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Title: A Friend in the Kitchen - Or What to Cook and How to Cook It. Sixteenth Edition
Author: Colcord, Anna L.
Language: English
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[Illustration: THE AUTHOR]


A FRIEND IN THE KITCHEN

Or
What to Cook and How to Cook It

Containing
About 400 Choice Recipes Carefully Tested
Together with
Plain Directions on Healthful Cookery; How to Can Fruit; A Week’s Menu;
Proper Food Combinations; Rules for Dyspeptics; Food for Infants;
Simple Dishes for the Sick; Wholesome Drinks; Useful Tables
on Nutritive Values of Foods; Time Required to
Digest Foods; Weights and Measures for
the Kitchen; etc.

by

MRS. ANNA L. COLCORD

Sixteenth Edition, 160th Thousand


   “_There is religion in a good loaf of bread._”
           “_Bad Cooking diminishes happiness and shortens life._”



Review and Herald Publishing Association
Takoma Park Station, Washington, D. C.

Copyrighted 1899, 1908 by the Author. All rights reserved.



                         INDEX TO DEPARTMENTS


                                           PAGE

  IMPORTANCE OF GOOD COOKING                  4

  SOUPS                                       7

  CEREALS                                    13

  TOASTS                                     18

  BREADS                                     21

  FRUITS                                     35

  VEGETABLES                                 47

  SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS                 58

  SUBSTITUTES FOR MEATS                      60

  EGGS                                       66

  OMELETS                                    68

  PUDDINGS                                   69

  CUSTARDS AND CREAMS                        75

  SAUCES                                     77

  PIES                                       80

  CAKES                                      86

  WHOLESOME DRINKS                           91

  SPECIALLY PREPARED HEALTH FOODS            94

  SIMPLE DISHES FOR THE SICK                 98

  FOOD FOR INFANTS                          101

  MISCELLANEOUS                             102

  A WEEK’S MENU                             105

  SABBATH DINNERS                           106

  FOOD COMBINATIONS                         107

  TIME REQUIRED TO DIGEST VARIOUS FOODS     107

  NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS                  108

  HOW TO BECOME A VEGETARIAN                109

  RULES FOR DYSPEPTICS                      110

  THE PULSE IN HEALTH                       111

  WEIGHTS AND MEASURES FOR THE KITCHEN      111

  HOUSEHOLD HINTS                           111



              THE ART OF ARTS


    Some maids are gifted with the art
      Of painting like the masters;
    To dullest canvas they impart
      The freshness of the pastures.

    While others, with their ready pen,
      Find hours of busy pleasure
    In polished prose, or then, again,
      In light poetic measure.

    Another, like a woodland bird,
      May set the sad world ringing
    With carols sweet as ever heard;
      Here is the art of singing.

    But there’s a maid and there’s an art
      To which the world is looking,—
    The nearest art unto the heart,—
      The good old art of cooking.
                               —_Selected._


PRACTICAL ’OLOGIES


DAUGHTER.—“Yes, I’ve graduated, but now I must inform myself in
psychology, philology, bibli—“
PRACTICAL MOTHER.—“Stop right where you are: I have arranged for
you a thorough course in ‘roastology,’ ‘boilology,’ ‘stitchology,’
‘darnology,’ ‘patchology,’ and general domestic ‘hustleology.’ Now get
on your working clothes.”—_Detroit Free Press._

A little girl who, when having her Scripture lesson, was asked by her
sister Ruth, “Why did God make Eve?” replied, “To cook for Adam, o‘
course.”—_Christian World._

There are some tombstones upon which the inscription might very
properly be written, “He died a victim to poor cooking.”



                                Preface


The object of this work is to furnish in an inexpensive and convenient
form, plain directions on healthful cookery. Special attention has been
given to the idea of presenting such recipes as will tend to make the
living of the family what it should be,—simple, economical, wholesome,
nutritious, palatable, and varied.

The housewife is often perplexed to know just what to cook; but if she
has at hand something which will suggest to her what she desires but
can not think of, she has that which is indeed a friend.

The author has tried to make the work sufficiently comprehensive to
answer the demands of an ordinary household.

The recipes for the preparation of grains, fruits, nuts, and vegetables
occupy a large portion of the work. Cream is mentioned in a number of
the recipes, but while its use is to be preferred instead of butter,
especially if sterilized, substitutes have generally been suggested
where it is not at hand or available.

Pains have been taken to make the recipes plain and explicit, and
yet as brief as possible consistent with these ends. The amount of
the various ingredients required has generally been indicated by
measure, rather than by weight, as this is usually more convenient and
time-saving.

It is hoped that this little work will be found to be a real friend in
the kitchen. That it may be such, and that it may prove a blessing to
thousands in many lands, is the sincere wish of—
                                                       THE AUTHOR.



                        A FRIEND IN THE KITCHEN
                  Or What to Cook and How to Cook It


                      IMPORTANCE OF GOOD COOKING


Healthful cookery is not receiving the attention which its importance
demands. Although we are living at a time when eating and drinking are
carried to excess, and when elaborate bills of fare are frequently
placed before us, yet plain, simple, and healthful cookery occupies but
a comparatively small place in the culinary world to-day.

Good food is of primary importance. We live upon what we eat. It is not
sufficient, however, merely to select good food. To be well digested
and thoroughly assimilated the food must be properly prepared. The best
food may be spoiled in cooking. The kind of food upon which we live,
and the manner in which it is prepared, determines largely our physical
well-being, and consequently much of our happiness or misery in this
life.

    “For love, nor honor, wealth, nor power,
    Can give the heart a cheerful hour
    When health is lost. Be timely wise;
    With health all taste of pleasure flies.”

Moreover, the mind is affected by the condition of the body, and the
morals by the state of the mind. As, therefore, cooking determines to
a large degree the condition of the body, it must also affect to a
considerable extent our moral and spiritual welfare. It is not too much
to say, therefore, that there is religion in good cooking.

It has been truly said that “the cook fills an important place in the
household. She is preparing food to be taken into the stomach, to form
brain, bone, and muscle. The health of all the members of the family
depends largely upon her skill and intelligence.” As the lives of those
on a steamship are in the hands of the helmsman, so the lives and the
health of the members of the family are, to a great degree, in the
hands of the one who prepares their meals.

Thousands are dying annually as the result of poor cooking. Food poorly
prepared is not nutritious, and can not, therefore, make good blood.

Some may say they have no natural ability to cook; but any one
having ordinary intelligence, with a little effort, care, and proper
directions, can learn to cook well. And surely the health of the family
ought to be of sufficient importance to inspire every mother with
ambition to learn how to cook.

Mothers should also teach their daughters the mysteries of good
cooking. They should show them that this is an essential part of their
education,—more essential than the study of music, fancy work, the
dead languages, or the sciences. The knowledge of these latter without
the knowledge of how to care for the body and provide it with suitable
nourishment, is of little worth. Meredith hit upon a great truth when
he said:—

    “We may live without music, poetry, and art;
    We may live without conscience, and live without heart,
    We may live without friends; we may live without books;
    But civilized man can not live without cooks.”

No young woman should contemplate marriage until she has first acquired
a practical knowledge of simple cookery, for this is essential, whether
she expects to do the cooking herself, or supervise the maid. Although
bread is the staff of life, it is a sad fact that a large proportion
of the daughters of the present generation do not know how to make a
good loaf of bread. They have not been instructed in the useful art of
cookery, so that when they have families of their own they can provide
for their tables a well-cooked dinner, prepared with nicety, so that
they would not blush to place it before their most esteemed friends.

There has never been an age so noted for dyspeptics as the present, and
there was perhaps never before a time when there was a greater scarcity
of good cooks.

    “Though we boast of modern progress as aloft we proudly soar
    Above untutored cannibals whose habits we deplore,
    Yet in our daily papers any day you chance to look
    You may find this advertisement: ‘Wanted—A Girl to Cook.’”

Good cooking does not consist in the preparation of highly seasoned
foods to pamper a perverted appetite, but in cooking with simplicity,
variety, and skill natural foods in a palatable and wholesome manner.
To assist in this direction is the object of this little work.

But no workman can work without materials and tools. The necessary
materials for cooking are indicated in the recipes given in this book.
Illustrations of many of the most necessary and useful cooking utensils
will be found scattered throughout the work.

A very convenient and easily constructed wall rack, which may be placed
over the kitchen work table, is shown in the following cut:

[Illustration: A rack of kitchen implements]



                                 SOUPS

    O hour of all hours, the most pleasant on earth,
    Happy hour of our dinners!—_Meredith._

 Soup rejoices the stomach, and disposes it to receive and digest other
 food.—_Brillat Savarin._

 It is important that we relish the food we eat.—_Christian Temperance._

                              [Leaf]


Soup is easily prepared, economical, and when made from healthful
materials, is a very wholesome article of diet. It adds much to the
elegance and relish of a dinner, and, if taken in small quantities, is
a good means of preparing the whole system to assimilate a hearty meal.

Soups afford an excellent opportunity for using left-over foods which
might otherwise be wasted. A combination of vegetables left over from
the previous day, such as a cupful of mashed potatoes, some stewed
peas, beans, or lentils, a few spoonfuls of boiled rice, stewed
tomatoes, or other bits of vegetables or grains, if in good order, make
a very palatable and nourishing soup. The vegetables should be put all
together in a saucepan with enough water to cover them, let simmer
for an hour or two, then rubbed through a colander, and returned to
the saucepan with sufficient water added to make the soup of proper
consistency, reheated, seasoned, and served.

For seasoning soup, a few spoonfuls of cream, or a little butter
or nut butter may be used, though, if properly made, it is quite
relishable without.

We wish all our readers success with the following simple but delicious
kinds.

                             [Leaf]


BEAN SOUP

For two quarts of soup soak one pint of beans overnight. In the
morning drain, and put to cook in cold water, adding one-third cup of
well-washed rice if desired; boil slowly for about two hours. When
done, rub through a colander, thin with boiling water, and season with
a little butter and salt.


POTATO SOUP

Pare and slice three medium-sized potatoes, and put to cook with a
tablespoonful of chopped onion, or stalk of celery chopped fine,
in sufficient water to cover. If celery is not at hand, one-half
teaspoonful of celery salt may be used instead. Melt two tablespoonfuls
of butter in a saucepan over the fire, then add two tablespoonfuls of
flour, stir well, and cook one minute; then add gradually one quart
of milk, stirring constantly until thickened. Simmer for ten minutes.
As soon as the potatoes are done, and the water nearly absorbed,
rub, without draining, through a colander, and add them to the hot,
thickened milk. Season with salt, and serve.


GREEN PEA SOUP

Add to a quart of green peas a teaspoonful of sugar and enough water to
cover; cook gently until tender, and the water quite absorbed. Then rub
through a colander, add a quart of milk, salt to taste, and return to
the fire. Heat to boiling, then add a spoonful of flour, mixed smooth
with a little butter, then to a thin paste with a little of the soup.
Simmer for a few minutes, and serve with croutons. If desired, a little
onion or celery may be added for seasoning during the last few minutes
of cooking, and then be removed.


SPLIT PEA SOUP

Wash one cupful of dried, split peas, and soak for several hours, or
overnight, in cold water. Then put to cook in three pints of cold
water, and boil slowly until thoroughly dissolved, adding more water
occasionally to keep the quantity good. Stir up frequently from the
bottom of the kettle. Rub through a colander; add water or rich milk
to make the proper consistency, and return to the fire. Brown slightly
one tablespoonful of flour in a tablespoonful of butter or cooking
oil, then thin it with a few spoonfuls of the hot soup; stir this
into the boiling soup, with salt to taste; simmer for ten minutes, and
serve. An onion chopped fine and browned with the flour may be used for
seasoning; also a cupful of tomatoes may be cooked with the peas before
straining, if desired.


SPLIT PEA AND VERMICELLI SOUP

Make the soup as above. Cook one-half cup of vermicelli in a cupful of
boiling water for ten minutes and add to the soup.


TOMATO SOUP

Put a quart can of tomatoes in a porcelain stewpan, add a pint of
water, and stew until well done. Brown lightly in a frying-pan a
tablespoonful of finely chopped onion in a tablespoonful of butter or
cooking oil; then mix in a tablespoonful of flour or cornstarch; thin
this with a little of the soup, and then stir it into the soup. Simmer
for ten minutes, run through a colander, reheat, add salt to taste, and
serve hot with croutons.


CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP

Take two cupfuls of canned or fresh tomatoes, add a cupful of water,
one teaspoonful of minced onion, and, if desired, a little chopped
celery; stew till tender, then rub through a colander. Heat one quart
of milk to boiling. Have mixed smooth one tablespoonful of butter and
one level tablespoonful of flour, then thin with a little of the hot
milk. Stir this into the milk as soon as it starts to boil, and cook
for several minutes, adding salt to taste. Then add the tomatoes. Do
not cook or let stand after the tomatoes are added, but serve at once.


LENTIL SOUP

Cook one cupful of lentils, previously soaked an hour or two in about
a quart of water, until tender. Rub through a colander; return to the
fire, adding enough boiling water to make a quart in all, a small onion
cut in slices, and salt to taste. When heated to boiling, thicken to
the consistency of cream with browned flour. Season with a little
butter or a few spoonfuls of sweet cream. If butter is used it should
be mixed or braided with the flour, then thinned with enough of the
soup so that it can be easily poured in. Simmer for ten minutes after
adding the flour. Remove the onion before serving. The German or dark
lentils are usually cheaper than the Egyptian or red lentils.


LENTIL AND TOMATO SOUP

Soak one cupful of lentils in cold water for a few hours, then cook
in a quart of water until tender, with one small onion, three or four
fresh tomatoes, or two cupfuls of stewed ones, and a tablespoonful of
nut butter, if desired. Rub through a colander, add hot water to make
three pints in all, reheat to boiling, and slightly thicken with a
spoonful of browned flour mixed with a little cold water. Season with a
small lump of butter or a few spoonfuls of cream.


TOMATO AND MACARONI SOUP

Drop a cupful of macaroni broken into small pieces into three or four
cupfuls of boiling, slightly salted, water; boil from thirty to sixty
minutes, or until tender, the length of time required depending upon
whether the macaroni is fresh or stale. Have stewing one quart of fresh
or canned tomatoes, and when done, rub through a colander; drain the
macaroni, and add it to the tomatoes, with hot water to make about
three pints in all. Reheat, season with salt and a little butter, and,
after removing from the fire, add a few spoonfuls of sweet cream if
convenient. Serve as soon as the cream is added.


RICE SOUP

Wash one-third cup of rice and put to cook in about three cupfuls of
water, adding a little salt; cook until tender. Then add one quart of
milk, and salt to taste; reheat to boiling. Have ready a tablespoonful
of butter mixed smooth with a tablespoonful of flour, then made thin
with a little of the hot milk; pour this into the soup and simmer for
ten minutes. Celery may be added for flavoring if desired. Also, if
desired richer, a beaten yolk of egg, first mixed with a few spoonfuls
of the hot soup to prevent coagulating, may be added to the soup a few
minutes before serving.


SAGO PEA SOUP

Wash, soak, and cook one cupful of split peas in plenty of water until
tender; rub through a colander, return to the fire, adding enough hot
water to make three pints in all, and a few slices of onion. Wash three
tablespoonfuls of sago in warm water, and stir gradually into the soup;
simmer for a half-hour, or until well dissolved. Remove the onion, and
season with salt. Add a few spoonfuls of thin cream or rich milk to
the beaten yolk of an egg, and stir into the soup a few minutes before
serving.


SAGO FRUIT SOUP (SUMMER)

Soak one-half cup of sago for an hour in a cup of cold water; then add
a quart of hot water, and simmer until transparent. In the meantime
cook together one cup of prunes and one-half cup of raisins in a
small quantity of water. When the sago is transparent, add the fruit,
together with one-half cup of currant, plum, or some other tart fruit
juice, and one-half cup of sugar. This will make three pints of soup.
Serve hot with croutons.

Instead of the above, rice with dried apricots, and prune or currant
juice may be used.


VEGETABLE SOUP (SUMMER)

Take a cupful each of chopped turnips, carrots, cauliflower or
cabbage, several young onions cut fine, one cupful of green peas, one
tablespoonful parsley or bay leaves for flavoring, and stew together
in a stewpan with water to cover for six or eight minutes; then drain,
cover with fresh boiling water, and stew slowly until tender, and the
water nearly absorbed. Strain through a colander. Add enough hot rich
milk or cream to make quite thin, salt to taste, reheat, and serve.


VEGETABLE SOUP (WINTER)

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a stewpan or soup kettle, add
one onion chopped fine, and brown nicely; stir frequently to prevent
burning. To this add a tablespoonful of flour, mix thoroughly, then
pour in slowly a pint of hot water, stirring to keep smooth. Add to
this one-half cupful each of chopped carrots, turnips, and celery, one
cupful of tomatoes, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of chopped
or powdered parsley, bay leaves or thyme, and a slice of bread toasted
very brown. Boil two potatoes for ten minutes, drain, and add them to
the soup. Simmer all till well done, run through a colander, add hot
water to make of proper consistency, a little more salt if desired, and
serve hot.


VEGETABLE SOUP STOCK

Put into a kettle one quart of tomatoes, three pints of water, and
place over the fire; add one onion, one or two pared potatoes, and one
carrot, all finely chopped, one teaspoonful of celery salt, two bay
leaves, and cook slowly for one hour. Run through a colander, and add
salt to taste. Add to this cooked macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli,
corn, or rice.


BARLEY SOUP

Cook a cupful of pearl barley in three pints of water for several
hours, adding water as needed to keep the quantity good. When done, add
salt and a little cream, or the beaten yolk of an egg.


NOODLE SOUP

Beat the yolks of two eggs thoroughly, then add one cup of sifted
flour, and knead well for five or ten minutes; divide into four parts,
roll each part nearly as thin as a knife blade, and place on a clean
cloth near the fire to dry. When dried sufficiently so that they will
not stick together when rolled up, or be so dry as to be brittle,
roll each piece up into a roll, and with a sharp knife cut or shave
crosswise into very narrow slices, about one-twelfth of an inch in
width. Shake out well, and let dry thoroughly. Then drop into hot
salted water, and boil twenty minutes; drain off the water well, add a
quart of milk, salt to taste, reheat, and serve. Noodles may be added
to other soups instead of macaroni.


ASPARAGUS SOUP

Take two bundles of fresh, tender asparagus, wash, cut into short
lengths, and put to cook in a quart of hot water. Let cook slowly till
tender, and the water reduced one-half; rub through a colander, add
three cups of milk, a spoonful or two of cream, and salt to taste. Let
heat to boiling, and serve with croutons. A half cup of well-cooked
rice may be stirred into the soup before serving if desired.


FOUNDATION FOR CREAM OF VEGETABLE SOUPS

Rub one tablespoonful each of butter and flour to a cream, then
slowly pour into it one quart of boiling milk, stirring well. Allow
to thicken, add salt to taste, and the seasoning and ingredients, as
canned corn, peas, celery, asparagus, salsify, etc., desired for the
soup. To make the soup richer, a beaten egg, or a few spoonfuls of
cream may be put into the tureen before turning in the soup.


CROUTONS FOR SOUP

Cut bread into small cubes from one-half inch to an inch square, and
brown in a moderate oven. A spoonful or two of the croutons may be
placed in each plate, and the hot soup turned over them, or placed in a
dish on the table for use as desired.


BROWNED FLOUR FOR SOUPS

Spread a small quantity of flour on shallow tins, and brown lightly
in a moderately hot oven; stir often enough to prevent any part from
scorching. A quantity may be prepared and put away in covered jars for
use.


SEASONING FOR SOUPS

Ground nuts with herbs, dried and powdered nicely, flavor and enrich
vegetable soups, gravies, and sauces.


HERBS FOR SOUPS

Herbs, such as bay leaves, parsley, thyme, etc., are valuable for
flavoring soups, savories, and gravies. They can be obtained at a
druggists, and a few cents’ worth will last a long time.



                                CEREALS

    “O stay me with rice and with porridge
      O comfort me sweetly with grits!
    Baked beans give me plenty of courage,
      And cracked wheat enlivens my wits.”

No one should adopt an impoverished diet.

Bring me my breakfast—oatmeal and boiled eggs.—_A. T. Stewart, the
millionaire._

Carlyle, catching a glimpse of Macaulay’s face, once remarked, “Well,
any one can see that you are an honest, good sort of a fellow, made out
of oatmeal.”

Dr. Johnson, who entertained a great dislike for the Scots, and lost
no opportunity of saying bitter things against them, once defined oats
as “in Scotland food for Scotchmen; but in England, food for horses.”
He was well answered by the indignant Scotchman, who replied, “Yes,
and where can you find such men as in Scotland, or such horses as in
England?”

                               [Leaf]


Most grains require prolonged cooking, and slow cooking is preferable
to fast. They are frequently served in the form of mush, and too often
in an underdone state. Thorough cooking not only breaks up the food,
but partially digests the starch contained in it.

Salt should be added to the water before stirring in the grain or meal.

All grains and meals should be put into actively boiling water to
prevent them from having a raw taste, and allowed to boil fast until
they “set,” or thicken, and cease sinking to the bottom; till then they
should be stirred frequently, but gently, to prevent burning. After the
grain has thickened, it should be stirred very little, or none at all.

Enough grain or meal should be used to make the mush quite thick and
glutinous when done. Watery or sloppy mush is neither palatable nor
strengthening to the digestive organs when used constantly. In fact, it
should not be considered necessary to have mush every morning. A change
occasionally to drier foods is better for the digestion.

[Illustration: Double Boiler]

An excellent utensil for cooking grains is a milk or mush boiler,
generally called a double boiler. This consists of one vessel set
inside of another, the inner one containing the grain to be cooked, the
other partly filled with boiling water. An ordinary saucepan, however,
will do very well, if smooth, and by greasing the inside with a little
butter before putting in the water, the tendency of the grain to adhere
to the saucepan will be greatly obviated.

If a double boiler is used, allow the grain to boil in the inner
vessel standing directly over the range until it “sets,” then cover
and place in the outer vessel, the water in which must also be boiling
in order that the cooking process be not checked; then leave to cook
slowly until done. From three to four hours is not too long when the
double boiler is used. Grain prepared in this way may be cooked on the
previous day and simply warmed up again the next morning for breakfast.
What is left over from any meal may be used in the next preparation.

If a hastily prepared mush is required, perhaps nothing better than
the rolled oats can be employed, these requiring not more than half
an hour’s cooking, as they are already partially cooked in their
manufacture; but even these are improved by longer cooking in a double
boiler.

It is very important, when making any kind of mush, that the water be
boiling rapidly, and kept thus while stirring in the meal; for unless
the grain or meal is thoroughly scalded when stirred in, not even
prolonged cooking will take away the raw taste.

                               [Leaf]


OATMEAL MUSH

To a quart of boiling water add a pinch of salt, sprinkle in a cupful
of oatmeal, and boil rapidly for about ten minutes, or until it sets,
stirring frequently with a fork. Then place over the hot water in the
lower boiler and cook from one to three hours. Just before serving,
remove the cover and stir lightly with a fork to allow the steam to
escape. This makes the mush more dry. Serve with baked apples, cream,
fresh fruit, or with the juice from stewed fruit. Oatmeal is richer in
nitrogen than any other grain, and therefore very nutritious. But to
be wholesome it must be well cooked, and not served in a pasty, undone
mass.

[Illustration: Quart Measure]


ROLLED OATS

This is much preferred by some, as it requires only a short time to
cook. Make as above, only using two cupfuls of the meal to one quart
of water. An ordinary saucepan does very well for this, but the double
boiler is better.


ROLLED OATS AND SAGO MUSH

Wash and soak one-third cup of sago in a little cold water. Stir one
and one-half cups of rolled oats into one quart of salted, boiling
water. Cook for fifteen minutes, then stir in the sago, and cook as
much longer. Serve with cream, stewed fruit, or fruit juice.


GRAHAM MUSH

Into three pints of rapidly boiling water, properly salted, stir dry,
one heaping pint of sifted Graham flour. Cook slowly for one hour on
the back of the range, stirring but little after the first few minutes.
Serve with milk or cream, and a very little sugar if desired.


GRAHAM MUSH WITH DATES

Cook as above. Take a cupful of dates, cut in two, removing the stones,
and stir into the mush just before taking from the fire. Serve with
milk or cream. Steamed raisins or stewed figs may be used instead of
dates. Serve hot, or pour out into cups or molds, first wet with cold
water, and serve cold with cream.


BOILED RICE

Wash one cup of rice, and put to cook in four cups of boiling water,
slightly salted. Cook quite rapidly for the first fifteen minutes,
stirring a little occasionally to prevent sticking to the pan. Then
cover closely, and cook slowly on the back of the range without
stirring. When nearly done, add a cup of sweet milk, cook until tender,
and serve with milk, cream, or stewed fruit. If the rice has been
soaked overnight, put to cook in an equal quantity of boiling water, or
equal parts of milk and water, and cook for about half an hour.


CREAM OF WHEAT

To four parts of boiling water previously salted, add one part cream
of wheat, sprinkling it in with the hand, and cook slowly for about an
hour. Serve hot with cream or stewed figs.


CORN-MEAL MUSH, NO. 1

Into three pints of boiling water, salted, sprinkle one pint of
corn-meal. Cook slowly for an hour, stirring occasionally. Serve with
plenty of milk or cream. Very good and nutritious, especially for
winter.


CORN-MEAL MUSH, NO. 2

Put to boil one quart of water, adding one teaspoonful of salt. Mix
smooth one tablespoonful of flour and two cupfuls each of milk and
corn-meal. Stir this gradually into the rapidly boiling water; boil
about half an hour, stirring frequently. Serve as soon as done, with
rich milk.


CORN-MEAL SQUARES

Take cold, left-over corn-meal mush, cut into rather thick slices, and
then into inch squares. Put the squares into a tureen, and pour over
them some hot milk or cream. Cover the dish, let stand a few minutes,
and serve.


BARLEY MUSH

To each cupful of pearl barley, previously washed, add five cups of
boiling water, a teaspoonful of salt, and cook in a double boiler for
three or four hours. Serve with cream, lemon sauce, or stewed fruit.


BOILED WHEAT

To one part of good, plump wheat add five parts of cold water, a little
salt, and cook slowly from four to six hours, or until the grains burst
open and are tender. If soaked overnight, less time for boiling will
be required. Add a little more water while cooking if necessary, but
avoid much stirring. Serve hot or cold with milk, cream, fruit, or
fruit juice. A very simple and wholesome dish.


GLUTEN MUSH

Into three pints of rapidly boiling, salted water stir one pint of
gluten; cook in a double boiler for several hours.


HOMINY

Soak, then put to cook in enough boiling water to cover. Cook gently
for several hours, being careful not to stir after the grains begin to
soften. Add a little more water if needed. Season with salt when done.
A quantity may be cooked at a time, and warmed up with a little cream
or butter as needed.


CRACKED WHEAT

Cook the same as hominy and oatmeal, using three parts of boiling water
to one of cracked wheat. When done, turn into cups or molds first wet
with cold water. Nice served cold with cream. Seedless raisins may be
cooked with it.


GRANULATED WHEAT

Use the same proportion and cook the same as cracked wheat. Serve warm
or cold with good sweet cream.


CORN-MEAL CUTLETS

Cut cold corn-meal mush into slices three inches long and one inch
wide; roll each piece in beaten egg, slightly salted, then in grated
bread crumbs; place on an oiled tin in the oven till nicely browned.
Other mushes may be treated likewise.


BROWNED RICE

Place a small quantity on shallow tins, and brown in the oven till a
golden yellow, stirring frequently so that it may brown evenly; then
steam for about an hour in a steamer over boiling water or in a steam
cooker, allowing two parts of hot water to one part of rice. When done,
it should be quite dry and mealy. It may be eaten dry, or served with
brown or lentil sauce, or rich milk or cream.


BAKED MUSH

Cook any of the foregoing mushes as directed, and as soon as done,
turn into a pan, crock, or a round tin can, first wet with cold water,
or oiled, to prevent sticking. If brushed over the top with oil, a
crust will not form. When cold, cut into slices from one half to three
fourths of an inch thick, place on oiled tins, and bake till a nice
brown. A quart of cooked mush will make about a dozen slices.



                                TOASTS

    “A meal—what is it? Just enough of food
      To renovate and well refresh the frame,
    So that with spirits lightened, and with strength renewed,
      We turn with willingness to work again.”

The appetite is subject to education; therefore learn to love that
which you know to be good and wholesome.

The most _expensive_ food is spoiled when served up burnt or tasteless;
the _cheapest_ may be delicious with the proper seasoning.—_Lantz._

                               [Leaf]


Toast makes a very nice breakfast dish, and is easily and quickly
prepared. It can be made in a variety of ways which are both simple and
wholesome. When properly prepared, it furnishes abundant nourishment,
and is easily digested.

The proper foundation for all toasts is zwieback (pronounced zwībäck),
or twice-baked bread. This may be made from either fresh or stale
bread, the fresh making the more crisp and delicious for dry eating.
The bread should be light and of good quality. That which is sour,
heavy, and unfit to eat untoasted, should never be used for toast.

Toasts afford an excellent opportunity for using up left-over slices
of bread, and its use is therefore a matter of economy as well as of
securing variety in diet.

                               [Leaf]


ZWIEBACK, OR DRY TOAST

Cut fresh or stale light bread, either white or brown, into slices
half an inch thick, place on tins, and bake slowly in a moderate oven
until browned evenly throughout. Care should be taken not to scorch
the bread. It should not be put into an oven that is merely warm. It
should be baked, not simply dried. The common method of toasting merely
the outside of the bread by holding it over a fire is not the most
wholesome way of preparing toast. When properly made, it will be crisp
throughout. Zwieback may be prepared in quantity and kept on hand for
use. It furnishes a good article of diet, especially for dyspeptics,
eaten dry, or with milk or cream.


MILK TOAST

Scald one cupful of milk in double boiler, then add one teaspoonful of
cornstarch, mixed with a little cold water; stir until it thickens.
Cook about ten minutes, then add one teaspoonful of butter, one-fourth
teaspoonful of salt, and pour it over six slices of zwieback,
previously moistened with hot water or milk.


TOAST WITH CREAM SAUCE

Prepare a cream sauce as directed on page 77. Moisten five or six
slices of zwieback by dipping them quickly into hot water or milk,
place them on a dish, and pour over the hot cream sauce.


ASPARAGUS TOAST

Prepare asparagus by washing each stalk free from sand; remove the
tough portions, cut the stalks into small pieces, and stew in a little
hot, salted water; drain off the water as soon as done, add a cup of
milk, and season with a little butter and salt. Cream may be used
instead of the milk and butter. Moisten the zwieback with hot milk, and
place in a dish. Pour over the stewed asparagus, and serve hot.


BERRY TOAST

Prepare zwieback as above. Take fresh or canned strawberries,
raspberries, mulberries, or other fruit, mash well with a spoon, add
sugar to sweeten, and serve as a dressing on the slices of zwieback
previously moistened.


EGG TOAST

Moisten slices of zwieback in hot milk or cream, season with a sprinkle
of salt, and serve hot with a poached egg on each slice. For poached
eggs see page 66.


BANANA TOAST

Moisten slices of zwieback in hot milk. Mash the bananas into a pulp,
or cut into thin slices, and place some on each slice of toast.


FRUIT TOAST

Take stewed apricots, peaches, or plums, rub through a colander, heat
to boiling, thicken with a little cornstarch, sweeten to taste, and
pour over the moistened zwieback.


CREAM TOAST

Moisten slices of zwieback in hot water, sprinkle with a little salt,
and dip over each slice a spoonful or two of nice, sweet, cold cream.


BUTTER TOAST

Place each slice of zwieback on a small plate, pour over a little hot
water, and quickly drain off; add a sprinkle of salt, if desired,
spread lightly with butter and serve.


CRUSHED TOAST

Take fresh, but thoroughly toasted bread or crackers, or some of each,
grind closely in a coffee or hand mill, or crush with a rolling-pin,
and serve in small dishes with milk, cream, or fruit juice. This may be
served as a substitute for the health food known as granola. Crushed
toast is also a very serviceable article for use in soups and puddings.


TOMATO TOAST

Moisten slices of zwieback in hot milk, and serve with a dressing
prepared by heating a pint of strained, stewed tomatoes to boiling, and
thickening with a tablespoonful of flour or cornstarch rubbed smooth in
a little cold water. Season with salt and a little cream or butter, and
pour over the toast.


BEAN PASTE

Soak one cupful of white beans overnight in cold water; put to cook in
the morning in boiling water, and cook to a pulp, and till the water
is quite absorbed. Rub through a colander, then add a tablespoonful of
finely minced onion, one teaspoonful of powdered sage, one saltspoonful
of celery salt, the juice of one lemon, two or three spoonfuls of
tomato juice, if at hand, and salt to taste. Simmer together for a
short time, then use cold to spread on toast or bread as a relish, or
in the place of butter, or for making sandwiches.

VARIETY.—Remember, as Home Note says, that “variety of diet is
important. Ill health often follows a monotonous sameness of diet.
Oatmeal, bread and butter, and marmalade, are all excellent breakfast
dishes of their kind, but when given every morning, for years at a
time, they become positively nauseating.”



                                BREADS

                         A VOICE FROM THE CORN

    “I was made to be eaten, not to be drank,
    To be thrashed in a barn, not soaked in a tank;
    I come as a blessing when put in a mill,
    As a blight and a curse when run through a still;
    Make me up into loaves, and your children are fed;
    But made into drink, I will starve them instead.
    In bread I’m a servant, the eater shall rule,
    In drink I’m a master, the drinker a fool.
    Then remember my warning; my strength I’ll employ,—
    If eaten, to strengthen, if drunk, to destroy.”

 The wandering Arab lives almost entirely upon bread, with a few dates
 as a relish.

 Behind the nutty loaf is the mill wheel; behind the mill is the
 wheat field; on the wheat field rests the sunlight; above the sun is
 God.—_James Russell Lowell._

                                [Leaf]


Bread stands at the head of all foods. It has very properly been termed
“the staff of life.”

Why this is so is because wheat, from which bread is mostly made,
contains more nearly than any other one article, all the necessary
food elements required to sustain the human system, and these, too, in
proper proportions, and so forms most nearly a perfect food. From it
the brain, bones, muscles, and nerves, all receive a large amount of
nourishment.

This being so, bread should enter largely into the daily bill of fare
of every family. It is hardly too much to say that no meal is complete
without it.

Where little bread is used, serious defects may frequently be observed.
For instance, in some of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, where no
wheat has been grown, and little could be obtained, the inhabitants
almost universally have poor teeth. The early decay of the teeth
so prevalent among the rising generation to-day, may generally be
attributed to four causes: (1) A lack of sufficient lime in the
water; (2) too free indulgence in sweets, such as rich cakes, jams,
and candies; (3) too large an amount of flesh foods; and (4) an
insufficient supply of good, simple, wholesome bread, especially whole
wheat bread.

Home-made bread, when properly prepared, is generally to be preferred
to bakers’ bread. Chemicals and adulterations, as well as a lack
of cleanliness and proper care in preparation, not infrequently
characterize the latter, and thus give rise to serious stomach
disorders. Moreover, bakers’ bread is not always obtainable, and is
always necessarily more expensive than that which is home-made. The
baker can not afford to work for nothing. For these reasons, every
woman, and especially every wife and mother, ought to know how to
make good bread. The temptation to patronize the bake shop should not
outweigh the interests of the health of the family, and the duty to
practise economy.

The essentials to good bread-making are three:—

  1. Good flour.
  2. Good yeast.
  3. Proper attention.

When either of these is lacking, good results can not be obtained. Poor
flour will not produce good bread; good flour and poor yeast will not
make good bread; and good flour and good yeast with improper attention
will not insure good bread. All three are essential.

The first thing to consider in the making of bread is the flour. Good
flour will generally be found to have a creamy white tint. That which
is of a bluish white is seldom the best. Good flour will fall light and
elastic from the hand. Flour that retains the imprint of the fingers
when squeezed, and falls in a damp, clammy mass, should be avoided.

The second essential is good yeast. One may have ever so good flour
and yet make poor bread, if the flour is used in conjunction with poor
yeast. Good yeast has a fresh, pungent odor, and is light and foamy;
while poor yeast has a sour odor, and a dull, watery appearance.

The third essential is proper attention. In winter, bread sponge should
be made at night if it is desired to have the bread baked in the early
part of the day. The flour used in making the sponge should first be
warmed, and the sponge covered with several thicknesses of cloth, and
set in a warm place till morning.

In hot weather set the sponge early in the morning, and the bread can
be baked by noon. Both the sponge and dough are best kept in an earthen
crock or jar, as they are less quickly affected by drafts of air.

As soon as the sponge has risen to be light and puffy, it should
receive attention immediately, if desired to have the bread white and
sweet. If allowed to reach the point of running over, or falling in
the center, it has stood too long. For this reason sponge set at night
should be mixed late in the evening, and attended to as early in the
morning as possible.

In using very active yeast, it will not be necessary to set a sponge.
Mix the ingredients into a good bread dough at the first mixing,
beating the batter well while stirring in the flour. The more
thoroughly the batter is beaten, the less kneading the dough will
require. Set the bread in this way in the morning, and it can be baked
by noon.

A few mealy potatoes, cooked and mashed, added to the sponge, makes the
bread sweeter and keeps it fresh longer. Milk used in connection with
yeast should first be scalded and cooled to lukewarm.

Too much flour should not be used in mixing, as it will make the bread
hard and tough; but enough should be used to make the dough firm and
elastic. Turn the dough out on the molding-board and knead it, not with
the tips of the fingers, but with the whole hands, from the sides into
the center, turning frequently, that all portions may be thoroughly
worked. When the dough is smooth and elastic, with no dry flour left
on its surface, form into a smooth ball, and place back in the crock,
which should be washed clean, dried and oiled, to prevent the dough
from sticking. Observe how full it makes the crock; cover up warmly,
and when it has doubled its bulk, form gently into loaves, handling the
dough as little as possible, and place in the pans for the last rising.
When the loaves are risen to twice their size, place in a moderately
hot oven to bake. The oven should be hot when the bread is put in. By
no means have the bread, when ready to bake, wait for the oven to be
heated, as it may then become too light, run over in the oven, and
possibly be sour.

When nearly ready to bake, test the oven by putting in it a piece of
writing-paper; if it turns dark brown in six minutes, the oven is of
about the proper heat. If bread bakes too fast, a crust is formed on
the outside of the loaf which prevents the inside from becoming hot
enough to dry thoroughly, and the result is that the inside of the
loaf is too moist, while the outside is baked hard. Bread should not
brown much under fifteen or twenty minutes after being placed in the
oven. If it rises much after being put in the oven, the heat is not
sufficient. Bread should be turned around in the oven if it does not
rise or brown evenly.

Medium-sized loaves should be baked from fifty to sixty minutes; small
French loaves about thirty-five minutes. Bread is done when it shrinks
from the pan, and can be handled without burning the fingers.

When taken from the oven, the loaves should be turned out of the pans,
placed on their sides, so that the crust will not soften by the steam,
and covered with a thin cloth. When cold, keep in a covered stone jar
or a tin box, which should be kept free from crumbs and musty pieces of
bread, and scalded and dried thoroughly every few days.

As to their healthfulness, the most wholesome breads are unleavened
breads, or those made without either yeast, baking-powder, soda, or
cream of tartar, such as gems, rolls, and crackers. Next come those
made with good yeast; then those with baking-powder, if comparatively
pure; and lastly those made with soda and sour milk, or soda and cream
of tartar. Baking-powder is preferable to soda. The latter should
seldom if ever be used, as it is injurious to the health, being an
active dyspepsia-producing article.


WHITE BREAD

[Illustration: Flour Sieve]

Scald a quart of new or unskimmed milk, let cool to lukewarm, then stir
in a dissolved yeast cake, two teaspoonfuls of salt, and enough sifted
flour to make a thin batter. Cover, and set aside till light, then work
in flour until a dough of the proper consistency for bread is formed.
Knead until it is smooth and elastic, and does not stick to the hands
or board. Place in a clean, oiled crock, and when light, form into four
loaves; let rise again and bake. Equal parts of milk and water may be
used if desired.


MOTHER’S BREAD

In the evening boil three small potatoes, or save them out when
cooking, and mash them with a fork in a gallon crock. Put in about
three cupfuls of flour, two tablespoonfuls each of salt and sugar, then
pour in enough boiling water to make a good batter. Beat until smooth.
Soak one cake of compressed yeast or yeast foam in one-half cup of
lukewarm water, and when the batter is just warm stir in the yeast and
beat until quite foamy. Set in a warm place overnight. The first thing
in the morning dip about two quarts of flour in a pan, make a cavity in
the center, and pour in the sponge and about a pint of warm water. Stir
all together into a thin batter, and set in a warm place till after
breakfast; then knead until it does not stick to the board, put it in
a three-gallon crock, well oiled to prevent the dough from sticking;
cover with a tin lid to keep a crust from forming over the top, then
with several thicknesses of cloth, and set in a warm place until it
rises up full. Then mold into loaves, place in pans, let rise again,
and bake in a moderate oven for about an hour, or until the loaves
shrink from the sides of the pans and do not burn the fingers when
removing from the pans. Turn the bread out of the pans, and cover with
a thin cloth. This will make six loaves. If the loaves are brushed over
with cold water just before being placed in the oven the crust will be
more crisp.

[Illustration: Baking Pan]


GRAHAM BREAD, NO. 1

Take two tablespoonfuls of good liquid yeast, two cups of sweet milk,
previously scalded and cooled to lukewarm, one teaspoonful of salt, and
two cupfuls of white flour; beat together thoroughly, and set to rise.
When very light, add three heaping cupfuls of sifted Graham flour, or
sufficient to make a soft dough. Knead for a half-hour, then place in a
pan slightly buttered, cover warmly, and set to rise. When light, form
into loaves, let rise again, and bake.


GRAHAM BREAD, NO. 2

Make a sponge as for white bread. When light, add the stiffly beaten
white of one egg, one tablespoonful each of sugar and melted butter,
and enough sifted Graham flour to make a soft dough. Knead lightly,
place back in oiled crock till light, then make into loaves, let rise,
and bake. Graham bread should not be mixed as stiff as white bread, or
it will be too solid. Two tablespoonfuls of molasses may be used for
sweetening instead of sugar, if preferred.


GRAHAM FRUIT BREAD

Make the same as Graham bread, and when ready to form into loaves, add
a cupful of raisins or dried currants, washed and dried, and dusted
with flour.


WHOLE WHEAT BREAD

Make a sponge as for white bread. If desired a light color, use one
fourth white flour instead of all whole wheat flour. Knead well,
keeping the dough soft, then set in a warm place to rise. When light,
form into loaves, let rise again, and bake. This bread rises slower
than white bread.


BOSTON BROWN BREAD

[Illustration: Pint Measure]

Scald one pint of corn-meal with a pint of boiling water; let cool till
lukewarm, then stir in one dissolved yeast cake, or one-half cup of
sweet, lively yeast, three tablespoonfuls of molasses, one teaspoonful
of salt, and about three cupfuls of rye meal. Beat well, put in oiled
pan, steam four or five hours, then place in the oven for half an hour
to form a crust.


PARKER HOUSE ROLLS

Take two cupfuls of lukewarm milk, previously scalded, three
tablespoonfuls of melted butter, or vegetable oil, one well-beaten
egg, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, a pinch of salt, and one cake of
yeast dissolved in a little of the milk; mix all together, then add
enough flour to make a good batter. Let rise until light, knead, using
sufficient flour; let rise again till very light, roll out to one-half
inch in thickness, cut into round or oval shapes with a cutter, fold
one third back over the top, and place in a pan to rise. When very
light, bake in a moderate oven. Brush over with beaten yolk of egg,
mixed with two spoonfuls of cold water just before taking from the
oven. Braided or plaited rolls may be made by cutting the rolled dough
into strips six inches long and one inch wide, pinching the ends of
each three strips together, and then braiding.


CORN-MEAL BREAD

Stir one-half cup of corn-meal into two cupfuls of boiling water; when
well cooked, remove from the fire and add two cupfuls of cold water;
stir well together; then add one teaspoonful of salt, one cake of
yeast dissolved in a little warm water, two tablespoonfuls of sugar or
molasses, and enough white flour to make a good dough. Knead well, and
set to rise; when light, form into three loaves, let rise again, and
bake for nearly an hour.


SALT-RISING BREAD

Take a small pitcher and put into it a half pint of warm water, a
teaspoonful each of salt and sugar, then stir in flour enough to make
a medium-thick batter. Set the pitcher in a kettle of warm water
to rise. It should be kept warm all the time, not hot, for if it is
scalded, it will never rise. When light, stir in a pint of warm milk or
water and enough warm flour to make a soft dough. Knead it, form into a
loaf, place in the pan, set to rise in a warm place, and bake as soon
as light.


RAISED BISCUITS

Make from dough prepared for white bread. When the dough is ready to
form into loaves, divide it into small, equal portions, shape into
smooth, round biscuits, place closely in a shallow baking pan, and let
rise till considerably lighter than bread; brush lightly with milk, and
bake in a rather quick oven.


GEMS

General Directions

Beating in an abundance of cold air is very essential in the making of
good gems, as it is this that makes them light. Cold air is preferable
to warm air, as it expands more when heating.

[Illustration: Gem Irons]

Gems are also better when baked in iron pans than in tin, as the iron
retains the heat better, and bakes the gems more evenly. The irons
should be heated and oiled before the batter is dropped into them.

Having the oven hot from the first is also essential, as a crust will
then be formed immediately, and the air which has been beaten into the
batter will thus be prevented from escaping. They should be placed in
the oven so as to bake on the top first, and afterward on the bottom.
These points should be carefully observed. Gems are best served hot.
They should be broken open, and never cut with a knife, as this makes
them heavy.


GRAHAM GEMS, NO. 1

Place the gem irons in the oven or on the range to heat. Mix salted
Graham flour with cold milk or water to a batter thick enough to drop,
beating vigorously for ten minutes to beat in the air. Butter the gem
irons, and fill each cup nearly full of the batter. Put in a hot oven,
and bake until done.


GRAHAM GEMS, NO. 2

Beat separately the yolk and white of an egg. Add to the beaten yolk
two cupfuls of sweet, rich milk, one-half teaspoonful of salt, and stir
well together; then sift in one and one-half cups of Graham flour, and
a scant cup of white flour, beating vigorously meanwhile. Continue to
beat until the mixture is light and foamy throughout, and full of air
bubbles; then stir in gently the stiffly beaten white of the egg. Have
the gem irons thoroughly heated, slightly butter them, drop in the
batter with a spoon, and bake in a quick oven.


OATMEAL GEMS

Beat separately the yolk and white of an egg. To the beaten yolk add
a cupful of well-cooked oatmeal mush, and a half cup of milk or thin
cream. Beat together thoroughly. Continue to beat while adding a cupful
of white flour and a pinch of salt, then fold in lightly the stiffly
beaten white of the egg. Have the gem irons heated hot, slightly
butter, drop in the batter, filling the little cups nearly full, and
bake in a quick oven until a light brown.


CORN-MEAL GEMS

Stir well together one and one-half cupfuls of milk, and the yolks
of two eggs previously beaten. To this add two cupfuls of corn-meal,
one-half teaspoonful of salt, and one cupful of white flour. Beat
thoroughly, then stir in lightly the whites of the eggs previously
beaten to a stiff froth, and bake as above.


GRANULATED WHEAT GEMS

Mix together one cupful each of cold water and milk, and one-half
teaspoonful of salt. Then add gradually two and one-half cupfuls of
fine granulated wheat, beating continuously. Beat vigorously for ten
minutes, then drop by spoonfuls into thoroughly heated, buttered gem
irons, beating the batter briskly several times while dipping it in.
Bake at once in a very hot oven.


RICE CAKES

Moisten one cup of well-cooked rice with two tablespoonfuls of cream
or rich milk; add one tablespoonful of sugar, and mix in enough flour
to make it hold together. Form into cakes one-third of an inch thick,
and bake in a hot oven. When done, split open, and serve with maple or
lemon sirup. To make lemon sirup, see page 40.


BREAKFAST ROLLS

To three slightly heaping cups of sifted Graham flour add a little
salt, and one cup of milk or thin cream; cream is better. Stir the
milk or cream into the flour, mixing it well with the flour as fast as
poured in. Knead thoroughly, then divide the dough into three portions,
and with the hands roll each portion over and over on the molding-board
until a long roll from an inch to an inch and a half in thickness is
formed. Cut into two- or three-inch lengths, and bake at once in a hot
oven, in a baking pan dusted with flour, or better, on a perforated
piece of sheet-iron made for the purpose, placing the rolls a little
distance apart. Bake until a light brown. When done, do not place one
on top of another.

Flour kneaded into cold Graham flour, oatmeal, or corn-meal mush makes
very good breakfast rolls.


STICKS

Make the same as breakfast rolls, only rolling the dough to about the
size of the little finger, and cutting into three-or four-inch lengths.


FRENCH ROLLS

Make a sponge at night of one-half cake of dry or one-half cup of good
liquid yeast, the beaten white of one egg, two tablespoonfuls of melted
butter, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little salt, and three cups
of warm milk or water, and flour sufficient to make a soft dough. In
the morning knead well and let rise again. When light, roll out the
dough to about three fourths of an inch in thickness; cut into about
four-inch squares with a sharp knife, butter the edges, and roll each
corner up and over to the center; place on buttered tins, allow the
rolls to become very light, and bake in a moderately hot oven. The
sponge for this can be set in the morning if the yeast is very quick.


TO GLAZE ROLLS

When ready to bake, brush the rolls or biscuit lightly with milk; or,
when nearly baked, brush with the yolk of an egg to which has been
added two spoonfuls of cold water and half a teaspoonful of sugar.
Return to oven till done.


MARYLAND OR BEATEN BISCUIT

Mix five cupfuls of white flour, one-half cupful of vegetable oil or
butter, and one teaspoonful of salt to a very stiff dough with one
cupful of cold water. Knead for twenty minutes, using no more flour for
the molding-board; then beat hard with a wooden mallet or hammer for
twenty minutes longer, until the dough is flat and of even thickness
throughout; sprinkle over a little flour, fold half of the dough back
evenly over the other half, and beat quickly around the edges, to keep
in the air. Continue beating until the dough is brittle, and will snap
if a piece is broken off quickly. Pinch off into pieces the size of a
small walnut, work smooth, flatten on top with the thumb, prick with a
fork, place on perforated tins a little distance apart, and bake in a
moderate oven for nearly an hour, or until dry and brittle throughout.


WHOLE WHEAT CRISPS

Take one cupful of rich cream, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a pinch
of salt, two cupfuls, or enough to make a stiff dough, of fine
granulated, whole wheat flour. Beat well, and knead for fifteen
minutes, first with a spoon, until the batter becomes too thick, and
then with the hands. Roll out as thin as wafers, cut into shapes with a
biscuit cutter, and bake on floured tins in a very hot oven.

[Illustration: Cake Cutter]


GRAHAM WAFERS

Stir together one cupful each of sifted Graham flour and white flour,
one tablespoonful each of butter and sugar, and a saltspoonful of salt;
then mix with enough cold water to make a stiff dough. Roll out very
thin, cut into small squares, or with a cake cutter, and bake on tins
in a quick oven.


FRUIT BISCUIT

Make a dough with one cupful of cold, sweet cream or rich milk, three
cupfuls of sifted Graham or white flour, and a little salt. Knead
thoroughly, and divide into two portions. Roll each quite thin, then
spread one with currants, stoned dates, figs, or seedless raisins,
chopped fine, and place the other one on top; press down with the
rolling-pin, cut into oblong squares with a knife, and bake.


CRESCENTS

Make a dough, using the recipe for White Bread. When ready to form
into loaves, work into it two tablespoonfuls each of butter and sugar;
roll out into a sheet half an inch thick, cut into six-inch squares,
then divide diagonally, forming triangles; brush each lightly with
water, and roll up, beginning at the longest side; place on oiled pans,
turning the ends toward each other in the form of a crescent. When
very light, brush with milk, and bake in a quick oven for about twenty
minutes.


RUSKS

Make a sponge at night with one cupful of sugar, one cupful of scalded
milk, cooled to lukewarm, one-half cupful of butter, two eggs, one cake
of dry or one-half cup of good liquid yeast, and sufficient flour to
make a drop batter. Set in a warm place to rise. In the morning knead
well, and when risen again, mold into the form of biscuits, place a
little distance apart on buttered tins, and brush over with the beaten
white of an egg sweetened; let stand until light, and bake.


PLAIN BUNS

Beat together one-fourth cup of lively yeast, one cup of sweet milk,
previously scalded and cooled to lukewarm, one-half teaspoonful
of salt, two cups of warm flour, and set in a warm place to rise.
When very light, work into the dough one-half cup of sugar, and two
tablespoonfuls of butter. Knead well for ten minutes, using enough
flour to make a soft dough. Shape into the form of biscuits a little
larger than an egg; place on tins slightly buttered, and set in a warm
place to rise. When very light, bake in a moderately hot oven. The tops
may be brushed over with the sweetened beaten white of an egg while
baking, or sprinkled with moist sugar when taken from the oven.


FRUIT BUNS

Make the same as plain buns, adding one-half cup of raisins or currants
just before kneading and forming into buns.

[Illustration: Waffle Iron]


RICE WAFFLES

Set a sponge at night with two cupfuls of sweet milk, scalded and
cooled to lukewarm, one tablespoonful of butter, a pinch of salt,
two-thirds of a cupful of boiled rice, three cupfuls of flour, and
one-fourth cup of liquid yeast. Beat the batter hard for five or six
minutes, and set in a warm place to rise. In the morning add two
well-beaten eggs, and stir well together. Bake on a hot, buttered
waffle iron. If this is not at hand, have the gem irons well heated,
slightly butter to prevent sticking, and drop in the batter. Place in
a hot oven so the top will bake first, and bake to a rich brown color.
Very nice for breakfast.


PUFFS

To two cups of milk add a little salt and the yolks of two eggs well
beaten; then sift in, a little at a time, and beating meanwhile, three
small cups of flour. Beat until light, then stir in gently the stiffly
beaten whites of the eggs, and bake in hot gem irons.


FRUIT LOAF, NO. 1

Take enough good bread dough for one loaf, add one cupful of brown
sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter, and one cupful of raisins,
previously washed and dried. Knead well and let rise; then knead again,
and place in a bread pan, let rise until light, and bake in a moderate
oven.


FRUIT LOAF, NO. 2

Make a sponge of one and one-half cups of warm milk or water, one-half
cup of good yeast, the beaten white of one egg, one tablespoonful each
of butter and sugar, a little salt, and flour sufficient to make a
soft dough. Let rise till light; then knead well and let rise again.
When light, roll out to about one inch in thickness, spread over with
chopped dates, or raisins, or currants which have been previously
washed and dried; roll up and form into a loaf, let rise, and bake.


COFFEE CAKES

Take two cupfuls of bread dough (made with milk) when ready for the
pans; put into a deep dish and work in four tablespoonfuls of cocoanut
or vegetable oil or butter, four tablespoonfuls of sugar, the stiffly
beaten white of one egg, and enough flour to make a fairly stiff dough.
Knead well, and roll out into a long strip about nine inches in width,
three feet in length, and one fourth of an inch thick; spread over this
four or five tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter, omitting about
two inches at the farther end; beginning at end nearest, roll up like
jelly roll; cut into slices an inch thick; place a little distance
apart on tins sprinkled with sugar; set in a warm place, and when very
light, brush over with oil; sprinkle with a little sugar, and bake. If
desired, ground cinnamon or grated nutmeg may be sprinkled over the
dough before rolling it up.


FLANNEL CAKES

Heat three cupfuls of milk to boiling; put into a crock one cupful
of corn-meal and two tablespoonfuls of butter, then pour in the
scalding milk; beat well, allow to cool to lukewarm, then stir in one
tablespoonful of sugar, two of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, and
one-half yeast cake dissolved in one-third cup warm water; beat well,
and set to rise overnight. Bake on a hot griddle.


CORN-MEAL BATTER CAKES

To two cups of cold corn-meal mush, add one cup of sifted flour, and a
pinch of salt; beat well the yolks of two eggs, to which add two-thirds
cup of milk, and stir into the mush; beat thoroughly until light and
smooth, adding a little more milk if necessary, to make the batter of
proper consistency. Then gently stir in the whites of the eggs beaten
to a stiff froth, and bake in small cakes on both sides on a griddle,
slightly buttered, or better still on a soapstone griddle, in which
case use no oil nor butter on it. Serve hot.

[Illustration: Griddle]


BUCKWHEAT PANCAKES

In the evening take two quarts of warm water, add one-fourth cup of
good yeast, a teaspoonful of salt, and buckwheat flour enough to make
a good batter. If desired, a cupful of corn-meal or a few spoonfuls of
white flour may be used instead of all buckwheat. Beat well and set
to rise. In the morning thin the batter with a little warm water, if
necessary, and bake on a hot griddle. If cakes are desired for several
mornings, the batter may be kept going by leaving at least a cupful
after each baking, and adding the necessary warm water and buckwheat
flour each evening as at first.


LENTIL FRITTERS

To a pint of lentil soup (left-over soup will do), add the well-beaten
yolks of two eggs, and sift in enough flour, a little at a time,
beating thoroughly, to make a good batter. Then add the stiffly beaten
whites of the eggs, drop by spoonfuls on a hot buttered griddle, and
brown on both sides.


CORN FRITTERS

To each quart of raw sweet corn (a dozen nice ears), grated from the
cob, add the beaten yolks of three eggs, a teaspoonful of salt, and one
and one-half cups of fine bread or cracker crumbs, or enough to make a
batter just stiff enough to drop from a spoon. Then stir in the stiffly
beaten whites of the eggs, and drop with a spoon on a hot, oiled, or
soapstone griddle. Serve hot.


USES FOR STALE BREAD

Whole slices of stale bread, if in good condition, may be steamed or
used for toast. Crumbs, crusts, and broken pieces not suitable for
this purpose may be placed in a pan, and put into a slow oven until
thoroughly dried (not browned), then ground in a mill, or rolled on a
breadboard with the rolling-pin, and put away in covered jars for use.
This will be useful for making corn-meal cutlets or anything that is to
be rolled in crumbs, dipped in egg, and browned.


POTATO YEAST

Put to cook six medium-sized potatoes in two quarts of hot water. Tie
a handful of hops in a cloth, and boil with the potatoes during the
last ten minutes. When done, take potatoes and hops from the water,
leaving the water over the fire. Mash the potatoes fine, and add four
tablespoonfuls of flour, and two each of sugar and salt. Stir well
together. Pour over this mixture the boiling potato water, stirring
well that no lumps be formed. When cooled to lukewarm, stir in a cupful
of liquid yeast, or one cake of dry yeast dissolved in warm water.
After fermentation has ceased, turn into an earthen jar previously
scalded, cover, and set in a cool, dark place. Shake before using.


HOP YEAST

Steep a handful of hops in a quart of hot water for five minutes. Then
strain, and turn the boiling water over a cupful of flour, blended with
a little cold water. Add one tablespoonful of salt, and two of sugar;
let cool till lukewarm, then stir in a half cup of liquid yeast, or one
cake of dry or compressed yeast dissolved in a little warm water. Set
aside for twenty-four hours, stirring occasionally; then bottle and
keep as above.



                                FRUITS

    The earth to thee her increase yields,
    The trees their fruitage bring;
    And glittering in the sunlit fields,
    The vines with bounty spring.

 “Every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you
 it shall be for meat.” Gen. 1:29.

 If families could be induced to substitute the apple—sound, ripe,
 and luscious—for pies, cakes, candies, and other sweetmeats with
 which children are too often stuffed, there would be a diminution of
 doctor’s bills, sufficient in a single year to lay in a stock of this
 delicious fruit for a season’s use.—_Professor Faraday._

 There is much false economy; those who are too poor to have
 seasonable fruits and vegetables, will yet have pie and pickles all
 the year. They can not afford oranges, yet can afford tea and coffee
 daily.—_Health Calendar._

                               [Leaf]


Fruits are a natural food. They form no inconsiderable part of those
products of the earth given by the Creator to our first parents as
food. “Behold, I have given you,” he says, “every herb bearing seed,
which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which
is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.”
Gen. 1:29.

Fruits are not only delightful to the eye, pleasing to the smell, and
satisfying to the taste, but they contain elements which are necessary
for the best maintenance of the system; hence the natural craving for
them when the system is in a normal condition.

While not containing a large amount of nutrition compared to their
size, they are, nevertheless, valuable on account of their juices, and
also because of their giving bulk to our food,—a very necessary thing
to be considered.

Containing as they do from seventy-five to ninety per cent of water,
their use naturally allays thirst. If their use were more general,
there would doubtless be less desire for unnatural drinks.

As a rule fruits, especially acid and sub-acid fruits, are cooling to
the blood, and most kinds also act as a laxative to the system, tending
to keep it free and open. They should, therefore, be freely used in
the daily bill of fare, though in proper combinations. Fruits go well
with grains and milk, but not so well with vegetables, especially acid
fruits.

And what gives a nicer appearance to the table than a dish of fruit!
The very sight is inviting and appetizing.

[Illustration: Fruit Dish]

In preparing fresh fruit for the table, care should be taken to select
only that which is sound and ripe. It should also be carefully cleaned.
Apples should be wiped with a damp cloth, and their beauty will be
further enhanced by polishing them with a dry one. Plums should be
likewise treated. Grapes should be washed, and the stem ends of bananas
cut off. Bananas may also be peeled, sliced, and served with cream.
Oranges may be placed on the table whole, or their skins cut into
eighths, and peeled half-way down. In serving cherries in their natural
state, the stems should be left on.

Much taste may be displayed in the arrangement of fresh fruits for the
table. A few green leaves interspersed with the fruit, or a variety
of fruits tastily arranged on the same dish, make a very attractive
appearance.

Nature sets before us an abundance of delicious fruits, and these in
almost endless varieties and flavors.

Most fruits are both wholesome and agreeable when eaten raw, but many
are rendered more easy of digestion by cooking. Some persons with weak
digestion can not eat many kinds of raw fruits, but almost every one
can eat most kinds when cooked.

The following are some of the most simple and practical ways in which
fruits may be prepared:—

                               [Leaf]


BAKED APPLES, NO. 1

Apples to be baked may be cored and pared or baked with the skins on.
If firm and quite tart, pare, place in a pie dish, add sugar and a
little hot water, and bake in a moderate oven. If the apples are juicy,
less water will be required. When tender, turn into a dish, and pour
over them the sirup or juice.


BAKED APPLES, NO. 2

Pare and core without halving, a number of nice, tart apples; fill
the centers with sugar and jelly, lay closely in a shallow pan, add a
little water, and bake slowly, basting occasionally with the sirup to
keep the centers well filled. Bake till brown and tender, and serve
with a boiled custard made with two cups of milk, two tablespoonfuls of
sugar, two eggs, and vanilla to flavor.


STEWED APPLES

Pare, core, and cut into small pieces some moderately tart apples,
place in a saucepan, and add sufficient boiling water to stew to a
pulp; cook slowly for about an hour, stirring but little. When cool,
add sugar to sweeten.


BAKED SWEET APPLES

Select good, sweet apples. Wash, but do not pare or core them; put
into a baking pan with a little water, and bake in a hot oven. Baste
occasionally with the juice in the bottom of the pan. When done, if
desired, each apple may be dipped in the beaten white of an egg, then
in powdered sugar, and returned to the oven until the icing is set.
Plain sweet baked apples are very nice served with cream.


APPLE SCALLOP

Pare, core, and slice a half dozen good cooking apples. Spread a layer
in the bottom of a deep pudding dish, then over these a layer of bread
crumbs mixed with a little sugar, thus alternating till the dish is
filled, having a layer of apples on top. Add a half cup of cold water,
and bake in a rather quick oven till done. Serve with rich milk or
cream.


BOILED APPLES

Remove the cores and cook whole, or in halves, in enough boiling water
to cover them. Cook slowly. When tender, remove the apples to a dish
with a spoon or fork. Sweeten the juice with sugar, add a little lemon
extract, thicken slightly with a very little cornstarch blended with a
little cold water, and pour over the apples. Serve when cool.


BAKED PEARS

Take good, sound pears, cut in halves, pare, and fill an enameled
pudding dish, sprinkling sugar through them; pour in a cupful of hot
water, cover tightly, and bake slowly till tender. Serve cold. Or wash,
wipe, and bake whole in a shallow dish, putting in a very little water.


STEWED PEARS

Pare, quarter, and core nice ripe pears, and drop into cold water to
keep from discoloring. Make a sirup, allowing two cups of water and
a half cup of sugar to each quart of fruit. Boil the sirup for a few
minutes, put in the fruit, and cook until tender and pink in color,
being careful not to break the fruit by stirring. Three or four slices
of lemon added to the sirup while boiling will improve the flavor of
the pears. Remove the lemon before putting in the fruit.


BAKED QUINCES

Pare, core, and bake the same as apples. The fruit may be left whole,
and the centers filled with sugar. Sufficient water should be used so
the fruit will not become dry. Baste with the sirup while baking.


BAKED PEACHES, NO. 1

Take good, firm peaches, pare, cut in halves, removing the stones,
and place in a deep pudding dish, sprinkling with sugar. Add a little
water, and bake until tender.


BAKED PEACHES, NO. 2

Bake as above; when done, cover the top with a meringue made of the
whites of two or three eggs beaten stiff and a little powdered sugar;
return to the oven and brown slightly. Serve cold with cream.


STEWED PEACHES

Take ripe peaches, pare, or wipe carefully with a damp cloth; cut in
halves, remove the stones, and drop into cold water. When ready, place
the fruit in a saucepan, adding sufficient boiling water to keep from
burning. Add sugar, two tablespoonfuls to each quart of fruit. Cook
slowly until tender, generally from twenty to thirty minutes.


STEWED PRUNES

Wash the prunes thoroughly in warm water, rinse, then add water to
cover, or about three parts water to one of prunes, and soak for
several hours, or overnight. Put them to cook in the same water in
which they soaked, and stew gently until tender. When nearly done, add
a little sugar if desired. Serve cold.


STEWED FRUITS

Small fruits are better stewed in a double enamel saucepan, and the
larger kind baked in a tightly covered earthen crock or jar in the
oven, with as little water as possible. Dried fruit, such as figs,
prunes, peaches, raisins, dates, etc., should first be well washed,
rinsed, soaked for several hours in enough water to cover, and
afterward cooked in the same water in which they have soaked.


PINEAPPLE

Pare, cut into thin slices into a dish, and sprinkle lightly with
sugar; let stand in a cool place for an hour, and serve.


FRUIT MOLD

Stew a quart of berries in a small quantity of water for fifteen or
twenty minutes; then add sugar to taste, and two tablespoonfuls of
cornstarch dissolved in a little cold water; cook until thickened, then
turn into molds first wet with cold water; serve cold with milk or
cream. Heat fruit juices and treat similarly.


BANANAS WITH WHIPPED CREAM

Remove the peel, cut into thin slices, and sprinkle with a very little
sugar and a few drops of orange juice. Serve in small dishes, placing a
tablespoonful of whipped cream on each dish. If bananas are slightly
scraped after removing the skins, they will be more readily digested.


APPLE BUTTER

[Illustration: Large Spoon]

Pare, quarter, and core about equal parts of sweet and tart apples.
Boil sweet cider down, about four gallons into one gallon. Cook the
apples in either sweet cider or water till soft, then add the boiled
cider, and boil and stir with a wooden spoon until thick. A little
butter and ground cinnamon may be added for flavoring, and sugar if
necessary. Can in jars, or set away in jars without canning if desired
for immediate use.


LEMON SIRUP

Boil one cupful of sugar and one-fourth cupful of water until
it slightly thickens; add a small teaspoonful of butter and a
tablespoonful of lemon-juice. Serve hot.


LEMON HONEY

Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan to warm; then add one
cup of sugar, the juice and grated rind of two lemons, and two eggs
well beaten; cook until thickened, stirring constantly that no lumps
be formed, and, if not cooked in a double boiler, being careful not to
burn. When done, turn into cups and cover the same as jelly. Nice used
as a filling for layer cake.


PLUM MARMALADE

Wash the plums, cut them in halves, removing the stones, and cook for
about fifteen minutes, allowing a scant cup of water to each quart of
fruit. Then rub through a colander, add one cup of sugar to each quart
of pulp, and boil slowly one hour, stirring often to prevent burning.


GRAPE MARMALADE

Make the same as plum marmalade, only allowing half a cup of water to a
quart of fruit for cooking.


TO MAKE FRUIT JELLY

Choose a bright, sunny day for making jelly, in order to have it as
firm and clear as possible. Make in small quantities at a time, using
only porcelain or graniteware in preparing fruit or juice. Small fruits
should be used as soon after being picked as possible, and should not
be overripe. Cherries should be mixed with one fourth their quantity
of currants, as they do not jelly easily. Two parts red raspberry with
one part currant juice makes a nice-flavored jelly. Place the fruit
desired for the jelly in the saucepan, add only enough water to keep
from burning, and cook until tender or well scalded; then drain through
a strong, coarse, white flannel or cotton bag first wrung out of hot
water. If the bag is made three-cornered, the weight of the fruit at
the large top presses the juice out more freely at the point. Heat the
sugar in the oven, stirring frequently to prevent burning. About three
fourths of a pound should be used to each pint of juice. To prevent
the jelly glasses from breaking, place them in a pan of cold water and
allow it to come nearly to boiling; or with a cloth rub the outside of
them well with a little butter or oil, and pour in the juice slowly. A
little paraffin poured over the jelly when cooled, or writing-paper cut
to fit the glasses, and oiled, is good for covering before putting on
the covers.


APPLE JELLY

Select nice tart, red apples, wash, quarter, and core, but do not
pare; add a small quantity of water, and boil only until soft. Then
strain as directed for making fruit jelly, measure the juice, return
it to a clean saucepan, and boil for ten or fifteen minutes, skimming
thoroughly. Add the heated sugar, three-fourths pound to each pint of
juice. Boil a few minutes, or until it jellies nicely, then turn into
glasses.


CURRANT JELLY

Weigh the fruit, and to each pound weigh out half the weight of
granulated sugar. Place a few of the currants in a granite saucepan,
mash with a potato masher to extract enough juice to keep it from
burning, then add the remainder of the fruit, and boil about twenty
minutes, stirring frequently to prevent burning; strain, return juice
to a clean saucepan, let boil for five minutes, skim, then add the
sugar previously heated. This should jelly at once. Turn into glasses.
Make blackberry and raspberry jelly in the same way.


QUINCE JELLY

Wash, wipe, and remove any imperfect spots, quarter and core, but do
not pare the fruit. Cut into small pieces, and place in the preserving
pan, with water enough to half cover. Cook until tender, stirring
frequently. Remove from the fire, and strain through a jelly-bag,
measure the juice, return to a clean saucepan, let boil fifteen
minutes, then add sugar, three-fourths pound to each pint of juice.
Boil until it jellies nicely, removing the scum, and when done, turn
into the jelly cups at once.


CRANBERRY JELLY

Pick over and wash one quart of cranberries, and put them in a granite
saucepan with one cupful of boiling water; cook about ten minutes,
or until soft. Then put them through a strainer or vegetable press,
return the juice to the pan, add two cupfuls of sugar, place over the
fire, and cook about five minutes. Turn into a mold to cool.


HOW TO CAN FRUIT

General Remarks

Boiling or canning fruit consists in sealing up in air-tight bottles,
or jars, fruit which has previously been cooked. Many do not appreciate
the value of canning fruit because they have never tried it. But the
process is so simple, and the result so satisfactory, that those who
have ever given it a trial usually feel well repaid for the effort put
forth.

Canning fruit practically lengthens the fruit season until it is
perennial. Fruit, if properly canned, can be preserved, even for years,
in a very natural and wholesome state.

While it is true that in semitropical countries some kind of fruit can
be obtained from the markets at most seasons of the year, it is both
a matter of providence and economy to lay by, at a time when fruit is
cheap and in season, for those times when it is scarce, high-priced,
or unobtainable. A lesson can here be learned from the bee. During the
summer, when the flowers are in bloom, it culls the sweet, that it may
have a store of honey to eat in the winter hours.

It is very desirable to have the fruit fresh, as picked from the tree
or vine; but many of the nicest and most juicy and delicately flavored
fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries,
plums, blueberries, cherries, peaches, and apricots are in season for
only a comparatively short time. It is, therefore, of value to know
how to preserve these for the unseasonable portions of the year. It
is a matter of no little convenience for the housewife to have these
delicious fruits in her house, ready for use at a moment’s notice. But
this can be the case only by having on hand a supply of canned fruit.

Some may think that this supply of canned fruit can readily be
substituted by the same kinds of fruit put up in jams, marmalades,
etc., and that these can be purchased at reasonable prices at the
stores all ready for use, and the trouble of preserving fruit one’s
self is thereby saved. While this may be true, the fruit prepared thus
is not to be compared to fruit in its more natural state. The amount of
sugar generally used in making jams and marmalades causes them to be
too rich in saccharine matter, and consequently more liable, if freely
used, to injure the teeth, cause acidity of the stomach, dyspepsia, and
liver trouble, while nearly all, even dyspeptics, can eat simple stewed
fruit of one kind or another without injury.


Selecting Cans

In canning fruit, care should be taken to provide good cans and
perfectly fitting covers. This is a matter of much importance. The
Mason glass cans, or jars, with the white porcelain-lined covers and
white rubber bands, are, perhaps, the best. It may seem a little
expensive on the start to purchase these, but there is practically no
further expense connected with them, aside from providing new rubbers
or covers occasionally, as the jars can be used year after year, or
until broken. Either the pint, quart, or two-quart jars may be used, as
best suits the needs of the family.

If a Mason can opener is not at hand, the process of opening the jars
may be made easier by first running the edge of a thin knife blade
around under the rubbers, care being taken not, by prying or otherwise,
to injure the rubbers or lids.

After the fruit has been used from the jars, wash and dry them, and set
away for future use. The rubbers and covers may be put into a cloth bag
and hung away from the dust.

[Illustration: Mason Can]

Process

Select good, sound, fresh fruit, but not overripe, or it will be mushy
and insipid when cooked. The larger fruits should not be quite as soft
for canning as for eating.

Cook in a graniteware or enameled saucepan or preserving kettle. Iron,
tin, copper, or brass should not be used.

Always cook slowly, as rapid boiling breaks up the fruit, and causes it
to lose much of its nice flavor.

Cook thoroughly and evenly, in small quantities, and in as little water
as possible, fruit being better cooked in its own juice, which soon
boils out. The length of time required for cooking will depend upon the
kind and quantity of fruit, hard and less ripe fruit requiring more
time.

Utensils for Canning Fruit

Two or three tablespoonfuls of sugar to each quart of fruit will
generally be found sufficient for the milder fruits; the more tart,
such as plums, currants, gooseberries, etc., will require from six to
eight tablespoonfuls.

While the fruit is cooking, immerse two or three jars in a large pan
of scalding (not boiling) water, laying them down if there is room.
If the jars are new, put them in cold water, and gradually raise the
temperature, to prevent them from breaking. Likewise put the covers in
a basin of hot water. Much depends on keeping everything hot.

Have ready an enameled dipper or cup, a cloth for wiping the outside of
the jars, a spoon, fork, and a small pan in which to set the jars while
being filled.

[Illustration: Utensils for Canning Fruit]

When the fruit is well cooked, roll one of the jars over in the hot
water, empty it, place it in the small pan, and quickly fill with
the boiling fruit, putting in a little of the juice first. Fill to
overflowing. Skim off all foam or bubbles of air that come to the top.
If any bubbles are seen in the fruit, pass a fork or spoon handle,
first dipped in hot water, down into the jar, slightly stirring, when
they will come to the top, and can be skimmed off. Wipe the juice from
the top of the jar, and screw down the cover quickly and tightly. See
that the rubber extends beyond the cover all around. Should any part of
the edge of the cover fail to fit down into the rubber tightly after
being screwed on, press down all around with the edge of the handle of
a strong knife. Turn the jars upside down to cool. If no juice leaks
out, the sealing is perfect.

After a few hours turn the jars right side up, and watch for a few
days. If there is any leakage or sign of fermentation, the work is a
failure, and the fruit should be opened at once, a little more sugar
added, boiled, and used as soon as possible. If all is right, store in
a cool, dark place for future use. If a proper place is not convenient,
wrap the jars in brown paper to keep out the light, as this is likely
to cause fermentation.

If the foregoing directions are carefully followed, there is no reason
why the work should not be a perfect success.


ANOTHER METHOD

If it is desired to preserve the fruit as nearly whole as possible,
prepare it as for cooking, place it, dry, compactly in the jars, and
screw the covers on loosely without rubbers. Place the jars, six or
eight at a time, in a boiler, standing them on thin pieces of board,
and filling the boiler with sufficient warm water to come up half way
on the jars. Cover tightly, using a thick cloth, if necessary, to keep
in the steam; place on the range, and after the water comes to the
boiling-point, cook for from one-half to one hour, according to kind
and ripeness of fruit. When cooked, remove the jars, taking care not
to allow a draft to strike them, to prevent cracking; allow to settle
a few minutes; remove the covers, and fill with a sirup, boiling hot,
allowing about a cup of sugar to each quart of fruit; or, if desired
to can without sugar, fill the jars with boiling water. Put on the
rubbers, and seal at once, testing by turning bottom side up.

[Illustration: Cooking Boiler]

This method should be employed in canning vegetables. Only perfectly
fresh vegetables should be used for canning.


CANNED BEANS AND PEAS

Prepare string-beans as for ordinary cooking, then press and pack them
closely into the jars until full, adding a little salt; fill the jars
to overflowing with cold water, then screw on the covers fairly close,
place the jars in a boiler, as directed above, and cook for four hours;
remove from the water, take off the covers, place on the rubbers, screw
on the covers tightly. Peas should be shelled, then canned in the same
manner.


CANNED SWEET CORN

Select that which is fresh, and cut from the cob as directed for stewed
sweet corn (page 57). Then press and pack closely into the jars until
the milk appears on the top, and they are full. No water or salt should
be added. Boil for five or six hours.


CANNED PEACHES

Select ripe, firm peaches, nearly soft enough to eat, avoiding the
clingstones. The Crawfords are perhaps the best. Pare, divide in
halves, removing the stones, and drop into cold water to prevent
discoloring. For each quart of fruit pour a cupful of water into a
saucepan, add three or four tablespoonfuls of sugar, and let boil up;
drain the peaches from the cold water, and put them into the hot sirup;
cook slowly till tender, and can.


CANNED BERRIES

Select those freshly picked; if necessary to be washed, place a few at
a time in a colander and dip in and out of cold water; cook in a small
quantity of water, adding the necessary sugar when nearly done, and can.


CANNED QUINCES

Wipe with a cloth, pare, quarter, core, and divide each quarter into
thirds. For each two quarts of fruit pour three cups of water into a
saucepan, add nearly two cups of sugar, and let boil up; then put in
the fruit, and cook slowly for an hour and a half, or until tender and
of a rich pink color, and can. Equal parts of quinces and apples or
pears may be stewed together.


CANNED TOMATOES

Select smooth, a little under-ripe, meaty tomatoes; put them into a
pan, and pour scalding water over them to make the skins come off
readily; then with a sharp, pointed knife remove the cores, pare,
cut into thick slices, press well into the jars, screw the covers on
loosely without rubbers, place in boiler, and cook for thirty minutes
after reaching the boiling-point, according to directions under
“Another Method.” But little filling will be needed after being cooked.
For this have a few tomatoes stewed in a saucepan. Turn upside down
till cool, then wrap in brown paper, and keep in a dark place.


GRAPE JUICE

Take fresh, well-ripened, dark, juicy grapes, such as the Black Prince
or Concord; pick from the stems, rejecting all that are imperfect; wash
well, and put to cook in an enameled saucepan with a pint of water for
each three quarts of grapes. Cook slowly for half an hour, or until
the grapes burst open; then drain off the juice through a jelly-bag,
filtering the skins and seeds through a separate bag. Reheat, add
one-half cup of sugar to a quart of juice if desired to sweeten, and
can in jars the same as fruit; or, put in sterilized bottles, filling
within an inch of the top, and cork at once with good, solid corks;
cut off the corks close to the bottle, and seal over with sealing-wax.
Bottle the juice from the skins separately, as it will be less clear.
Keep in a cool, dark place.



                              VEGETABLES


 The first wealth is health.—_Emerson._

 Vegetarians suffer little from thirst.—_Hygienic Review._

 Let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink.—_Daniel._

 Sir Isaac Newton, when writing his great work, “Principia,” lived
 wholly upon a vegetable diet.

 Body and mind are much influenced by the kind of food habitually
 depended upon.—_O. W. Holmes._

                                [Leaf]

While not furnishing the most nutritious diet, vegetables contain many
nutritive elements in moderate degree, are rich in mineral substances,
and being composed largely of water, perfectly supply many of the
needs of the human system. Such vegetables, however, as peas, beans,
and lentils, properly termed legumes, are highly nutritious. They are
commonly understood to be of the nature of the “pulse” upon which
Daniel the prophet subsisted in preference to the king’s meat. While
an exclusive diet of ordinary vegetables might fail to give sufficient
nourishment to meet the demands of the entire system, their use is
valuable in furnishing it with a large quantity of organic fluids,
and in giving bulk to the food. It is best to combine their use with
other foods, such as grains, which supply the qualities lacking in the
vegetables.

Only fresh vegetables should be used. Those which are stale can not be
made wholesome and palatable by cooking. Their use imperils the health
of the family, and is liable to cause serious illness. Herein lies an
advantage in having one’s own garden.

Care should be taken not to cook vegetables too much or too little.
They should be neither overdone nor underdone, but “just right.”
Cooking vegetables, grains, and fruits is advantageous, as it bursts
the particles of starch, and thus renders them more easy of digestion.

While cooking vegetables, a good, steady fire should be kept up, and
the kettle kept full of hot water for replenishing.

Never replenish with cold water, but always with hot.

A good rule to follow in cooking vegetables is to put to cook in hot
water all vegetables that require to have the water drained off when
done, and in cold water those that are to retain it.

All green vegetables, such as spinach, cabbage, etc., should be put to
cook in boiling, salted water; the dry vegetables, such as, potatoes,
carrots, beans, split peas, and lentils should be cooked in unsalted
water. About a tablespoonful of salt should generally be allowed to a
gallon of water, or one third of a teaspoonful to every pint of cooked
vegetables.

In washing potatoes, a coarse cloth or brush may be used to advantage.
If to be baked, they should be wiped dry before placing in the oven.

It is a matter of both economy and improvement to pare potatoes very
thin, as much of the mealiest and most nutritious portion lies next to
the skin.

As each potato is pared, it should be dropped into a pan of clean, cold
water; if allowed to fall back among the parings, the potatoes will be
dark and discolored when cooked.

Potatoes should never be allowed to remain in the water in which they
have boiled after they are done. It should be drained off immediately
to prevent their becoming soggy and water-soaked. If given a few
vigorous shakes, which allows the steam to escape, they will be much
more dry and mealy.

Old potatoes, in the spring, should be allowed to stand in cold water
for an hour before paring, to reabsorb the moisture they have lost
through evaporation.

In baking potatoes the oven should be hot when they are put in, and the
temperature increased rather than diminished afterward.

Only dry, ripe, mealy potatoes are good baked.

Onions should be boiled in two waters, first for about fifteen minutes
with cold water put on, then drained off, and boiling, salted water
added to finish.

To peel tomatoes readily, first pour over them a little scalding water.
This also applies to plums.

                                [Leaf]

BOILED POTATOES (without skins)

[Illustration: Saucepan]
Wash, pare thin, and drop into cold water to prevent discoloring. If
not of a uniform size, cut the larger ones in two. Put to cook in only
enough boiling water to prevent burning; cook gently from twenty to
thirty minutes; when done, drain off all the water, place over the fire
for a moment, then give the saucepan a vigorous shake, cover with a
coarse cloth, and set on the back of the range to dry.

Large quantities of potatoes are best cooked by steaming over boiling
water.


BOILED POTATOES (with skins)

Select potatoes of even size; wash clean with a cloth or brush, and
remove the eyes and specks with a knife; put to cook in a small
quantity of boiling water; drain when tender, and place the saucepan on
the back of the range to dry; remove the skins and serve. Potatoes are
best cooked in this way. Serve in an open vegetable dish.


BAKED POTATOES

Choose smooth potatoes of uniform size, wash well, being careful to
clean the eyes. Dry with a cloth, and bake in a _hot_ oven; in a slow
oven the skins become thick and hard. Serve as soon as done, in an
open dish; if covered, they will become soggy. Baked potatoes are very
wholesome, and make a good breakfast dish.


MASHED POTATOES

Wash, pare, and boil the same as boiled potatoes. When they can be
readily pierced with a fork, drain thoroughly; return to the range
and mash, using the potato masher vigorously for five or ten minutes,
until they are light, smooth, and creamy in appearance. A wire potato
masher does the work most satisfactorily. Have warmed in a saucepan a
half cupful of cream or milk, adding a small piece of butter if milk
is used, a teaspoonful of salt, and the well-beaten white of one egg;
beat this into the potatoes until they are very light. Put lightly into
a warm dish, but do not press down, and serve at once. If desired, the
egg may be omitted. Very nice served with cream sauce or brown sauce.

[Illustration: Potato Masher]


STEAMED SLICED POTATOES

Wash, pare, and slice several medium-sized potatoes very thin. Have
in a frying-pan a small piece of butter and a half cup of hot water,
put in the potatoes, season with salt, cover closely, and set on the
back of the range to cook slowly. Stir up a little occasionally. A few
thinly sliced onions may be used with the potatoes if desired.


WARMED-UP POTATOES

Cut cold boiled potatoes into thin slices; heat a little milk to
boiling in a saucepan; put in the potatoes, and season with salt to
taste. Let boil a few minutes and serve. If desired, the milk may be
slightly thickened with a little flour blended in a little cold milk.


POTATO PUFF

Take two cupfuls of hot, seasoned, mashed potatoes, and moisten
well with hot milk or cream. Beat the yolks and whites of two eggs
separately; allow the potatoes to cool slightly, then beat in the eggs,
the yolks first. Turn at once into an oiled, shallow tin; do not
smooth or press them down, but leave in a rocky form. Bake about ten
minutes, or till a delicate brown.


LYONNAISE POTATOES

Cut into dice enough cold boiled potatoes to make one pint, brown to a
golden yellow a spoonful each of butter or oil and minced onion. Add
the potatoes, season with salt, and stir with a fork till a delicate
brown, being careful not to break them. Add a spoonful of chopped
parsley, and serve hot.


NEW POTATOES

If new and fresh, the skins may be easily scraped off with a knife,
or rubbed off with a coarse cloth. Cook in a little water, drain, and
serve; or, when done, drain, pour some rich, sweet milk over them, let
it heat to boiling, then thicken with a little flour rubbed smooth in a
little cold milk, allowing a tablespoonful of flour to a pint of milk,
and season with salt. A few green peas cooked with new potatoes and
thus dressed make a very acceptable dish.


POTATOES WITH CREAM

Pare, and cut as many as desired into small cubes; put into boiling
water and cook from fifteen to twenty minutes; when done, drain off all
the water, let dry a few minutes over the fire, then add a little salt,
a cup of thin cream, and a little chopped parsley; simmer for two or
three minutes, and serve at once.


BAKED SWEET POTATOES

Choose those of uniform size, wash thoroughly, removing any imperfect
spots, wipe dry, and place in a moderately hot oven; bake for about
an hour if the potatoes are rather large. Small potatoes are better
steamed than baked. Send to the table as soon as done, after removing
the skins.


BOILED SWEET POTATOES

Wash well, put into cold water with the skins on, and boil until easily
pierced with a fork; drain, remove the skins, and place in the oven to
dry for five or ten minutes; serve in a hot, open dish.


BROWNED SWEET POTATOES

Take cold, boiled sweet potatoes, peel, cut into halves, place on
shallow buttered tins, and brown in a hot oven.


ROASTED SWEET POTATOES

Wash, wipe dry, wrap with thin paper, and cover first with hot ashes,
then with live coals. Turn occasionally. The coals may need renewing
several times. When done, remove the ashes with a brush, wipe with a
dry cloth, and serve. Sweet potatoes are nicer and more mealy when
prepared in this way.


YAMS

Prepare the same as roasted sweet potatoes or baked sweet potatoes.
Boiling them is thought to quite spoil their flavor.


STEWED TOMATOES

Take nice, fresh tomatoes, pour boiling water over them, remove the
skins, slice into a granite saucepan, add a cupful of water, and stew
from twenty to thirty minutes. Then add salt, butter, and a half cup of
bread or cracker crumbs, or slightly thicken with cornstarch, blended
with a little cold water. Sugar may be added if desired.


BAKED TOMATOES

Select smooth, even-sized, ripe tomatoes. Peel, remove the stems, and
place in an earthen pudding dish; season with a little salt and butter
or cream, and bake in a rather hot oven for half an hour.


TOMATOES AND MACARONI

Put to cook one-half cup of macaroni broken into inch pieces into three
cups of boiling water; boil for about an hour, or until perfectly
tender, adding more water if necessary. When done, put into a pudding
dish, and pour over two cups of stewed tomatoes previously rubbed
through a colander. Add a little salt, a few bits of butter, a half cup
of sweet cream, and bake in the oven till done. If the tomatoes are
quite juicy, a teaspoonful of flour may be used for thickening.

[Illustration: Colander]


SCALLOPED TOMATOES

Take one quart of stewed fresh or canned tomatoes, rub through a
colander, and thicken with a cupful of bread or cracker crumbs; add a
little salt, a few spoonfuls of cream, and bake for twenty or thirty
minutes.

[Illustration: Can Opener.]


BOILED BEANS

Pick over, wash, and soak two cupfuls of beans overnight in cold water.
In the morning drain, and put to cook in hot water. Cook slowly for two
or three hours, or until perfectly tender, adding more hot water as
needed, as they should be quite juicy when done; avoid much stirring.
Season with salt and a little butter or cream. Colored beans having
too strong a flavor may be improved by parboiling for fifteen minutes,
then draining, and putting to cook in fresh boiling water.


BOILED BEANS WITH RICE

Wash and soak two cupfuls of beans in cold water overnight; in the
morning put to cook, and after about an hour add one-half cup of
well-washed rice. Cook slowly until done, season as above, and serve.


BAKED BEANS

Take two cupfuls of beans, pick over, wash, soak overnight, and cook
the same as boiled beans. When done, add a little butter and salt, and
two tablespoonfuls of molasses; turn into a pudding dish, and bake
until nicely browned. A little hot water should be added occasionally
to prevent their becoming too dry.


BAKED GREEN BEANS AND CORN

Shell the beans, and cut the sweet corn from the cob. Put layers of
each in equal quantities in a bean pot or pan, seasoning with salt and
butter. Add boiling water to cover, and bake in the oven for about two
hours, adding more hot water as it becomes absorbed.


MASHED BEANS

Soak overnight two cupfuls of beans, and cook the same as boiled beans.
When very tender, and the water nearly absorbed, rub through a colander
to remove the skins; add half a cup of cream or of rich, sweet milk and
a little butter; put into a shallow dish, smooth the top with a knife
or spoon, and place in the oven to brown.


STRING BEANS

Wash, break off each end, stripping the strong fibers from end to end.
Cut or break into inch lengths, and put to cook in enough boiling,
slightly salted water to cover. Cook from one to two hours, or until
very tender, the length of time required depending upon the age and
variety of the beans. The water should be quite absorbed when done. Add
a little milk and butter if cream is not available. Let come to a boil,
and serve.


SPLIT PEAS

Look over carefully, wash, and put to cook in a good quantity of cold
water. Let come to a boil, then simmer until tender and the water quite
absorbed. Press through a colander if desired to remove the skins,
season with salt, and cream or butter, and serve.


GREEN PEAS

Shell, and put to cook in boiling, slightly salted water, allowing one
cupful of water to every four cups of peas. If they are old, and need
longer cooking, add more water if necessary. Cover, and cook rather
slowly till tender. About thirty minutes’ cooking for fresh, young peas
will be found sufficient. When done, pour over a cupful of sweet milk,
heat to boiling, and thicken with a little flour. Season with a little
salt, and a spoonful of cream or a small piece of butter.


LENTILS

Cook, season, and serve the same as split peas, only less water and
less time for cooking will be required.


BAKED RICE

Take one cupful of rice, wash well by turning into a colander and
dipping in and out of warm water, put into a pudding dish, and pour
over four cupfuls of milk, or two each of milk and water, adding a
little salt. Bake about an hour, stirring once or twice before the top
becomes hard. Serve as a vegetable with lentil sauce.


PLAIN BOILED RICE

Wash thoroughly one cupful of rice, and sprinkle it slowly into a
granite saucepan containing two or three quarts of rapidly boiling,
slightly salted water. If the grains sink to the bottom, stir gently
until they keep in motion themselves. Boil rapidly, without covering,
for thirty minutes, or until soft; then drain through a colander
and rinse with hot water to remove all starch. The grains should be
separate and distinct from one another. It may be served with a tomato
sauce. See page 77.


SPAGHETTI WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Break in pieces and cook in boiling, salted water, or cook whole by
dipping the ends in the hot water, and as they bend, coil them around
in the saucepan. Cook for twenty or thirty minutes, or until soft, then
drain, rinse with hot water to remove starch if it is sticky, turn into
a dish and pour over a hot tomato sauce, made as directed on page 77.


STEWED CAULIFLOWER

Carefully separate into small portions; examine closely to make sure
there are no insects on it; let stand a short time in cold water, then
put into boiling, salted water, and cook from twenty to forty minutes,
or until tender. Drain, season with a little butter or cream, or serve
with cream sauce poured over it.


CAULIFLOWER WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Cook the same as stewed cauliflower. When done, drain, turn into a
dish, and pour over it a hot tomato sauce.


STEWED CABBAGE

Remove the outer leaves, divide into halves, cut very fine with a sharp
knife, omitting the heart. Put into a saucepan with a half cup of
boiling water, add a little salt, cover closely, and cook until tender,
adding a little more hot water, if it becomes too dry before it is
done. When done, add a few spoonfuls of cream, allow to heat, and serve.


BOILED CABBAGE

Remove the outer leaves, place in cold water for half an hour, then
quarter, and put to cook in boiling water, adding a little salt. Boil
vigorously for about thirty minutes; turn into a colander, remove the
heart and coarse portions, press out all the water, return to the
saucepan, and season with butter or cream; allow to heat, and serve on
a hot dish at once.


BOILED CELERY

Take one bunch of celery, cut off tops and roots, scrape and wash the
stalks, then cut them into small pieces, and put to cook in boiling
water. Let cook for fifteen or twenty minutes, or until tender; drain,
turn into a heated dish, and pour over a cream sauce. For making cream
sauce see page 77.


STEWED ASPARAGUS

Wash, break into small pieces, and cook from twenty to thirty minutes
in just enough water to cover; when tender, drain, add a little butter
and salt and a cup of milk; let come to a boil, and thicken with a
teaspoonful of flour. Boil up and serve.


BOILED CARROTS

Select small or medium-sized carrots, wash, scrape, rinse in cold
water, then put to cook in boiling water; cook about thirty minutes, or
until tender, then drain. Serve as boiled, or slice them into a heated
vegetable dish, and pour over them a cream sauce prepared as directed
on page 77.


BOILED PARSNIPS

Prepare and cook the same as boiled carrots.


BAKED PARSNIPS

Wash, scrape, rinse, divide in halves, add a little more than enough
boiling water to cook them, and boil slowly until tender; place in a
shallow dish, pour over the juice that remains, add a little salt, a
spoonful or two of cream, and place in the oven until nicely browned,
basting occasionally.


STEWED TURNIPS

Pare the turnips, cut into slices, and cook until perfectly tender;
then drain, mash fine with a spoon or potato masher, season with salt,
a little butter or cream if desired, and serve.


SLICED CUCUMBERS

Pare the cucumbers, slice them very thin into a dish, sprinkle with
salt, cover loosely, and shake briskly to distribute the salt; let
stand for about half an hour; then drain off all the water, and shortly
before serving pour over the juice of one or two lemons. A spoonful or
two of cream may be added if desired. Cucumbers should be thoroughly
masticated. Their reputed indigestibility is largely due to a failure
in this particular.


BOILED ONIONS

Cut off the tops and bottoms, remove the outer skins, and put to cook
in cold water; boil fifteen minutes; then drain, and cook in boiling,
salted water until tender; turn into a pudding dish, and cut into small
pieces; pour over a cupful of hot cream sauce, sprinkle the top with
bread crumbs, and bake until brown. For making cream sauce see page 77.


BAKED SQUASH

Cut into sections, and place shell downward on the top shelf of the
oven. Bake until tender, and serve hot in the shell; or, scrape out
the inside, mash, add a few spoonfuls of cream or a little butter, and
serve.


STEWED SQUASH

Peel, remove seeds, cut into small pieces, and stew until tender in a
little boiling water; drain, mash smooth, and season with butter and
salt. Vegetable marrows may be prepared in the same manner.


SUCCOTASH

Soak one cupful of beans overnight. When ready to cook, add water and
one cupful of dried sweet corn, and cook until tender. Season with
salt, a little cream or butter, and serve. If green sweet corn is used,
do not add it to the beans until they are nearly done.


BOILED SWEET CORN

Select full-grown ears, not old and hard, but full of milk; remove the
husks and silks, and put to cook in enough boiling, salted water to
cover. Boil from thirty to forty minutes; when done, drain, and serve
on the cob hot, with a little butter if desired. The corn from ears
not eaten may be cut from the cob and warmed up with a little cream or
butter for the next meal.


STEWED SWEET CORN

Remove husks and silks, stand the ears in a dish, and with a sharp
knife cut off the corn from the top downward, taking a little more than
half of the kernel in depth; then scrape gently downward to get the
remainder of the milk and meat of each kernel. Place in a saucepan, add
half a cup of water for each quart of corn, and cook for fifteen or
twenty minutes. When done, add a little salt, a half cup of cream, or
a cup of milk and a little butter, boil up and serve. The milk may be
slightly thickened with flour, if desired.


BAKED BEETS

Take young, tender beets, wash clean, place in a baking dish with a
little water, and bake from one to two hours, or until tender; add a
little hot water occasionally if they become dry. When done, remove the
skins, slice, and serve with lemon-juice.


BOILED BEETS

Cut off the tops, but avoid cutting the beets; put to cook in boiling
water. When tender, remove to a pan of cold water; rub off the skins
with the hands, slice thin, and serve with lemon-juice.


BEET GREENS

Take the tops from young, tender beets, look over, put to cook in
boiling, slightly salted water, and cook until tender; then drain in a
colander; chop rather fine, and serve with lemon-juice.


SPINACH

Look over carefully a good quantity of spinach, rejecting all wilted
and decayed leaves. Wash thoroughly in several waters, and put to cook
in slightly salted, boiling water, and boil from twenty to thirty
minutes. When tender, drain in a colander, cut into coarse pieces, and
put into a warm dish; add a few bits of butter, and garnish with slices
of hard-boiled eggs. Serve with lemon-juice.


CELERY

Remove all the green and decayed parts from the stalks, and put into
cold water. When ready to serve, place in a celery glass with the small
ends downward. Curl the tops by cutting into narrow strips a little way
down. Celery is recommended as a good nerve food.



                      SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS

 Plain and healthful living tends to long and happy living.—_Selected._

 The foundation of a happy home is laid in the kitchen.—_Marion
 Harland._


TOMATO SALAD, NO. 1

Peel smooth, ripe tomatoes, cut into thin slices, and arrange in layers
in a dish, sprinkling each layer with sugar. Turn over the whole a half
cup of lemon-juice before serving.


TOMATO SALAD, NO. 2

Peel, slice, and place in a dish, and sprinkle lightly with salt.
To the beaten yolk of one egg add the juice of one or two lemons, a
teaspoonful of sugar, and pour all together over the tomatoes.


CABBAGE SALAD, NO. 1

Chop very fine half a small head of crisp cabbage, and put into a dish.
Mix together two tablespoonfuls of sugar and the juice of two lemons,
and pour over the cabbage; add a spoonful or two of thick cream, stir
together, and serve. The cream may be omitted if preferred.


CABBAGE SALAD, NO. 2

Chop the cabbage fine, and dress with mayonnaise dressing. If preferred
omit to thin the dressing with cream, and cover the cabbage with
whipped cream, slightly sweetened.


CABBAGE AND TOMATO SALAD

Cut the cabbage as above, and put into a dish. Peel and slice two or
three large, ripe tomatoes, and place on the cabbage. Toss up lightly
in the dish, sprinkle with sugar, and pour over all the juice of two
lemons.


LETTUCE SALAD, NO. 1

Separate the leaves, look over, wash, and put into cold water a while
before using. When ready to serve, place on a dish and pour over a
dressing made of equal quantities of lemon-juice, sugar, and water.


LETTUCE SALAD, NO. 2

Wash and shred two heads of lettuce. Boil two eggs until hard, remove
the shells, and mash the yolks fine; mix well together the juice of one
or two lemons, two or three tablespoonfuls of water, one tablespoonful
of sugar, one-half teaspoonful of salt, one tablespoonful of sweet
cream, adding this last to prevent curdling, and the yolks of the eggs,
and pour over the lettuce. Cut the whites of the eggs into rings and
arrange on the top. A spoonful or two of minced onion may also be added.


POTATO SALAD

Cut into thin slices, hot or cold boiled potatoes, and place in a dish
without breaking slices. A small onion, chopped fine, to each pint of
potatoes may be added if desired. Cover with mayonnaise dressing.


VEGETABLE SALAD

Put a layer of fresh watercress or lettuce into a salad bowl, then
alternate with layers of peeled, thinly sliced cucumber and tomatoes.
When enough is prepared, place a border of watercress around the bowl.
Just before serving, pour over a French dressing, and toss up lightly
with a fork till well mingled.


FRUIT SALAD

Place in salad dish alternate layers of sliced bananas and
strawberries, sprinkling each layer with sugar. Cover with whipped
cream, and serve.


BANANA SALAD

Slice crosswise six ripe bananas into a dish; sprinkle with powdered
sugar, then turn over them the juice of two nice large oranges; let
stand for an hour in a cool place, and serve.


NUT AND CELERY SALAD

Take three cupfuls of finely cut, crisp celery, and one cupful of
chopped English walnuts; dress with mayonnaise dressing, made thin with
a little sweet cream.


FRENCH DRESSING

Mix thoroughly together six tablespoonfuls of oil, a pinch of salt, and
two tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.


MAYONNAISE DRESSING

To the yolks of two fresh eggs add a scant teaspoonful of salt; then
beat in slowly, almost drop by drop, a small cupful of olive-oil. The
mixture should become nearly as thick as butter. Then gradually add one
tablespoonful of lemon-juice. Thin with sweet cream. Nice for potato,
cabbage, or nut salads. If used for tomato salad, omit the cream.



                         SUBSTITUTES FOR MEATS

 As a man eateth, so is he.—_German Proverb._

 Lord Byron refused to eat meat because, as he said, “It makes me
 ferocious.”

 The flesh of animals tends to cause grossness of body, and to benumb
 the finer sensibilities of the mind.—“_Bible Hygiene._”

 The eating of much flesh fills us with a multitude of evil diseases,
 and a multitude of evil desires.—_Porphyrises, 233_ A. D.

 Animal food is one of the greatest means by which the pure sentiment
 of the race is depressed.—_Alcott._

 The candidates for ancient athletic games were dieted on boiled grain
 with warm water, cheese, and dried figs, but no meat. Modern athletes
 are not allowed meat while in training.

 I have known men who prayed for a good temper in vain, until their
 physician proscribed eating so much meat; for they could not endure
 such stimulation.—_Henry Ward Beecher._

 The liability to disease is increased by flesh eating. Where plenty of
 good milk and fruit can be obtained, there is rarely any excuse for
 eating animal food.—“_Christian Temperance._”

                                [Leaf]

From the instruction given at the beginning respecting foods, it is
evident the Creator did not design that either man or beast should
subsist on flesh foods. To Adam and Eve he said: “Behold, I have given
you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth,
and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed;
to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to
every fowl of the air, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth,
wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat.” Gen.
1:29, 30.

But sin brought many changes into our world, and because of the changed
circumstances, customs, and practises were instituted and allowed which
were not in harmony with the primeval order of things. Among other
things meat eating was permitted. Just after the flood, when the face
of the earth had been desolated, God said to Noah: “Every moving thing
that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given
you all things.” Gen. 9:3. But the blood was not to be eaten with
the flesh,—a very wise provision, for if there is any disease in the
system, it is sure to be found in the blood.

A little later, as a further precaution in the interests of health,
instruction was given that only the flesh of “clean beasts” was to be
eaten, such as that of the ox, the sheep, the goat, the deer, etc. See
Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14.

But for all this it must be admitted that the flesh of animals is not
a natural diet for man, nor does it constitute the most healthful
food. Of this it may be truly said as Christ said of the granting of
a writing of divorcement, it was suffered because of the “hardness”
of their hearts, “but from the beginning it was not so.” Matt. 19:8.
It was never intended that man should take the life of any innocent,
living creature.

Meat eating tends to excite the passions. This is seen in the
animal kingdom. The animals that are mild, patient, and docile are
generally herbivorous, such as the cow, the sheep, the horse; while
the excitable, quick-tempered, and ferocious animals are meat eaters,
such as the lion, the tiger, the leopard. A meat diet also tends to
constipation, the great scourge of the race.

One object of this work, therefore, is in the interests of health and
morality, to educate people out of meat eating rather than into it;
and to supply such a variety of recipes for good, wholesome, palatable,
and nutritious dishes, prepared from natural food elements, that meat
eating will be practically unnecessary.

Moreover, so many animals at the present time are becoming so greatly
diseased that it is not a little dangerous to eat largely of their
flesh. As a matter of safety the use of flesh-meats might very
consistently be dispensed with altogether.

The fact, therefore, that meat may be cheap, or that it may be easily
or quickly prepared, should count for little with those who have the
best interests of their families in view.

From every standpoint from which the subject may be viewed, the reasons
for discontinuing the use of flesh-meats are more imperative now than
ever before.

1. This is an age of disease. Animals are coming to be greatly
diseased. The use of their flesh, therefore, tends to increase disease
in mankind, and thus to shorten life.

2. This is an age of intemperance. Flesh-meats are all more or less
stimulating. Their use, therefore, tends to increase this evil.

3. This is an age of surfeiting. Meat eating is, to a large degree,
responsible for this. A well-known English writer on cookery says: “No
one will deny that the foods we are apt to eat too much of are those
absent from a purely vegetarian fare, such as meat, game, fish, eggs,
etc., upon which materials the culinary art seems exercised to tempt us
beyond the satisfying of the appetite.”

4. This is an age of vice and immorality. A meat diet tends greatly to
increase this terrible evil.

5. This is an age of violence and murder. The practise of killing and
eating animals tends to harden men’s hearts, to destroy their finer
sensibilities, and thus to increase violence and crime.

In the beginning God gave man no flesh foods to eat. And after the
Exodus, when he had his own way with his own people, he gave them no
flesh to eat. Before taking them into the promised land, for forty
years he fed them on “manna,” a purely vegetarian food. Ex. 16:31; Num.
11:7, 8. And when they “fell a lusting,” and said, “Who shall give us
flesh to eat?” he was displeased with them, and, with the giving of the
quails, brought a great plague upon them. Numbers 11; Ps. 78:18-31.

In the New Testament, the apostle, referring to this experience, warns
Christians against falling into the same error. “Now these things,”
he says, “were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after
evil things, as they also lusted.... And they are written for our
admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.” 1 Cor. 10:5-11.

Evidently, therefore, meat eating is not in harmony with God’s original
plan. And it must be that the nearer we bring ourselves into harmony
with that plan, the better it will be for us.

To some it may seem difficult to give up the use of meat. But in this,
as in all reformatory work, much depends upon the mind. Let the correct
principle be first assented to; then, step by step, let the practise be
brought into conformity to the principle, making changes gradually, if
necessary, leaving off the meat dishes as others more wholesome can be
substituted. We should cultivate a love for that which we know to be
good and healthful.

To assist those who desire to make this dietetic reform, a few recipes
are here given which will be found to be good substitutes for meats.


VEGETABLE AND LENTIL STEW

Soak one-half cup of lentils in a cup of cold water for an hour; then
put to cook in three cups of hot water with one turnip, three or four
medium-sized potatoes, a small onion, and a stalk or two of celery, all
cut into small pieces. Stew for about half an hour, or until well done,
and the water quite absorbed. Season with salt, and serve with brown
sauce.


VEGETABLE HASH

Boil separately in a small quantity of water, three or four
medium-sized potatoes sliced fine, two turnips, one carrot, and an
onion, all cut into fine pieces; when done, drain, and turn all
together into a saucepan; season with salt, add a teaspoonful of dry,
powdered sage, a half cup of sweet cream, or the same quantity of milk,
and a small piece of butter, and heat to boiling; then stir in one or
two tablespoonfuls of browned flour rubbed to a paste in a little cold
water, cook a few minutes longer, and serve hot.


POTATO ROLLS

Take two potatoes, one turnip, a small onion, a stalk of celery, and
a little powdered sage; chop all into very fine pieces and mix well
together, adding salt as desired. Make a paste as for pies, roll out
rather thin, cut into squares, and place on each square as much of the
mixture as it will hold; wet the edges, and fold up as a sausage roll,
pressing the dough together at the ends, place in a pan and bake from
thirty to forty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve hot. Very nice.


BREAD STEAK

Dip slices of stale bread or toast in a little milk or cream to
slightly soften; sprinkle with a little salt; beat up an egg or two,
dip in the slices, place in a hot frying-pan with a little butter, and
brown on both sides. Serve with brown sauce.


FORCEMEAT FRITTERS

Rub one tablespoonful of butter into two cupfuls of fine breads crumbs,
adding a little chopped parsley or other herb flavoring, and season
with salt; then add one cup of thin cream or rich milk, and three
eggs beaten separately. Stir well, and bake in fritters, in a hot
frying-pan, or on a griddle, rubbed with a little butter, browning
lightly on both sides. Serve with brown sauce.


“PRAIRIE” FISH

Cut thick, cold, corn-meal mush into slices about half an inch thick;
roll in flour, and brown on both sides in a hot, buttered frying-pan;
or brush with thick, sweet cream, and brown in the oven.


BOILED MACARONI

If dusty, wipe with a dry cloth instead of washing, then take a
cupful broken into small pieces, and put to cook in boiling, salted
water; cook until tender, adding more hot water occasionally if
necessary. When done, drain, and serve hot with a little cream; or
pour over a pint of milk, heat to boiling, and stir in the yolk of one
well-beaten egg and a little salt; or omit the egg, and thicken with a
tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk.


PEANUT SAUSAGE

Thoroughly mix to a cream one level tablespoonful of peanut butter with
two tablespoonfuls of cold water; then add three tablespoonfuls of
grated bread crumbs, a pinch of salt, and a teaspoonful of minced onion
or powdered sage; mix all well together, form into small cakes with the
hands, and place in an oiled, heated frying-pan till nicely browned,
turning and browning on both sides. Place on a platter, and garnish
with sprigs of parsley. Serve with brown sauce, No. 2, page 78. Very
tasty.


PEAS PUREE

Soak a cupful or two, or as many as needed, of split peas overnight
in cold water. In the morning wash, drain, and put to cook in boiling
water, and cook slowly. When very tender, and quite dry, mash smooth,
season with salt and a little sweet cream. Serve hot.


STEWED SALSIFY, OR VEGETABLE OYSTERS

Wash, scrape, cut into slices about one fourth of an inch in thickness,
and drop at once into cold water to prevent discoloring. Then put to
cook in an enameled saucepan, in a small quantity of boiling water,
about equal parts of water and salsify, adding a little salt. Cook from
twenty to fifty minutes, according to age, and when tender add a little
more water if at all dry, a cupful of cream or rich milk, and simmer
for a few minutes. Have ready in a dish some slices of toasted bread
cut in halves, pour over the salsify, and serve.


LENTIL RISSOLES

Take equal quantities of well-cooked brown lentils and cold boiled
potatoes and mash well together; then add one third that amount of
fine bread crumbs, a teaspoonful each of powdered sage and minced
onion, and a little salt. Dissolve a teaspoonful of nut butter in two
tablespoonfuls of hot water; and add to the mixture. Mix all well
together, press into an oiled tin, cut into squares with a knife, and
place in the oven for fifteen or twenty minutes. Serve hot.



                                 EGGS

 Food should be prepared with simplicity, yet with a nicety which will
 invite the appetite.

 There should not be many kinds at any one meal, but all meals should
 not be composed of the same kinds of food without variation.

 The mother should study to set a simple yet nutritious diet before her
 family.—_Mrs. E. G. White._

                                [Leaf]


BOILED EGGS

If desired to have the white set, but the yolk a liquid, boil eggs
three minutes; then remove from the fire and leave them in the hot
water a moment or two to set the whites. The water should be boiling
when the eggs are dropped in.

If desired to have the yolks dry and mealy, and at the same time the
whites not hard, tough, and leathery, place the eggs in boiling water,
then let simmer in water a little below the boiling-point, or at a
temperature not above 165° Fahrenheit, for about twenty minutes. Eggs
are best cooked thus.

For garnishing salads, etc., boil about twenty minutes, then
immediately place a moment in cold water to prevent the whites becoming
discolored, and to make the shells remove easily.


POACHED EGGS

Put into a shallow pan as much hot water as will cover the eggs well. A
tablespoonful of lemon-juice may be added to the water to make the eggs
white. Break the eggs one at a time into a cup and slip gently into
the water, which should not boil, but only simmer. Let stand for about
five minutes, or until the white is firm, but not hard, and the yolk
enveloped in a film of white. Remove each egg with a skimmer, or large
spoon, drain, trim the edges, and serve in egg saucers, or on toast.
Make a thin cream sauce and pour around them if desired.


SCRAMBLED EGGS

For each egg allow two tablespoonfuls of boiling water or milk. Break
the eggs into a dish, beat lightly with a spoon, add a little salt,
drop into the boiling water or milk, and stir briskly until set, but
soft. They are nice thus served on toast.


STEAMED EGGS

Break the eggs into egg dishes or oiled patty-pans, sprinkle with salt,
and steam over boiling water until the whites are set and a film covers
the yolk. Serve with or without toast.


SCALLOPED EGGS

Boil five or six eggs for twenty minutes; remove the shells, and cut
the eggs into thin slices; put a layer of grated or fine bread crumbs
into a buttered pudding dish, then a layer of the sliced eggs; sprinkle
with salt, then add another layer of bread crumbs, then another of egg,
and so on till the dish is filled, having a layer of crumbs for the
top. Heat a cup of milk to boiling, and pour over the scallop; sprinkle
over a few more crumbs, and bake until slightly browned.


BAKED EGGS

Break the required number of eggs into a shallow baking pan, or small
patty-pans, previously buttered, to prevent sticking. Season with salt,
and bake until set. Remove to a warm platter, and serve at once.


EGG SANDWICHES

Mash the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs, a sprinkle of salt, and a
little chopped cress, smooth and fine; spread this on thin slices of
bread slightly buttered, and press together.


EGGS AND TOMATO SAUCE

Melt a spoonful of butter in a deep dish, break in carefully the number
of eggs desired, and place on the stove until they begin to set; then
pour over them a hot tomato sauce, made after directions on page 77.


EGGS ON TOAST

Boil three eggs for twenty minutes. Put one tablespoonful of butter
into a frying-pan. When hot, stir in one tablespoonful of flour,
one-fourth teaspoonful of salt, and gradually, to avoid lumps forming,
one cupful of milk. Add the whites of the three eggs, chopped fine.
When hot, pour over three or four slices of moistened toast. Put the
yolks through a sieve or vegetable press over the toast, garnish with
bits of parsley, and serve hot.



                                OMELETS

 Simple diet is best; for many dishes bring many diseases.—_Pliny._


PLAIN OMELET

Beat the yolks and whites of three eggs separately; allow one
tablespoonful of milk to each egg. Stir the milk and yolks of the eggs
well together and season with salt; then with a spoon carefully fold in
the stiffly beaten whites of the eggs. Turn all into a hot frying-pan,
sufficiently buttered to prevent sticking. Cook rather quickly, being
careful not to burn. Carefully lift the edges of the omelet while
cooking, with a knife or spoon, that it may be equally cooked. When
well set, double one part over the other, remove to a warm dish, and
serve at once, as an omelet is not so good when cold. It should be very
light and tender, and nicely browned.


FRUIT OMELET

Prepare as above, spreading a thin layer of any kind of jelly over one
half before folding the other half over it; add a sprinkle of sugar if
desired.


BREAD OMELET

For each person allow one egg, three tablespoonfuls of milk, and one
tablespoonful of finely grated bread crumbs; beat well together, and
add a little salt, butter a deep plate or shallow pan, pour in the
mixture, and bake in the oven until well set.


MACARONI OMELET

Take a small handful of macaroni broken into small pieces, drop into
hot water, and boil until tender; drain. Heat a cupful of milk to
boiling, and stir in two even tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in
a little cold milk. Stir until thickened; remove from the fire, add the
macaroni, a few bits of chopped parsley, and four eggs well beaten;
season with salt; pour all into a hot, buttered dish, sprinkle with
a small handful of bread crumbs, and place in the oven till nicely
browned; then turn out on a hot, flat dish, and serve with brown sauce.



                               PUDDINGS

 The proof of the pudding is in eating it.

 Eat to live, but do not live merely to eat.

 Health is the greatest of all possessions, and ’tis a maxim with me,
 that a hale cobbler is better than a sick king.—_Bicherstaff._

 In order to preserve health, temperance in all things is
 necessary—temperance in labor, temperance in eating and
 drinking.—“_Christian Temperance._”

                                [Leaf]


SAGO PUDDING

To five cups of boiling water add a cup of sago, previously soaked in a
cup of cold water for twenty minutes, two thirds of a cup of sugar, and
a half cup of well-washed raisins. Cook all together till transparent,
flavor with lemon or vanilla, and serve with cream or boiled custard
sauce.


TAPIOCA PUDDING

Soak one cupful of tapioca overnight in a pint of water. In the morning
add one quart of milk, stirring gently, and boil about twenty minutes;
then add the yolks of four eggs well beaten, and one cup of sugar, and
boil a few minutes longer; pour into an earthen dish, and flavor with a
teaspoonful of vanilla; cover with a meringue made of the whites of the
four eggs beaten stiff, and four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, and
place in a slow oven to brown slightly. Serve cold.


RICE PUDDING

Take a cupful of boiled rice, and a half cup of washed raisins, and
mix together in a pudding dish. Beat well together two eggs, two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and two cupfuls of milk, and pour over the
raisins and rice. Bake in a moderate oven until the custard is just
set. If left in too long, the milk becomes watery. This is a good way
to use up left-over rice.


CORNSTARCH PUDDING

Take three tablespoonfuls of cornstarch and stir smooth in a little
cold water; over this pour one pint of boiling water; then stir in the
whites of three eggs beaten stiff, one tablespoonful of sugar, and a
pinch of salt. Steam fifteen minutes, or cook slowly until thickened.
Serve cold with a sauce prepared as follows: Heat one cup of milk to
boiling; beat together the yolks of the three eggs and one-half cup
of sugar until creamy, and stir into the milk; boil until smooth, and
remove from the fire at once. Flavor with lemon or vanilla, and allow
to cool.


BREAD PUDDING, NO. 1

Take one pint of bread crumbs, and pour over them one quart of milk;
then add the yolks of four eggs well beaten, four tablespoonfuls of
sugar, and bake in the oven. When done, spread the top with jelly or
marmalade, and cover with a meringue made of the four whites of the
eggs beaten stiff, and two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. Brown
slightly, and serve warm or cold, with or without sauce or cream, as
preferred.


BREAD PUDDING, NO. 2

Cut stale bread into cubes, and moisten with milk or water; then pour
over a mixture of eggs, sugar, and milk, allowing one egg and one
tablespoonful of sugar to each cup of milk. Steam or bake. Currants or
raisins may be added.


COLD PEACH PUDDING

Cut slices of stale bread into strips, and line a pudding basin or
round mold as neatly as possible. Then fill the center of the mold with
stewed fresh or canned peaches, slightly warmed, add sugar to sweeten,
and place a slice of bread over the fruit. Pour over enough of the
sirup or fruit juice to soak all the bread. Take a saucer or plate
about the size of the mold, and place it upside down on top, over the
pudding, and put a heavy weight on the plate. Let stand overnight, and
in the morning turn into a glass dish for the table. Cut into slices,
and serve with milk or cream. Raspberries or blackberries may be used
instead of peaches.


PRUNE WHIP

Wash thoroughly one-half pound of prunes and soak for an hour in
cold water enough to cover; cook gently in the same water until the
prunes are tender, and the juice is nearly absorbed. Then rub through
a colander. When cold, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little
lemon-juice, and the stiffly beaten whites of three eggs. Stir all well
together, pile lightly in a buttered pudding dish, and bake about ten
minutes, or until a delicate brown. Serve with whipped cream or boiled
custard sauce. See pages 79 and 78.


FIG PUDDING

Take half a pound of finely chopped figs, one cupful of bread crumbs,
three tablespoonfuls of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of melted butter, one
cupful of milk, two eggs well beaten, and a pinch of salt. Stir all
well together, turn into a double boiler, slightly buttered, or into a
saucepan placed in boiling water, and boil about an hour. Serve with
lemon sauce.


RICE LEMON PUDDING

To three-fourths cupful of well-washed rice, add three cupfuls of
boiling water and a half teaspoonful of salt, and cook in a double
boiler until tender. When done, allow to cool, then add the yolks of
three eggs well beaten, a teaspoonful of butter, three tablespoonfuls
of sugar, the grated rind of a lemon, and one cup of milk; stir
together, and bake in the oven until set. When done, cover the top with
a meringue made with the whites of the eggs beaten stiff, two-thirds
cup of sugar, and the juice of one lemon; place in the oven to brown
slightly. Serve either warm or cold.


RICE APPLE PUDDING

Boil two tablespoonfuls of well-washed rice in half a pint of milk
until soft; then stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs and sugar to
sweeten. Make a wall with the rice around a dish; fill the center of
the dish with stewed apples, and cover the whole with the whites of the
eggs beaten to a stiff froth; sprinkle with powdered sugar, and brown
lightly in the oven; serve with plain or whipped cream.


CRACKER PUDDING

Put three cupfuls of rich milk into a pudding dish; sprinkle in two
cupfuls of crackers, first heated in the oven till crisp, but not
browned, and afterward crushed fine with a rolling-pin. Beat the yolks
of three eggs till light; then mix with one-half cup of sugar, and
stir in the crackers and milk; add one cup of well-washed currants or
seedless raisins, and flavor with grated lemon peel if desired. Bake
in the oven until set; beat the whites of the eggs till stiff, add
one tablespoonful of white sugar, and spread this over the top of the
pudding; return to the oven till a delicate brown.


ALMOND RICE PUDDING

Put one cupful each of well-washed rice and raisins into a pudding dish
with six cupfuls of almond milk, one-third cup of sugar, and a pinch
of salt. Bake in a moderate oven till tender, stirring up several times
during the first ten minutes. Serve cold.


CORNSTARCH BLANC-MANGE

To one quart of milk add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, and heat just
to boiling; then stir in five tablespoonfuls of cornstarch mixed
thoroughly with two well-beaten eggs; flavor with lemon or vanilla, and
pour into cups, previously wet in cold water, to mold. Place a mold of
jelly in the center of a platter, and arrange the molds of blanc-mange
around it. A portion of the blanc-mange may be colored and flavored
with chocolate, so that each alternate mold on the platter will be
brown. Serve with cream.


APPLE BATTER PUDDING

Pare and slice six medium-sized cooking apples into a buttered
pudding dish, adding sugar to sweeten. Make a batter as follows: Beat
three eggs to a foam; then add five tablespoonfuls of sifted flour,
sprinkling it in while beating vigorously, and half a teaspoonful of
salt. Stir in gradually enough milk to make of the consistency of thick
cream, beat well, and pour over the apples, and bake until done. Serve
with cream or rich milk.


APPLE TRIFLE

Pare, quarter, core, and stew six or eight apples to a pulp, adding
the juice and grated rind of a lemon. When done, add sugar to sweeten,
and turn into a deep glass dish. Heat a pint of milk to boiling,
stir in three well-beaten eggs, saving out the white of one, and two
tablespoonfuls of sugar, and cook until thickened. When cold pour over
the apples in the dish. Beat the white of the egg to a stiff froth and
drop by spoonfuls into a pan of boiling water for a moment, turn, then
remove, and use to ornament the pudding.


APPLES WITH TAPIOCA

Soak a cupful of tapioca in two cupfuls of cold water for an hour; then
spread on a clean white cloth, and place some pared and sliced apples,
sugar, and grated lemon peel in the center; tie up the cloth loosely so
that the tapioca will surround the apples, and put into boiling water;
boil half an hour, or until done; then turn out the whole into a dish.
Serve with boiled custard, whipped cream, or fruit jelly.


FRUIT TAPIOCA

Cook three-fourths cup of tapioca in four cups of water until smooth
and transparent. Stir into it lightly a pint of fresh or canned
strawberries, raspberries, or blackberries, adding sugar as required.
Serve cold with cream, or a pint of fruit sauce.


PEACHES AND RICE

Soak a cup of rice in one and one-fourth cups of water for an hour;
then add a cup of milk and a little salt, turn into a double boiler,
cover, and steam for an hour, stirring occasionally for the first ten
or fifteen minutes. When done, pour into a mold to cool, then turn out
into a glass dish. Stew fresh or dried peaches in halves, and arrange
them around the rice; pour the sirup or juice over the whole.


RICE WITH RAISINS

Wash and put to cook rice as directed above; after the rice has begun
to swell, add a cupful of well-washed raisins. When done, serve with
fruit juice, milk, or cream.


RICE WITH FIGS

Soak and cook the rice as directed for peaches and rice. Wash a small
quantity of figs, and stew with a little sugar until thoroughly done;
serve a spoonful of the figs with each dish of rice. The fig sauce
should be so thick that it will not run over the rice.


APPLE RICE

Fill a pudding dish half full with tart apples, pared, quartered,
cored, and sprinkled with sugar. Wash thoroughly half a cupful of rice
and sprinkle over apples in pudding dish. Cover, steam until the rice
is tender, and serve with cream and sugar.


APPLES WITH RAISINS

Pare, quarter, and core half a dozen good cooking apples. Wash a small
cup of raisins, and put to cook in a quart of boiling water. When they
have begun to swell, add the apples, a little sugar to sweeten, and
cook until tender.


COCOANUT PUDDING

To one pint of milk, add two tablespoonfuls of desiccated cocoanut, and
heat to boiling; remove the cocoanut by turning through a strainer;
then add to the milk one-half cup of sugar and one-half cup of fine
cracker or bread crumbs, cool a few minutes, then add the beaten yolks
of two eggs. Turn into a pudding dish, set it inside a pan of hot
water, and bake in the oven until set, but not watery. Beat the whites
of the eggs to a stiff froth, add two teaspoonfuls of sugar, and spread
on the top of the pudding; return to the oven to brown slightly.


CHERRY PUDDING

Soak a half cup of tapioca, and cook in a pint of water until
transparent. Have ready in a pudding dish a pint of fresh, pitted
cherries; sprinkle them with sugar, then pour over them the cooked
tapioca, and bake for half an hour in a moderate oven. Serve with or
without cream.


MINUTE PUDDING

Put one quart of milk into the inner vessel of a double boiler, or into
an ordinary saucepan greased with a little butter, and heat to boiling;
then stir in two small cups of flour, sifting it in a little at a time,
and stirring briskly, that no lumps may be formed. Just before removing
from the fire, add two well-beaten eggs, stir a moment, and serve at
once with cream, and a little sugar if desired. If preferred, the eggs
may be omitted.


ARROWROOT BLANC-MANGE

Heat a pint of milk to boiling; then stir in two heaping tablespoonfuls
of arrowroot rubbed smooth in a half cup of cold milk, and a half cup
of sugar; cook for a few minutes until thickened, stirring well, and
pour into cups or molds previously wet in cold water, to cool. Serve
with stewed fruit or fruit juice.


RICE SNOW WITH JELLY

Cook one cupful of rice in milk until tender, adding a little salt.
When done, pile loosely in a dish; beat the whites of two or three eggs
till stiff, mix with a half cupful of sugar, and pile in heaps like
snow over the rice; ornament with bits of jelly, and, if in season, put
a circle of fresh berries around the edge when ready to serve.

[Illustration: A laid table]



                           CUSTARDS & CREAMS

 Simplicity is the highest art.

 Many dishes have induced many diseases.—_Seneca._

 Study simplicity in the number of dishes, and variety in the character
 of the meals.

 “It is not the chief end of man to gratify his appetite.”

                                [Leaf]


CREAM MOLD

Heat two cups of milk to boiling; then add one-half cup of sugar, and
three tablespoonfuls of ground rice, wet in a little cold milk; flavor
with vanilla, and stir well until it thickens; pour into cups or molds
previously wet in cold water, until set, then turn out on a large plate
or into little dishes. Have ready a cup of whipped cream, and put some
over each mold with a bit of jelly in the center of each, or serve with
fruit sauce.


BOILED CUSTARD

Put one quart of milk and one-half cup of sugar into the inner vessel
of a double boiler, let heat to boiling, then stir in slowly three eggs
well beaten, and one tablespoonful of cornstarch rubbed smooth in a
little cold milk; add any flavoring desired. Stir well, and when well
set, turn into a dish to cool.


FLOATING ISLAND

Put a pint of milk into a double boiler; let heat to boiling, then add
the well-beaten yolks of three eggs mixed with three tablespoonfuls of
sugar. Stir well, and when done turn into the dish from which it is to
be served. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and drop by
spoonfuls for a few seconds into a pan of hot water; let them stand for
a moment, then turn over, but do not allow them to harden. Remove with
a skimmer or spoon, and put as islands on the top of the custard; let
cool, then place bits of jelly on top of the islands.


APPLE FLOAT

To one pint of nice stewed apples, add the whites of three eggs beaten
to a stiff froth, and four tablespoonfuls of white sugar; beat all
together until very stiff. Have a glass dish filled with boiled custard
made with two cups of milk, the yolks of the eggs, one teaspoonful of
cornstarch, a tablespoonful of sugar, and flavoring if desired. Pile
the apples on top, and serve.


BANANA CUSTARD

Slice six bananas into a deep dish. Heat one pint of milk to
boiling; beat together one egg, one tablespoonful of sugar, and one
dessertspoonful of cornstarch blended with a little milk, and stir into
the hot milk; let boil up once or twice, then pour over the bananas,
stirring them in.


ORANGE CUSTARD

Remove the peel from three large, sweet oranges, cut in halves, and
rub through a colander. Heat one pint of milk to boiling, then add a
tablespoonful of cornstarch dissolved in a little cold milk, and the
beaten yolks of three eggs. When thickened, allow to cool, then stir
in the oranges. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add two
thirds of a cup of sugar, and spread on the top of the custard; place
in the oven till slightly brown. Serve cold.


PINEAPPLE CUSTARD

Make a custard of one quart of milk, two thirds of a cup of sugar, and
four eggs: heat the milk to boiling in a double boiler; then add the
eggs and sugar beaten together. Stir well, and when done set aside to
cool. Have a nice, ripe pineapple picked to pieces with a fork, and
sprinkled with sugar. Just before serving the custard, stir in the
pineapple.


TAPIOCA CREAM

Wash and soak four even tablespoonfuls of tapioca in a cup of water
until soft; then add a little salt and a pint of milk, and heat to
boiling in a double boiler; add the yolks of three eggs well beaten,
and one-half cup of sugar; cook for a few minutes, then turn into an
earthen dish; when cool, spread over the top the whites of the eggs
beaten stiff with two tablespoonfuls of sugar, adding vanilla to
flavor; place in the oven to brown slightly.


RICE CUSTARD

Wash one-half cup of rice, and cook in a double boiler in three cups
of water or milk, or equal parts of each, until tender, adding a
little salt; then add, while still on the range, one pint of milk, the
yolks of three eggs well beaten, and five tablespoonfuls of sugar;
stir gently, and cook only until thickened. Then turn into a pudding
dish. Beat well the whites of three eggs, add three tablespoonfuls of
powdered sugar, flavor with lemon or vanilla, and spread over the top
of the custard; place in a slow oven to brown slightly.



                                SAUCES

 Rich sauces and highly-seasoned dishes provoke thirst.—_Selected._

 Rich sauces are even worse than heaping several meats upon each
 other.—_Pliny._

 A wrong course of eating or drinking destroys health, and with it the
 sweetness of life.—“_Christian Temperance._”

                                [Leaf]


                         SAUCES FOR VEGETABLES


TOMATO SAUCE

Cook one pint of fresh or canned tomatoes with a little onion, salt,
and herb-flavor for fifteen minutes, then strain through a colander,
and add two tablespoonfuls of flour browned with a tablespoonful of
butter.


CREAM SAUCE

Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan over the fire, stir in
two tablespoonfuls of flour, and cook about one minute, but do not let
it brown. Add one cup of milk gradually, stirring constantly to keep
smooth until thickened; cook very slowly, or steam over hot water, for
ten minutes; add one-half teaspoonful of salt, and serve.


LENTIL SAUCE

Rub a cupful of cooked lentils through a colander into a saucepan; add
a cup of milk and a little salt. When boiling, stir in a tablespoonful
of browned flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. Add a little
chopped parsley, if desired. For browned flour, see page 12.


BROWN SAUCE, NO. 1

Put a teaspoonful of butter into a frying-pan, and brown slightly; then
pour in a pint of milk, and heat to boiling; stir in two tablespoonfuls
of browned flour rubbed to a paste in a little cold water or milk;
season with salt, boil until thickened, and serve.


BROWN SAUCE, NO. 2

Put a tablespoonful of butter into a frying-pan; when melted, sprinkle
in two tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring until nicely browned; then
add enough boiling water to make of the consistency of cream, stirring
constantly to prevent lumps from forming. Add salt to taste.


PARSLEY SAUCE

Make a brown sauce, and add a little finely chopped parsley just before
serving.


EGG AND MILK SAUCE

To a pint of milk add a tablespoonful or two of cream, or a teaspoonful
of butter, and heat to boiling; then stir in one even tablespoonful
of flour rubbed smooth in a little cold water or milk; let boil a few
minutes, stirring constantly; then stir in rapidly the well-beaten yolk
of one egg; season with salt, boil up, and serve.


BREAD SAUCE

Put a tablespoonful of oil and a teaspoonful of grated onion into a
saucepan, and allow to heat, but not scorch; then add a cupful of rich
milk, or nut milk, and a little salt. When heated nearly to boiling,
stir in one-half cupful of sifted bread crumbs. Let boil slowly a few
minutes, and serve. Nice with protose cutlets or baked potatoes.


MINT SAUCE

Take fresh, green mint, wash, and chop very fine. Put into a glass, and
for each two tablespoonfuls of mint allow one tablespoonful of sugar,
and the juice of one lemon diluted with an equal amount of water.

                                [Leaf]


                          SAUCES FOR DESSERTS


ARROWROOT SAUCE

Heat one cup of water to boiling; then add one teaspoonful of sugar,
and one small tablespoonful of arrowroot mixed smooth in a little cold
water, stirring briskly. In a few minutes remove from the fire, and
flavor with lemon or almond. Nice for puddings.


BOILED CUSTARD SAUCE

Beat together in a saucepan, two eggs, one tablespoonful of sugar, and
one-half teaspoonful of cornstarch. Place over the fire one cupful of
milk, and as soon as it begins to boil pour it over the eggs in the
saucepan. Stir well, place over the fire to boil until it thickens,
then pour into a pitcher, and flavor if desired.


CHOCOLATE SAUCE

Mix two tablespoonfuls of shaved chocolate with two cupfuls of sweet
milk, and heat to boiling; then add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs,
stirring briskly; boil a few minutes until thickened, and remove from
the fire; add the whites of the eggs, which have been beaten to a stiff
froth, and two tablespoonfuls of white sugar. Nice with cornstarch
blanc-mange.


ORANGE SAUCE

Heat a pint of water to boiling, and thicken with a tablespoonful of
cornstarch; add a cupful of orange juice extracted from good sweet
oranges, a small piece of the yellow rind for flavoring, and sugar to
sweeten; the beaten yolk of an egg may be added if desired; remove the
orange rind before serving.


LEMON SAUCE

To a pint of boiling water add a slice or two of lemon, and thicken
with a small tablespoonful of cornstarch; remove the lemon, cook a few
minutes until clear, then add two thirds of a cup of sugar, the juice
of one lemon, and a beaten egg if desired; boil up, cool, and serve.


FRUIT SAUCE

Obtain the juice of raspberries, strawberries, grapes, currants, or
any larger fruit, by simmering for a short time with a little water,
and straining through a thin cloth; heat the juice to scalding, then
slightly thicken with cornstarch rubbed smooth in a little cold water,
allowing a tablespoonful of cornstarch for each pint of juice; cook
a few minutes till thickened, and sweeten to taste. Three or four
tablespoonfuls of fruit jelly dissolved in a pint of hot water makes a
good substitute for fruit juice if the latter is not available.


STRAWBERRY SAUCE

Beat one and one-half cups of powdered sugar and one tablespoonful of
butter to a cream. Then add the stiffly beaten white of one egg and
beat till very light. Set in a cool place, and when ready to serve, add
one pint of mashed strawberries.


WHIPPED CREAM

Beat one cup of cold sweet cream with a Dover egg-beater until stiff;
then beat in two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, and one-half
teaspoonful extract of vanilla; set in a cool place till ready to
serve. Have the cream cold, and not too thick, or it will turn to
butter while beating. A nice sauce for desserts.



                                 PIES

    “To keep in health this rule is wise,
      Eat only when you need and relish food,
      Chew thoroughly, that it may do you good,
    Have it well cooked, unspiced, and undisguised.”

 Food for repentance—mince pie eaten late at night.

 He who eats till he is sick must fast till he is well.—_Selected._

 How many homes are cursed by discomfort and ill health, and thoughts
 and bitter words, simply because the wife does not know how to
 cook.—_The Young Woman._

                                [Leaf]


One of the greatest objections to pies is that they are generally made
too rich. When a large amount of grease is employed in making the
crust, and the filling is seasoned heavily with spices and various
condiments, they can hardly fail to be unwholesome.

But pies need not be made in this way. If proper ingredients are used,
and simplicity is studied in making them, there is no reason why they
should be seriously objectionable.

There are two styles of pie in general use,—one, the English style,
baked in a deep dish, frequently with only a top crust; the other, the
American, baked in a shallow dish, usually with two crusts, an upper
and an under. Custard, cream, lemon, and pumpkin pies, however, have
only an under crust. Most of the recipes here given are for the shallow
pies with two crusts.

[Illustration: Pie Dish]

Custard, pumpkin, and other pies in which milk and eggs are used,
should be baked in a slow oven. They will also be improved if the milk
used be hot. To stir beaten eggs into the hot milk, add a few spoonfuls
of cold milk to the eggs, then pour into the hot milk, a little at a
time, stirring well.

The filling for pies should always be prepared before making the crust,
unless the crust is to be baked first. All the material should be
cold, except for custard and pumpkin pies, and should be put together
quickly, handling as little as possible, and without kneading the dough.

[Illustration: Rolling-pin]

When the paste is ready, take sufficient for one crust, and roll out
on a floured board quickly and lightly until about an eighth of an
inch in thickness, and a little larger than the pie dish, as it will
shrink when lifted from the board. When rolled thin, flour or oil the
pie dish, cover smoothly with the crust, and fill, adding sugar as
required. Sprinkle a little flour over the sugar; this thickens the
juice slightly, and prevents the upper crust from becoming soggy. For
custard or fruit pies with wet fillings, brush the bottom crust with
the white of an egg before putting in the filling. The crust will then
remain dry and tender.

[Illustration: Pie]

If there is to be a top crust, roll it out in the same manner, and
make a few ornamental cuts in the center to allow the steam to escape.
Wet the edge of the lower crust, and lift on the upper crust, pressing
the edges together so that the juice may not escape. Trim away the
overhanging portions, and with the thumb and fingers press the edge
into a scalloped or ornamental wall, as shown in the accompanying
cut. Especially should this be done when only an under crust is used,
that the pie may be handled with greater ease. It also adds to the
appearance of the pie. Pies are generally better eaten the same day
they are baked.

                                [Leaf]


PLAIN PIE CRUST

For each pie with two crusts take two small cups of sifted flour, and
work thoroughly into it three tablespoonfuls of butter, adding a little
salt; wet with just sufficient cold water to make a rather stiff dough;
mix quickly, roll out thin, and bake as soon as the pie can be made. A
good crust may be made with olive-oil, or fresh cocoanut or vegetable
oil, instead of butter, using about the same quantity.


CREAM PIE CRUST

Take two scant cups of fine, sifted flour, or equal parts of fine flour
and Graham flour, add a little salt, and moisten with enough cold, thin
sweet cream to make a rather stiff dough; roll out thin, place in the
pie dish, fill, and bake quickly.


APPLE PIE

Pare, core, and slice thin, tart ripe apples; line the pie dish with
a crust, and fill with the apples; sprinkle with sugar, and add two
or three tablespoonfuls of cold water. Cover with an upper crust,
according to general directions, and bake until a light brown. Apples
that do not cook quickly may be stewed until about half done before
making into pies. Apple pie when cold is very nice served with sweet
cream.


PEACH PIE

Pare, remove stones, and make the same as apple pie.


GOOSEBERRY PIE

Remove the stems and blossom ends, wash, and fill a pie dish lined with
a crust. Add a half cup of sugar, and sprinkle with flour. Prepare
the upper crust, cover, and bake. To prevent the juice from running
out while baking, make a paste of a teaspoonful of flour and a little
water, and brush over the edge of the under crust before putting on
the top crust. If desired, beat together the white of an egg and a
tablespoonful of fine sugar, and meringue the top of the pie when done;
return to the oven, and brown slightly.


RHUBARB PIE

Wash, strip off the skin, and cut the stalks into thin slices. Line
a pie dish with crust, and fill with the rhubarb. Add a half cup
of sugar, two or three tablespoonfuls of water, and sprinkle over a
tablespoonful of flour. Wet the edges of the lower crust, place on a
prepared top crust, press the edges together, trim, and bake. Equal
portions of rhubarb and apples may be used in the place of all rhubarb.


RASPBERRY PIE

Look over the raspberries, line a pie dish with a crust and fill with
berries; add two tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little water, sprinkle with
flour, and proceed as with gooseberry pie.


BLACKBERRY PIE

Look over about one pint of blackberries, and proceed the same as for
raspberry pie. Blueberry pie may be made in the same way.


CHERRY PIE

Take nice ripe cherries, remove the stones if preferred, and make the
same as raspberry pie, adding sugar according to the acidity of the
fruit.


DRIED CURRANT PIE

Wash the currants in two or three waters through a colander to remove
sand and grit, and stew; when cool, line a pie dish with crust, and
fill with the currants, pouring in a small quantity of the juice; add
a little sugar, then sprinkle over with two tablespoonfuls of flour,
cover with a crust, and bake in a hot oven till done. It should not be
made too dry.


PRUNE PIE

Wash the prunes well in warm water, rinse, soak, and put to cook
without draining, cover, and stew slowly from one to two hours. When
done, put through a colander to remove stones and skins. Bake with two
crusts. Very little sugar will be needed. If the pulp is quite juicy, a
tablespoonful of flour may be sprinkled over.


LEMON PIE

To one cupful of boiling water, add one heaping tablespoonful of
cornstarch blended with a little cold water. Boil up, remove from
the fire, and stir in two-thirds cup of sugar; let cool, then add
the beaten yolks of two eggs, and the juice and grated rind of a
lemon. Bake with under crust only; when done, meringue the top with a
tablespoonful of sugar and the whites of the eggs beaten stiff; return
to a slow oven to brown slightly.


DRIED APPLE PIE

Take good dried apples, wash, and soak for several hours, or overnight,
in sufficient cold water to cover them. Stew, without draining, until
soft; mash fine, adding lemon flavoring and sugar to sweeten; bake with
two crusts, or ornament with strips or lattice-work crust on top. A few
stewed blackberries or raspberries may be added to the apples.


DRIED PEACH PIE

Stew until soft, mash to a pulp, add sugar to sweeten, and make the
same as dried apple pie. If desired, one-third apricots may be used.


RAISIN PIE

For three pies, stew one pound of raisins for nearly an hour in enough
water to cover them; add the juice of a lemon, and a small cup of white
sugar. Line the pie dishes with crust, fill with raisins and a little
of the juice, and sprinkle two tablespoonfuls of flour over each pie.
Bake with two crusts. For lemon raisin pie add the juice and grated
rind of one lemon.


CREAM PIE

Put one cup of milk to scald in a double boiler. Beat together
two eggs, leaving out the white of one, two even teaspoonfuls of
sifted flour stirred smooth in a little cold milk, and two heaping
tablespoonfuls of sugar. When the milk is scalding hot, add this
mixture, and stir for a minute or two until it thickens. It is better
not to cook after it is thick, and the less it is stirred, except to
keep it from forming into lumps, the better; add vanilla or lemon to
flavor. Line the pie dish with a crust, pricking well with a fork to
prevent blistering, and bake in a quick oven; then put the cream, which
is already sufficiently cooked, into the baked crust. Beat the white of
the egg to a stiff froth with a tablespoonful of sugar, and spread on
top of the pie. Place in the oven to brown slightly.


CUSTARD PIE

Line a pie dish with a crust, and fill with the following: Three eggs,
three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and one teaspoonful of flour; beat
thoroughly together, and add milk enough to fill the dish. Bake slowly
until set, but do not allow to boil. As soon as it puffs, and a knife
can be cut into the custard and come out clean, it is done. To be eaten
cold, and on the same day as baked.


PUMPKIN PIE

Cut the pumpkin in halves, remove the seeds, cut in slices, and stew
until dry and soft. Mash smooth, and for each pie take one cup of
stewed pumpkin, one-third cup of sugar, two eggs, and about a pint
of milk. Beat the eggs and sugar together, stir in the pumpkin, and,
lastly, add the milk; mix well, and bake with an under crust only,
until the custard is set. Squash may be used instead of pumpkin. If
more convenient, two tablespoonfuls of flour may be used in place
of the eggs. A tablespoonful or two of molasses may also be added if
desired.

    What moistens the lip, and
      What brightens the eye,
    What brings back the past,
      Like a good pumpkin pie?—_Whittier._


PIE WITH UPPER CRUST ONLY

Take a deep pie dish, place a small cup upside down in the middle of
it, and fill the dish with fruit, adding sugar as desired. Place a
border of crust around the edge of the dish, put on the top crust,
ornament the edges, and bake.


TARTS

Line shallow pie dishes or patty-pans with good crusts, fill with the
fruit, and bake. When done, remove from the oven, and sprinkle with
fine sugar.

Small tarts may be made by rolling crust out thin, and cutting in
shapes with a cake cutter, using half of them for the under crust, and
the other half for tops; ornament the tops by cutting small holes in
the center with a thimble or small fancy mold. Bake quickly, and when
done put together with fruit jelly.


VEGETABLE PIE

Boil for a short time several potatoes and onions, after which slice
them into a deep, buttered pie dish in layers; add to each layer a
little sage and well-steeped tapioca, and season with salt. Cover with
a crust and bake. A very economical and wholesome pie.


SAVORY PIE

Soak one-half cup of tapioca in one cup of cold water for one hour.
Moisten enough stale bread in cold water to make three cupfuls; put
into a dish, and rub in two tablespoonfuls of butter and one of flour.
Then mix in one-half cup of stewed fresh or canned tomatoes, two beaten
eggs, one small onion chopped fine, one tablespoonful of powdered sage,
and salt to taste. Put into a buttered pudding dish and pour over the
tapioca. Boil two eggs until hard, remove shells, cut into slices, and
place on top of the tapioca; add a few bits of butter, cover with a
crust, and bake in a moderate oven for twenty or thirty minutes. Serve
hot.


MERINGUE FOR PIES

To each stiffly beaten white of an egg, add a tablespoonful of sugar,
and spread on the pie after it is baked and allowed to cool slightly;
place in the oven for a few minutes. Care should be taken that the oven
is not too hot, or the covering will be tough and leathery.



                                 CAKES

    Feed sparingly, and defy the physician.
    Who lives to eat, will die by eating.

 Whoever eats too much, or of food which is not healthful, is
 weakening his powers to resist the clamors of other appetites and
 passions.—“_Christian Temperance._”

 The best seasoning for food is hunger.—_Socrates._

 Reason should direct, and appetite obey.—_Cicero._

 Men should be temperate in eating as well as drinking.—_Dr. Brandreth._

                                [Leaf]


[Illustration: Dover Egg Beater]

It is important that all the necessary materials should be gathered
together before beginning the cake. If baking-powder is used, allow a
teaspoonful to each cup of flour; sift it in the flour, and measure the
sugar; have the pans for baking in readiness. Beat the whites and yolks
of eggs separately in china bowls, using a Dover egg-beater. The whites
should be beaten till stiff enough to cut with a knife, the yolks till
they cease to froth and begin to thicken. Cream the butter by beating
it, first warming the dish by rinsing with hot water, if the weather
is cold. Then add the sugar slowly, then the beaten yolks of eggs; add
a little of the milk, then a part of the flour, thus alternating with
the milk and flour till all are used, being careful to have the mixture
always of about the same consistency.

Next fold in the stiffly beaten whites, add flavoring if desired, and
beat for a few moments. If fruit is used, fold it in, well floured, the
last thing, or it will sink to the bottom of the cake.

The baking is an important part of cake-making. The oven should be at a
proper temperature; if too hot at first, the cake browns too quickly,
and a crust is formed over the top before the cake has sufficient time
to rise; if not hot enough, the air that has been beaten in escapes
before the heat has time to expand it; the result is that the cake is
coarse-grained and heavy.

Have the oven less hot for cake than for bread, but hotter for thin
cake than for loaf cake. It is about right for loaf cake made with
butter when it turns a piece of writing-paper a light brown in five
minutes. About an hour will be required to bake a loaf cake: from
fifteen to twenty minutes for small cakes and layer cakes.

A tube cake pan, as shown in the accompanying cut, is very good for
baking ordinary cakes, as the tube causes the cake to bake more evenly,
and renders it less liable to fall.

[Illustration: Cake Pan]

If it is necessary to move the cake after putting it in the oven, it
should be done carefully, as jarring is liable to make it fall. A cake
is done when a clean broom straw passed through the thickest part comes
out clean.

If a cake rises up, cracks open, and remains that way, it has baked
too fast, or too much flour has been used. To bake properly, it should
rise first on the edges, then in the middle, crack open slightly, then
settle till level, when it will have closed nearly together again. The
outside should be a golden brown, the inside slightly moist, and fine
grained.

In beating the yolks of eggs where both eggs and milk are used, first
rinse the bowl in which the yolks are to be beaten with a little of the
milk.

In beating the whites of the eggs, do not stop until they are stiff,
as they can not be beaten stiff after standing till they have become
liquid again. Eggs will beat stiffer if cold, and beaten in a cold dish
and in a cool room.

Jelly for filling should be beaten till smooth, then spread between the
layers before they are quite cool. In using dessicated cocoanut, first
moisten it with a little sweet cream.

Citron used in cake should be cut into fine strips. Currants and
raisins should be looked over, washed, dried, and then be well floured
before being added to the cake, as they absorb moisture and tend to
make the cake heavy. Rich cake should be avoided. Sponge cake may be
considered the most healthful.

To make sponge cake, beat the yolks till thick and light-colored, then
beat in the sugar, add lemon-juice, or other liquid and flavoring to be
used. Then add the stiffly beaten whites, sift in the flour over them,
and fold all in together without stirring or beating. Beating sponge
cake after adding the flour makes it firm and tough, as also does the
addition of too much flour. Sponge cake should be put together lightly
and quickly, and baked at once.


SPONGE CAKE

Beat the yolks of three eggs; then gradually add one cupful of
granulated sugar, one tablespoonful each of cold water and lemon-juice.
Add the beaten whites and one cupful of flour, following general
directions for making sponge cake as given above.


LEMON SPONGE CAKE

Take four eggs, one cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of lemon-juice,
with a little of the grated rind, and one cupful of flour. Beat the
yolks of the eggs to a foam, then beat in the sugar, adding a little
at a time; then add the lemon-juice and grated rind; beat the whites
of the eggs until very stiff, then lightly fold and chop them into the
mixture. Slowly sift in the flour, carefully working it in. Do not beat
after the flour has been added. Bake in two layers, and put together
with fruit jelly or lemon honey. See page 40.


SPONGE LOAF CAKE

Break ten eggs into a large bowl, add two large cupfuls of granulated
sugar, and beat together for half an hour without pausing. Then add one
cupful of sifted flour, the juice and grated rind of one lemon, and
one-fourth cup of cold water. Turn into deep pans, sprinkle the top
lightly with powdered sugar, and bake about an hour in a moderate oven.


GEM CAKES

Beat to a foam the yolk of one egg, one cup of sugar, and one cup of
cold, thin, sweet cream; a little grated lemon rind may be added for
flavoring. Stir in slowly, beating thoroughly, two cupfuls of flour
into which a heaping tablespoonful of cornstarch has been sifted. Beat
until light and smooth; then add the well-beaten whites of two eggs,
stirring just enough to mix them in. Turn into oiled, heated gem irons,
and bake in a rather quick oven.


RICE CAKES

Separate four eggs; add a pinch of salt to the whites, beat until
stiff, then set in a cool place. Beat the yolks for several minutes,
then slowly add one cupful of sugar, beating continuously; carefully
fold in the beaten whites, and lastly add one-half cup of flour, sifted
before measuring, and mixed with one-half cup of ground rice; work in
carefully, and quickly turn the mixture into oiled patty-pans, or drop
by spoonfuls into a large oiled baking pan, and bake in a quick oven.


CREAM CAKE

One cupful each of sugar and sweet milk, one egg, one tablespoonful of
butter, two cupfuls of flour, and two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder.
Put together according to general directions. Bake in three layers, and
put together with a filling made as follows: Heat one cupful of milk to
boiling; to this add one-fourth cup of sugar, one dessertspoonful of
flour rubbed smooth in a little cold milk reserved for this purpose,
and one well-beaten egg; boil until thickened, let cool a little, and
spread between the layers.


NUT CAKE

One and one-half cups of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of butter, two eggs,
two cupfuls of flour, with two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, and one
cupful of milk. Put together according to general directions. Lastly,
stir in one cupful of chopped nuts, and bake in a moderate oven.


FAVORITE CAKE

Beat together for nearly an hour one cupful each of flour and rice
flour, twelve eggs, two cupfuls of sugar, and a spoonful of caraway
seeds. Bake in a tube cake pan.


LAYER CAKE

One and one-half cups sugar, half cup of butter, three eggs, half cup
of milk, and two heaping cups of sifted flour, with two teaspoonfuls
of baking powder. Bake in three layers, and put together with a boiled
frosting to which a cupful of chopped nuts or raisins may be added.


DELICATE CUP CAKE

Take two eggs, beaten separately, one cup of sugar, one cup of rich
milk, two cups of flour, and teaspoonful of vanilla. Make according to
general directions; bake in patty pans, or gem irons.


RAISED FRUIT CAKE

Take one cup of light bread dough when ready for the pans, put into
a dish, and work into it one-half cup of oil or butter, one egg well
beaten, one cup of sugar, one-half cup of milk, one and one-half cups
of flour, and lastly one cup of English currants or seedless raisins,
chopped fine. Turn into an oiled bread tin, let rise in a warm place
for about an hour and a half, or until light, then bake for nearly an
hour in a moderate oven.


FROSTING FOR CAKE

Beat the white of one egg until stiff, add a teaspoonful of
lemon-juice, then gradually add one scant cup of powdered sugar; beat
very hard; flavor as desired. To color it a delicate pink, add a little
currant or strawberry juice; a yellow tint may be obtained by grating
orange or lemon rind, and using two tablespoonfuls of the juice, first
straining through a cloth.


BOILED FROSTING

Without stirring boil one cupful of sugar and two tablespoonfuls of
water in a saucepan until clear; then pour it upon the stiffly beaten
white of an egg, stirring well together, and spread over the cake with
a knife, which dip frequently into cold water.


CREAM ICING

To two tablespoonfuls of cream and one teaspoonful of vanilla or other
flavoring add enough confectioner’s sugar to make it stiff enough to
spread. Orange, or other fruit juice, may be used in place of the cream.


ORANGE ICING

Beat the yolk of one egg and add the juice and grated rind of one
orange and enough confectioner’s sugar to make it stiff enough to
spread.



                           WHOLESOME DRINKS

    Write it underneath your feet,
    Up and down the busy street;
    Write it for the great and small,
    In the palace, cottage, hall,—
      Where there’s drink there’s danger.
                                 _—Selected._

 Water is best.—_Pindar._

 Tea is a stimulant; coffee is a hurtful indulgence.

 Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging; and whosoever is deceived
 thereby is not wise.—_Solomon._

 If you wish to keep mind clear and body healthy, abstain from all
 fermented liquors.—_Sydney Smith._

 Many who never touch alcohol ruin their health by tea.—_Hygiene
 Review._

 Temperance is the parent of health, cheerfulness, and old age.—_George
 Mogridge._


CEREAL COFFEE

To prepare, take three and one-half quarts of fresh bran, one and
one-half quarts corn-meal, two cupfuls of molasses, and one cupful
of boiling water; mix all together thoroughly, bake in a large
dripping-pan in the oven till a rich brown color; stir often to prevent
scorching. Make the same as ordinary coffee, only let boil a little
longer.

[Illustration: Coffee Strainer]


CRUST COFFEE

Brown stale pieces of brown or white bread in the oven slowly to a
golden brown; then crush with a rolling-pin. Put the crumbs in a thin
cloth bag, filling only half full, and tying near the top; put the bag
in the coffee-pot and turn on hot water, allowing seven parts of water
to one of crumbs. Boil five or ten minutes. Remove the bag, bring the
coffee to a boil again, and serve with cream and sugar. This makes a
very smooth drink, and is especially nice for the sick.


CORN COFFEE

Brown common field corn as brown as possible without burning; then
pound, or grind coarsely in a coffee-mill, and place in a covered can
ready for use. In making the coffee, mix the white of an egg with three
tablespoonfuls of the ground grain, pour over three or four cups of
boiling water, and steep for ten or fifteen minutes. Serve with cream
and sugar.

Peas, wheat, barley, or rice may be prepared in the same way.

[Illustration: Coffee Mill]


HOT MILK

Heat the milk in a double boiler until the surface becomes wrinkled.
It should be drunk a few sips at a time. A bowl of hot milk and brown
bread forms a nourishing meal.


CAMBRIC TEA

Take a cup of boiling water, add a little cream, and sugar to sweeten.
A simple but pleasant and wholesome drink.


EGG-NOG

Beat one egg and a teaspoonful of powdered sugar to a foam; add the
juice of half a lemon, pour into a glass and fill up with cold water.


EGG-NOG, HOT

Beat well together the yolk of one egg and a tablespoonful of sugar;
add one-half cup of hot milk or water, and the white of the egg beaten
to a stiff froth; stir lightly, and serve.


LEMONADE, NO. 1

Roll the lemons till soft; cut into halves, and with a lemon drill
squeeze out sufficient juice to make one cupful; add to this one cupful
of white sugar; as soon as the sugar dissolves, add about two quarts of
water, and serve. For lemon frappé add the beaten whites of three eggs.

[Illustration: Lemon Drill]


LEMONADE, NO. 2

For each quart desired, take the juice of three or four lemons, and
the rind of one. Peel the rind very thin, getting just the yellow;
place it in a pitcher with the juice of the lemons and from four to
six tablespoonfuls of white sugar. Pour over enough hot water to make
a quart in all; cover at once, and let stand until cold; or pour over
a spoonful or two of boiling water to dissolve the sugar, and add the
necessary quantity of cold water.


HOT LEMONADE

To the juice of each lemon add a cupful of boiling water, and sweeten
to taste. Excellent for a cold.


ORANGEADE

Choose nice, juicy, ripe oranges, and make the same as Lemonade Nos.
1 and 2, only using less sugar. This will be found a much nicer drink
than many imagine. Try it.


FRUIT JUICE LEMONADE

To a pint of lemonade prepared according to foregoing recipes, add a
half cup of strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, or currant juice. This
gives a nice color to the lemonade, besides improving its flavor.


PINEAPPLE LEMONADE

Make the lemonade as indicated above, and flavor with a few spoonfuls
of pineapple juice.


GRAPEADE

Take two pounds of thoroughly ripe purple grapes, crush, and strain
the juice through a coarse cloth or jelly-bag. Add to the juice three
tablespoonfuls of white sugar, and dilute with sufficient cold water to
suit the taste.


FRUIT JUICE DRINKS

Take a small quantity of the juice of any stewed or canned fruit.
Dilute with water, and add sugar according to the acidity of the juice.
When fruit juice is not available, similar drinks may be made by
dissolving fruit jelly in warm water, and allowing to cool. Such drinks
are especially refreshing for the sick.


FRUIT PUNCH

Boil two pounds of sugar and three quarts of water for five minutes.
Then strain, and add to it the juice of two lemons and two oranges, and
one pint of freshly grated pineapple. Let stand for an hour or two,
then add sufficient shaved ice to make it palatable, a cupful of halved
strawberries, a few raspberries, and serve.


BUTTERMILK

If rich and thick, drop into it a piece of ice; or if not, place on
ice till cool. This is a very healthful drink, for, after the butter,
which is the carbonaceous or heat-producing element, is removed, a most
refreshing, nourishing quality remains.



                    SPECIALLY PREPARED HEALTH FOODS
                           Nuts, Oils, Etc.

 O blessed health! thou art above all gold and treasure. He who has
 thee has little more to wish for; and he who is so wretched as to want
 thee, wants everything with thee.—_Sterne._

 Give a wise man health, and he will give himself every other
 thing.—_Colton._

 It is health that makes your meat savory, your drink palatable,
 your sleep refreshing, your delights delightful, and your pleasures
 pleasurable.—_Combe._

                                [Leaf]


The world is in need of knowledge how to prepare and use simple,
inexpensive, healthful foods. As diseases increase in the animal
creation, it will be more and more necessary for those who desire to
preserve their health to come back to the diet originally given to
man,—a diet consisting chiefly of fruits, grains, and nuts, and various
legumes, roots, and herbs. At the rate disease is increasing at the
present time, it will not be long before it will be unsafe to use
animal products of any kind. It is well, therefore, for all to learn
how to prepare foods without them.

Various nut, cereal, and legume preparations well supply the place of
flesh-meats. The different nut and vegetable oils take the place of
butter, cream, and other animal fats.

In the use of nuts, care should be taken not to use them too freely, as
they are a very rich and concentrated form of food. Eaten sparingly in
their natural state in connection with the meals, or properly combined
with other less concentrated foods, they fill an important place in a
natural dietary.

A little experience in the use of vegetable oils will convince any one
that they are not only palatable, but far more cleanly and wholesome
than many of the ordinary fats used in cooking.

The following recipes are designed to aid especially in preparing foods
in this manner:—


PEANUT BUTTER

Put the shelled peanuts in a pan in a slow oven, leaving the door
slightly ajar; allow to stay in till so dry that the hulls will rub off
easily, but in no case allow to brown or burn. When sufficiently dry,
put into a bag, tie up closely, and knead or roll on a table with the
hands until the husks are well loosened; separate the husks from the
nuts by turning from one pan into another in the wind. Grind, and cook
for several hours in a double boiler with no water added to the nuts.
Put away to use as occasion requires.

[Illustration: Universal Chopper and Nut-Butter Mill]


PEANUT CREAM

Mix one tablespoonful of nut butter with two or three spoonfuls of
water to a smooth cream; then add one-half cupful of water, a little
salt, and stir well together.


PEANUT MILK

Make the same as peanut cream, only add more water.


ALMOND BUTTER

Pour boiling water over the shelled nuts, and let stand from three to
five minutes; then drain, and slip off the husks with thumb and finger.
Put in a warm place till thoroughly dry; grind, and put away for future
use.


ALMOND MILK AND CREAM

Proceed the same as with peanut cream and milk, only using a little
more water.


COCOANUT MILK AND CREAM

Select good cocoanuts with milk in them. Let the milk out of the soft
eye; then, holding the nut in the left hand, strike sharp, quick blows
with a hammer or iron bar on the meridian line, causing the nut to
revolve by tossing it up slightly, when it will break in halves. Grate
on an iron or steel cocoanut scraper, made as shown in accompanying
cut, placing the scraper board across a chair, with a pan upon the
floor to catch the grated nut, while the operator sits upon the board,
takes half of the broken nut in the hollow of both hands, scraping it
back and forth over the sharp teeth till all the meat has been finely
scraped from the shell. For each grated nut pour over a quart of hot
water; stir well, then squeeze and strain through a strong, coarse
cloth. Empty the cocoanut from the cloth into a saucepan, pour over
a little more hot water, stir, and strain through the cloth a second
time, to get out all the milk. This makes cocoanut milk. Using half the
quantity of water makes good cream; or let the milk stand an hour and
skim off the top for thick cream.

[Illustration: Strip of board 4 or 5 inches wide
marked; Steel Plate; Cocoanut Scraper]


COCOANUT-OIL

Cocoanut-oil can generally be purchased in the market from wholesale
druggists, though it is sometimes difficult to get that which is not
rancid. It can be made by taking the cream from a half dozen or dozen
nuts, treated as above, only allowing the milk to stand over night
before skimming, and boiling the cream in an iron vessel, without
stirring, until all the water is evaporated. When done, the sediment
will be found browned, and adhering to the bottom of the vessel.
Bottle, and set away for use.

Ko-nut is a pure, refined cocoanut-oil, which does not turn rancid,
and is, therefore, very nice, and far preferable to the cocoanut-oil
ordinarily obtainable for cooking purposes.


VEGETABLE OIL

There are various good cooking oils, among which may be mentioned
Wesson’s Cooking Oil, and Fairbank’s White Cooking Oil, both refined
products of cottonseed-oil. Olive-oil may also be used in cooking.


HOME-MADE GRANOLA

Take slices of brown, white, or whole wheat bread, place in a moderate
oven until a light brown, break in pieces, and grind coarsely through
a mill. Or, take a cup each of wheat-meal and white flour, one-half
cup each of corn-meal and rolled oats or corn-meal and rye flour, and
enough cold water to make a stiff dough; knead well, roll thin, cut in
squares, and bake until dry and brittle; grind coarsely, and serve
with thin cream, hot or cold milk, cocoanut milk, or fruit juice; or to
each pint of boiling milk or water stir in one cupful of granola, add a
little salt, cook a few minutes, and serve.


NUTMEAT

Take one cup of peanut butter, one and one-half cups hot water, three
heaping tablespoonfuls of gluten, and one level teaspoonful of salt.
Mix all well together, and cook in a double boiler from four to five
hours. A small onion grated fine and a teaspoonful of powdered sage may
be added if desired.


PROTOSE STEAK

Cut protose into slices half an inch thick. Lay on an oiled tin and
place in the oven until nicely browned.


PROTOSE CUTLETS

Take one pound of protose and cut into slices three or four inches long
and one inch wide, lay on an oiled tin, and place in the oven till well
heated; have ready an egg well beaten, to which add a sprinkle of salt;
take the protose from the oven, and dip each piece in the beaten egg,
then roll in fine bread crumbs, place back on the pan, and set in the
oven until nicely browned.


NUT GRAVY

Blend one tablespoonful of nut butter with a little water; stir it into
a pint of boiling water; salt, and thicken with two tablespoonfuls of
browned flour moistened with cold water; boil five or ten minutes. A
few spoonfuls of stewed, strained tomatoes will improve it. Nice with
vegetables or toasts.


EGGS IN NEST ON ZWIEBACK

Take six eggs, or as many as required, break, and separate, by putting
all the whites in one bowl and each yolk in a cup by itself containing
a spoonful or two of cold water. Moisten six slices of zwieback by
pouring over them hot water and quickly draining, and place side by
side in a large shallow baking pan. Beat the whites of the eggs until
very stiff, and place an equal amount on top of each slice of zwieback.
Make a hollow in the center of the whites, lift the yolks out of the
water from the cups with a tablespoon, being careful not to break them,
and place a yolk in each hollow. Sprinkle over a little salt, and place
in the oven until the whites are a delicate brown. Serve as soon as
done. A nice dish for the sick.



                      SIMPLE DISHES FOR THE SICK.

    Health—thou chiefest good,
      Bestow’d by heaven,
    But seldom understood.
                        —_Lucan._

 Diet cures more than doctors.—_Scotch Proverb._

 A merry heart doeth good like a medicine.—_Solomon._

 Health is not quoted in the markets, because it is without
 price.—_Selected._

 The best physicians are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr.
 Merryman.—_Selected._

 The less the attention is called to the stomach the better. If you
 are in constant fear that your food will hurt you, it most assuredly
 will. Forget your troubles; think of something cheerful.—“_Christian
 Temperance._”

                                [Leaf]


Food for the sick should generally be of a very simple character. It
should be such as will furnish the most nourishment with the least
tax upon the digestive organs. It should be prepared with care and
scrupulous cleanliness, well cooked, and served in the most inviting
manner. Cover the tray with clean white linen, and use the daintiest
dishes the house affords.

Other dishes suitable for the sick may be found among the Toasts,
Breads, Fruits, Wholesome Drinks, etc.


GLUTEN GRUEL

For each cupful of boiling milk stir in one tablespoonful of gluten
meal; add a little salt, let boil a moment, and serve.


ARROWROOT GRUEL

Rub one teaspoonful of arrowroot smooth in a tablespoonful of cold
water; pour over it two cups of boiling water, stirring continually;
set the saucepan in hot water till the arrowroot is thoroughly cooked;
turn into a pitcher, add a little sugar to sweeten, and flavor with a
little lemon peel.


GRAHAM GRUEL

Into three cups of actively boiling water, stir one small cup of sifted
Graham flour mixed to a paste with a cup of cold water or milk. Add
a little salt, and cook until done. Add a small quantity of cream or
rich milk, and serve. An excellent breakfast dish for well people also,
especially for children.


CREAMED GRUEL

Cook one tablespoonful of rolled oats in a scant pint of water until
tender; then strain through a sieve. Add one-half cup of thin cream,
and salt to taste; let just come to a boil, remove from the fire, then
stir in the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Add a little
sugar if desired.


RICE GRUEL

Wet one teaspoonful of rice flour in a little cold milk, and stir into
one pint of boiling water; salt slightly, and boil until transparent.
Flavor with lemon peel.


MILK GRUEL

Heat one cup of milk to boiling, and stir in one tablespoonful of
fine oatmeal; add a cup of boiling water, and cook until the meal is
thoroughly done. Season with a little salt.


ONION GRUEL

Boil a few sliced onions until tender in a pint of fresh milk, adding a
little oatmeal; season with salt. Good for colds.


LEMONADE, HOT AND COLD

Make as indicated on page 92.


APPLE WATER

Take three ripe, tart, juicy apples, wash and wipe, but do not pare;
slice into a quart of hot water; let stand until cool, pour off the
water, and sweeten it to taste.


RICE WATER

Put into a saucepan one-half cup of well-washed rice; add three cups of
cold water, and boil for thirty minutes. Strain, season with salt, and
serve.


BARLEY WATER

Put two tablespoonfuls of pearl barley into a cupful of boiling water,
and let simmer a few minutes; drain, and add two quarts of boiling
water with a few figs and seeded raisins chopped fine. Cook slowly
until reduced one-half; strain; add sugar to taste, and a little of the
juice and rind of a lemon if desired.


BAKED APPLE

Bake a nice, tart apple, as directed on page 37; serve with cream, or,
when done, cover with a meringue made of the beaten white of an egg and
a teaspoonful of powdered sugar, and lightly brown in the oven.


CUP CUSTARD

To one well-beaten egg add a tablespoonful of sugar, turn into a cup,
and fill up the cup with milk, stirring all together. Set the cup in a
basin of hot water, and bake in the oven until just set. Serve from the
cup in which it was baked. The custard may be flavored with lemon or
vanilla, if desired.


BEAN BROTH

Look over and wash one cupful of beans, and put to cook in plenty of
water, replenishing with hot water occasionally, if necessary. Cook
slowly until tender, when there should be but little more than a cupful
of broth remaining. Drain this off, season with a spoonful of cream, a
little salt, and serve hot.


WHITE OF EGG AND MILK

Beat the white of an egg to a stiff froth, and stir briskly into a
glass of cold milk. Good for persons with weak digestion.


STEAMED EGG

Break an egg into an egg-cup or patty-pan, sprinkle slightly with salt,
and steam over boiling water until the white is set.


SCRAMBLED EGG

Heat two tablespoonfuls of water in a saucepan, break into it a fresh
egg, and stir lightly until set, but not stiff. Add salt, and serve on
toast.


BAKED MILK

Put the milk into an earthen jar, cover the opening with a white paper,
and bake in a moderate oven until thick as cream. May be taken by the
most delicate stomach.


TAPIOCA CUP CUSTARD

Soak one tablespoonful of tapioca in a small cup of milk for two hours;
then stir in the beaten yolk of a fresh egg, a teaspoonful of sugar,
and a very little salt; turn into a cup, and bake in the oven for
twelve or fifteen minutes.

    Will fortune never come with both hands full,
    And write her fair words still in foulest letters?
    She either gives a stomach, and no food,—
    Such are the poor, in health, or else a feast,
    And takes away the stomach,—such are the rich,
    That have abundance, and enjoy it not.
                                        —_Shakespeare._



                           FOOD FOR INFANTS


OATMEAL WATER AND MILK

For an infant under three months, put one tablespoonful of fine oatmeal
into a pint of boiling water, boil for an hour, replenishing with
boiling water to keep the quantity good; strain, and add one cup of
sterilized milk. Feed in bottle. For infants from three to six months,
use equal portions of milk and oatmeal water, and after six months,
two-thirds milk.


SUBSTITUTE FOR MOTHER’S MILK, NO. 1

Take one ounce cow’s milk, two ounces cream, three drams milk sugar,
one grain bicarbonate of soda, and one ounce of water. Increase the
quantity of milk and cream as the child gets older.


SUBSTITUTE FOR MOTHER’S MILK, NO. 2

Take one tablespoonful of cream, four of milk, two of limewater, and
four of sweetened water. Sugar of milk, two ounces to a pint of water,
is preferable to ordinary sugar for preparing the sweetened water. This
will generally agree with the most delicate stomach.


WHITE OF EGG AND WATER

Stir well the white of an egg into a cupful of as warm water as can
be used without coagulating the egg. Good for infants suffering with
extremely weak digestion, and unable to take milk.



                             MISCELLANEOUS


TO STERILIZE MILK

As soon as received, heat to nearly the boiling-point; then remove from
the fire, and cool as quickly as possible, by pouring it into clean
pans, previously scalded, and placing these in cold water.


COTTAGE CHEESE

Set a pan containing a quart or more of thick, sour milk in a pan of
hot water, or on the back of the stove; as soon as the whey separates
from the curd, line a colander with a cloth, pour in the scalded milk,
tie the corners of the cloth together, and hang up till well drained;
put into a bowl, add one-fourth teaspoonful of salt, and enough sweet
cream to make as moist as desired; mix smooth with a spoon, turn
lightly into a dish, and serve.


HOMINY OR HULLED CORN

To hull four quarts of corn, use one heaping tablespoonful of soda,
and water enough to cover the corn. Boil for four hours, or until
the hull is well loosened and can be readily removed. Then wash in
cold water thoroughly, stirring, rubbing, and rinsing until the hulls
have all been turned off. Soak in clear water overnight to remove all
traces of soda, and cook in a kettle or large saucepan all day in clear
water, stirring occasionally to prevent burning on the bottom, and
replenishing with hot water as needed. Season with salt, put into a
jar, and keep in a cool place.


DRIED SWEET CORN

Remove the husks and silks, boil and cut from the cob as directed for
stewed sweet corn on page 57. Spread thinly on a cloth or on shallow
tins, and place in the sun to dry. Turn over occasionally, take in in
the evening, and put out to dry every day until thoroughly hard and
dry. To keep off flies and insects, cover with mosquito webbing. Corn
may also be dried in a warm, open oven, if careful not to allow the
oven to get too hot. When dry, soak and cook the same as stewed sweet
corn, only longer; or with beans soaked overnight.


DRIED APPLES

Take good, ripe apples, pare, quarter, core, and cut into thin slices;
spread on shallow tins, and place in the oven until well heated
through, then in the sun or in a moderate, open oven until thoroughly
dried. Turn the fruit over occasionally each day while drying. Wire
screens or webbings are serviceable in keeping off the flies. Other
fruits may be dried in a similar manner.


POP-CORN

Shell, and place a handful in a wire popper or frying-pan, covering
tightly; shake constantly over a hot fire, being careful not to burn.
When the popping ceases, it is done; add a little salt and butter; mix
with it a little thick sugar sirup, or molasses boiled down, and press
it into balls with the hands slightly oiled.


TO KEEP APPLES, ORANGES, AND LEMONS

Wrap each separately in tissue paper, and lay so as not to touch each
other, in a cool, dry place.


TO KEEP EGGS

To twelve quarts of water add two pints of fresh, slaked lime and one
pint of common salt; mix well, immerse newly-laid eggs, and set in a
cool place. Or, dip the eggs into a solution of gum arabic—equal parts
gum and water—let dry, then dip again. When dry, wrap separately in
paper, and pack in sawdust, bran, or salt.


TO PRESERVE LEMON-JUICE

When lemons are cheap, purchase several dozen at once. With the hand
press each lemon on the table, rolling it back and forth briskly a
few times; cut into halves, and extract the juice with a lemon drill
into a bowl or tumbler,—never into a tin; strain the juice through a
wire strainer, colander, or coarse cloth to remove the seeds and pulp;
add a pint of water and a pound of white sugar to the juice of each
dozen lemons, and boil in an enameled saucepan for about ten minutes;
then bottle and set in a cool place, and it is ready for use. A
tablespoonful or two of the sirup in a glass of water makes a cooling,
healthful drink.


COOKED PINEAPPLE

Pare with a sharp knife, cut into thin slices, divide the slices into
quarters, put into a saucepan with one-half cup of water, and a very
little sugar for each pineapple; cover with a china plate or enameled
lid, and cook slowly for about two hours.


TO FROST FRUITS

Secure nice bunches of cherries, currants, grapes, or berries with the
stems on; dip them into the stiffly beaten white of an egg, then into
powdered sugar, and place on a plate or clean white paper so as not to
touch each other, to dry. Then place the fruit on a glass dish, chill,
and serve.


UNLEAVENED BREAD FOR SACRAMENTAL USE

Take three cups of white flour, half a cup of thick sweet cream, a
pinch of salt, and a little cold water. Sift the flour into a dish, add
the salt and cream, and rub together thoroughly; then moisten with cold
water till of the consistency of thick pie crust. Knead and roll well
with the hand for fifteen minutes; then roll out to about a quarter
of an inch in thickness, and cut into cakes four inches square. Mark
out each cake into half-inch squares with a knife, so that when baked
it may easily be broken, and prick each square with a fork to prevent
blistering. Lay on floured baking tins, and bake in a quick oven, being
careful not to scorch or burn.


UNFERMENTED WINE FOR SACRAMENTAL USE

Secure good grapes, the small, dark wine grape is preferable, and
proceed as with grape juice on page 46.


TO CUT LEMONS FOR GARNISHING

Divide slices of lemons into four parts, and use on salads and other
dishes, placing the points toward the center.


HOW TO CUT BREAD

Bread should be cut into smooth, even slices, not too thick, the full
length or width of the loaf. If large, the slices may be divided. The
Clauss, or scalloped-edged, bread-knife does the work nicely. If bread
or cake is to be cut while warm, the knife should first be heated.

[Illustration: Bread Knife]


NUT RELISH

Take one cup of almond or peanut butter, one cup of dried figs, or
seedless raisins, and one cup of gluten. Mix well together, then grind
twice through a nut mill. Mold into a square pan, then cut into inch
squares one-half inch thick, similar in size to caramels.


NUT DAINTIES

Crack English walnuts so as not to break the meats. Take the two
halves from each nut and press on each side of a nut relish square.
When sufficient are prepared, place in a dish with an equal number of
olives.



                             A WEEK’S MENU


                               FIRST DAY

                              _Breakfast_

                              Fresh Fruit
                   Oatmeal Mush     Breakfast Rolls
                       Zwieback     Stewed Fruit
                             Cereal Coffee

                               _Dinner_

                            Split Pea Soup
                   Mashed Potatoes with Brown Sauce
                    Scalloped Tomatoes  Brown Bread
                      French Rolls    Baked Apples
                             Rice Custard


                              SECOND DAY

                              _Breakfast_

                              Fresh Fruit
                              Corn Flakes
                   Graham Gems    Whole Wheat Crisps
                       Egg Toast     Cereal Coffee

                               _Dinner_

                              Potato Soup
                   Boiled Potatoes      Baked Beans
                          Stewed Cauliflower
                   Brown and White Bread      Rusks
                        Bananas     Pumpkin Pie


                               THIRD DAY

                              _Breakfast_

                              Boiled Rice
                   Baked Potatoes      Plain Omelet
                      Cream Toast         Sticks
                               Hot Milk

                               _Dinner_

                               Bean Soup
                   Mashed Potatoes   Stewed Turnips
                         Brown and White Bread
                     Peach Pie       Fruit Biscuit


                              FOURTH DAY

                              _Breakfast_

                    Fresh Apples    Cream of Wheat
                           Toast with Cream
                      Rice Waffles   Stewed Pears
                            Cereal  Coffee

                               _Dinner_

                              Lentil Soup
                   Baked Sweet Potatoes, Cream Sauce
                             Tomato Salad
                        Boiled Beans with Rice
                    Corn-meal Gems     Sago Pudding


                               FIFTH DAY

                              _Breakfast_

                              Fresh Fruit
                        Graham Mush with Dates
                   Oatmeal Gems   Baked Sweet Apples
                      Berry Toast    Cambric Tea

                               _Dinner_

                            Vegetable Soup
                 Potatoes with Cream  Stewed Asparagus
                           Boiled Sweet Corn
                         Brown and White Bread
                    Stewed Prunes         Cream Pie


                               SIXTH DAY

                              _Breakfast_

                            Corn-meal Mush
                      Rice Cakes     Stewed Fruit
                     Whole Wheat Bread   Egg Toast
                       Cereal Coffee or Hot Milk

                               _Dinner_

                               Rice Soup
                    Mashed Potatoes     Green Peas
                               Succotash
                         Brown and White Bread
                    Apple Float    Raised Biscuits


                                SABBATH

                              _Breakfast_

                          Oranges and Bananas
                        Graham Mush with Dates
                             Stewed Prunes
                          Parker House Rolls
                         Brown and White Bread
                            Cereal  Coffee

                               _Dinner_

                     Split Pea and Vermicelli Soup
                              Baked Beans
                    Warmed-up Potatoes   Fruit Buns
                         Brown and White Bread
                     Lemon or Prune Pie   Orangeade
                         Fresh Fruit and Nuts


 NOTE.—The above is simply suggestive, and may be simplified, enlarged,
 or varied as desired. It is not supposed that every person shall
 necessarily eat everything indicated for each meal. Some will prefer
 the grain and vegetable dishes; others the grain and fruit. If a third
 meal is eaten, either at middle or close of day, it should be light
 and simple,—a mere lunch.



              “REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY TO KEEP IT HOLY”


SABBATH DINNERS

The Sabbath is the day of rest. In order that it may be devoted by
all to religious exercises, holy meditation, and spiritual delight,
it should be as free as possible from the ordinary duties and cares
of life. To make it thus, preparation on the day before is necessary.
The Lord calls the day before the Sabbath “the preparation” day. Luke
23:54. Of the work to be done on this day he says: “To-morrow is the
rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake
to-day, and seethe [boil] that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth
over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.” Ex. 16:23.

The Sabbath should not be made a day of feasting. The labor of the week
being laid aside, a moderate amount of plain, wholesome food is all
that is necessary. To gormandize on this day, as is the custom with
many, causes the mind to become dull and stupid, and unfits it for
spiritual devotion.

With proper planning, very little, if any, cooking need ever be done on
the Sabbath, aside from simply warming over some of the foods prepared
the previous day.

Brown bread, fruit bread-sticks, or French rolls; warmed up potatoes,
or potatoes with cream; baked or boiled beans; split pea or lentil
soup, with croutons; sago, tapioca, or some other simple pudding
or pie; canned or stewed fruit; and fresh fruits and nuts, make an
excellent Sabbath dinner. All these may be prepared on the previous
day. The potatoes may be boiled ready to warm up, the beans baked
or boiled, the peas or lentils cooked and rubbed through a colander
ready to add the seasoning and necessary water for soup, the croutons
prepared, the fruit stewed, the pudding or pie baked, and the nuts
cracked. Then the dinner may be made ready quickly, and with but little
effort.


FOOD COMBINATIONS

Because of their chemical nature, the time required to digest them,
and the place where, and the juices with which, they are digested,
some foods do not combine as well as others. While the young and those
with sound stomachs and vigorous digestion may experience little
or no inconvenience from improper and more varied combinations, to
continue their use is likely in time seriously to impair the digestion.
Dyspeptics and those troubled with slow digestion will find it to their
advantage to avoid such combinations as fruits and vegetables, milk
and vegetables, sugar and milk, milk and fruits; and, when fruits are
taken, to eat them at the close of the meal. The following are good
combinations: Grains and fruits; fruits and nuts; grains, fruits, and
nuts; grains, legumes, and vegetables; grains and milk. An excellent
rule to follow is to avoid a large variety at any meal, and let natural
cravings indicate largely the kinds of food eaten. Above all, use
common sense, and relish what you eat.


TIME REQUIRED TO DIGEST VARIOUS FOODS

                                Hrs. Mins.

  Rice                            1  00
  Apples, sweet, mellow, raw      1  00
  Granola                         1  00
  Eggs, whipped                   1  30
  Trout, boiled                   1  30
  Venison, broiled                1  35
  Sago                            1  45
  Tapioca                         2  00
  Barley                          2  00
  Eggs raw                        2  00
  Apples, sour, mellow, raw       2  00
  Milk, boiled                    2  00
  Milk, raw                       2  15
  Turkey, boiled                  2  25
  Parsnips, boiled                2  30
  Potatoes, baked                 2  30
  Beans, string, boiled           2  30
  Cabbage, raw                    2  30
  Turkey, roasted                 2  30
  Goose, roasted                  2  30
  Lamb, boiled                    2  30
  Oysters, raw                    2  55
  Eggs, soft boiled               3  00
  Beef, lean, raw, roasted        3  00
  Beefsteak, broiled              3  00
  Chicken soup, boiled            3  00
  Mutton, broiled                 3  00
  Bean soup                       3  00
  Mutton, roasted                 3  15
  Bread, corn-meal                3  15
  Mutton soup                     3  30
  Bread, white                    3  30
  Potatoes, boiled                3  30
  Turnips, boiled                 3  30
  Eggs, hard boiled               3  00
  Eggs, fried                     3  30
  Oysters, stewed                 3  30
  Butter, melted                  3  30
  Cheese                          3  30
  Beets, boiled                   3  45
  Corn and Beans, green           3  45
  Veal, broiled                   4  00
  Fowl, broiled                   4  00
  Beef, lean, fried               4  00
  Salmon, salted, boiled          4  00
  Beef, salted, boiled            4  15
  Soup, marrow-bone               4  15
  Pork, salted, fried             4  15
  Veal, fried                     4  30
  Duck, roasted                   4  30
  Cabbage, boiled                 4  30
  Pork, roasted                   5  15



NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS


The nutritive food elements are classified into three groups. The
_nitrogenous_, or muscle-and tissue-building; the _carbonaceous_,
or heat-and energy-producing; and the _mineral_, or the bone-and
nerve-building.

Albumen, gluten, and casein belong to the nitrogenous; starch, sugar,
and fats to the carbonaceous; and salts, cellulose portions, and
inorganic substances to the mineral.

The nitrogenous elements are of prime importance, as they nourish
the brain, nerves, muscles, and the more highly vitalized tissues
of the body. The carbonaceous, however, are required in much larger
quantities, the correct proportion being about eight or ten of
carbonaceous to one of nitrogenous.

 ────────────────┬─────────────┬──────────────┬─────────┬──────────
                 │             │              │         │   Total
       FOODS     │ Nitrogenous │ Carbonaceous │ Mineral │ Nutritive
                 │             │              │         │   Value
 ────────────────┼─────────────┼──────────────┼─────────┼──────────
  GRAINS         │             │              │         │
    Wheat        │    10.8     │     72.5     │   1.7   │   85.0
    Barley       │     6.3     │     76.7     │   2.0   │   85.0
    Oats         │    12.6     │     69.4     │   3.0   │   85.0
    Rye          │     8.0     │     75.2     │   1.8   │   85.0
    Corn         │    11.1     │     73.2     │   1.7   │   86.0
    Rice         │     6.3     │     80.2     │   0.5   │   87.0
                 │             │              │         │
  FRUITS         │             │              │         │
    Banana       │     4.8     │     20.2     │   0.8   │   25.8
    Date         │     9.0     │     58.0     │   ...   │   67.0
    Grape        │     0.8     │     14.3     │   0.3   │   15.4
    Apple        │     0.2     │     10.3     │   0.4   │   10.9
    Pear         │     0.2     │     10.2     │   0.3   │   10.7
    Peach        │     0.4     │      7.8     │   0.4   │    8.6
    Plum         │     0.2     │      9.3     │   0.6   │   10.1
    Cherry       │     0.9     │     15.3     │   0.6   │   16.8
    Blackberry   │     0.5     │      5.8     │   0.4   │    6.7
    Gooseberry   │     0.4     │      8.9     │   0.3   │    9.6
    Raspberry    │     0.5     │      6.4     │   0.5   │    7.4
    Currant      │     0.4     │      5.0     │   0.5   │    5.9
    Apricot      │     0.5     │     12.2     │   0.8   │   13.5
                 │             │              │         │
  VEGETABLES     │             │              │         │
    Arrowroot    │     ...     │     82.0     │   ...   │   82.0
    Potato       │     2.1     │     22.2     │   0.7   │   25.0
    Sweet Potato │     1.5     │     27.5     │   2.6   │   31.6
    Carrot       │     1.3     │     14.7     │   1.0   │   17.0
    Beet         │     1.5     │     11.3     │   3.7   │   16.5
    Parsnip      │     1.1     │     15.9     │   1.0   │   18.0
    Cabbage      │     0.9     │      4.1     │   0.6   │    5.6
    Turnip       │     1.2     │      7.2     │   0.6   │    9.0
                 │             │              │         │
  LEGUMES        │             │              │         │
    Peas         │    23.8     │     60.8     │   2.1   │   86.7
    Beans        │    30.8     │     50.2     │   3.5   │   84.5
    Lentils      │    25.2     │     58.6     │   2.3   │   86.1
                 │             │              │         │
  NUTS           │             │              │         │
    Peanut       │    28.3     │     48.0     │   3.3   │   79.6
    Almond       │    23.5     │     60.8     │   3.0   │   87.3
    Cocoanut     │     5.6     │     43.9     │   1.0   │   50.5
    Walnut       │    15.8     │     60.4     │   2.0   │   88.2
    Hazelnut     │    17.4     │     60.8     │   2.5   │   89.7
                 │             │              │         │
  SWEETS         │             │              │         │
    Sugar        │     ...     │     95.0     │   ...   │   95.0
    Molasses     │     ...     │     77.0     │   ...   │   77.0
                 │             │              │         │
  MILK           │             │              │         │
    New Milk     │     4.1     │      9.1     │   0.8   │   14.0
    Cream        │     2.7     │     29.5     │   1.8   │   34.0
    Skimmed Milk │     4.0     │      7.2     │   0.8   │   12.0
                 │             │              │         │
  MEATS          │             │              │         │
    Lean Mutton  │    18.3     │      4.9     │   4.8   │   28.0
    Lean Beef    │    19.3     │      3.6     │   5.1   │   28.0
    Veal         │    16.5     │     15.8     │   4.7   │   37.0
    Pork         │     9.8     │     48.9     │   2.3   │   61.0
    Poultry      │    21.0     │      3.8     │   1.2   │   26.0
    White Fish   │    18.1     │      2.9     │   1.0   │   22.0
    Salmon       │    16.1     │      5.5     │   1.4   │   23.0
    Egg          │    14.0     │     10.5     │   1.5   │   26.0
 ────────────────┴─────────────┴──────────────┴─────────┴──────────

NOTE.—From the above it will be seen that grains, legumes, nuts, and
sweets, as well as some fruits and vegetables, contain more nourishment
than do meats.



                      HOW TO BECOME A VEGETARIAN


The fact that many people abstain from flesh food altogether, and
maintain their full vigor, is good proof that the eating of flesh-meat
is not essential to either life or health. But those accustomed all
their life to the use of meat may need to use a little caution in
making a change to a vegetarian diet. A good way to begin might be to
limit one’s self at first to the use of meat once or twice a week,
discarding it as better foods are substituted. The British Vegetarian
Society, in “How to Begin,” gives the following suggestions for those
desiring to make this change:—

 1. _Steadily persevere._

 2. _Use Variety._—Nature affords the most bountiful abundance. Have
 something new on your table frequently, especially fruits.

 3. _Choose foods which compel mastication._

 4. _Drink Little._—If fruits be used plentifully—condiments, hot
 foods, and stimulants avoided, and frequently bathing practised—little
 drink will be required.

 5. _Prefer natural to manufactured foods._

 6. _Avoid Excess._—Most people eat too much; a smaller quantity of
 food, well masticated, will nourish and sustain the system best.

 7. _Eat Seldom._—Not more than thrice daily. “Little and often” is an
 unwise maxim for any healthy person. And if you wish sound sleep, and
 an appetite for breakfast, avoid suppers.

 8. _Let your food be attractively prepared._

 9. _See That Your Life be Right in Other Respects._—Eat food which is
 pure of its kind, agreeably prepared, at right times, and in right
 quantities; breathe pure air by night and by day; take physical
 exercise (if possible in the open air) daily; and practise strict
 cleanliness.

 10. _Get Mind and Body in Harmony._—Remember that man’s physical
 condition, and the state of his spiritual and mental faculties are
 closely and mutually inter-dependent. It is, therefore, a primary
 essential to keep these also in health; and to see that they be
 usefully, tranquilly, and constantly occupied and cultivated.


VEGETARIANISM IN LONDON

Vegetarianism has worked an improvement, and its many restaurants
in London show how the taste for this diet has been on the increase
of late. One very great and undeniable advantage in the teaching of
this school is the showing us how many foods we possess, and how few,
comparatively speaking, we have used. Also, it proves to us how much
cheaper we could live by utilizing all the foods at our command except
meat, and abstaining from it.—_Mrs. Beeton._


RULES FOR DYSPEPTICS

DYSPEPSIA, or indigestion, is coming to be so general as to demand
serious attention. The following rules will be found valuable to those
suffering with this complaint:—

 1. Eat slowly, chewing the food very thoroughly, even more so, if
 possible, than is required in health. The more time the food spends in
 the mouth, the less it will need to spend in the stomach.

 2. Avoid drinking at meals; at most, take a few sips of warm drink at
 the close of the meal, if the food is very dry.

 3. In general, dyspeptic stomachs manage dry food better than that
 containing much fluid.

 4. Eat neither very hot nor very cold food. The best temperature is
 about that of the body. Avoid exposure to cold after eating.

 5. Be careful to avoid excess in eating. Eat no more than the wants
 of the system require. Sometimes less than is really needed must be
 taken when the digestion is very weak. Strength depends not on what is
 eaten, but on what is digested.

 6. Never take violent exercise, either mental or physical, just before
 or just after a meal. Do not go to sleep immediately after eating.

 7. Do not eat more than three times a day, and make the last meal very
 light. For many dyspeptics two meals are better than more.

 8. Avoid eating two meals too close together, as this is one of the
 most prolific causes of indigestion.

 9. Observe regularity in eating; do not eat between meals.

 10. Never eat when very tired, whether exhausted from mental or
 physical labor. Rest first.

 11. Never eat when the mind is worried, or the temper is ruffled, if
 possible to avoid doing so.

 12. Eat only food that is easy of digestion, avoiding complicated and
 indigestible dishes, and taking from but one to three kinds at a meal.

 13. Omit a meal occasionally, or fast a day. This will give the
 stomach time to rest and recuperate, and will be found beneficial.

 14. If the stomach or bowels feel weak or tender, apply hot
 fomentations over them.

 15. Most persons will be benefited by the use of oatmeal, Graham
 flour, cracked wheat, whole wheat flour, and other whole-grain
 preparations, though many will find it necessary to avoid vegetables,
 especially when fruits are taken.


                    THE PULSE IN HEALTH

                   PER MIN. │                  PER MIN.
  At birth          150-130 │  Three years       100-90
  One month         140-120 │  Seven years           80
  Six months            130 │  Fourteen years     85-80
  One year          120-108 │  Adult age          75-70
  Two years         110-100 │  Old age            65-60


      WEIGHTS AND MEASURES FOR THE KITCHEN

  3 teaspoonfuls                       1 tablespoonful
  16 tablespoonfuls                    1 cupful
  2 cupfuls                            about 1 pint
  4 cupfuls                               ”  1 quart
  2 cupfuls of granulated sugar           ”  1 pound
  3 cupfuls brown sugar                   ”  1 pound
  2 cupfuls of butter                     ”  1 pound
  2 cupfuls of flour or oatmeal           ”  1 pound
  4 cupfuls of sifted flour               ”  1 pound
  1 pint of liquid                        ”  1 pound
  10 eggs                                 ”  1 pound
  1 egg                                   ”  2 ounces
  1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar        ”  1 ounce
  2 rounding tablespoonfuls of flour      ”  1 ounce
  1 tablespoonful of butter               ”  1 ounce
  5 heaping tablespoonfuls of flour       ”  1 cupful
  7 heaping tablespoonfuls of sugar       ”  1 cupful


HOUSEHOLD HINTS

Every housewife should take pride in keeping her home neat and tidy.
“Order is heaven’s first law.”

Sinks and drains should be frequently cleaned and disinfected.

Dish-cloths should always be washed out after using; otherwise they are
liable to become foul and full of germs.

After washing the dishes, pour over them scalding water, and wipe
quickly with a clean dry cloth. This insures cleanliness, and gives a
nice polish.

Scour steel knives after each meal.

Sweep out the corners, and under the tables and chairs as well as the
middle of the room. “Dirt may be hated, but should never be hidden.”

Pare vegetables and fruits thin; study how to use left-over foods; save
the bread crumbs for puddings and scalloped vegetables. “Gather up the
fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.”



                         INDEX TO DEPARTMENTS


                                           PAGE

  IMPORTANCE OF GOOD COOKING                  4

  SOUPS                                       7

  CEREALS                                    13

  TOASTS                                     18

  BREADS                                     21

  FRUITS                                     35

  VEGETABLES                                 47

  SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS                 58

  SUBSTITUTES FOR MEATS                      60

  EGGS                                       66

  OMELETS                                    68

  PUDDINGS                                   69

  CUSTARDS AND CREAMS                        75

  SAUCES                                     77

  PIES                                       80

  CAKES                                      86

  WHOLESOME DRINKS                           91

  SPECIALLY PREPARED HEALTH FOODS            94

  SIMPLE DISHES FOR THE SICK                 98

  FOOD FOR INFANTS                          101

  MISCELLANEOUS                             102

  A WEEK’S MENU                             105

  SABBATH DINNERS                           106

  FOOD COMBINATIONS                         107

  TIME REQUIRED TO DIGEST VARIOUS FOODS     107

  NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS                  108

  HOW TO BECOME A VEGETARIAN                109

  RULES FOR DYSPEPTICS                      110

  THE PULSE IN HEALTH                       111

  WEIGHTS AND MEASURES FOR THE KITCHEN      111

  HOUSEHOLD HINTS                           111



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber’s note:

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected.

All chapter headings are heavily illustrated, so they have been
replaced with plain, centred, text.

The ‘INDEX TO DEPARTMENTS’, effectively a table of contents, is the
last section of the book. It has been copied to the beginning for the
convenience of readers.





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