Planters poor abroad, and the Inhabitants
from inspecting into it at home.

Besides, that Kingdom being now supplied from _England_ with _West-India_
Commodities at cheaper Rates than they can expect to raise them, will
want vent for their new Product when brought Home, unless absolutely
prohibited to be imported thither from hence, which will be a new Tax on
the Spender, paid only to a Foreign Monopoly; neither can they Export
them to sell on equal Terms with the English; so that on the whole I
cannot see what advantage the _Scotch_ can make at this time of day by
setling Plantations, which if they do attempt, we must besure to take
care of _Ireland_, and by reducing it to the terms of a Colony prevent
their selling the Product there, which I am apt to think is the main
thing they aim at.

[Sidenote: Canarys.]

The _Canary_ Trade brings us nothing but what we consume, and takes from
us little of our Product or Manufactures, we chiefly purchase those Wines
for Money therefore if it was reduced to the same Terms I have proposed
for _Maderas_ it would do very well: By this means we should at least buy
_Wines_ cheaper there, and then their Prices must be limited at Home,
both on the Importer and Retailer; 'twill be convenient to regulate this
Trade, but not to discourage it, for since we must drink Wines, 'twere
better we had them from the _Spaniard_ than the _French_, the first takes
off much of our Manufactures, the other little, and tho' perhaps the
_Canary_ Islands may not, yet I am apt to think those Wines are paid for
out of what we send to the Continent of _Spain_.

[Sidenote: Spain.]

This brings me to the _Spanish_ Trade, which I take to be very profitable
to this Kingdom, as it vents much of our Product and Manufactures, and
supplies us with many things necessary to be used in making the latter; I
shall divide it into three parts, _Spain_, _Biscay_, and _Flanders_.

To begin with _Spain_; by which I mean that part from the _Bay of Cadiz_
Eastward into the Streights of _Gibralter_; whither we send all sorts of
Woollen Manufactures, Lead, Fish, Tin, Silk and Worsted Stockings,
Butter, Tobacco, Ginger, Leather, Bees-Wax; and in Returns we have some
things fit only for Consumption, such as are Fruit and Wines; others for
our Manufactures, such as are Oyl, Cochineal, Indigo, Anato, Barilia;
with some Salt; but the greatest part is made in Bullion, both Gold and
Silver, with which this part of the Kingdom abounds, being supplied
therewith from their large Empires on the Main of _America_, whither they
again Export much of the Goods we carry thither.

The _Spaniards_ are a Stately People, not much given to Trade or
Manufactures themselves, therefore the first they drive on such
Chargeable and Dilatory terms both for their Ships and Ways of
Navigation, that other trading Nations, such as the _English_, _French_,
_Dutch_, and _Genoese_, take advantage thereby, only that to the
_West-Indies_ is on strict Penalties reserved to themselves, but having
no Manufactures of their own, the Profit thereof Returns very much to
those who furnish them; indeed of late they have made a small beginning
on _Bayes_, but will not be able to hold it when the War is ended; Nor
have they so well secured the _West-Indies_ but that it is very
plentifully supply'd by us with Manufactures, and many other things from
_Jamaica_, which is accompanied with greater Advantage than when sent
first to _Cadiz_; for whereas we generally sold them there at Twenty _per
Cent_ advance, we do by this Means make at least _Cent per Cent_, all
paid for in Bullion, which adds to the Wealth of the Nation; this I take
to be the true Reason why our Vent for them at _Cadiz_ is lessened,
because we supply _New-Spain_ direct with those things they used to have
thence before.

By _Biscay_ I mean all that part under the _Spanish_ Government which
lies in the _Bay_ of that Name; the Commodities we send thither are
generally the same; likewise formerly great Quantities of Refined Sugars,
till we gave the _French_ and _Dutch_ leave to undermine us, partly by
the Advantages they had by the late Imposition on _Muscovadoes_, and
partly by the Imprudence and ill Management of our _Sugar-Bakers_, who
would not take Pains to comply with the humours of that People as the
others did; but I hope if due care be taken, that profitable Trade may be
recovered again.

The Commodities we have thence are very advantageous, such as Sheeps
Wool, Iron, and Bullion, whereof the first is the best, as being the
subject Matter of a great Manufacture, which could we secure wholly to
our selves (tho' it cost all Bullion) 'twould be of great Advantage to
the Nation, but both the _Dutch_ and _French_ come in for their Shares.

The third part of our _Spanish_ Trade is that to _Flanders_, whereby I
mean all that part of the low Countrys now under its Government; whither
we send Commodities much of the same nature with those we send to the
other Parts, tho' not in so great Quantities; and among our Woollen
Manufactures more course Medlys; also Coals from _Newcastle_; but not so
much Leather, being supplied freely with raw Hides from _Ireland_, which
are tann'd there; This might be prevented were that Kingdom reduced to
the State of a Colony, and the Profit thereof would then return hither;
We have thence Linnens, Thread, and other things, which are used at home,
and shipp'd off to the Plantations.

[Sidenote: Portugal.]

The next is the Trade we drive to the Kingdom of _Portugal_; where we
vend much of our Product and Manufactures, little different in their
Kinds from what is sent to _Spain_; and from thence we have in Returns
Bullion, Salt, Oyl, Woad and Wines; of the latter we have lately imported
great Quantities, which as they take well with the People of _England_,
so its more our Interest than to have them from _France_, whence our
Imports are more than our Exports, and to this Kingdom our Exports are
greater than the Product thereof can make us Returns, especially since we
have desisted from bringing home their Sugars, a Commodity wherewith we
are more advantageously supplyed from our own Plantations, and did before
the War furnish Foreign Markets cheaper than they could.

This People were formerly the great Navigators of the World, to whom we
are indebted for their many Discoveries both in the _East_ and
_West-Indies_, besides the several Islands of the _Azores_, _Cape de
Verde_, and also _Maderas_; to these Islands they admit us a free Trade,
but their remoter Settlements on the Continent of _America_ they reserve
more strictly to themselves, whither they Export many of the Commodities
we send them, and in Returns have, Sugars, Tobacco, with some other
things, which are again Transported to the _European_ Markets, tho'
little of them hither; Their Islands we supply direct from _England_ with
our Manufactures, and from the _Azores_ load Corn, Woad, some Sugars,
Wines and Bullion, all received in Barter for them, but chiefly the
first, which we carry to _Maderas_, where 'tis again Barter'd for Wines,
shipp'd thence to our Plantations in _America_; in all these the
Inhabitants live well, and are very rich, but those residing on the _Cape
de Verd_ Islands are generally a poor despicable People, made up of
_Negroes_, _Molattoes_, and such like, who having but little Product to
give in Returns are therefore but meanly supplyed with Commodities, and
those very ordinary, so that they have scarce wherewith to cover
themselves, much less for Luxury; Asses Bieves and Salt being all we have
from them, which we generally carry to our Plantations in _America_;
Beife might be made very cheap there could it be saved, being purchased
for little, and Salt for less, but the Climate will not admit it; the
chief of which Islands is St. _Jago_, very rich, well governed, and a
Bishops Sea, where they are well supplied, because they have Money to pay
for what they buy.

The _Portugueze_ as they are now become bad Navigators, so they are not
great Manufacturers; some sorts of course Cloth they do make, and did
once attempt _Bayes_, for which they drew over some of our Workmen, but
it soon came to an end, and they returned home again by Encouragements
given them hence, so prudent a thing it is to stop an Evil in the
beginning.

Since this War they have had great Advantages in their Navigation, for
being engaged on neither side they have by that means drawn Imployments
from all; _Lisbon_ hath also been as it were a free Port for several
Commodities to be thence Transported to _France_, whence among other
things it hath been supply'd with Lead, which occasioned once an Order of
Council here for stopping all Ships bound thither with that Commodity,
esteem'd so useful to them in carrying on the War, but on second Thoughts
it was recall'd, for which Order there seem'd to be no good Ground at
first, as if the _French_ King, who doubtless would not refrain taking
the Plate out of his Churches to support the Charge of his War, should
out of Reverence spare the Lead that covered them if he wanted it, and
could not elsewhere be supplyed with it, which was not probable, since
'twas so plenty in every part of his Kingdom, one Tun whereof according
to a moderate Computation making above Thirty Thousand Bullets; I wish he
were better furnish'd with our Product and Manufactures, and we had his
Money for them, which would much more weaken him, than the other would
enable him to carry on the War; _Ireland_ supplies _Portugal_ with tann'd
Leather and Woollen Manufactures, which would be sent hence if the Trade
of that Kingdom was well regulated.

[Sidenote: Turky.]

The Trade driven to _Turkey_ is very profitable, which affords us Markets
for great Quantities of our Woollen Manufactures and Lead, shipt hence to
_Constantinople_, _Scandaroon_ and _Smyrna_, and from thence disperst
over all the _Turkish_ Dominions, also to _Persia_: The Commodities we
have thence in Returns are Raw Silk, Cotten Wool and Yarn, Goats-Wool,
Grogram-Yarn, Cordivants, Gaules, Potashes, and some other things, which
are the foundations of several Manufactures different from our own, by
the variety whereof we better suit Cargoes to Export again; and though it
must be allowed that the _Turky_ Merchants carry thither Bullion, and
'twas to be wish'd the Trade could be driven without it, being better for
this Nation if we bought all things in Barter for our Product and
Manufactures, (which above the Foreign Materials they are made off are
all Profit) yet if we rightly consider, we shall find great difference
between Buying for Mony Commodities already manufactured, which hinder
the use of our own, such as those brought from the _East-Indies_, or
things to be spent on our Luxury, such as Wines and Fruit, and buying
therewith Commodities to keep our Poor at work, these must be had though
purchased with all Bullion, and therefore we ought highly to esteem that
Trade wherein we receive so great a part of them in Barter for the other.

[Sidenote: Italy.]

To the several Ports of _Italy_ we ship great Quantities of Lead and
other our Product, and many sorts of Woollen Manufactures, but chiefly
those made of Worsted, also Fish, and Sugars both White and Brown, the
last principally to _Venice_, but more thereof in times of Peace than we
do in this time of War, Freights being high, and the Commoditie dear at
home; we bring thence Raw and Thrown Silk, and Red Wool, which are
wrought up here; also Oyl and Soap, used in working our Wool; some Paper
and Currants.

Both _Venice_ and _Genoua_ have made some Progress in a Woollen
Manufacture, being furnished with Wool from _Alicant_ and those Eastern
parts of _Spain_; wrought Silks and Glass are not so much Imported thence
as they were, since we have fallen on making them at home.

[Sidenote: Holland.]

The _Dutch_ do likewise buy many of our Manufactures, and some of our
Product, as Coals, Butter, Lead, Tin, besides things of smaller value,
such as Clay, Redding, &c. which are all Exported to _Holland_, not only
for their own use, but being a Mart of Trade for _Germany_ they disperse
them for the Expence of those Countrys, among whom also they vent our
_West-India_ Commodities, as Sugars, Tobacco, Indigo, Logwood, Fustick,
Ginger, Cotten Wool, besides what they use themselves; These are an
industrious People, but having little Land do want Product of their own
to trade on, except what they raise by their Fisheries, and bring from
the _East-Indies_, whereof Spices and Salt-Peter are many times admitted
to be brought hither, though contrary to the _Act of Navigation_; Indeed
the Trade of the _Dutch_ consists rather in Buying and Selling than
Manufactures, most of their Profits arising from that and the Freights
they make of their Ships, which (being built for Burthen) are imployed
generally in a Home Trade for Bulky Commodities, such as Salt from St.
_Ubes_ to the _Sound_, Timber, Hemp, Corn, Pitch, and such things thence
to their own Country, which Ships are Sailed with few Hands, and this
together with the lowness of Interest enables them to afford those
Commodities at such Rates that many times they are fetch'd thence by
other Nations cheaper than they could do it from the Places of their
Growth, all Charges considered; 'tis strange to observe how those People
buz up and down among themselves, the vastness of whose Numbers causes a
vast Expence, and that Expence must be supply'd from abroad, so one Man
gets by another, and they find by Experience that as a Multitude of
People brings Profit to the Government, so it creates Imployment to each
other; besides, they invent new ways of Trade, by selling not only things
they have, but those they have not, great quantities of Brandy being
disposed of every Year, which are never intended to be delivered, only
the Buyer and Seller get or lose according to the Rates it bears at the
time agreed on to make good the Bargains; such a Commerce to _England_
would be of little Advantage, no more than jobbing for _Guineas_, this
Nation would no way advance its Wealth thereby, whose Profits depend on
our Product and Manufactures; But that Government raising its Incomes by
the Inhabitants, (who pay on all they eat, drink, or wear) cares not so
much by what means each Person gets, as that they have People to pay,
which are never wanting from all Nations, for as one goes away another
comes, and every Temporary Resident advances their Revenue; therefore to
increase their Numbers they make the Terms of Trade easie; contrary to
the Customs of Cities and private Corporations with us, the narrowness of
whose Charters discourages Industry and Improvements both in Handecrafts
and Manufactures, because they exclude better Artists from their
Societies, unless they purchase their Freedoms at unreasonable Rates.

[Sidenote: Hamburgh.]

Another great Market for our Manufactures in _Hamburgh_: This City vents
great Quantities of our Cloth, Sugar, Tobacco, and other Plantation
Commodities, which are thence sent into _Germany_; from whence we have
Linnens, Linnen Yarn, and other Commodities, very necessary both for the
use of our selves and our Plantations, and no way thwarting with our own
Manufactures.

[Sidenote: Poland.]

_Poland_ also takes off many of our Manufactures, wherewith it is
supply'd chiefly from _Dantzick_ within the _Sound_, whither they are
first carry'd, and thence disperst into all parts of that Kingdom, which
hath but little Wool of its own, and that chiefly in _Ukrania_; but the
Expence of our Cloth hath been lessened there, since _Silesia_ and the
adjoyning parts of _Germany_ have turned their Looms to that Commodity,
occasioned by our disusing their Linnens, and wearing Calicoes in their
room; We have thence some Linnens, also Potashes.

[Sidenote: Russia.]

_Russia_ is likewise supplyed both from _Dantzick_, and also by way of
St. _Angelo_ with our Woollen Manufactures, and in Returns we have
Linnen, Potashes, Hemp, Leather, and many other Commodities, both useful
at Home, and fit to be carry'd Abroad.

[Sidenote: Sweden.]

_Sweden_ and its Territories take off great quantities of our
Manufactures both fine and course, besides Tobacco and Sugars; but the
Sale of our Broad Cloth hath been much lessened there of late, occasioned
by their loading it with great Duties, on purpose to encourage a
Manufacture of their own, their Wool is course, but _Scotland_ sends them
finer to mix with it, so consequently the Cloth made thereof must be
ordinary, however the King encourages its wearing by his own Example, and
thinks it his Interest so to do, as it advances his Revenue by better
enabling his People to pay it, yet this Manufacture must fall, especially
if _Scotland_ sets up any themselves, however all sorts of Serges,
Stuffs, and Perpets, are carry'd thither as freely as before; whither we
formerly sent also great Quantities of Calamy, till by a late Act its
Exportation was loaden with a Duty above its value, occasioned by a wrong
Information given the _House of Commons_, that it could not be supplyed
from any other place, the smart whereof those concerned in the raising
and calcining that Commodity have felt, none being Shipt off ever since,
_Sweden_ being furnished therewith from other Countrys, who formerly sent
it thither, tho' they could not do it on such reasonable Terms as we did,
whereby we beat them out of the Trade, but by this means having the
Market wholly to themselves will thereby receive such Encouragement as to
put an end to ours, unless that Act be soon repealed.

[Sidenote: Denmark and Norway.]

_Denmark_ hath no Supply of Woollen Manufactures but from us, yet takes
no great Quantities, and _Norway_ less, the People of the latter being
generally very poor are content with any thing they can get to cover
themselves; some Tobacco and Sugar is also Shipt hence, and spent amongst
them.

From these Northern Kingdoms we are supply'd with Pitch, Tar, Hemp,
Masts, Timber, Iron, all very useful in our Navigation, and without which
we cannot carry it on, Commodities which we must have though purchased
with Money; I look on any thing which saves our Timber at Home to be
advantageous to this Nation, which the great quantities of Baulks and
Boards imported thence do.

[Sidenote: France.]

The _French_ Trade hath every age grown less and less profitable to our
Woollen Manufactures, not only as the Inhabitants make wherewith to
supply themselves, but also other Nations, which they could not do were
they not furnished with Wool from hence and _Ireland_, their own being
unfit to work by it self; if the latter were reduced to the Terms of a
Colony it would put a stop to it there, and then ways might be found out
to prevent it here; nor doth _France_ spend much of our other
Manufactures, or of the growth of this Kingdom, or Product of our
Plantations, some Tobacco it doth, also Coals, Butter, Calve-Skins,
Bottles, and a few other things; it also furnishes us with nothing to be
manufactured here; so that the Trade we drive thither turns rather to
their Advantage than ours, which being generally for things consumed
amongst us, and our Imports exceeding our Exports, must needs be loss to
this Kingdom; But if Linnen Manufactures can be setled in _Scotland_ and
_Ireland_, Distilling, Paper, and Silk Manufactures, encouraged here, the
Ballance will soon be altered, especially if the _Portuguese_ make
Improvements in their Wines, for which they now receive great
Encouragement, the People of _England_ being not so fond of the _French_
as they were.

[Sidenote: What Foreign Trades are profitable, and what are not to our
Manufactures.]

And thus I have run thro' most of the Trades driven from this Kingdom,
and shew'd how they advance its Interest by taking off our Product and
Manufactures, and supplying us with Materials to be manufactured again,
wherein `tis a certain Rule that so far as any Nation furnishes us with
things already manufactured, or only to be spent among our selves, so
much less is our Advantage by the Trade we drive thither, especially if
those Manufactures interfere with our own; therefore I think the
_East-India_ Trade to be unprofitable to us, hindring by its Silks and
Calicoes the Consumption of more of our Manufactures in _Europe_ than it
doth take from us; the _Spanish_, _Turky_, and _Portugal_ Trades are very
advantageous, as they vend great Quantities of our Product and
Manufactures, and furnish us with Materials to be wrought up here, and
disperse our Commodities to other places where we could not so
conveniently send them our selves; This _Spain_ doth to all parts of its
Settlements in _America_, _Turkey_ to the _Black Sea_, _Persia_, and all
its Territories both in _Europe_ and _Asia_; _Portugal_ doth the same to
_Brazile_; the _Dutch_, _Hamburgh_, and _Dantzick_ Trades are very
useful, as they supply _Germany_, _Poland_ and _Russia_, with our
Manufactures, and little interfere with us therein; _Sweden_ and
_Denmark_ are profitable, both in what they take from us, and what they
supply us with again; _Ireland_ as now managed is destructive to us;
_Scotland_, for want of Stock is not capable of making any Advance either
in Manufactures or Plantations to our Prejudice; _Italy_ takes off great
Quantities of our Worsted Manufactures, and sends us little of its own
save wrought Silks, whereof we shall every Year Import less as we
encrease that Manufacture here; but above all I esteem the _African_ and
_West-India_ Trades most profitable to the Nation, as they imploy more
People at home, and encourage Navigation abroad, all their Product is our
Wealth, and hath been a means to ballance our Losses this War, and yet
they might be better improved to our Advantage; but the _French_ Trade is
certainly our Loss, _France_ being like a Tavern, with whom we spend what
we get by other Nations; 'tis strange we should be so bewitch'd to that
People, as to take off their Growth which consists chiefly of things for
Luxury, and receive a value only from the Esteem we put on them, whilst
at the same time they prohibit our Manufactures, in order to set up the
like amongst themselves, which we encourage by supplying them with
Materials; and not only so, but they lay a Tax on our Ships for fetching
away their Product, which must else perish on their Hands.

[Sidenote: The Ballances of Foreign Trades.]

The Ballance of that Trade is always against us, from whom we have in
Goods more than we Ship them; The Ballance of _Spain_ and _Portugal_ is
always in our Favour; as for the _Dutch_, _Germany_, and _Hamburgh_,
their Ballances in Trade are not yet agreed on, some think we ship them
most, others that we receive most from them, I encline to the former, the
Exchange at all times seems to confirm me therein, and tho' a Pound in
_Holland_ is now worth above a Pound sterling, yet I judge it to proceed
from the great Remittances we are forced to make for our Armies, which
the Exchangers know how to improve to their own Advantage; the Northern
Crowns supply us with more than they take from us, but the Commodities we
have from them are better than Money; _Turky_ takes Money from us, yet is
very beneficial; _Italy_ will grow more and more in its Ballance on our
side every year, as the Importation of Wrought Silks is lessened and
turned into Raw and Thrown; Now considering that almost the whole World
is supplyed by our labour, and that our Plantations do daily bring us
such Incomes, 'tis strange if this Nation should not grow Rich, which
doubtless it would do above all its Neighbours were things well managed.

[Sidenote: What Nations do chiefly cope with us in our Manufactures.]

Those who cope with us in our Manufactures are chiefly, the _French_,
_Dutch_, and _Ireland_; as to the latter, it lies in our Power to give
Rules to them; and for the _French_, let due care be taken to prevent
their being supply'd with Wool from hence and _Ireland_, and we shall
soon see an alteration therein; 'tis true they are of more danger than
the _Dutch_, because they have more Wool of their own, but this they
cannot work without ours or Irish; The Commodities they make are
generally pretty slight Stuffs, wherein they use a great deal of Combing
Wool, and these they not only wear themselves, but send to _Portugal_ and
other Places with good Success, to countermine which we have fallen on
the same by Assistance of the _French_ Refugees; I wonder at the fancy of
those who are always finding fault that we do not make our Manufactures
as good and as strong as formerly we did, wherein I think they are to
blame, for we must fit them to the humours of the Buyers, and slight
Cloth brings an equal Profit to the Nation with strong, and gives the
same Imployment to our People; yet where Seals and other Marks are set I
would have them be certain Evidences to the truth of what they certifie,
either to the length of the Peece, or that the inside is suitable to the
outside, or that 'tis truly wove, and without Flaws; the same in respect
to the Colour, that 'tis woaded, or madder'd, or the like; and I take it
to be a great deal of difference between this and obliging the
Manufacturer to make his Cloth or Stuff to a certain weight and
thickness, without any respect to the humour of the Buyer, or the Climate
of the Country to which it is sent; As for the _Dutch_, as I take them to
be no good Planters, so no good Manufacturers, their Heads are not turned
that way, but rather to Navigation and Traffick, they were once famous in
the Art of Cloth-making, which was maintained by the Wool they fetch'd
hence, but King _Edward_ the III. considering the Advantage they made by
imploying their People with our Growth whilst our own stood still,
prohibited the Exportation of Wool, and the Importation of Foreign Cloth,
and cunningly perswaded the _Dutch_ Manufacturers by Priviledges granted
them to settle here; if then the prohibiting Wool to be carried out had
so good an effect at a time when cloathing was the great Support of that
People, why should not our greater Care to prevent it now have a far
better, when the whole Trade of that Nation seems to be in the _United
Provinces_, and they chiefly set on Buying and Selling? We cannot hinder
them from _Spanish_ Wool, but we may from our own and _Irish_: As for
_Scotland_ and _Sweeden_, their Manufactures will come to nothing, and it
would be the great Wisdom of this Nation to encourage them to bring all
their Wool hither, though at some charge to the Publick; as for
_Germany_, the Woollen Manufacture is not so natural to them as the
Linnen, which they would soon turn to, if we gave them Encouragement by
wearing it here and in our Plantations; this would be more advantageous
to _England_ than by the use of Calicoes to force a Neighbouring Nation
to fence with us at our own Weapons, which they very unwillingly
undertake; the Woollen Manufactures in _Italy_ are but small, and those
chiefly among the _Venetians_, something among the _Genouese_, these we
cannot hinder, being supply'd with Wool from those parts of _Spain_ which
are near to them, except we could promote a Contract with the _Spaniard_
for all he hath, to which we never had a fairer Opportunity, and I do not
believe the _Dutch_ would much oppose it if we gave them liberty to bring
it in as Merchandize, I should be glad to see such a Barter made, tho' by
relinquishing to them our part of the _East-India_ Trade; Had we once the
Command of all the Wool of _Europe_, we might then set what Prices we
would on our Manufactures in Foreign Markets, which now we cannot do, but
must sell them cheap, lest we be undersold by other Nations who vye with
us therein, and our Manufactures selling well abroad, Wool would yield a
good Price at home; But if it be doubted that too much Wool will be
Imported, 'twould be better to burn the Overplus at the charge of the
Pub¦lick (as the _Dutch_ do their Spices) than to have it wrought up
abroad, which there is no reason to fear, seeing all the Wool of
_Christendom_ is manufactured some where or other; and if the _Act_ for
_Burying in Woollen_ did extend to our Plantations, 'twould be of great
use towards the Consumption of our Wool: Thus when the Nation comes to
see that the Labour of its People is its Wealth, 'twill put us on finding
out Methods to make every one work that is able, which must be done
either by hindring such swarms from going off to Idle or Useless
Imployments, or by preventing such Multitudes of lazy People from being
maintained by Begging.

[Sidenote: Difference between imploying our own Ships, and those of other
Nations.]

And this is farther to be noted, that where a Nation doth fetch from us
our Manufactures themselves, and Imports to us Materials, we get less by
that Trade than if we did it in our own Bottoms, because that doth also
encourage our Navigation; thus we get more by the _Spanish_ Trade,
because we both supply them with the former, and fetch their Wool, Oyl,
&c. in our own Ships; and we lose more by the _French_ when they bring us
their Wines and Brandy than when we fetch them our selves, and
accordingly we must take our Measures in judging of all other Trades.

[Sidenote: Whither the Ballance of Foreign Trade may be truly judged.]

It hath been a great Debate how the Ballance of our Foreign Trade shall
be computed, and what Methods must be taken to know whither we get or
lose thereby; some have thought that if we Export more than we Import we
lose by Trade, others that if we Export of substantial Commodities more
in value than we Import in such we then lose by it, and this seems to be
the most rational Computation, but I do not think there is any certainty
in the Account we can have of either; our Exports indeed are better known
than our Imports by the _Custom-House_ Books, the Bullion and such things
being not entered there, and seldom presented, besides many Commodities
both outward and inward are run, and never come under the Cognizance of
those Officers; but suppose a more exact Account could be kept, since so
great a part of the Trade of _England_ is driven by Exchange, and such
vast quantities of Commodities are imported from the _West-Indies_ and
others exported thither for Account of the Inhabitants of those
Plantations, the Ballances whereof they design to lie here as foundations
of a secure Settlement for themselves at home, which Commodities are
Exported to Foreign Nations on the Accounts of its Inhabitants, who pay
for them here by Bills of Exchange, I cannot see how any moderate
Computation can be made thereby of our general Trade, much less of that
we drive with any particular Nation, the Commodities which we receive at
one place being often carried to another; Thus we transport to _Italy_
the Sugars we receive for our Manufactures in _Portugal_, and bring
thence Silks and other things to be manufactured here; thus we carry to
_Turky_ the Money we receive at _Cadiz_, which helps us there in the
selling our Manufactures, and purchasing Materials more protable to this
Nation than the Money would be if Imported in Specie; and yet we must not
conclude we lose by the _Portugal_ or _Spanish_ Trades because the
Returns fall short by the _Custom-House_ Books, or that we get more by
the _Italian_ Trade because it doth not appear by them how we exported
Commodities to pay for those we Import, so the thing must still remain
doubtful.

[Sidenote: A Committee of Trade would be of great advantage to the
Kingdom.]

I think it would be a consideration becoming the wisdom of the Nation if
a standing Committee of Trade were appointed at the charge thereof, made
up of Men both honest and discreet, and I doubt not such may be found,
whose only business should be to consider the State thereof as to its
Trade; to find out ways how it may be improved both in its Husbandry,
Manufactures, and Navigation; to see how the Trade with Foreign Kingdoms
grows more or less profitable to us; how and by what Methods we are
outdone by others in the Trades we drive, or hindred from enlarging them;
what is necessary to be prohibited both in Imports and Exports, and for
how long time; to hear Complaints from our Factories setled in Foreign
Kingdoms; to correspond with our Ministers abroad about Trade, and to
represent all things rightly to the Government, with their advice what
Courses are proper to be taken for its Encouragement; and generally to
study by what Means and Methods the Trade of this Nation may be improved
both abroad and at home; if this was well setled, the good Effects
thereof would soon be seen; but then great care must be taken that these
Places be not fill'd up with Courtiers, who know nothing of the Business,
and so this excellent Constitution become only a Matter of Form and
Expence; and herein I would propose for Pattern the Members of the Bank
of _England_, who wisely foresaw if that project should fall into such
Hands, 'twould soon come to decay; therefore the first thing they did was
by fundamental Rules to shut out all from having a share in the
management, who had not a good Interest in its Profits or Losses, and
next to choose out of that number such for their Officers, who being bred
up in Business knew how to improve it to the best advantage: The _French_
King found this Method very useful in the Management of his War, and his
Opponents soon saw that Monsieur _Colberts_ Head did them more Mischief
than an Army in the Field, because the latter only put in Execution
abroad what he advised at home; and I think there is not more need of
Policy in War than in Trade, the curious Fibres by which it moves are so
fine and thin that if strained by injudicious Hands they are soon broken,
and yet our Parliaments generally handle it very coursely, and usually do
more Hurt than Good when they meddle with it, not foreseeing the ill
consequences of what they do will overballance the Good they intend, and
that the Methods they use will not answer their ends, the reason whereof
is because the Conceptions they have of it are too gross for a thing so
full of Spirit as Trade is; He that will but consider the _Irish_
Prohibition Act, the Clogg put on _Distilling_ by the Barly Act, and on
Navigation by the Tunnage Act, will soon see they are in Truth Hindrances
to what that Honourable Assembly intended by them, the Advancement of
Land.

[Sidenote: Insurance.]

I cannot close this Discourse without saying something of Insurance, the
first design whereof was to encourage the Merchant to export more of our
Product and Manufactures, when he knew how to ease himself in his
Adventure, and to bear only such a proportion thereof as he was willing,
but by the irregular Practices of some Men (especially since this War)
the first Intention is wholly obviated, who without any Interest have put
in early Policies, and gotten large Subscriptions on Ships, only to make
advantage by selling them to others, and therefore have industriously
promoted false Reports, and spread Rumours on the _Exchange_ to the
Prejudice of the Ship or Master, filling all Mens Minds with Doubts,
whereby the fair Trading Merchant when he comes to insure his Interest
either can get no one to underwrite, or at such high Rates that he finds
it better to buy the others Policies at great advance; by this means
these _Stockjobbers of Insurance_ have as it were turned it into a Wager,
to the great Prejudice of Trade; likewise many ill-designing Men their
Policies being over-valued have it's to be feared to the Disparagement of
honest Traders contrived the loss of their Ships; on the other side the
Underwriters when a Loss is ever so fairly proved boggle in their
Payments, and force the Insured to be content with less than their
Agreements, only for fear of engaging themselves in long and chargeable
Sutes.

Now if the Parliament would please to take these things into
consideration, they might reduce Insurance to its first Intention, by
obliging the Insured to run a proportionable part of his Adventure the
_Premio_ included, and the Insurers to pay their full Subscriptions
without abatement, and if any differences arise, to direct easie ways for
adjusting them, without attending long Issues at Law, or being bound up
to such nice Rules in their Proofs as the Affairs of Foreign Trade will
not admit; and for the better security of the Insured it will be worth
consideration whither the Subscriptions of the Insurers should not be of
equal force in Law with their Bonds.

[Sidenote: Whither the Price of Labour discourages our Manufactures, or
hinders Improvements in our Product.]

Here I intended to have made an end; but being lately present where among
other Discourses the question was put by an Ingenious and Worthy
Gentleman, (a true Lover of his Country) whither the labour of our Poor
in _England_ being so high does not hinder the Improvement of our Product
and Manufactures? Which having some Relation to the Subject Matter of
this Discourse, I humbly make bold to offer my Thoughts thereon, _viz._
That both our Product and Manufactures may be carried on to advantage
without running down the labour of the Poor.

As for the first, our Product, I am of opinion that the running down the
Labour of the Poor is no advantage to it, nor is it the Interest of
_England_ to do it, nor can the People of _England_ live on such low
Wages as they do in other Countrys; for we must consider that Wages must
bear a Rate in all Nations according to the prices of Provisions, where
Wheat is sold for One Shilling _per_ Bushel, and all things suitably, a
labouring Man may work for Three Pence _per diem_, as well as he can for
Twelve Pence where it is sold for Four Shillings; and this price of Wheat
must arise from the Rates of Land; it cannot be imagined that the Farmer
whose annual Rent is Twenty Shillings _per_ Acre can afford it as low as
he who pays but Half a Crown, and hath the same Cropp, nor can he then
expect labour so cheap as the other; This is the case of _England_, whose
Lands yielding great Rents require good Prices for their Product; and
this is the Freeholders advantage, for suppose Necessaries were the
currant Payment for Labour, in such case whither we call a Bushel of
Wheat One Shilling or Four Shillings it is all one to him for so much as
he pays, but not for the Overplus of his Cropp, which makes a great
difference into his Pocket; you cannot fall Wages unless you fall
Product, and if you fall Product you must necessarily fall Land.

And as for the second, our Manufactures, I am opinion that they may be
carried on to advantage without running down the labour of the Poor; for
which I offer,

1. Observation, or Experience of what hath been done, we have and daily
do see that it is so; the Refiners of Sugars lately sold for Six Pence
_per_ Pound what yieled twenty Years since Twelve Pence; The _Distillers_
sell their Spirits for one third part of what they formerly did;
Glass-Bottles, Silk-Stockings, and other Manufactures, (too many to be
enumerated) are sold for half the Prices they were a few Years since,
without falling the labour of the Poor, or so little as not to stand in
Competion with the other.

But then the question will be, how this is done? I answer, It proceeds
from the Ingenuity of the Manufacturer, and the Improvements he makes in
his ways of working thus the Refiner of Sugars goes thro' that operation
in a Month, which our Forefathers required four Months to effect; thus
the _Distillers_ draw more Spirits, and in less time, from the Simples
they work on, than those formerly did who taught them the Art; the
_Glass-maker_ hath found a quicker way of making it out of things which
cost him little or nothing; Silk-Stockings are wove instead of knit;
Tobacco is cut by Engines instead of Knives; Books are printed instead of
written; Deal-Boards are sawn with a Mill instead of Men's Labour; Lead
is smelted by Wind-Furnaces, instead of blowing with Bellows; all which
save the labour of many Hands, so the Wages of those imployed need not be
lessened.

Besides this, there is a Cunning crept into Trades; the _Clockmaker_ hath
improved his Art so high, that Labour and Materials are the least part
the Buyer pays for; The variety of our Woollen Manufactures is so pretty,
that Fashion makes a thing worth both at Home and Abroad twice the Price
it is sold for after, the humour of the Buyer carrying a great sway in
the value of a Commodity; Artificers by Tools and Laves fitted for
different Uses make such things as would puzzle a Stander by to set a
price on according to the worth of Mens Labour; The _Plummer_ by new
Inventions casts a Tun of Shott for Ten Shillings, which an indifferent
Person could not guess worth less than Fifty.

The same Art is crept into Navigation; A Tun of Sugars which cost a few
Years since from Six to Eight Pounds Freight from the Plantations, was
commonly brought home before the War for Four Pounds Ten Shillings, and
whereas it then weighed but Twenty-five Hundred, 'taws increased to
Forty-five, and yet Saylors Wages were still the same; Ships are built
more for Stowage, and made strong enough to carry between Decks; Wool is
steeved into them by Skrews, so that three or four Baggs are put where
formerly one would scarce lie; Cranes and Blocks draw up more for One
Shilling than Men's Labour could do for Five.

New Projections are every day set on foot to render the making our
Manufactures easie, which are made cheap by the Heads of the
Manufacturers, not by falling the Price of poor Peoples Labour; cheapness
creates Expence, and Expence gives fresh Imployments, so the Poor need
not stand idle if they could be perswaded to work.

The same for our Product; Pits are drained and Land made Healthy by
Engines and Aquaeducts instead of Hands; the Husband-man turns up his
Soil with the Sullow, not digs it with his Spade; fowes his Grain, not
plants it; covers it with the Harrow, not with the Rake; brings home his
Harvest with Carts, not on Horse-backs; and many other easie Methods are
used both for improving of Land, and raising its Product, which are
obvious to the Eyes of Men verst therein, though do not come within the
Compass of my present Thoughts; all which lessen the number of Labourers,
and make room for better Wages to be given those who are imploy'd.

[Sidenote: Cheapness of our Product no Advantage to our Inland Trade.]

Nor am I of opinion with those People who think the running down the
Prises of our Growth and Product (that so they may buy Provisions cheap)
is an advantage to the _Inland_ Trade of this Kingdom, but on the
contrary I think 'twould be beter for it if they were sold higher than
they are, which may seem a Paradox at first, till the thing be rightly
stated; suppose then the common and usual price of Beef to be Two Pence
half-penny _per_ Pound, and Wheat Three Shillings and Six Pence _per_
Bushel, and all Flesh and Grain suitable, 'twould be better for our
_Inland_ Trade if the former yielded Four Pence, and the latter Five
Shillings, and other things in Proportion.

To prove this, let us begin with the Shop-keeper or Buyer and Seller, who
is the Wheel whereon the _Inland_ Trade turns, as he buys of the Importer
and Manufacturer, and sells again to the Country; suppose such a Man
spends Two Hundred Pounds _per Annum_ in all things necessary for his
Family, both Provisions, Cloaths, House-Rent, and other Expences, the
Question will be what proportion of this is laid out in Flesh, Corn,
Butter, Cheese, &c. barely considered according to their first cost in
the Market? I presume we shall find Fifty or Sixty Pounds _per Annum_ to
be the most, and suitably the advance thereon will be about Twenty-five
to Thirty Pounds _per annum_, but the Consequence thereof in the Profits
of his Trade will be much more; for by this Means the Farmer may give a
better Rent to his Landlord, who will be enabled to keep a more Plentiful
Table, spend more Wines, Fruit, Sugars, Spices, and other things
wherewith he is furnished from the City, wear better Cloaths, suit
himself and his Family oftner, and carry on a greater Splendor in every
thing: The Farmer according to his condition may do the same, and give
higher Wages to the Labourers imployed in Husbandry, who might then live
more plentifully, and buy new Cloaths oftner, instead of patching up old;
by this means the Manufacturer would be encouraged to give a better price
for Wool, when he should find a Vent as fast as he could make; and a Flux
of Wealth causing variety of Fashions would add Wings to Mens Inventions,
when they shall see their Manufactures advanced in their Values by the
Buyer's Fancy; this likewise would encourage the Merchant to increase his
Exports, when he shall have a quick Vent for his Imports; by which
regular Circulation Payments would be short, and all would grow rich; but
when Trade stops in the Fountain, when the Gentleman and Farmer are kept
poor, every one in his order partakes of the same fate; and this hath
been a certain Rule grounded on the Observation of all Men who have spent
time to look into it, that in those Countrys where Provisions are low the
People are generally poor, both proceeding from the want of Trade: So
that he who would give a right judgment must not always consider things
_primâ facie_, as they offer themselves to us at first sight, but as
they appear to be in their Consequences.

[Sidenote: The Poor.]

Having thus gone through the State of this Nation in respect to its
Trade, we will next consider it with respect to the Poor.

And here it cannot but seem strange that _England_ which so much abounds
in Product and Manufactures, besides the Imployment given in Navigation,
should want work for any of its People; the _Dutch_ (who have little of
the two former if compar'd with us, and do not exceed us in the latter)
suffer no Beggars; whereas we whose Wealth consists in the labour of our
Inhabitants seem to encourage them in an idle way of living, contrary
both to their own and the Nation's Interest: Idleness though it cannot be
called the Image of the Devil, who is a busie active Spirit, yet fits for
any Impression, for whilst People neglect by some honest Labour to serve
the publick Good, they too often fall on such Courses as render them
publick Evils: _Livy_ (that famous Historiographer) observed it was the
greatest Sedition that ever was in _Rome_, when the Citizens went about
with their Hands in their Pockets, and would do nothing: Hence it is that
so many die Spectacles at _Tyburn_, and offer themselves up Victims to
Vice, no councels could perswade nor Examples fright them from those evil
Habits they had contracted by Idleness: The Curse under which Man first
fell was Labour, _That by the Sweat of his Brows he should eat his
Bread_; this is a State of Happiness if compared to that which attends
Idleness; he that walks the Streets of _London_, and observes the
Fatigues used by the Beggars to make themselves seem Objects of Charity,
must conclude that they take more pains than an honest Man doth at his
Trade, and yet seem to me not to get Bread to eat; and I wish that was
all the Encouragement they met with, I fear it is not, such swarms of
idle Drones would not then fill the Streets, who are a Nursery of Vice:
Beggary is now become an Art or Mystery, to which Children are educated
from their Cradles; any thing which may move Compassion seems a
livelihood, a sore Leg or Arm, or (for want thereof) a pretended one; the
Tricks and Devices I have observed therein have often made me think that
those parts if better imployed might be more useful to the
_Common-Wealth_.

In handling this subject let us consider,

1. What hath been the cause of this Mischief of Idleness, and how it hath
crept in on the Nation.

2. What must be done to restrain it from growing farther.

3. What Methods may be used to provide for those who are past their
Labours.

As to the first; we shall find that Sloath and a Desire of Ease is the
principal Cause; which appears by People's setting themselves on such
ways of Living as our Fore-fathers would have been ashamed of; nothing
but this could induce young Men in their full Strengths slavishly to
attend on selling a Cup of Ale, or depreciate themselves to be Pimps to
Vice, they think by these ways to be maintained in Sloth; Hereby Religion
is despised, and Vice promoted, Men thinking if they should profess the
first or discountenance the last they could not live on such lazy Terms;
and whence doth this proceed? Truly partly from the abuse of those Laws
we have, and partly from want of better: Licenses for Ale-houses were
heretofore granted for good Ends, not to draw Men aside from their Labour
by Games and Sports, but to support and refresh them under it; And as
they were then a Maintenance to the aged, so poor Families had
opportunities of being supplyed with a Cup of Ale from Abroad, who could
not keep it at Home; great observation was also made to prevent idle
Tipling, our Forefathers considered that time so spent was a loss to the
Nation, whose Interest was improved by the work of its Inhabitants;
whereas now Ale-houses are encouraged principally to promote the Income
of Excise, on whom there must be no Restraint, lest the King's Revenue be
lessened; thus we live by Sence, and look only to things we see, without
revolving what the Issue will be, not considering that the Labour of each
Man if well imployed whilst he sits in an Ale-house would be worth more
both to the King and Nation than all the Excise he pays; Industry usually
brings Wealth as its Concomitant, and though Success may not always
accompany private Men's Labours, yet the Publick gets thereby.

Nor did we fall into this Habit of Sloath at once, but by degrees; when
Luxury first crept in this was in the Embrio, but hath been cocker'd up
under it to the Pitch 'tis now arrived; much proceeds from Imitation, our
Gentry who have Estates betaking themselves to an useless way of Living,
those who had them not soon fell in love therewith, and to this much of
the Misery of the Nation is owing, Men affect to be thought what they are
not, and leaving honest Labour spend their Patrimonies in fine Cloaths,
and keeping Company, till being put to their shifts they are forced to
betake themselves to play or begging.

Another thing which hath increased our useless People is the Nobility and
Gentrys leaving the Country, and choosing to reside in _London_, whither
they bring up with them Multitudes of lusty young Fellows, who might have
done good Service at the Plough had they continued there, but having now
no other Imployments than to hang on their Masters Coaches forget to
work, and rarely or never return again to Labour.

Add to this the great Numbers who are employed in Offices about the
Revenue, Men who might have been serviceable either in Husbandry or
Manufactures, but now they and their Families are wholly taken off from
both, the Fathers chief Aim being to get the Son into the same way of
Living.

What Multitudes of Coffee-houses are there in _London_ and other places,
who keep lusty Servants, and breed them up to nothing whereby they may be
profitable to the Kingdom?

What swarms of Youth go off to the Law, who being the Sons of Yeomen and
Handecrafts Trades had been more useful to the Nation if bred up in their
Father's Imployments?

Besides those who live only by Buying and Selling, wherein wanting
Success they have no way to maintain themselves or their Families.

But above all, our Laws to put the Poor at work are short and defective,
tending rather to maintain them so, then to raise them to a better way of
Living; 'tis true those Laws design well, but consisting only in
generals, and not reducing things to practicable Methods, they fall short
of answering their Ends, and thereby render the Poor more bold, when they
know the Parish Officers are bound either to provide them Work, or give
them Maintenance.

Now if _England_ delighted more in improving its Manufactures, ways might
be found out to imploy all its Poor, and then 'twould be a shame for any
Person capable of Labour to live idle; which leads me to the second
consideration, what must be done to restrain this habit of Idleness from
growing farther; Here I find that nothing but good Laws can do it, such
as will provide work for those who are willing, and force them to work
that are able.

To begin with Manufactures; Here I should think Work-houses very
expedient, but then they must be founded on such Principles as may employ
the Poor, which can never be done on any thing I have hitherto seen; nor
will such Work-houses take effect till the Poor can every Week make
Returns of their Stock, which might be contrived did the Genius of the
Nation set in earnest about it; they must be fitted for the Poor and the
Poor for them; Imployments must be provided in them for all sorts of
People, who must also be compelled to go thither when sent, and the
Work-houses to receive them; the Stocks whereby they are maintained must
likewise turn often, for to put the Poor on ways of Traffick is too
dilatory for the Ends intended, they must be rather Assistants to the
Manufacturers than such themselves.

Now the Materials which seem most proper for these Work-houses are
Simples, such as Wool, Hemp, Cotten, and many others, which might either
be sent in by the Manufacturers on such equal Shares as the Justices
should think fit, or be bought up on a stock raised for that end, in both
cases to be taken off and paid for when brought to such a perfection as
the Rules of the House should direct, and that every week, or so often as
the Stock should require to let the Poor have their Wages to serve their
Occasions; these things would employ great Numbers of People, of both
Sexes, and all Ages, either by beating and fitting the Hemp for the
_Ropemaker_, or dressing the Flax for the Shops, or more especially by
Carding and Spinning the Wool and Cotten, of different finenesses, which
would be used in the various sorts of Manufactures we make; and if a
reward were given to that Person who should spin the finest Thread of
either, to be adjudged yearly, and paid by the County, 'twould very much
promote Industry and Ingenuity, whilst every one being prickt on by
Ambition and Hopes of Profit, would endeavour to exceed the rest, by
which means we should grow more excellent in our Manufactures.

Nor should these Houses hinder any who desire to work at home, or the
Manufacturers from imploying them in their own, the design is to provide
places for those who care not to work any where, and to make the Officers
of Parishes industrious to find out such Vermin, when they shall know
where to send them, by which means they would be better able to maintain
the Impotent.

It seems also convenient that these Work-Houses when setled in Cities and
great Towns should not be Parochial only, but one or more in each place
as will best suit it, which would prevent the Poor's being sent from
Parish to Parish as now they are, and provided for no where.

_Oakham_ also is a fit Material for them, which might be beat there, and
for that end _Old Junk_ be bought up, and those who caulk Ships be
obliged to take it off at a certain Price.

Tobacco also would imploy multitudes of People, in picking, stripping,
cutting, and rowling it, which might be wrought up either in Publick or
Private Work-houses, where Boys might be imploy'd till they came to Years
fit for the Sea; and when once the Poor shall come by use to be in Love
with Labour, 'twill be strange to see an idle Person; then they will be
so far from being a Burthen to the Nation, that they will be its Wealth,
and their Lives also will become more comfortable to themselves.

There are other things which will employ the Poor besides our
Manufactures, and more proper for Men, which are also equally beneficial
to the Nation, such as are Navigation, Husbandry, and Handecrafts, Here
if these or such like Rules were observed, they might be made more
Advantageous to all.

As first let every Gentleman who takes a Footboy be obliged to put him
into some way for his future Livelihood, to whom he should be bound for a
certain number of Years, and no Person should be permitted to continue so
after such an Age.

Let every Merchant or Trader who keeps a Foot-boy be also obliged to
breed him up in Business, and at a certain Age to set him to some Trade,
or imploy him in Navigation, wherein he should cause him to be
instructed; by this Means that which now makes lazy Beggars would then be
the Nation's Advantage; I think it a comely sight when I see Commanders
of Ships attended on by such Boys, because 'tis rarely seen but that they
breed them up to be useful Men, and when the Pride of Living tends to the
Common Good 'tis very well directed.

Another way to provide for our Youth would be by giving a Power to
Justices of the Peace to assign them to Artificers, Husbandmen,
Manufacturers, and Marriners, at such Ages as they shall think them fit
to go on those Imployments, who should also be obliged to receive them;
and tho' at first this may seem hard, as hindring their Masters from
taking Servants who might bring them Money, yet after some time it would
not, when those who were so bound out shall only do for others what was
done for them before; and this also may now be made good to them by such
an Overplus of Years in their Apprentiships as may countervail the Money.

I allow that these Methods are more proper for younger People than for
those of elder Years; As for such (who will rather choose to beg than
work) let them be forced to serve the King in his Fleet, or Merchants on
board their Ships; the Sea is very good to cure sore Legs and Arms,
especially such as are counterfeit through Sloath, against which the
Capster accompanied with the Taunts of the Saylors is a certain Remedy.

Next for Ale-Houses, Coffee-Houses, and such like Imployments, let them
be kept only by aged People, or such who have numerous Families, and
tended by Youth, before they are fit to be put abroad.

And as for Maid-Servants, let them be restrained from Excess in Apparrel,
and not permitted to leave their Services without Consent, nor be
entertained by others without Testimonials; this will make them more
orderly and governable than now they are.

No Servant should be permitted to wear a Sword, except when Travelling;
and if all People of mean Qualities were prohibited the same 'twould be
of good consequence, for when once they come to this, they think
themselves above Labour.

'Twould likewise be of great use to the Nation if Masters of Ships were
obliged to carry with them some Land-men every Voyage, which would much
increase our Seamen, therefore the Justices should have power to force
them to enter such as were willing, and to settle the Rates of their
Wages; I mean by Land-men those who have not been above three Voyages at
Sea.

Young People should be prohibited from Hawking about the Streets, and
from selling Ballads; if these things must be allowed they are fitter for
the Aged.

Stage-Plays, Lotteries, and Gaming, should be more strictly look'd after,
Youth in this Age of Idleness and Luxury being not only drawn aside by
them, but more willing to put themselves on such easie ways of living
than Labour.

These and such like Methods being improved by the Wisdom of a Parliament
may tend not only to the introducing a habit of Vertue amongst us, but
also to the making Multitudes of People serviceable who are now useless
to the Nation, there being scarce any one who is not capable of doing
something towards his Maintenance, and what his Labour doth fall short
must be made up by Charity, but as things now are, no Man knows where
'tis rightly placed, by which means those who are truly Objects do not
partake thereof; And let it be also considered, that if every Person did
by his Labour get one Half Penny _per diem_ to the Publick, 'twould bring
in Six Millions Eighty Three Thousand Three Hundred Thirty Three Pounds
Six Shillings and Eight Pence _per Annum_, (accounting Eight Millions of
People to be in the Kingdom) which would pay the Charge of the War, so
vast a Summ may be raised from the Labours of a Multitude, if every one
paid a little.

Nor is the sending lazy People to our Plantations abroad (who can neither
by good Laws be forced, or by Rewards encouraged to work at Home) so
Prejudicial to the Nation as some do dream, they still serve it in one of
its Limbs, where they must expect another sort of Treatment if they will
not labour; 'tis true they give no help to the Manufactures here, but
that is made up in the Product they raise there, which is also Profit to
the Nation; besides, the Humours and other Circumstances of People are to
be inquired into, some have been very useful there, who would never have
been so here, and if the People of _England_ are imployed to the
advantage of the Community, no matter in what part of the King's
Dominions it is; many Hundreds by going to those Plantations have become
profitable Members to the _Common-Wealth_, who had they continued here
had still remained idle Drones; now they raise Sugar, Cotten, Tobacco,
and other things, which imploy Saylors abroad, and Manufacturers at Home,
all which being the Product of Earth and Labour I take to be the Wealth
of the Nation.

The Imployment of Watermen on the _River Thames_ breeds many Saylors, and
it were good to keep them still fill'd with Apprentices; also the
Imployment of Bargemen, Lighter-men, and Trow-men, both on that and other
Rivers does the same, who should be encouraged to breed up Landmen, and
fit them for the Sea.

Confining the Importation of Sugars from the Plantations to _Muscovadoes_
would give Life to our Refining Houses at Home, so would prohibiting (as
much as may be) the Shipping thither things unwrought give Encouragement
to our Manufactures, both which would imploy the Poor.

Idleness is the Foundation of all those Vices which prevail amongst us,
People aiming to be maintained any way rather than by Labour betake
themselves to all sorts of Villanies, the ill Consequences whereof cannot
be prevented but by encouraging Youth in an early Delight of Living by
Industry, which would keep up a true _English_ Spirit in them, and create
a Desire to secure a Property in what they have; whereas a sloathful
Dependance on another's Bounty makes Men slavishly give up all at the
Will of their Benefactors, and having no Properties of their own to
secure, are easily perswaded to part with their Liberties; this a former
Reign knew well, when the Ministers of that Court found an Inclination in
the People to sell their Priviledges for Luxury and ease.

And certainly nothing hath so much supported the Rights and Priviledges
of the _Commons_ of _England_ as making so many of them Free-holders,
whereby they are encouraged to make Improvements where they have
Properties, and to defend them when made, Estates raised by their own
Industry and Labours; which likewise stirrs up Tenants to endeavour by
the same means to attain the same ends; a Spirit great where-ever it is,
tho' in the meanest Peasants, when they rather desire to live of their
own than by Dependance on others; this puts them on honest Endeavours,
these get them Credit and Reputation, which gives Opportunities of
advancing their Fortunes, and if this Emulation went through the Kingdom
we should not have so many lazy Beggars or Licentious Livers as now there
are; nor is God more honoured among any than He is among these
industrious People, who abhor Vice on equal Principles of Religion and
good Husbandry, Labour being usually a Barrier against Sin, which doth
generally come in at the Doors of Idleness.

[Sidenote: Mr Edw. Colson, near Bristoll.]

The third Consideration is what Methods may be used to provide for those
who either are not able to work, or whose Labours cannot support their
Charge. Here I take Alms-Houses to be good Gifts, where they are designed
to relieve Impotent old Age, or educate Youth; not to maintain idle
Beggars, or ease rich Parishes, but to provide for those who have been
bred up in careful Imployments, though notable to stem the Current of a
cross Fortune; Such a one is magnificently built, and suitably endowed by
a certain Gentleman near a great City, for which he deserves to be truly
honoured, though perhaps he may scarce be imitated.

Another way to provide for those who are true Objects of Charity is by
taking care that the Poor's Rates be made with more equality in Cities
and Trading Towns than now they are, especially in the former, where the
greatest number of Poor usually residing together in the Suburbs or
Out-Parishes are very serviceable by their Labours to the Rich in
carrying on their Trades, yet when Age Sickness or a numerous Family
makes them desire Relief, their chief Dependance must be on People but
one step above their own Conditions, by which means those Out-Parishes
are more burthened in their Payments than the In-Parishes are, tho' much
Richer, and is one reason why they are so ill inhabited, no one careing
to come to a certain Charge; And this is attended with another ill
Consequence, the want of better Inhabitants makes way for those Disorders
which easily grow among the Poor; whereas if Cities and Towns were made
but one Poor's Rate, or equally divided into more, these Inconveniencies
might be removed, and the Poor maintained by a more impartial
Contribution.

And that a better Provision may be made for the Relief of Saylors, (who
having spent their Labours in the Service of the Nation, and through Age
or Disasters no longer fit for the fatigue of the Sea, ought to be taken
care for at home,) let a small Deduction be made from Seamen's Wages, and
Freights of Ships, to be collected by a Society of honest Men in every
Sea Port; This, with what addition might be made by the Gifts of worthy
Benefactors, would be sufficient to raise a Fund capable to maintain them
in their old Age, who in their Youth were our Walls and Bulwarks; but it
must be setled by Law, and no Man left at his Liberty whither he will pay
or no; These are generally the most Laborious People we have, I do not
mean those Scoundrel Rascals who often creep in amongst them, but the
true old Saylor, who can turn his Hand to any thing rather than Begging,
and I am troubled to see the miserable Conditions they and their Families
are many times reduced to when their Labours are done; Alms-Houses raised
for them are as great Acts of Piety as building of Churches; Age requires
Relief, especially where Youth hath been spent in Labour so profitable to
the Publique as that of a Saylor, and not only themselves, but their
Widows and young Children ought to be provided for; In this the
Worshipful Society of the Merchants Adventurers within the City of
_Bristoll_ are a Worthy Pattern.

And as for those who lose their Lives or Limbsfighting against the
_Enemy_, themselves or Families ought to be rewarded with a bountiful
Stipend, which if raised by a Tax would be chearfully paid; 'tis attended
with sad Thoughts when a Woman sees her Husband prest into the Service,
and knows if he miscarrys her Family is undone, and she and they must
come on the Parish; whereas if this Provition were made, the Fleet would
be more easily mann'd, our Merchant-Ships better defended, Saylors more
ready to serve in both, and their Wives to let them go; but great care
must be taken that this Charity of the Nation be not abused, nor put into
the Pockets of those appointed to dispose of it, Confiscation of their
Estates should be made a Penalty to detert them from such ill Practices.

[Sidenote: Taxes to carry on the War.]

We will next consider the State of the Nation with regard to its Taxes.

When I consider the necessity of the War we are now engaged in, and the
Consequences of its Event, (the Liberties of _Christendom_, and the
Security of the _Protestant_ Religion depending on the Success thereof) I
think it the Duty of every good Subject to offer his advice in a matter
of this Importance.

Money we know to be the Sinews of War, it is that which doth strengthen
the carrying it on, and I believe there are few Men who do not by this
time see, that not the longest Sword but the strongest. Purse is most
likely to come off Victor; we are too far engaged to look back, and if we
do not go on with Vigour it will encourage our Enemy, and make him think
better of his own Strength; we cannot preserve at too high a Rate those
inestimable Jewels of Liberty and Property, which (if we miscarry in this
War) we are very likely to lose; therefore how unpleasant soever Taxes
may seem, Money must be raised, till the _French_ King can be brought to
such Terms whereon a safe and lasting Peace may be concluded; but great
Prudence ought to be used in the Methods of raising it, lest the People
be thereby disgusted against that happy part of our Constitution,
Parliaments, when they see their only work is to find out new Methods for
raising Taxes; to whom every such Act seems a new Arrow levied at them,
by these it is they are discontented, and think themselves shot thro' and
thro', because that under different names they hit the same Persons again
and again; besides the great charge• the Crown is at in those small
Collections, as any Man will see who considers particularly that of the
Hackny-Coaches, whereof near one quarter part goes away for its
management; and indeed few of the Projects I have yet seen seem to be the
effects of a considering Head, or to be so weighed as to support
themselves against common Objections, their greatest Foundation was
Necessity; besides, many of them cannot be renewed, their Income being
anticipated for many Years; so that for the future new Projects must be
thought on, and what this will at last tend to no Man can foresee.

I am apt to think most Men would agree with me in this, that if a Method
could be found out whereby Four or Five Millions might be raised Yearly
with little Charge and great Ease and Equality it must be much better
than now it is, and this to be a Fund out of which the Parliament to
appropriate what Summs they see necessary for every use, so that then
they would have Leisure to spend much of their time on other Affairs,
which is now wholly taken up about Ways and Means; besides, when the
People knew there was no new Tax to be raised, they would more chearfully
look upon the opening of a Sessions; and the _French_ King must be
exceedingly discouraged, when he shall see that after so great Expences
we come on with new Vigour, and have provided a Fund for carrying on the
War till he can be brought to such Terms as will establish a safe and
lasting Peace, which by the Means hitherto used we cannot expect, every
Tax we have given being like the Gasps of a Man labouring for Life,
whereby he concluded we could not subsist a Year longer, and doubtless
his Emissaries in _England_ have not failed to represent things to him in
their worst Colours; but I hope both He and They will find that the
People of _England_, to defend their Religion, Liberties, and Properties,
neither want Money, nor a Will to give it.

The Taxes of this Kingdom are chiefly to be raised on Land or Trade, the
first must be eased, and what is laid on the latter must be done with
great Caution and Consideration, things must be well weighed, and the
Principles whereon we proceed must be sure and solid, and then a thinking
Man may improve them by well-digested Notions; Trade like the Camel will
stoop to take up its Burthen, but the weight thereof must not be greater
than it can chearfully rise under, otherwise we destroy it, and shall by
our inconsiderate Covetousness lose those Golden Eggs it every day would
bring us.

Another thing to be consider'd in the laying a Tax is, that the Poor bear
little or none of the Burthen, their Province being more properly to
labour and fight than pay; He that gets his Money by the Sweat of his
Brows parts not from it without much Remorse and Discontent, and when all
is done, 'tis but a little they pay, therefore Taxes that light heavy on
them (such as Chimney-Money, and oftentimes a Poll) tend rather to
unhinge than assist the Government, by disgusting such a number of robust
and hardy Men as carry a great personal Ballance in the Kingdom, and may
be apt when they think themselves opprest to joyn with any for a present
Relief, not being well able to foresee the Consequences of things at a
distance.

Great Care should also be taken of our Manufactures and Manufacturers,
that they be not opprest.

A general Excise cannot do well, for besides the great Charge and
Oppression of Officers, it shews no Respect to the Poor, but they pay
more than the Wealthiest of their Neighbours suitable to what they have;
for though a rich Man spends more in excisable things than a poor Man
doth, yet it is not his All, whereas the other's Poverty gives him leave
to lay up nothing, but 'tis as much as he can do to provide Necessaries
for his Family, out of all which he pays his Proportion.

Much like this is a general Poll, where 'tis very difficult to tax People
equally.

But out of all these something may be taken which may be both easie and
practicable, and a Project may be fram'd which may raise annually enough
to carry on the Charge of the War, on equal and easie Terms, with little
or no Anticipation.

In the well laying whereof these following Rules seem fit to be
considered.

1. That what is laid on Trade be so weighed, that where the Trader pays
he may see an apparent Advantage.

2. That the charge of Collecting be on such easie Terms as not to eat up
a great part of what is raised.

3. That the Poor bear little or none of the Burthen.

4. That the Manufacturers be not discouraged.

5. That that Summ be not raised by many Acts which may be raised by One.

6. That the Consequence of a Tax be, either to remove a Publique
Grieviance, or to make it pay towards the Charge of the War.

7. That it be chiefly laid on those who have hitherto least felt former
Taxes, have least suffer'd by the War, and whose Imployments tend more to
their own Private Advantages than the Support of the Government.

8. That ways be found out to make all People pay their Shares for
carrying on the Expence of the War who are protected by it, whither they
live in _England_ or elsewhere.

9. That the Lands of _England_ be eased.

10. That the Revenue suffer not by Anticipations.

But after all is done, when Money is raised with Ease and Equality to the
Subject, yet if great Care be not taken to see it well laid out, 'twill
fall short of answering the end designed; good Methods are as necessary
in this as the former, and the Nation will be more willing to give
chearfully, when it shall see the Publick Treasure managed to Advantage;
'twill be no difficult Task to make its Credit equal with private
Merchants, and its Penny pass as far, this will be done when its Payments
are as punctual; but then things must not be begun in the middle, but at
the right end; we quarrel in vain with a Collonel for not paying an
Hundred Pounds to his Regiment, when perhaps he receives but Seventy to
do it with; nor can the Captains pay their Soldiers to the full, when the
Money grows less in every Hand through which it passes; Labour is spent
to no purpose about the Conduit Pipes, when the Water stops in the
Spring; Errors in the Foundation are most fatal; when things are set
right at the Fountain Head, then 'twill be time to enquire into the
defects of the several Currents; Payments punctually made according to
agreement would encourage all Men to sell their Commodities cheap, and
put an end to the Abuses of Agents, Cloathiers of the Army, and
Ticket-Buyers, who do now prey on the Publick; the King would then have
his Money well laid out, and those who serve him be paid without dilatory
and chargeable Attendances; and when the Nation comes to be satisfied
that what Money is raised for carrying on the War is justly applyed to
its use, and managed with good Husbandry, the Parliament will give more
readily, and the People pay more chearfully; this will render his Majesty
the Terror of his Enemies, and the delight of his Friends, who will then
strive to outdo each other in their forwardness to serve him with their
Lives and Fortunes; especially when they shall see that due Care is also
taken to secure their Trade, which must enable them to pay their Taxes.

[Sidenote: Conclusion.]

And thus I have given my thoughts of these three Subjects; I shall only
add, that what I have done hath not proceeded from an Itch of Writing,
but purely from the Love I bear to my Native Country, whose Good and
Welfare I delight in, and should be glad to see it flourish and though
perhaps I may be thought mistaken in some particulars of this Discourse,
yet I believe few will disagree with me in the Foundation, that the
Interest of _England_ doth consist in Improving its _Trade_, _Product_,
and _Manufactures_; What I have imperfectly treated on I should be well
pleased to see a better Pen undertake, great things have often risen from
small Beginnings, perhaps this may stir up some abler Head (without
Reflections) to handle the Subject fuller, which, as it may be useful to
the Nation, so I should read it with great Delight for if the _Trade_ of
_England_ thrives, it answers my end, and I care not who proposes the
Methods.


FINIS.





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