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Title: Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of London during the Eighteenth Century; Vol. I (of 2) - Including the Charities, Depravities, Dresses, and Amusements etc.
Author: Malcolm, James Peller
Language: English
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                                OF THE

                          MANNERS AND CUSTOMS





                      OF THE CITIZENS OF LONDON,
                          DURING THAT PERIOD;

                             WITH A REVIEW

                                OF THE

                       STATE OF SOCIETY IN 1807.

                          TO WHICH IS ADDED,



                   BY JAMES PELLER MALCOLM, F. S. A.
               AUTHOR OF "LONDINIUM REDIVIVUM," &c. &c.

                          THE SECOND EDITION.
                               VOLUME I.

                           PATERNOSTER ROW.

                    John Nichols and Son, Printers,
                Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London.




     Preface                                               Page v


     State of Parish Children--Anecdotes of various
     descriptions of Charity exercised in London between
     the years 1700 and 1800                                    1


     Anecdotes of Depravity, from 1700 to 1800                 87


     Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants of London, from
     1700 to 1800                                             229


     Anecdotes of Eccentricity                                396




     Foundling Hospital                                   Page 15

     Bancroft's Almshouse                                      47

     The Small-pox Hospital                                    48


I beg leave to return my sincere thanks to the community, for the
flattering reception with which this undertaking has been honoured:--A
more convincing proof of that approbation which every Author most
ardently desires seldom occurs, and still more seldom is expressed in
so short a period as between the dates of the first appearance of the
book and the present preface (March 1808 and May 1809.)

It had been my intention, from the moment I thought of tracing the
habits of the residents of our Metropolis, to give a history of
them from the earliest ages to the close of the last century: those
early ages should certainly have been noticed first; but the length
of time required for collecting materials, and the heavy expences
attending printing, made it imperiously necessary that I should offer
to the publick the least difficult portion of my labours, in order to
ascertain whether I might proceed in safety with the remainder. The
result has surpassed my hopes, and roused me to redoubled exertion in
preparing for the press a volume including Anecdotes of Manners and
Customs from the Roman Invasion to 1700, in which will be found most of
the _apparent omissions_ discoverable in this; but I shall ever reserve
a right to myself of saying nothing on a subject of which I have an
imperfect knowledge, through impediments not always to be explained
without a charge of prolixity. This circumstance, and the impossibility
of knowing how the work would be received, compelled me to give a
retrospective view, at the commencement of some chapters, that should
contribute to render them satisfactory, provided the early portion
never appeared. The readers of the Quarto edition of the History of
the Eighteenth Century will therefore have the goodness to excuse the
retrospective sketches in it; and those of the present will perceive
the sketches alluded to are omitted, in order to confine each event to
its proper æra in the work when completed.

It will be observed that I address myself in the above sentence solely
to the liberal reader for information and amusement, and by no means
to the invisible censors of the age, who kindly and charitably supply
the place of Inquisitors without receiving their appointment either
from the Church, the State, or the Publick. _A person_ who honours
this publication with his notice in the Eclectic Review remarks, "_We_
should have thought the progress of learning, and the novelties in the
trade of books, during the last century, well intitled to some regard;
and, as Mr. M. has 'been indebted to his worthy friend Mr. Nichols for
the inspection of his matchless collection of periodical publications,
from which great part of his materials have been selected,' we wonder
not a little how the very institution of periodical publications
could escape his notice." The history of literature did not escape my
recollection as connected with that of the manners of the Metropolis;
but _you_, Gentlemen Reviewers, _being literary men_, ought to have
been aware that the very worthy friend you have mentioned had nearly
printed his _Literary Anecdotes of the same century_, which would have
appeared at the moment my Anecdotes were published, had not one general
conflagration destroyed the whole of the impression, and a considerable
number of my own books, and compelled the benevolent sufferer to
recommence his labours. "Perhaps," continue the Reviewers, "Mr. M. did
not know that the voracity of the publick for scandal demanded _four_
editions, comprising 19,000 copies of the Town and Country Magazine,
on its first appearance." I did know the prevailing voracity for
scandal, and that it was _partly_ supplied by _Reviews_. I do not mean
by any particular work so termed, but by individual articles in many
publications of that description.

Knowing the mischievous consequences to authors, of perversion,
misquotation, and misrepresentation, before the _nature_ of Reviews
was fully understood, the enlightened and excellent Dr. Blair, whose
Sermons do his head and heart so much honour, wrote thus to Mr. Bruce,
the celebrated Abyssinian Traveller: "I do not get the Monthly Review,
and never saw that article in it which has been so injurious to you.
Indeed, I seldom see any Reviews, unless what is called The Analytical
one, which a friend of mine takes, and commonly sends to me; and that
Review appears abundantly favourable to you. But I entirely agree
with Dr. Douglas, that the Reviews are beneath your notice. They are
always guided by the interest of some booksellers; and it is not on
their opinions that the reputation of books and authors will depend.
I am so much of this mind, that though I lately published a volume of
Sermons, I never gave myself the smallest trouble to enquire what the
several Reviewers said of it, or whether they took any notice of it at

It is well known that Dr. Blair had established a reputation which
it was impossible to undermine by secret attacks: hence he naturally
held those who aimed them at others in sovereign contempt. There are
authors, however, who are endeavouring by every laudable exertion in
their power to establish a similar reputation; and would frequently
accomplish it, did not the secret envious Reviewer annihilate their
hopes by exciting terrors in their minds, and by this means destroy all
their vigour, substituting hesitation for energy, and trepidation for
modest confidence in their abilities. Worthy and enviable pursuit, to
wound the feelings of a man we never saw, and rob him not only of fame,
but of that remuneration which the risk of his property in some degree
demands from the publick he endeavours to please!

When an author so far forgets his moral obligations as to publish to
the world sentiments or narratives dangerous to the beautiful order
and simplicity of social life, it becomes the province of a Reviewer
to expose his intentions, and lash him into a sense of his duty;
nor should arrogance and presumptuous folly escape the reprehension
of a _gentleman_ from the same source: but, when a work appears
which demonstrates great labour and diligence in the compilation or
invention, and contains nothing offensive to honour and morality, envy
and malice, and the restless spirit termed _ill-nature_, should really
be subdued in the breast of the Censor, so far as to permit him not to
_expose himself_, and the Review _his individual article_ disgraces.
Besides, both the writer and publisher should reflect, that when _they_
have almost forgotten the article which leaves a deep and a malignant
sting, the party suffering from it lingers in hopeless melancholy; and
in more than one instance even life is said to have been wasted in the
decay produced by a malicious Review.

I should here apologize to the reader for having omitted the portrait
of an incompetent and splenetic Reviewer in the first edition of this
work; but, as it is never too late to amend, and I cannot violate my
own sense of the injustice of giving information in a new edition
withheld in the first, by noticing so common a character, I shall here
proceed to shew him in his true colours, as part of the grand aggregate
I have attempted to describe; merely observing, as a further excuse, in
the words of the Critical Review on these Anecdotes: I am "more pleased
with faithful delineations of general nature, than with the account of
any anomalous productions." Unfortunately for the majority of authors,
and most fortunately for the Reviewer, it too often happens that
second editions of works are not called for; through this circumstance
_Reviews_ of _Reviewers_ are rarely to be met with, and pamphlets
refuting their strictures seldom answer any purpose, owing to their
confined sale. Happily for myself, an opportunity offers which must
have full effect, as the reader of these pages will judge for himself
on their merits, and between the assertions of certain Reviewers, and
what I have to offer in opposition to them.

These self-important _unknown_ persons will find me combating on the
side of injured authors, not only on my own account, but on that of
other individuals severely and unjustly condemned. I certainly despise
them with Dr. Blair; that I do not fear them in my literary pursuits,
and have no cause for so doing, my own words, and the approbation of
the publick, sufficiently demonstrate. I shall be highly gratified
if the following investigation leads one man to judge for himself
hereafter, when he finds Reviews of a similar description connected
with others of liberality and moderation.

We may venture to attribute the introduction of Modern Reviews to
Edward Cave eventually; for, although the Gentleman's Magazine never
assumed that exclusive character, it certainly suggested the hint
of issuing _monthly_ anonymous strictures on new publications[x:A].
All have since professed to commence their career with good humour,
talents, liberality, candour, justice, mercy, and, in short, with the
exercise of every virtue. Had they _all_ strictly adhered to their
professions, Literature would indeed have flourished under the moderate
corrections of Criticism, which is necessary to raise a perfect stock
for the great demand of England; but, instead of those tempered
reproofs, we are often surprised by floods or torrents of censure,
which beat to the earth, and completely destroy, every thing within
their scope. It is the authors of those torrents that I combat: the
impartial and candid Reviewer I honour and admire, in proportion to the
dangers and difficulties of his office.

_The Critical Review for May 1808_--versus "_Anecdotes of the Manners
and Customs of London_." The writer of this article says: "The
following sketch of the contents of this performance will convince
the reader that he may expect much information and amusement in the
perusal." This is extremely well for a preliminary assertion; and yet
we shall find him contradicting it almost from page 1 to 15, where
the Review terminates. The contents are then given, and the Reviewer
continues: "Such is the bill of fare which Mr. M. has prepared: in
which, perhaps, the generality will find many _agreeable dishes_ and
_savoury ingredients_. It is, however, rather a _confused medley_,
than a well assorted or _nicely selected_ entertainment." Here we have
a simile warm from the Crown and Anchor or London Tavern. "Mr. M. has
very industriously perused the public papers, periodical works, &c.
of the last century; and from these he has _culled as much matter_
as, with his _own head and tail_ pieces of remark, explanation, and
_connection_, compose an ample quarto of 490 pages."--"In _traversing_
the pages of this _bulky volume_, we have sometimes been instructed,
and often amused; but on the whole we have experienced sensations of
tediousness and languor, which the author will perhaps impute to our
_squeamishness of appetite_ or apathy of temperament; but which _we_
are more willing to ascribe to the prolixity of the work. When the
reader has taken the trouble _to go through the book_, _we_ shall leave
him to determine whether _the critic_ be insensible, or the author
occasionally dull." This sneering _critic_ (for he at length appears in
the singular case, speaking grammatically) affects to be unwilling to
accuse me of practising the art of book-making, and of inserting every
piece of information which came in my way relative to the manners of
London; but really "_we_ would willingly have dispensed with many of
his details, in which there is nothing either to edify or amuse."

The single critic, or congregated critics, which the reader pleases,
next introduces the following quotation: "Then, says Mr. Malcolm,
(meaning before the invasion of Cæsar) the hardy native stood erect
in the full dignity and grace of nature, perfect from the hands of
the Creator, and tinted with those pure colours which vary with the
internal feelings. Cæsar, doubtless, found the males muscular and full
of energy, the females graceful in their forms, and both wild and
unrestrained in his estimation of manners; though probably they were
such as we now admire in the Savage, sincerity unpolished and kindness
roughly demonstrated."

I shall make no comments on this passage, which the reader of the
Review is requested by the _critic_ to take as a "specimen of that
_affected_, _stiff_, and _verbose style_ in which Mr. M. _sometimes_
thinks proper to indulge, and on which the critic or critics would
fail in _their_ duty to the publick if _they_ did not fix the seal of
_their_ utter reprobation."--"Perspicuity and ease are among those
constituent principles of good writing, which we should be unwilling
to sacrifice for any of the _starched refinements_ and _elaborate
perplexities_ of modern composition."--"When Mr. M. _tells us_ that
Cæsar found the Aborigines of Britain 'tinted with those pure colours
which vary with the internal feelings,' he seems to have forgotten that
Cæsar himself _tells us_ (B. G. lib. v.) that he found these 'hardy
natives' _bedizened_ with a coat of paint. And _we leave_ our modern
fine ladies to inform Mr. M. whether this artificial discoloration were
likely to _serve as a mirror_ for the varying emotions of the breast."

It may be presumed that he who undertakes to criticise the language
of another should himself be perfect in the arrangement of his ideas,
and of words to express them, and capable of composing similies that
shall bear some reference to the subject illustrated. Whether the
author of the Review in question is qualified for the employment he
has undertaken, will appear in the elegant extracts which follow:
"agreeable dishes," "savoury ingredients," "confused medley," "nicely
selected," "culled as much matter," "his own head and tail pieces,"
"traversing the pages," "bulky volume," "squeamishness of appetite,"
"to go through the book," "affected, stiff," "starched refinements,"
"elaborate perplexities," "bedizened," and "_discoloration_ were likely
to serve as a _mirror_." Surely, if he asserts my style to be affected,
stiff, and starched, I may venture to pronounce his extremely vulgar,
incorrect, and confused.

I had not forgotten that Cæsar found the natives of England stained
with the juices of plants, and partially covered with coloured earths;
still I maintain that Nature had perfected her work, and given the
fluids that due circulation, improved by exercise and temperance, which
renders the complexion florid and beautiful. Extraneous matter at times
defaced her operations; but luxury, disease, and enervation, had not
dried the channels of the blood of the Aborigines, as it has those of
the fine lady I am referred to, whose _discoloration_ is to serve as a
_mirror_ to show my own folly.

"In p. 4. Mr. M. _tells us_ what we suppose he discovered _after many
nights of sleepless meditation_, that, 'There are in every human circle
persons whose patriotism may be lulled; [the words between _lulled_
and _and_, "such may be taught by invaders to execrate their chiefs
or governors" are shamefully omitted by the Reviewer as well as the
beginning of the first sentence] and glittering ornaments of dress,
and indolence, soon produce unfavourable comparison between the former
and a naked limb, and the exertions of what is termed savage and the
more refined conceptions of quiet life.' _Without staying_ to make
any remarks on the phraseology or the structure of this sentence, we
shall proceed to shew Mr. M. as a collector of curious anecdotes and
amusing details, in which he appears to much more advantage than as a
philosopher or a rhetorician."

Is it possible that an author can feel himself injured by such absurd
and ridiculous spleen as those four lines and an half produced in the
breast of this miserable Reviewer?

Contemptible and futile as my information is considered by the writer,
he has deigned to compress nearly the whole matter of my Anecdotes of
Charity for his own purposes; and, although he denies me any share
of _his charity_, he is delighted with the instances of it _I have
introduced to his notice_ of that of others. For once he agrees with
me in opinion as to the general improvement of manners; and occupies
from the 3d to the 9th page in contradicting himself in almost all the
positions he has endeavoured to establish as to my incompetency for the
present undertaking.

"Mr. M's 4th chapter is intituled 'Eccentricity proved to be sometimes
injurious, though often inoffensive.' We could willingly have spared
Mr. Malcolm the necessity of exhibiting any proofs on this occasion;
most of the Anecdotes _which he has scraped_ together are destitute of
interest." The writer has been much my friend in this instance, though
certainly without intending it; for he could not have more effectually
convinced the publick of his incapability. Can he suppose it possible
that, in describing the Manners of the Metropolis, the eccentricities
of its inhabitants should be omitted? It is as impossible as that any
person should agree with him in all his absurdities. As to exciting of
interest, the very nature of eccentricity is such, that pity alone must
predominate in the breast of the considerate reader. The sneer that my
specimens of eccentricity will make the Anecdotes "a favourite _of the_
Circulating Libraries," came from the same hand that could write "_a
bushel_ of coals" instead of _a chaldron_ of coals allowed by James
Austin to boil his pudding fourteen days.

The _loyal_ reader shall comment for himself on the following extract
from this admirable Review: "In 1736, a laudable attempt was made to
suppress the excessive use of Gin; and the resentment of the populace
became so very turbulent, that they even presumed to exclaim in the
streets, 'No Gin, no King.' _Whatever respect we may have for the
exclamation, 'No Bishop, no King,' we do not think_ that _either
monarchy or any other government needs_ the _support_ of this,
pernicious distillation." This is what the Reviewer 'tells us,' and
_I_ suppose the discovery was made "after many nights of sleepless
meditation;" indeed the same degree of intense thought seems to have
produced another sapient piece of philosophy or rhetoric, which is
offered to our consideration in p. 11 of the Review. "When a bull
_gives permission_ to a greater brute than himself to bait him to death
with dogs, we will allow that something like a sanction _is given_ to
the sport." Surely these specimens of deep cogitation are almost equal
to my "_novel_ observation that 'partnerships too frequently produce
dissention and a struggle for individual power';" and the Reviewer's
own words, "Mr. M. might have _added_ to the spirit and interest of
his work by _omitting_ such superfluous details." These superfluous
details, good reader, relate to the disputes between Messrs. Harris
and Colman in 1768, which, having excited great interest amongst those
who frequented the Theatre, could not, and ought not to be omitted
to gratify an _invisible individual_, who is perhaps too much of a
Philosopher to be pleased with Dramatic Entertainments.

The spleen of the Reviewer, having increased by indulgence, attains its
_acmè_ of virulence at the close of the article: "In his 12th Chapter
Mr. M. professes to exhibit a Sketch of the present State of Society
in London; in which we do not meet with much _sagacity of remark_,
or _novelty of information_. Take an instance of his _common-place
details_: 'The reader must recollect, that when a family is without
visitors, it is governed by greater regularity. Many Merchants and rich
Tradesmen pass much of their leisure time at Coffee-houses; and dinners
are commonly given at those places'."

Now, what but blind and indiscriminating acrimony could dictate the
above remarks? What sagacity was required to narrate facts as clear as
noon-day? Or, what _novelty of information_ could arise from describing
the domestic occurrences of families in general? The Reviewer dared
not say I have falsified a single article; perhaps he would rather I
had drawn a _fancied picture_ of present customs, that he might have
added a charge of deeper dye against me. The Review of my performance,
which has enabled him to earn a dinner, could not have been written
if _similar common-place details had not appeared during the last
century_. Good Sir, because _you know_ how we _all live at present_,
are we not to inform those who succeed us how _we have lived_? Taking
the _conclusion_ of sentences as a specimen of the _whole_, is peculiar
to a certain description of Reviewers. Now, by referring to the page
whence the extract is taken, it will be found I had been describing
a family as entertaining their visitors, and naturally concluded by
saying, "when alone, it was governed with greater regularity." For once
we have an attempt at wit, which originates from my having asserted
that the dissipation common _in high life_, and late hours, rendered
eating of _breakfast_ a "_languid operation_."--"We do not believe
that there is, _in general_, so much _languor_ in _this_ operation
of eating, as Mr. M. seems to suppose. But, perhaps, Mr. M. will
think that we judge of the morning appetite of others by our own;
and that we Reviewers have appetites like wolves, and are ready to
_devour mountains of toast_, when they come in our way."--_Mountains
of toast_--admirable metaphor! Surely this cannot be called affected,
stiff, starched, verbose, or elevated language; it is familiar enough,
and will be understood perfectly by the cook or house-maid, when the
article which contains it reaches the Kitchen as waste paper.

"The author ends his _smooth-papered volume_ (_a fault_ I must
transfer to the paper-maker, as I have not had it hot-pressed) with
the following sentence: 'Such are the follies of many; but, thanks to
Heaven! there are numbers of our nobility and gentry who live and act
for the general benefit of mankind. And now, _Vale Londinium!_'--We
will add, _Vale_ Mr. M. We have been indebted to you for some
information and amusement; but should have been more gratified with
the perusal of your work, if you had exhibited more judgment in the
selection of the materials, and had not swelled the bulk by a number of
futile, irrelevant, and incongruous details."

The readers of the first edition of this work, amounting perhaps
to some thousands, have completely and decidedly contradicted the
objections brought by the Reviewer in _general_ terms, and supported by
cavils upon four or six sentences selected from 490 pages. The readers
of the present are offered all those cavils for their consideration,
and will _judge for themselves_ of their justice.

       *       *       *       *       *

With due allowance for a small degree of asperity, for which the
writer can have no good excuse, the Anti-Jacobin Review of December
last contains some argumentative strictures on the arrangement of this
work, as it appeared in the first edition. When a book is offered to
the world, it cannot be expected that every fact in it, and the method,
should meet the approbation of all descriptions of persons; as taste
and opinions are acknowledged to be as various as the features of the
face. That the publick at large have not disapproved of the progressive
chronological manner adopted, I have the most positive evidence by
the rapid sale of the work; and this I shall retain. However, as
objections have been raised by individuals who act as Public Censors,
I have adopted their suggestions in part, and given the Anecdotes a
more connected form, by removing the breaks between each. But, while
I submit to their decision in the above instance, I beg leave to deny
that _any_ of the materials are too trivial for insertion. I was to
give the habits and manners of the Londoners as I found them. If their
conduct was even infantile in some cases, the fault lay with them, not
with me; if part of their conduct resembles that of all the rest of
the world, it is still a part of their conduct, and requires notice as
much as their peculiarities; and it is mere wanton contradiction to
assert the contrary.

The Reviewer next discovers, that periodical publications are not the
best authorities for ascertaining the manners of the times. This I
utterly deny; and I challenge the Reviewer to point out the cases where
falsehood and inaccuracy are discoverable, in the use I have made of
them. In truth, they are almost the only vehicles by which we obtain
any thing like a correct account of the foibles of the day--nay, any
account at all. What does he say to the Spectator, the Tatler, the
World, the Rambler, the Guardian, the Observator, the Female Tatler?
Were they not periodical publications? Do they abound in "_shameful
lies_" (the gross words of the Reviewer)? or are they not considered
as faithful sketches of those customs which escape the notice of the

Every Newspaper may contain misrepresentations and falsehoods; but
those are generally confined to politics and artifices of trade:
when any indifferent circumstance is to be related, there is no
inducement to _wilful_ falsehood. Besides, our ingenuous Reviewer
must have allowed me to have had sufficient discernment to reject
articles of that description.--Were I to act with the same candour
towards him as he has evinced towards "Newspapers, Intelligencers, and
Magazines" (observe, _Reviews_ are omitted) in his rejection of them as
authorities, I should charge him with declaring a deliberate falsehood
in informing his readers that my excellent friend Mr. Nichols had lost
his matchless collection of periodical publications in the late burning
of his warehouse and printing-office. A statement of this nature need
not rest upon "_we believe_:" London is extensive, but surely within
the compass of a Reviewer's walk, who dogmatically substitutes _we
believe_ for the simple question at Mr. Nichols's door, "Have you lost
your collection?"

I shall now follow this candid gentleman's example--he damns in the
Theatrical term the whole of my book, by endeavouring to mislead
the publick into a belief that it contains not a word of truth; and
then a high-sounding apology in these words: "That Mr. M. would
_intentionally_ pervert a single fact, or make one statement that he
_believed_ to be erroneous, we certainly have not the most distant
idea of intimating; he possesses too high a sense of honour, too great
a feeling of manly integrity, even to permit the supposition." Pray,
good Sir, who would willingly consider me rather as a fool than as a
liar, apply your own words to yourself; and let me add, I am convinced
you _believed_ Mr. Nichols's collection to have been consumed by fire,
though it certainly was not.

Further let me repeat your words, "Thus have I done, and _I challenge_
contradiction:--mine are the _best authorities_."--Yes, they are the
best authorities; such as the Journals of the House of Commons, the
Gentleman's Magazine, official publications of Charities, and various
institutions, under the signatures of their Secretaries, Reports
of Coroners on Inquests, the Statements of G. A. Wachsel, Sir John
Fielding's official reports, Mr. Howard's letters, Acts of Parliament,
Dr. Hawes's information to the Author, Advertisements from different
Speculators, the official statements of the Society for Reformation
of Manners, Report of the Committee of Magistrates 1725, Letter from
Secretary of State 1728, Proclamations by the King and the Lord Mayor,
original Letters of Richard Smith 1732, the Police Act, Evidence before
the Committee of the House of Commons 1750, Address from Justice
Fielding 1759, Narrative relating to the Cock-lane Ghost, Evidence of
Physicians relating to Mad-houses 1762, Examinations before Committee
of Commons respecting Robberies 1770, Sir J. Fielding's Address
to Grand Jury 1773, official statement of Society for suppressing
Vice; Quacks' own advertisements; Addison, from the Lover; London
Gazette, ceremonial for receiving George I.; Royal Proclamation, 1721,
confirming the existence of scandalous Clubs, Mackay's Journey through
England 1724, Switterda's Advertisements, Act for suppressing Private
Balls, Report of Committee of Common Council 1761, Charge by Sir J.
Fielding respecting Profane Swearing 1763, original letters between
the Bishop of Bristol and his Parishioners 1768, Grosley's Tour to
London, Advertisements by C. Weedon, Esq. Life of Sacheverell, Henley's
Advertisements, presentment of the Grand Jury relating to him 1728,
Lady E. Hamilton's advertisements, Lord Viscount Vane's advertisement,
original advertisements of Lotteries and Benefit Societies, Queen
Anne's communication to the Lord Mayor respecting Riots 1709, Abstract
of Wild's indictment 1725, official parish letter of Christ-church
Surrey 1757, Minutes of Coroners Inquest 1763, Wilkes's letter 1768,
Trial of Donald M'Lane, King's Proclamation 1768, that of Harley,
Mayor, same period, Trial of J. Grainger, &c. 1768, Petition of W.
Allen 1768, Presentment of Grand Jury 1701, that of Middlesex 1703;
London Gazette, reformation of the Stage; the Presentment of Middlesex
Grand Jury 1723, Advertisements of Figg and others, masters of
defence, Notice from Wilks, &c. and Cibber's answer 1733, Notice from
the Proprietor of Vauxhall-gardens, proposal from same 1738, Life of
Handel, original letter from Mrs. Clive, Statements by Mr. Garrick and
Mr. Beard, Letters of Messrs. Harris and Colman, Macklin's narrative,
Plan of the Regatta 1775, Foote's letter to the Lord Chamberlain,
Advertisements of Clothing lost, Peruke-makers' petition 1763, Sir
William Davenant, original docquet to Mr. Cole for globe lamps, Act for
improving London 1760, Notice from Commissioners for paving,--AND,

My words in the Introduction are: "It gives me pleasure to acknowledge
I have been indebted to my worthy friend Mr. Nichols for the inspection
of his matchless collection of periodical publications, _from which
great part of my materials_ have been selected." Whether they were the
sole sources of my Anecdotes let the above list of authorities testify,
which the reader may verify by turning over the following pages. If the
Reviewer _has read_ this work, I charge him on his conscience to say
why he asserts my information depends wholly upon lying newspapers, &c.
Where, _alas!_ has the "full spirit of moral honesty" evaporated which
he so calmly professes?

Two sentences more, and I have done with the Anti-Jacobin. I am treated
with the utmost superciliousness for attempting to prove that many male
and female figures are to be found in London equal to the celebrated
statues of the Venus de Medicis and the Apollo Belvidere, which were
alluded to by the words _Grecian Apollos_ and _Venuses_.--What, am I
to be told that my powers of discrimination "are far _above par_,"
because I assert the British human form is equal to the conceptions
of the antient Grecians? This "Grey-beard," as he calls himself, must
have studied the Arts in a Mercantile way indeed, or he would have
pronounced my powers were _below par_ in saying they were only _equal_,
as, upon a moment's consideration, I am convinced there are hundreds
of persons in London whose forms in general, and the swells of their
muscles, as far surpass the statues in question, excellent as they
may be, as the works of God ever did and ever must exceed those of
man. Indeed, the best Artists invariably acknowledge with humility and
regret how very inferior their works are to the common productions of
Nature. Then how extremely ridiculous are these words of the Reviewer:
"That the Metropolis can furnish many beautiful figures both male and
female, from the _millions_ of its inhabitants, we readily allow;
but that perfection of form and _character_ which _characterises_ an
Apollo and a Venus, has _but few_, very _few resemblances_." I am
almost tempted to say the latter part of this paragraph is impious:
The most complicated, wonderful, and beautiful specimen of the powers
of the _Creator_, exceeded by the works of the _created_; nay, so far
exceeded as to leave but few even of resemblances!!! Has the Reviewer
read that indefatigable and accurate author Keysler? Hear what he
says of the Venus de Medicis, after paying it the just tribute due to
superior excellence: "The head is by most Connoisseurs considered as
too small in proportion to the rest of the body, particularly the hips;
some censure the nose as too large; and possibly the furrow along the
vertebræ of the back is something too deep, especially as the object
represents a soft plump female; and both the bend of the arms and
inclination of the body jointly conspire to lessen the depth of this
furrow, if not totally to obliterate it. The fingers are remarkably
long, and all, except the little finger of the left hand, destitute of
joints; but this should not affect the reputation of the Artist, as it
is sufficiently evident, that the _hands_ had not received his last
touches." It has often been asserted that the English Jacobin cordially
hates his own countrymen, and endeavours to exalt the perfections
of their enemies: the above fact seems to prove decidedly that an
_Anti-Jacobin_ treats an author with contempt, because he wished to say
the truth of the Reviewer's countrymen. If the reverse was the case,
and the British form was less perfect, I ought to have escaped censure
merely for my _amor patriæ_.

It was to deprecate such criticism as the preceding, which I expected,
through the experience of others, that I prescribed an Antidote in the
Preface of the first edition.

And now I shall leave these two wise Reviewers "_to chew the cud
in their own way_," according to the elegant expression of the

The Eclectic Review, in noticing this work, has confined itself to
such observations as were highly proper, supposing the volume intended
to form a _complete_ history of the century. I have already explained
the reasons why I offered it to the publick as it appeared, and shall
not therefore repeat them; but I cannot avoid adding, I feel myself
indebted for the offered suggestions, though they were anticipated.
When gentlemanly reproof is tempered with praise, he must be an
arrogant and presumptuous writer indeed who feels offended at the
recital of his real or supposed errors. I shall give some commendatory
extracts, and the Reviewer will permit me to refute one of his

"We certainly approve Mr. M's choice of a subject; and highly should
we have congratulated ourselves if collectors of equal diligence had
performed the same task for the 17th and many preceding centuries
which he has undertaken for the last."--"Mr. M. with equal modesty
and prudence, intitles his volume _Anecdotes_."--"It presents some
of the principal features of the times, and will afford amusement
and knowledge to the present generation, and still more to future
generations, who cannot by recollection compare the portrait with the
original."--"Whoever desires to form a just estimate of the manners of
the English in the 18th century will derive great assistance from Mr.
M's collections."

After what has been said, I am sorry to be obliged to censure any part
of this Review of my Anecdotes. Speaking of my prints of Dress, the
Reviewer says, I should have consulted several works which he has
named, particularly Hogarth's labours, or family pictures, and adds:
"We are very much afraid Mr. M's prints on this subject have been
made up _memoriter_." The above sentence must be considered by every
impartial person as perfectly unjustifiable, and insulting to my moral
character. This instance sufficiently proves that I am personally
unknown to the Reviewer, or he would also have known deceit and
baseness form no part of my composition. It now remains for me to give
my authorities for the sketches of dress, which are full as authentic
as any the Reviewer has mentioned; and to his surprize and regret he
will learn that _the very Hogarth he blames me for neglecting is one of

Dress 1690-1715, is from a print published immediately after the
coronation of William and Mary representing that event, offered to
the world by one of the Heralds at Arms. Dress 1721 is from a wooden
cut in a newspaper exhibiting the young beau of the day. Dress 1735
is three figures grouped from Hogarth's plates. Dress 1738 is the
old maid in Covent-garden from Hogarth, the position of the figure
altered. Dress 1745 from Hogarth, the attitudes different. Dress
1752, attitudes altered from a large print of Vauxhall-gardens. Dress
1766 from Rooker's view of Covent-garden Church. Dress 1773 from a
Mezzotinto, figures altered. Dress 1779 the hint taken from Miss
Burney's Evelina. Dress 1785 from a large Aquatinta of the interior of
the Pantheon, Oxford-street, figures newly grouped. The two last the
_Reviewer knows to be correct_.--In concluding this subject, I cannot
do better than quote the words of the Reviewer of my work in the
European Magazine for June 1808. Speaking of the Anecdotes of Dress, he
could not omit noticing "a Chapter" that "has in a manner fixed these
fleeting meteors of public absurdity, by a series of prints, that at
once serve as embellishments and elucidations of the work."--"These
prints we really wish our readers could see, because they are, in many
instances, extremely curious, and also because, on subjects of this
nature, an artist with a few strokes of his pencil can convey ideas in
a much stronger manner to the mind than an author in pages of laboured

       *       *       *       *       *

As I have candidly given the reader _all_ that the preceding Reviewers
have said _against me_, he will indulge me in adding a _few words_
from those who _praise me_. Were all Reviews formed on the liberal
plan which distinguishes the article concerning my Anecdotes in the
European Magazine, every author must be gratified with the prospect
of having his work fairly analysed, and receiving explanatory notices
for a future edition, and rejoice that Reviews are published. In
proceeding through the contents of my book this worthy critic has given
explanations of such passages as his knowledge of London enabled him to
illustrate, which I have inserted in the form of notes in their proper
places in the present edition; and in this pursuit he has, to his great
credit, never once indulged in captious exceptions against particular
sentences, or spoken of every thing omitted and nothing inserted. The
conclusion is extremely grateful to my feelings: "When we consider the
labour which Mr. M. must have undergone in collecting such a variety
of materials from such a number of volumes, pamphlets, and papers,
as he must have perused (some of which are no longer accessible but
to the curious) we are of opinion that he deserves great praise for
his industry. As a body of information respecting the morals, the
manners, the foibles, and follies of our ancestors, we think this work
very useful; as a book of reference, still more so. As an amusement,
therefore, to the idle, and an assistant to the industrious readers, we
unequivocally recommend it to the publick."

It may, perhaps, be said this praise is venal; on the contrary, I most
solemnly declare I know neither my bitter Censors nor my Panegyrists.
As some other Reviews have praised the work, I shall refer the reader
to the Gentleman's Magazine, the Annual Review, &c.

                                                   J. P. MALCOLM.

_May 1809._


[viii:A] Murray's Life of Bruce, p. 281.

[x:A] The previous attempts of individuals, which never exceeded a few
volumes, I do not consider as cases in point.


                                OF THE

                          MANNERS AND CUSTOMS






There is something in the composition of the British atmosphere highly
congenial to human and animal life: the clouded air and frequent
humidity, and consequent coolness, prevent the violent perspirations
the natives of finer climates experience; hence the fluids remain in
full effect, and expand every part of the frame to its full proportion.

The habits and manner of living at various periods of our history had
great influence on the exteriors of our ancestors: when men were forced
into armies to repel invaders from Saxony and Denmark, the whole race
of Englishmen became either hardened into almost supernatural exertion
and strength, or were victims to those chronic diseases which deform
the body and destroy the regularity of features; then the youth of each
sex experienced privations incident to war, and the whole population
must have suffered in the gracefulness of their persons. It required
many years of quiet to restore the disorders of the body politic; and
those of individuals recovered in the same slow proportion. In the
reign of Edward III. Englishmen had again expanded into full military
vigour; they marched with the front of Hercules against their enemies,
and they maintained their strength and courage beyond the period of our
Henry V.

After that reign, I should imagine, their stature diminished, and their
countenances assumed a less pleasing form; and we find them bending
under the most profligate despotism through the reigns of Henry VII.
and VIII. Elizabeth, possessed of equal power, but inclined to use it
for the benefit of her subjects, as far as the confined ideas of the
time permitted, raised the people nearer to manhood; and her young
soldiers waited for the enemy on their coasts, not yet as _volunteers_,
but as defenders of their metropolis for a virtuous arbitrary Monarch.

The sentiments imbibed during this auspicious period, contributed
to render domestic life more cheerful than it had hitherto been;
the person was enlarged, and became more graceful; discontent fled
from the features; and the Londoner, still nearer perfection, at
last accomplished those two Revolutions which have for ever banished
Despotism, and secured his home--nay made it his _castle_. See the
consequences in the myriads of beautiful infants that smile on every
side of him, with the regular and placid lines that mark their faces,
and the strait and truly proportioned limbs that distinguish vast
numbers of all ranks of people of both sexes.

Still the deformed and pallid are numerous; but deformity and disease
in London generally proceed from causes which _may be prevented_; very
confined residences destroy the health of parents and their offspring;
the lowest class of inhabitants drink away their comforts, and suffer
their children to _crawl_ into manhood.

The highest classes sometimes trust infants to mercenaries; crooked
legs and injured spines are too often the consequence: yet we find
thousands of males and females, who appear to have been nursed by the
Graces, and as far surpass the celebrated statues of the Venus de
Medicis and the Apollo Belvidere, as the works of the Creator ever will
those of man. When a female of high rank emerges from the controul
of her governess, and receives the last polish, I pronounce her an
ornament to any Court in Europe.

Those favoured with an opportunity of seeing the 30,000 volunteers
assembled at Hyde-park in 1804, determined to fight for their homes,
must agree with me that no nation ever produced an equal number
together so finely proportioned and handsome.

In confirmation of my assertion that part of the deformity observable
in the lower class of people might be prevented, I shall insert a
Parliamentary report concerning their children, and show how numbers
taken from parents have been disposed of.

"Mr. Whitworth reported from the Committee appointed to inquire into
the state of the parish poor infants, under the age of 14 years, within
the bills of mortality, and to report their opinion to the House;
that the Committee had inquired accordingly, and had come to several
resolutions which they had directed him to report to the House. The
said Report was read, and is as follows:

"The Committee having examined the registers of the several parishes
referred to them by the House, have collected from them the state of
the parish infant poor; and find, that taking the children born in
workhouses or parish houses, or received of and under 12 months old in
the year 1763, and following the same into 1764 and 1765, _only seven
in one hundred_ appeared to have survived this short period.

"That having called for the registers of the years 1754, 1755, 1761,
1762, of the children placed out apprentices by the parishes within
the bills of mortality, it appears that there have been apprenticed
out the number of 1419; but, upon examining the ages at which the said
children so placed out were received in the seven years from 1741 till
they grew up to be placed out, it appears that only 19 of those born in
the workhouses, or received into them under 12 months old, compose any
part of the 1419; and even of those received as far as three years old,
only 36 appear to have survived in the hands of the said parishes to be
placed out apprentices. It appears that the children are kept in the
several workhouses in town, or in the hands of parish nurses in town,
only a small portion of them being sent into the country to be nursed,
and the price of 3_s._ and 2_s._ 6_d._ per week first paid, is often
reduced so low as 1_s._ 6_d._ and 1_s._ per week; that it cannot be
presumed to be equal to the necessary care of infants.

"Your Committee find the conduct of parish nurses was taken notice of
by Parliament in the year 1715; and upon examining also into the recent
facts above related, it doth not appear to your Committee that the
evil is or can be remedied, unless proper regulations are established
by legislative authority. It appears from the evidence of the parish
officers of St. Andrew, Holborn (called within the City liberties), and
also from Mr. Hutton, a principal inhabitant of that parish, that the
sum of 2_s._ 6_d._ a week for the article of nursing, is as little as
a child can be nursed at to have justice done it; but at the same time,
they being sensible of the good conduct and management of the Hospital
for the maintenance and education of exposed and deserted young
children, they have proposed to the governors and guardians thereof,
to receive their infant parish poor at a certain rate, which, by the
minutes of the general court of the said Hospital, dated Feb. 18, 1767,
which was produced to your Committee and read, the said governors and
guardians are ready to comply with, and likewise to forward any general
purpose the Legislature may think proper to direct, in relation to the
preservation of the infant parish poor within the bills of mortality.

"It appears upon the examination of Saunders Welch, esq. that great
inconveniences have been found from parish boys being placed out
apprentice so long as till the age of 24; and upon reading the clause
in the 43d of Elizabeth, cap. 2, intituled, 'An Act for the relief of
the Poor,' in the 5th section thereof it is said, 'Parish officers are
to bind their man child to the age of 24, but the woman child to the
age of 21, or time of marriage.' This, your Committee thinks, checks
marriage, and discourages industry. It appears to your Committee, that
the usual sum given by parishes with apprentices, has been generally
from 20 to 40_s._ only, which your Committee think inadequate to the
procuring good masters.

"It appears that the register directed to be made out by the Act of the
2d of His present Majesty, intituled, 'An Act for keeping a regular,
uniform, and annual register of all parish poor infants under a certain
age, within the bills of mortality,' is deficient, by not setting forth
how children are disposed of after the age of four years.

"Upon the whole, your Committee came to the following resolutions:
That it is the opinion of this Committee, that the parish infant poor,
within the bills of mortality, should be sent into the country to be
nursed, at a distance not less than a certain number of miles from any
part of the town: That it is the opinion of this Committee, that the
parish officers should allow and pay a certain sum for nursing each
child: That it is the opinion of this Committee, that a proper number
of principal inhabitants should be chosen in every parish respectively,
under the denomination of Guardians of the parish infant poor, to
inspect into the treatment of the said children nursed as above:
That it is the opinion of this Committee, that the parish officers,
governors, and directors of the poor, should have the alternative
of sending such children to the Hospital, for the maintenance and
education of exposed and deserted young children; and the governors
and guardians thereof be permitted to take them at a certain sum, and
to be paid by the said officers for nursing such children out of the
parish rates: That it is the opinion of this Committee, that parish
children should be placed out apprentice for a shorter time than is by
law prescribed: That it is the opinion of this Committee, that a proper
sum should be given as apprentice fees with the said parish children:
That it is the opinion of this Committee, that the register of infant
poor under four years of age, should be continued on till the children
are in the same manner disposed of in the world.

"These resolutions were agreed to by the House, and a bill ordered."

It appears from a return inserted in the Journals of the House of
Commons, 1778, that, in the preceding eleven years, the following was
the state of the reception and discharge of parish children in the
parishes mentioned, from which an accurate estimate may be formed for
the rest of London.

                           Children    Died.  Returned  Apprenticed.
                            under 6           to their
                           years old.         parents.
  St. Giles in the
    Fields, and St.
    George Bloomsbury         1479      177     956         319
  St. Margaret and St.
    John, Westminster         1109      181     766         172
  St. Anne, Westminster        324      100     152          76
  St. James, Westminster       861      215     250         243
  St. Clement Danes            257      113      84          89
  St. Andrew, Holborn,
    and St. George Martyr      756      137     308         207
  Saffron Hill                 231       30      82          95
  St. James, Clerkenwell       701      104     456         116
  St. Mary, Whitechapel        449       69     102         286
  St. Saviour's, Southwark     539      105     205         187
  St. Leonard, Shoreditch      586       99     178         185
  St. John, Southwark          154       48      65         127
  St. Luke, Old-street         421      103     103         234
  St. Botolph, Aldgate         297       90     130         101
  St. Martin in the Fields    1512      463     736         321
  St. Paul, Covent-garden       51        8      27          36
                              ----     ----    ----        ----
                              9727     2042    4600        2794
                              ----     ----    ----        ----

Children, nursed as the above authentic documents prove they were,
cannot but have been checked in their growth; and perhaps many of them
are at this moment part of the miserable objects we daily see in the
streets. The exercise of a little humanity may prevent similar evils in

There is an admirable example, which has long been established for
our imitation, where the offspring of vice and humble virtue, equally
innocent, are received and nurtured with the utmost care, and where
human nature is rescued from debasement, corporeal and mental. Let
the reader reflect on the thousands originally preserved, and their
descendants rendered happy, through the god-like benevolence of Captain
Coram; and he will immediately recollect the _Foundling Hospital_.

In consequence of that worthy man's petition, George II. granted a
Charter of incorporation, which authorised Charles duke of Richmond,
and several other eminent persons, to purchase lands, &c. in mortmain,
to the annual amount of 4000_l._ to be applied to the maintenance and
education of exposed and deserted infants.

The first quarterly general meeting of the Corporation was held
December 26, 1739, when subscription-books were ordered to be opened
at the Bank of England and various bankers, for inserting the names of
annual contributors. The governors and guardians then amounted to near
400, who unanimously determined to vote their thanks to Captain Coram;
but he declined them, and modestly requested they might be transferred
to those ladies whose subscriptions had enabled him to procure the
Charter. This proposal was acceded to, and the benevolent Captain
deputed to convey them.

Montague house, now the British Museum, had been thought by the
governors in 1740, an eligible receptacle for the objects of the
intended charity; but Messrs. Fazakerly, and the Attorney and Solicitor
Generals, to whom the matter was referred, gave it as their opinion
that the expence of obtaining those extensive premises would be too
great. The governors resolved, in consequence, to open subscriptions
for the purchase of land on which to erect an hospital, and in the mean
time to receive sixty children in a temporary receptacle.

They accomplished their wishes in the following December, by obtaining
56 acres North of Ormond-street, of the earl of Salisbury, for 7000_l._
the present site of the Foundling hospital, Guildford-street, &c. On
the 25th of March, 1741, 19 male and 11 female infants were received,
all of whom were less than two months old; their baptism took place the
ensuing Sunday, when two were honoured with the names of Thomas and
Eunice Coram; others of robust frames and apparently calculated for
future seamen, were called Drake, Blake, and Norris.

John Milner, esq. vice-president of the corporation, assisted by many
governors, laid the first stone of the new hospital in 1742, when a
copper plate, secured between two pieces of milled-lead, was deposited
in a cavity; the plate is thus inscribed: "The foundation of this
hospital for the relief of exposed and deserted young children, was
laid 16th September, 16 George II. 1742."

The Corporation, laudably attentive to the future happiness of the
orphans committed to their care, determined to have them inoculated for
the small-pox in 1744; a process then as much condemned as vaccination
is at present.

The first stone of the Chapel was deposited by ---- Jacobson, esq. and
contains the following inscription: "The foundation of this Chapel was
laid the 1st day of May, A. D. 1747, and in the 20th year of his most
sacred Majesty King George II." At the same time a successful attempt
to obtain farther pecuniary assistance was made, by a public breakfast
for ladies, at 2_s._ 6_d._ per ticket, when a collection for the Chapel
amounted to 596_l._ 13_s._ and another for the hospital produced
110_l._ 9_s._ 6_d._

The Prince and Princess of Wales honoured the governors with their
presence at the Chapel, Saturday, May 27, 1749, to hear one of Handel's
compositions performed for the benefit of the hospital; the audience is
said to have consisted of 1000 persons, who each paid 10_s._ 6_d._ for
their tickets. The King sent 2000_l._ and an unknown benefactor 50_l._

The worthy and veteran Coram died March 29, 1751, aged 83, and was
buried April 2d, in the vault beneath the chapel of _his_ hospital.
The honours due to this excellent philanthropist were paid by the
Corporation to the utmost extent; and the choirs of St. Paul's and
St. Peter's Westminster chaunted Dr. Boyce's funeral service over the
body, which was covered by a pall borne by many persons of distinction,
followed by the charter of the foundation carried on a velvet cushion;
and the infants preserved by his exertions closed the procession. The
present governors, fully sensible of the public debt of gratitude still
in arrears, have recently given his name to Great and Little Coram
streets, erected on the surplus ground belonging to the charity[13:A].

Frequent repetitions of Handel's music, and contributions of every
description, enabled the governors to receive 1240 children from 1742
to 1754. They, however, thought proper to petition the legislature for
assistance two years afterwards, and obtained 10,000_l._ to be applied
for the reception of infants under two months old. On the 2d June,
1756, 117 were admitted[13:B].

The governors found it necessary to publish the following notice on
this occasion: "The governors and guardians of this Hospital thinking
it incumbent on them to expose the falsity of what has been propagated
in several newspapers, that out of 10,000_l._ granted by Parliament to
this Corporation, 1200_l._ was deducted in several offices for fees;
do hereby assure the publick, that all fees whatsoever were charitably
remitted by all the noblemen and gentlemen through whose offices the
proper warrants pass, so that the clear sum of 10,000_l._ was paid into
the Bank of England on account of the Hospital. By order of the general

_Sept. 7, 1757_.

                                          J. COLLINGWOOD, _Sec._"

In 1757, the House of Commons granted the enormous sum of 20,000_l._
to enable the governors to take all children under six months of age,
brought to them before Jan. 1, 1758.

A general statement of the proceedings published in 1758, declared,
that from the opening of the Hospital, March 25, 1741, to Dec. 31,
1757, 6894 children had been received, 5510 of whom were taken from the
1st of June, 1756, in consequence of the grant of 10,000_l._ The number
of deaths to the 31st of Dec. 1757, was 2821. The sums presented to the
charity in 1757, including 30,000_l._ from the legislature, amounted to
38,002_l._ 1_s._ 2_d._; 2806_l._ 10_s._ 3_d._ of which was bequeathed
to the Hospital, 508_l._ 4_s._ 6_d._ given in annual benefactions, and
96_l._ 14_s._ 6_d._ benefactions towards the charges of the Chapel.

The expences of this eventful year, in the annals of the charity, was
33,832_l._ 13_s._ 2_d._; 502_l._ 4_s._ 6_d._ of which was paid in
fees, when passing the warrants for 20,000_l._ the _second_ grant from

In 1797, there were 357 children on the establishment, 175 in the
house, and 182 at nurse, principally received from the metropolis. From
1770 to 1797, 1684 were received, of which number, 482 died under the
age of twelve months; their age when received is generally under two
months, and the limitation is twelve months, unless in particular cases
or when 100_l._ is sent with the child, and except the children
of soldiers or sailors in the service of their country. Children are
admitted on petition, and the mother is examined as to the truth of her
statements, who is placed, if practicable, in a proper situation to
obtain a livelihood[15:A].

[Illustration: _The Foundling Hospital_]


This school was established in 1718 for the reception, maintenance,
education, and apprenticing poor children of Welsh parents, born in and
near London, who have no settlement; the school was originally held
at the Hat, Shire-lane, then on Clerkenwell-green; but the trustees
finding it insufficient for the purpose, and it having been patronized
by the Prince of Wales, and enriched by the donations of the publick,
the governors were enabled in 1772, to purchase the piece of freehold
ground in Gray's-inn lane, where the school is now situated; on which
and other buildings for the reception of 42 boys and 14 girls, they
expended 3695_l._ From the foundation to 1779, 642 boys were entered
upon the establishment, of whom, 511 were apprenticed to captains of
vessels and various trades[15:B].

Such have been part of the proceedings of the inhabitants of London,
in endeavouring to preserve the lives of infants; to which might
be added many collateral means, particularly those which adopt the
offspring of criminals, and thus render them useful members of society.

The subject might now be spread into various ramifications; but as
brevity should be preferred when practicable, I shall confine my
information and observations to the _last century_, and present the
reader with the most material occurrences in the still greater work of
preserving the population of London from degenerating in every point of
view, and even from starvation, during their progress to maturity, and
in the decline of life.

The commencement of the century was remarkable for a grand effort of
charity, not the passing charity which provides for temporary wants
of the body, that may recur almost immediately upon the disposal of
the gift, nor that which removes the possibility of penury from the
residents of alms and workhouses; but that which rendered the infant
mind the seat of innocence, morality, and knowledge. The reader will
fully appreciate the importance of this event, when I mention the
schools established by one divine impulse in every quarter of the
metropolis, and when he compares the chaos of ideas which must have
composed the minds of the poorest classes of children, previous to the
existence of these institutions, with the instructed infant comfortably
cloathed, clean, and regular in attending divine worship.

The next general act of beneficence originated from a forcible appeal
to the feelings of the Londoners, who beheld many hundreds of deluded
Germans or Palatines, deserted by those who had promised to convey them
to America, houseless, and without food, and relieved them from the
pressure of those evils.

Cavendish Weedon, esq. issued the following advertisement in 1701,
which does him immortal honour: "His Majesty having been pleased by
his late most gracious proclamation to signify his desires for the
encouraging of piety and morality and suppression of vice, Mr. Weedon
of Lincoln's-Inn, for the better promoting the honour of God and such
his pious intentions, hath established a monthly entertainment of
Divine Musick at Stationers-hall, on Monday, the 5th day of January
next, and intended to be kept and continued there every first Monday
in every month, excepting the Lent season, and the months of July,
August, and September. The same to consist of Anthems, Orations, and
Poems, in honour and praise of God, religion, and virtue, one day;
and in discouragement of irreligion, vice, and immorality, the other,
alternately: to be performed by the best masters in each faculty; for
which purpose all ingenious persons skilled in those qualifications
that shall think fit to send in any composition in prose or verse to
Mr. Playford, bookseller in the Temple-change in Fleet-street, free
from all manner of reflections on parties and persons in particular,
such as shall be approved of, Mr. Playford shall have orders to gratify
the authors, and to return the others with thanks for the Author's kind
intentions. The performance to begin exactly at eleven of the clock in
the morning; and tickets to be had at Mr. Playford's, Garraway's, the
Rainbow, and at most of the chief coffee-houses in town. The benefit
of the Tickets, being only 5_s._ a-piece, the common price of other
Musick-tickets, is to be disposed of amongst decayed gentry, and the
maintenance of a school for educating of children in Religion, Musick,
and Accompts."

Mr. Weedon advertised in the Gazette of May 4, 1702, that his Musical
and other entertainments would be performed at Stationers-hall on the
7th with Anthems by Dr. Blow, an Oration by Mr. Collier, and Poems by
Mr. Tate, her Majesty's Poet Laureat, in praise of Religion and Virtue.
The receipts to be applied as before-mentioned.

In 1711, British charity extended beyond the bounds of the realm,
through an application from the Society for the propagation of
the Gospel in foreign parts to her Majesty, who was pleased, in
consequence, to permit a collection to be made from house to house in
all the parishes and precincts within the bills of mortality, to be
applied to the purposes of the institution; which was announced from
the reading-desks on Trinity Sunday.

Exclusive of the annual meetings of the charity children, there were
opportunities taken to impress the publick with a due sense of the
value of the institutions.

In 1713, they were assembled in the Artillery-ground, where the duke
d'Aumont the French resident, and other distinguished characters
attended to inspect them; the ambassador evinced his approbation
by handsome presents of money to buy them books, &c. And on the
thanksgiving day 4000 of these youths were seated upon elevated
benches, which extended 600 feet in the Strand, where they saluted the
two Houses of Parliament and the great officers of state, with hymns
sung in unison.

The trustees adopted a plan in 1713, that seems well worth imitation
at present, which was a Sermon preached by the Rev. Dr. Waugh, at St.
Bride's, from the 12th verse of the 27th Psalm, "When my father and
my mother forsake me, the Lord taketh me up," before 1400 of those
children, of 2250 who had been placed with persons as apprentices and
servants. An impressive discourse addressed to young persons, under
such circumstances, must be attended with the best effects.

The gifts of private individuals to the poor cannot often be
ascertained, but, that they are generally considerable, may be
accidentally collected through the death of common beggars: one of
those who lived in Barbican, died in October, 1713, when 80 years of
age, and seems to have perished through the chill occasioned by some
sour beer given to her in Smithfield; her pockets contained eight
farthings, but the rags that covered her concealed 150 broad pieces and

In 1714, the King gave the Sheriffs 1000_l._ for the relief and
discharge of poor prisoners for debt.

Mr. Feast, brewer, of Whitecross-street, set a most brilliant example
of charity in the dreadful winter of 1715-16, by purchasing 400
chaldrons of coals, which he distributed to such poor persons as were
deprived of work by the severity of the winter.

In the following year 4400 persons formed a Society for insurance upon
Lives, with a monthly dividend; but that which distinguished this
association, and rendered it a proper subject for this Chapter, was,
their requesting the rectors, vicars, and wardens of St. Martin in the
Fields, St. James, St. Margaret's, St. Giles, St. Andrew's Holborn,
and St. Clement Danes, "to recommend two boys out of each parish to
the Society, which shall be put forthwith to school, cloathed, and
10_l._ given to put them out apprentices; and as the Society receives
encouragement, the same method will be used to the great parishes,
within the bills of mortality, that are overburthened with poor; and
that a monthly stock is kept, and security given to the trustees for
the security of the stock, to put several hundred children apprentices,
and the 10_l._ charity. Each subscriber pays only 1_s._ per week; and
if the person dies in a month after entrance, you are entitled to a
dividend of 500 months to be made; but, if your life should continue
one year, you are entitled to 15_l._ to put out a child apprentice, or
10_l._ to be disposed of to charitable uses as you shall judge proper;
and 125_l._ per month laid by as a stock to sink your weekly payments,"
&c. &c.[23:A]

4800 children attended the anniversary of the charity-schools in 1716,
at St. Sepulchre's church; on which occasion the bishop of Lincoln
preached from Dan. iii. 12. The number of schools of this description
had increased from the reign of king William III. in England and
Ireland to 1221, and near 30,000 children received the benefit of
instruction, and in many instances food and cloathing; those of London
were 124, the number of boys educated in them 3131, the girls 1789; the
children apprenticed from them, boys 2513, girls 1056[24:A].

A most dreadful fire occurred at Limehouse in the month of December,
1716, by which near 200 houses were destroyed, and infinite distress
occasioned; the Prince Regent, agitated with strong sentiments of
compassion, ordered the sum of 1000_l._ to be distributed immediately
to the most pitiable objects; which laudable example was promptly
followed by others to a considerable amount. A more disinterested
charity was prosecuting at the same period for the Episcopal
Protestants of Poland; towards which, 60_l._ was obtained in the
inconsiderable parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate[24:B].

The Prince of Wales, actuated by the same impulse which now operates in
the Society for the relief of prisoners confined for Small Debts, sent
350_l._ at Christmas, for the discharge of those at Ludgate and the two

In the year following a person, unknown, sent a 50_l._ note to the
treasurer and trustees of the Blue-coat school, near Tothill-fields,
the receipt of which was acknowledged in an advertisement, stating the
agreeable fact, that this sum enabled them to receive four additional
scholars, whom they promised to cloath at the periods mentioned in the
statutes of the institution.

Another, or perhaps the same person, released 30 persons from
Whitechapel prison, in August, 1717, cloathed them, gave them a dinner,
and 2_s._ 6_d._ each; six months afterwards, the same benevolent
unknown, repeated his charities at Whitechapel, and released all
confined for small debts, one of whom was imprisoned near six months
for 5_s._ 6_d._ which had been swelled by charges and fees to 40_s._

Jan. 1717-18, the King gave 1000_l._ for the discharge of insolvent
debtors, in the gaols of London and the county of Middlesex.

The King gave 1000_l. per annum_, towards the relief of poor
housekeepers in London and Westminster[25:A]; that sum was increased to
1900_l._ in 1718, by collections under his Majesty's letters patent for
the same purpose.

The Prince appears to have given 250_l._ annually to the Charter-house.

A repetition of the liberality of the unknown occurred again in
September 1719, at Whitechapel, when he released 35 prisoners, besides
giving them money.

1720, the earl of Thanet gave 1000_l._ to the widows and children of

The Society for the relief of the Widows and Children of Clergymen has
been already noticed, in the first volume of "Londinium Redivivum;" it
will therefore only be necessary to state their gifts in 1720, which
amounted to 2645_l._ 10_s._ exclusive of a considerable sum expended in
placing out apprentices.

Mrs. Mary Turner, in the same year, commenced that noble foundation,
which has since flourished with so much success, for the reception of
incurable lunatics at Bethlehem hospital, by a handsome legacy.

Shortly after an examination of the Marshalsea books took place, when
it was found that upwards of eleven hundred persons confined for
small debts had been discharged within three years, by the charitable
contributions of Roman catholics.

Amongst the charities of 1720, was that of lady Holford, who left
10_l._ each to 27 clergymen, on condition they attended her funeral;
and eleven exhibitions of about 10_l._ each to as many boys, educated
at the Charter-house upon the foundation.

The collection for the Sons of the Clergy amounted to 239_l._ 10_s._
in 1720, which was distributed to 16 children, in sums from 10_l._
to 20_l._ each; the annual contributions generally average now at

The year closed with the unequalled donation of Thomas Guy, who then
determined to found that hospital on the site of the antient St.
Thomas's, in Southwark, which has immortalized his name.

Certain charitable persons established an Infirmary in 1719. Two years
afterwards they published one year's statement of their proceedings,
from which it appears 108 patients had been received, of whom 52
were cured, 6 incurable, 8 died, 19 discharged for non-attendance, 1
for irregularity, 11 out-patients, and 11 within the infirmary, who
received, with food and medicines, the exhortations of such clergymen
as the Society could procure.

The London Workhouse received from March 1720 to March 1721, 683
vagabonds, beggars, pilferers, and young vagrants, and lewd and
disorderly persons, of whom 620 were discharged, 2 buried, and 61
remained. In the same period, 27 children were bound to tradesmen, 2
were buried, and 86 remained; the latter were religiously educated in
the doctrines of the Established Church; and were employed in spinning
wool, sewing, and knitting, and taught to read, write, and cast

A treaty was completed in 1721, between the British Government and
the Emperor of Morocco, by means of which, 280 persons were restored
to their country; who went in procession, clad in the Moorish habit,
to St. Paul's, where a Sermon suited to the occasion was preached by
Mr. Berriman, chaplain to the bishop of London. The curiosity of the
citizens to see the emancipated slaves was such, that the benevolent
intentions of many charitable persons were frustrated; the collectors
however obtained about 100_l._ After the Sermon, they proceeded to St.
James's, and were admitted to the garden, where the King did them the
honour of viewing their grateful countenances, and afterwards ordered
them 500_l._ The captives went thence to Leicester-house, and received
250_l._ from the Prince of Wales.

The newspapers of December 1721, mention the revival of an antient
custom upon the eve of great festivals; which was the Lord Mayor's
visiting the Markets in person, to solicit contributions of provisions
for the poor. It is said that his lordship was very successful at this

The spring of 1725 was extremely wet, and serious apprehensions of
a total failure of the crops very generally prevailed. Those fears
fortunately proved fallacious; but the useful body of labourers who
resort to the neighbourhood of London as haymakers suffered dreadfully,
and several actually died for want of food and lodging. One sentiment
of compassion seems to have prevailed for these wretched people,
and 20 and 30_l._ at a time was collected at the Exchange and in
several parishes: the duke of Chandos gave 150 of them 2_s._ 6_d._
and a sixpenny loaf each, at his gate at Canons. Mr. Carey, vicar of
Islington, went to every house in the parish soliciting for them; and,
having received a handsome sum, he afterwards distributed it in the

The following January was very propitious to the funds of Bethlehem
hospital, several gentlemen having subscribed towards the erection
of the wings for incurables. One of these gifts was 500_l._ a second
200_l._ and another 100_l._ with a promise of the same sum annually for
four years; they unanimously concealed their names.

M. Mahomet, a Turk, and a valet-de-chambre to George I. died in 1726,
of whom it was said, "He wore the habit of a Turk, but had many
Christian virtues, being profusely liberal to the poor; and is said to
have discharged near 300 debtors from prison for small sums, since his
coming into England."

A Mrs. Palmer died in 1727, who bequeathed the following large sums in
charities: 4000_l._ for propagating the Gospel abroad; 4000_l._ for
promoting Christian knowledge in the Highlands of Scotland; 2000_l._
to queen Anne's bounty; 2000_l._ to Bethlehem hospital; 500_l._ to the
charity school of St. Andrew's, Holborn; and 500_l._ to poor widows,
who received no alms from the parish. She resided in the parish of St.
Andrew; but was buried at St. Giles's, Cripplegate.

The King honoured the Corporation of London with his company to dinner,
in October, 1727; when on his way, a person presented him a petition,
beseeching relief for the various prisoners for debt in London; this he
received in the most gracious manner, and immediately ordered 1000_l._
to be paid to the Sheriffs for that purpose.

A Committee of the House of Commons visited the various prisons of the
Metropolis, by order of the House, in March, 1729, when they found
30 miserable wretches in the greatest extremity, through illness and
want, at the Marshalsea; which operated so forcibly on their feelings,
that they immediately contributed sufficient to procure them medical
assistance, nurses, cloaths, and food.

Bloomsbury-market, built by the duke of Bedford, was opened in March,
1730, to the great satisfaction of the neighbourhood. On the following
Monday, the Duke bought all the unsold meat at the market-price, and
had it distributed to the reduced housekeepers, and other necessitous
persons, inhabitants of the parish of St. Giles's[31:A].

630 chaldrons of coals were purchased in June, 1730, for the use of the
poor of the several wards within the city of London.

There were dreadfully destructive fires at Blandford and Tiverton in
1731; the sufferers from which received unusual commiseration from
the whole kingdom, and large subscriptions. The King gave 100_l._ to
each of those towns, and the several wards of London made considerable

In the year 1733, four Charity Sermons were preached in the parish
of St. Margaret, Westminster, and a collection made from door to
door, which amounted to 125_l._ intended for certain inhabitants of
Saltzburg, who were persecuted for their religious opinions, and
desirous of emigrating to Georgia.

The Weekly Miscellany of May 19, 1733, contains the following account
of the Charity Schools then established in London, with the rules by
which they were governed; they cannot but be read with avidity.

"The most charitable and useful design of setting up Schools, for the
instructing children of the meanest and poorest of the people, was
begun in the year 1698. What has now diffused itself through the whole
nation, sprung from a very small seed, which was first planted in
this great city, and by the blessing of the Divine Providence has, in
a wonderful manner, been increased; so that there is now, within the
cities of London and Westminster and bills of mortality, 132 charity
schools. This charitable design meeting with such encouragement from
the very liberal benefactions of the inhabitants almost in every
parish, trustees were chosen in each district to oversee the management
of the masters and mistresses, and to prescribe rules and orders for
the government of each school; and treasurers were appointed, to whom
all contributions were to be paid, who annually make up accounts of all
money received and disbursed. The trustees frequently meet, to examine
into the behaviour of the masters and mistresses, and whether due care
is taken to preserve a regular discipline, and that the boys and girls
be instructed, not only to read, but to be examined in the repetition
of the Catechism, with the explanation thereof; which is brought
in many schools to such perfection, that the children, upon their
examination before the trustees, repeat, with great exactness, the
texts in the Holy Scripture, to prove all the articles of the Creed,
and other parts of the Catechism. These children are all cloathed at
the expence of the trustees and subscribers; and when they have been
fully taught to read, write, and cast accompts, they are then either
put out to services, or to some handicraft trade. The girls are bred
up not only to read, but to work in linen, knitting, and washing, so as
to be fit for menial services.

"These schools thus increasing, it was thought necessary, in the year
1706, that the trustees should be formed into a voluntary Society, and
that a chairman should be elected to preside, and summon meetings of
the trustees as often as occasion should render it necessary. These
meetings have regularly been continued to this time, where orders from
time to time have been, by the majority of votes, agreed upon; and in
the year 1729, rules and orders for the better regulation of the said
schools, were recommended to the several trustees of the schools in
the country; which being laid before the archbishops and bishops of
the several dioceses in the kingdom, the said rules and orders were
by them, under their hands, approved and established; which orders
are here inserted: by which it will appear that the utmost care has
been taken, not only to instruct the Children in the knowledge of the
Christian religion, but also to breed them up in such a manner, that,
as they are descended from the laborious part of mankind, they may be
bred up and enured to the meanest services. If these orders be candidly
considered, there is no reason for the objections that are commonly
made against the Charity schools; and it must be a great satisfaction
to those that have engaged in this charitable and useful design, that
out of so great a number of children as have been thus educated, there
is but one instance that any of them have been convicted of any crime;
and this person, being transported, was so far influenced by his
first education, that he was so thoroughly reclaimed, that he became
a very industrious and sober man, and is so sensible of the benefit
of his education, that, being in good circumstances, he is an annual
contributor to the school where he was educated. Let it be considered,
that as this city has vastly increased, and by consequence the poor
proportionably multiplied, what must have become of all their children,
if this method had not been taken for putting them out in an honest
way to get their livelihoods, either by services or trades, the happy
effects whereof is very evident. For there are now in the city of
London many substantial tradesmen, who are constant contributors to
the schools in which they were educated. To this may be added, that by
particular benefactions a school is established for teaching the art of
Navigation, to qualify the boys, bred up in the Charity schools, to be
skilful and able seamen; since which a considerable number have been
actually sent to sea; and by all the accounts received from captains
of the ships where they were placed, they have fully answered the
intention of their benefactors.

"In some schools, both in London, and in the country, where the
benefactions would allow it, the children are both fed and cloathed;
and in these both boys and girls are enured to labour, and the profit
of their work applied towards their maintenance and setting them up;
and in most of the schools in the country, the children in the time of
harvest, are to be absent from coming to school, that they may glean,
or do other work; and when they are fully taught to read, they are put
out to handicraft trades, or to be servants in husbandry.

"That great Prince the Czar took with him not only the models of
English ships, but also the scheme that was then newly projected for
establishing Charity schools, which upon return to his own country,
he ordered to be erected in all parts of his vast Empire, which he
inforced by an edict, that none should be married that could not
read the Bible: so differently did this wonderful genius think from
some politicians amongst _us_, who have laid it down for a maxim in
government, that the _servile_ part of mankind are to be kept as
_ignorant_ as possible; whereas _he_ endeavoured to promote knowledge
and religion, even in the lowest conditions of life, as a means of
making his Nation a flourishing and powerful people, and himself a
great and glorious Monarch.

     "_Rules for the good Order and Government of Charity Schools;
      drawn up by the Trustees of those Schools within the Bills of

     "I. That the directions given by the present Lord Bishop of
     London to the masters and mistresses of the Charity schools
     within the bills of mortality and diocese of London, in the
     year 1724 (a copy of which hath been formerly sent to the
     several Charity schools), be duly observed. Particularly,

          "1. The cautions there given against teaching
           the children any thing that may set them above
           the condition of servants, or the more laborious

          "2. The directions laid down concerning the
           Psalms to be sung by the children on the days of
           collection, that they be taken out of the book of
           Psalms only, and sung in the most common and usual

          "3. The method there prescribed to the masters
           and mistresses in several rules, for possessing
           the minds of the children with the just sense of
           the duty and affection they owe to the present
           Government, and the succession in the Protestant
           line, and with a just dread of the persecutions and
           cruelties to be expected from a Popish Government.

     "II. That the trustees of every school, according to the
     custom of the place, or the appointment of the founder,
     do frequently meet, and examine into the management of the
     school, and report the state and condition of the same at
     every general meeting of the subscribers.

     "III. That they be very careful in the choice of a
     treasurer, who is to keep a fair account of all receipts
     and disbursements, for the view of all subscribers and
     contributors, who may desire to know how the money is
     disposed of.

     "IV. That the person who shall be chosen for master or
     mistress of any school, be a member of the Church of England,
     of known affection to His Majesty King George, and to the
     Protestant succession as by law established; of a religious
     life, and sober conversation, a constant communicant,
     understanding the grounds and principles of the Christian
     religion, and having a capacity for educating children,
     according to the rules herein recommended.

     "V. That, in training up of children, particular regard be
     had to the business they are most like to be employed in,
     either as servants, or in husbandry, or else in the woollen,
     iron, or such other manufactures, as are most used in those
     places where charity-schools are maintained. And in order
     thereto, that the children whilst at school be (so far as is
     consistent with their necessary learning, and the different
     circumstances of particular places) inured to some kind of
     work or labour, and in some measure daily employed in it;
     so that they may be rendered most useful to the publick; and
     for this end it may be proper that their earnings be applied
     towards finding them in diet, lodgings, and other necessaries.

     "VI. Whereas Thomas Neale, esq. deceased, did devise part of
     his estate to be applied for supporting of Charity schools,
     or for such other charitable uses as his executors thought
     fit; and Frederick Slare, doctor in physick, the surviving
     executor of the said Mr. Neale's will, hath, out of the
     surplus of the said estate, appointed a considerable sum of
     money for the payment of an annual salary for a master, to
     instruct poor children in such part of the mathematicks as
     may fit them for the sea service; and this appointment hath
     been established by a decree of the high court of Chancery;
     and a Charity-school for that purpose is erected in the City
     of London; and the Trustees of the said school have ordered
     that each boy that should be sent from any of the Charity
     schools, shall be taught the said science, upon the payment
     of twenty shillings a year for each boy: It is therefore in a
     particular manner recommended to the trustees of each school
     within the cities of London and Westminster, that such boys
     as may be thought fit for the sea-service, be sent to the
     said school, to be instructed in an art which will render
     them so very useful to the publick.

     "VII. That the trustees do insist upon it with parents, as a
     necessary condition on which their children are to be taken
     into school, that they send them clean washed and combed,
     regularly and constantly, at the hours of schooling; that
     they comply with all orders relating to them, and freely
     submit them to be chastised for their faults, without
     quarrelling or coming to the school on such occasions; that
     children be not countenanced in their faults, or masters and
     mistresses discouraged in the performance of their duty. But
     if there be any just reason of complaint, that it be made to
     the trustees, in whose determination they are to acquiesce;
     or if persons neglect, or refuse to observe these orders,
     then their children to be dismissed the school; and if they
     are cloathed, to forfeit their school cloaths.

     "VIII. That the trustees do likewise, as far as in them lies,
     oblige the parents of all such children as they take into
     their schools, to agree that their children be put out to
     such services, employments, or trades, as the trustees shall
     think most proper and advantageous to the publick, and the
     places where they live.

     "IX. And lastly, that the trustees do what they can to engage
     parents to give their children good examples at home, of a
     sober and religious behaviour, frequently to call upon them
     to repeat the Church Catechism, to read the Holy Scriptures,
     especially on the Lord's day, and cause prayers to be read
     morning and evening in their families: so that both parents
     and children may be the better informed of their duty, and by
     a constant and sincere practice thereof, promote the pious
     and useful design of charity schools, and so procure the
     blessing of God upon them.

     "_Rules proper to be observed by the Masters and Mistresses._

     "I. That the masters and mistresses do themselves attend the
     school at the times appointed by the founders and trustees,
     and keep the children diligently to their business, during
     the hours of schooling, suffering none to be absent at any
     time, but upon account of sickness, or some such reasonable
     excuse, unless in the time of harvest, and when the trustees
     think it proper that they should be employed in husbandry,
     spinning, carding, or some other manufactures; but, if
     children are kept away, the trustees to be acquainted with
     it, that others more conformable may be taken into their

     "II. That they teach the children the true spelling of words,
     make them mind their stops, and bring them to pronounce and
     read distinctly without a tone: and because it is found
     by experience, that in several places in the country due
     care has not been taken in these respects (the masters and
     mistresses being paid for teaching the children either by
     a monthly or quarterly allowance), it is proposed to such
     founders and trustees as shall think it requisite, that
     their payments be hereafter made in the following manner:
     The _first_ to begin so soon as each child can name and
     distinguish all the letters in the alphabet; the _second_,
     when the child can spell well; and the _third_, when it can
     read well and distinctly, and can repeat the Church Catechism.

     "III. That they make it their principal care to teach
     the children to read the Bible, to instruct them in the
     principles of the Christian religion, according to the
     doctrine of the Church of England; and that they explain the
     Church Catechism to them by some exposition, which, together
     with the Catechism, the children should publicly repeat
     in church, or elsewhere, so often as the minister and the
     trustees shall require; and be frequently examined in school,
     as to their improvements of every sort.

     "IV. That they teach the children those doctrines and
     principles of religion which are in their nature most useful
     in the course of a private life, and especially such as
     concern faith and good manners.

     "V. That they bring the children to church, so often as
     divine service is there performed, before it begins, and
     instruct them to behave themselves orderly, kneeling, or
     standing as the rubrick directs, and to join in the public
     service with, and regularly to repeat after, the minister,
     with an humble low voice, and in the most devout manner,
     in all places where the people are so directed, in such
     manner as not to disturb the rest of the congregation, and
     particularly in singing of Psalms: and that they likewise
     take care, that the children bring their Bibles and
     Common-prayer books always to church; and in order to prevent
     their spending the Lord's-day idly or profanely, it will be
     proper that every master and mistress give each child some
     task out of the most useful parts of Scripture, to be learnt
     on each Lord's-day, according to their capacities; and that
     they require a strict performance of it every Monday morning,
     and also oblige them to say the texts of the sermons preached
     the day before.

     "VI. That they never fail to pray morning and evening in
     the school, and teach the children to do the same at home,
     devoutly upon their knees, when they rise and go to bed, as
     also to say grace before and after meat.

     "VII. That they take particular care of the manners and
     behaviour of the children, and by all proper methods
     discourage idleness, and suppress the beginnings of vice;
     such as lying, cursing, swearing, profaning the Lord's-day,
     obscene discourse, stealing, &c. putting them often in
     mind, and obliging them to get by heart such parts of the
     Holy Scriptures, where those things are forbid, and where
     Christians are commanded to be faithful and obedient to their
     masters, to be diligent in their business, and quiet and
     peaceable to all men.

     "VIII. That they call over in school the children's names
     every morning and afternoon; and, if any be missing, that
     they put them down in rolls kept for that purpose, as tardy
     or absent; as also for their being guilty of breaking any
     of the aforesaid rules and orders; and that they lay those
     rolls before the founders or trustees of every school, where
     required so to do, or before any other person empowered
     by the founder, trustees, or subscribers, who have a
     right to enquire into their behaviour, in order to their
     encouragement, correction, or expulsion.

     "IX. That they take care that where the children are
     cloathed, they wear their caps, bands, and cloaths every day;
     whereby the trustees, benefactors, and others, may know and
     see what their behaviour is abroad.

            *       *       *       *       *

     "These rules were approved by the archbishops and bishops
     whose names are underwritten: and they were pleased to
     direct, that the same be observed by all the charity-schools
     in their respective dioceses.

          W. Cant.
          Lan. Ebor.
          Edm. London.
          W. Duresme.
          R. Winchester.
          J. Wigorn.
          J. Bath and Wells.
          Jo. Oxford.
          B. Sarum.
          E. Cov. and Lich.
          Sa. Roffen.
          Tho. Ely.
          R. Lincoln.
          Jos. Gloucester.
          W. Norwich.
          Jo. Carliol.
          H. Hereford.
          Ric. St. David's.
          E. Chichester.
          W. Bristol.
          Steph. Exon.
          Rob. Peterborough.
          Sam. Cestriens.
          Fr. Asaph.
          Tho. Bangor.

     "The foregoing rules for the good order and government of
     Charity-schools, being laid before the _Society for Promoting
     Christian Knowledge_, they have approved the same, as being
     agreeable to the rules of Charity-schools formerly published
     by the said Society; and have therefore directed that the
     same be printed, and dispersed among all the Charity-schools
     in South Britain."

135 captive Britons, nine of whom were commanders of vessels, arrived
in England from the States of Barbary in 1734, and were presented
to the King and the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. The King
gave them 100_l._ and several of the nobility and gentry five and ten
guineas each, to which sir Charles Wager added 50_l._ They afterwards
dined together at Ironmongers' hall.

The practice of placing infants in baskets, and those at the doors of
opulent persons, was a common trait in the characters of imprudent
females previous to 1734; of which the following advertisement will be
a forcible illustration:

"Last Tuesday evening a female child of about three weeks old was left
in a basket at the door of Buckingham-house. The servants would have
carried it into the Park; but the case being some time after made known
to the Duchess, who was told it was too late to send to the Overseers
of the parish, and that the child must perish in the cold without
speedy relief; her Grace was touched with compassion, and ordered it
to be taken care of. The person who left the letter in the basket, is
desired by a penny-post letter to inform whether the child has been
baptized; because, if not, her Grace will take care to have it done;
and likewise to procure a nurse for it. Her Grace doth not propose that
this instance of her tenderness should encourage any further presents
of this nature, because such future attempts will be found fruitless."

It gives me great pleasure to add, that _dropping_ of children is but
little known at present.

A charitable institution called the _Stepney feast_, produced a
sufficient sum, in 1734, to apprentice 16 boys at 5_l._ each, and to
cloath seven, and one poor man.

The duke of Bedford, the earl of Litchfield, and admiral Haddock, were
three of the eight stewards for the year 1735; when the ensuing verses,
set to music by Dr. Green, were sung at the anniversary dinner.

       "From Zembla's ever icy plain,
         From where eternal Summer burns,
       From all the terrors of the main,
         The wearied Mariner returns.
       Old Thames extends his parent arms,
         And all his rising towers shows,
       To welcome him from War's alarms
         To glorious ease and sweet repose.
       Tritons wind their coral shells,
       And every cliff in echo tells:
     Thus Britain is grateful, thus Britain bestows
     For a youth of brave toil, an age of repose[44:A]."

The Hospital at Hyde-park corner was instituted Oct. 19, 1733, and
has been supported by voluntary contributions from that day to the
present; this is one of the many instances which might be produced of
the _hereditary_ charity of the inhabitants of London; a species of
benevolence silently handed from generation to generation; a bequest
not inforced by forms of law, and parchment and seals.

In the year 1734, the Prince of Wales acted as president; the Queen
and Princesses became subscribers; and the most eminent physicians,
surgeons, and apothecaries attended the sick, &c. _gratis_. An
additional wing was voted to the building, and the following
statement[45:A] published:

  "Cured from 1st Jan. to 26th Dec. 1734         379
  Discharged for non-attendance, most of
    them supposed to be cured                    196
  Dead                                            77
  Discharged incurable                            26
  For irregularities                              15
  Discharged as improper objects                   4
  Sent to Guy's hospital                           2
  Patients in the house                           87
  Out-patients                                    50
  Under the care of the house in the whole       840

     Receipts for the year 1734.           £.    _s._   _d._
  Subscriptions from Oct. 19, 1733,
    to Dec. 26, 1734                      2277     5     6
  Benefactions, ditto  ditto              1859    11     0
                                          4136    16     6
        Disbursements 1734                2559     5     0-1/2
                 Remainder                1577    11     5-1/2

The necessity of Alms-houses, Hospitals, and, in short, every
description of receptacles for the miserable poor, was apparent to
every friend of humanity at this period; and it is to the honour of
the then publick that the necessity was in a great measure removed. The
parish-officers were universally negligent, and even the public papers
asserted, "That the present laws (those of 1735) are defective; and
that notwithstanding they impose heavy burthens on parishes, yet the
poor, in most of them, are ill taken care of. That the laws relating
to the settlement of the poor, and concerning vagrants, are very
difficult to be executed, and chargeable in their execution, vexatious
to the poor, and of little advantage to the publick, and ineffectual to
promote the good ends for which they are intended."

They proposed these remedies, which will at least explain the
deficiencies of the day:

"That a public workhouse or workhouses, hospital or hospitals, house or
houses of correction, be established in proper places, and under proper
regulations, in each county.

"That in such workhouses all poor persons able to labour be set to
work, who shall either be sent thither, or come voluntarily for

"That in such hospitals, foundlings, or other poor children not having
parents able to provide for them, be taken care of; as also all poor
persons impotent or infirm.

"That in such houses of correction, all idle and disorderly persons,
vagrants, and such other criminals as shall be thought proper, be
confined to hard labour.

"That toward the charge of such workhouses, hospitals, and houses of
correction, each parish be assessed or rated; and that proper persons
be empowered to receive the money so to be assessed or rated, when
collected; also all voluntary contributions or collections, either
given or made for such purposes," &c. &c.

[Illustration: _The centre of Bancrofts Almshouses_]

Whether Bancroft was influenced by having viewed the state of the
poor in the same light, or whether he acted from an innate impulse of
charity, is of little importance at present; but it is certain that
his alms-houses were most opportunely erected in 1735, to supply part
of the wants of the community, on the ground at Mile-end, where a fair
was previously held. This gentleman left 28,000_l._ to accomplish his
intentions; which were, that 24 houses should be built for 24 aged men,
a school-room for 100 poor boys, two houses for as many masters, and a
chapel, under the direction of the company of Drapers[47:A].

A person who concealed his name gave, in May, 1736, the sum of 1000_l._
to each of the following charities: the Society for propagating the
Gospel in foreign parts; for the Augmentation of poor livings; and the
Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy; with 500_l._ for the promotion
of Christian knowledge.

The Prince of Wales sent the Lord Mayor 500_l._ in January 1737, to
be applied in discharging poor freemen from prison, by the payment of
their debts and fees.

The governors and the publick at large had enabled the conductors of
the Small-pox hospital (who at that time had two separate buildings for
the purpose, the one at Islington, the other in Cold Bath Fields) to
receive 500 patients in six months, so long since as 1757. Those who
have seen the present elegant building at Battle-bridge, will be aware
of the excellent accommodations it contains; and those who have not are
referred to the view of it annexed.

In the year 1758, another pleasing act of benevolence distinguished the
natives of London, under the title of "an Asylum, or house of refuge
for orphans, and other deserted girls of the poor within the bills of
mortality, situated near Westminster-bridge on the Surrey side." The
following notice appeared in the newspapers of the above period:

"The guardians of this charity (the intention of which is to preserve
poor friendless girls from ruin, and to render them useful members of
the community) have engaged three matrons: the first to superintend the
affairs of the house in general; the second a school-mistress to teach
reading, knitting, sewing, making linen, &c.; the third to preside in
the kitchen, and instruct the children in plain cookery, curing
provisions, pickling, and other branches of housewifery.

"The house will soon be prepared and furnished for the reception of
_poor deserted girls_, from the age of eight to twelve years.

"As in the beginning of these institutions considerable expences are
necessarily incurred, the guardians hope the benevolence of the publick
will be excited, to enable them effectually to carry this laudable
design into present execution; and to extend their plan hereafter as
they shall see occasion."

This forcible appeal was by no means made in vain; subscriptions
followed immediately, and the Asylum _now flourishes_ in full vigour.

[Illustration: _The Small Pox Hospital_]

The efforts of the humane at present, in attempting to cure the
ruptured poor, deserve every commendation; but it should at the
same time be remembered, that the community of 1759 were equally
desirous of alleviating the sufferings of the miserable. Mr. Lee, of
Arundel-street, surgeon, superintended the hospital at that period;
and according to his statement to the committee of subscribers, 60
men, women, and children, and upwards of fifty soldiers, had been
perfectly cured, without the loss of a single life, from the day of its

Mr. Paterson, secretary to a charitable fund, gave the following
account of it in a letter to the editor of the London Chronicle, April
21, 1759.


"The distressed circumstances in which many of our inferior Clergy
necessarily leave their numerous families, induced the piety of our
ancestors to establish a Corporation for their relief; in aid of which,
the stewards of the feast of the Sons of the Clergy have promoted
an annual collection for putting some of their helpless orphans
apprentices to reputable trades. But there being still wanting a fund
for the maintenance and education of these poor children in their
more helpless infant state; some gentlemen in the year 1749, formed
themselves into a Society for raising such a fund by a small annual
subscription, and for seeing it faithfully applied to this very humane
and necessary purpose.

"The Society's income, small as it has hitherto proved, yet not being
burthened with salaries of any kind, has enabled them in the course of
nine years, to take care of 28 boys, selected out of the most numerous
and distressed families that applied.

"Of these, 13 have been placed out apprentices, and to the remaining
number the Society have agreed to add two, besides filling up the
vacancies that will happen, by the placing out of others who are now
properly qualified.

"The Society's general account at their last audit in February, stood
as follows:

"Total receipts 971_l._ 15_s._ 6_d._ Disbursements, for schooling and
maintenance, 713_l._ 11_s._ 6_d._ Children's travelling charges 32_l._
15_s._ 10_d._ Printing 62_l._ 12_s._ 6_d._ Balance in the Treasurer's
hands 162_l._ 16_s._ 8_d._

"The Society's circumstances have hitherto prevented them from
extending their care to the poor girls, whose situation, no doubt, is
full as deserving of compassion; but this they hope the benevolence of
other well-wishers to the Church of England will soon enable them to
do; and in the plan and management of this branch of the Charity, they
shall be glad of the advice and assistance of the ladies.

"Several Bishops and other persons of rank of both sexes have been
pleased to approve of the design and conduct of the Society, and to
honour the subscription with their names.

                                            JOHN PATERSON, _Sec._

"Mr. Hayter (treasurer) desires I will, in his name, acknowledge the
receipt of a bank-note for 20_l._ sent in a penny-post letter signed P.
Q. R. and also of one guinea sent in the name of E. B. for the benefit
of the above charity."

A fire attended with many distressing circumstances occurred in
King-street, Covent-garden, at the close of 1759, in consequence
of which the managers of the Theatre there granted the sufferers a
benefit, when every person employed on the occasion gave their salaries
for the night cheerfully. The produce of another at Drury-lane was

A subscription in imitation of that which took place in 1745 for
rewarding the soldiers with money and clothing who assisted in
suppressing the Rebellion, distinguished the winter of 1760; and a very
considerable sum was obtained for those then in the field.

Another subscription, far more disinterested, amounting to 1782_l._
17_s._ 3_d._ in January 1760, was intended for the relief of French
prisoners. As the prologue spoken at the Drury-lane benefit alludes to
each of the above traits of national benevolence, I think, the reader
will pardon its insertion.

       "Cowards to cruelty are still inclin'd,
     But generous pity fills each Briton's mind.
     Bounteous as brave; and though their hearts are steel'd
     With native intrepidity, they yield
     To Charity's soft impulse: this their praise,
     The proud to humble, and th' oppress'd to raise:
     Nor partial limits can their bounty know;--
     It aids the helpless alien, though a foe.
     Hear this, ye French, who urge the insidious strife
     That arms the Indian with the murdering knife;
     Who, to your foes less cruel, leave your own
     Starving in sad captivity to groan.
     Think of th' inhuman policy--and then
     Confess, ye fight not, nor ye feel, like men.
     Britons, this night your kind compassion flows
     For near-felt mis'ries and domestic woes;
     The dire distress with horror we recall;--
     'Twas death, 'twas dreadful devastation all.
     The sleepers were alarm'd with wild dismay,
     As lull'd in calm security they lay;
     While each perhaps in dreams forgot his pains,
     And fondly counted o'er his honest gains.
     But oh! the poor mechanic, scarce with life
     Himself escap'd, his children and his wife,
     Cold, naked, hungry, whither can they roam,
     No friend to succour, and without a home?
     Their little _all_ with sorrow they survive,
     And hardly deem it mercy, that they live.
     Your tender care their present wants supplies,
     And gives to industry new means to rise;
     Nor needed yet this bounteous act to prove
     Your wide humanity, and social love;
     All, all who want it, your protection find;
     For Britons are the friends of all mankind."

The continued rains of May 1761 had almost ruined the haymakers
assembled near the Metropolis, and compelled them to enter it as
suitors for charity, which they received to the amount of 16_l._ 12_s._
from the Merchants on Change spontaneously. 129 persons shared the
above sum.

In a work of this description the thoughts of respectable writers
cannot but be acceptable; one of those observed, in July 1761, "that
parish charges (were) every where justly complained of; but how
insupportable would they be, were it not for the hospitals erected in
the Metropolis, and of late in several county towns, which, so far as
they extend, for they go no farther than to relieve such sick or lame
poor as there is a probability of curing, are of infinite use, not
only to London and the county towns, but to the country for many miles
around them.

"In St. Bartholomew's hospital, in the year 1760, there were 3,539
in-patients cured. The number of in-patients in that hospital at
that time is 405, and in Guy's and St. Thomas's about 400 in each.
Supposing the numbers of in-patients cured in the two last to be the
same, therefore, with that in St. Bartholomew's hospital, the total
in the three will be 10,617: add to these, the number cured in the
hospitals at Hyde-park corner and Westminster, the London Infirmary,
the Middlesex, Small-pox, Bethlehem, and other hospitals in London, and
they will amount to 15,000 at least. Add to this number the patients
cured in the hospitals at Winchester, Bath, Bristol, Newcastle,
Shrewsbury, Northampton, Liverpool, and the two hospitals at Exeter; I
think there are fourteen of them out of London in different counties;
and I believe I shall not exceed when I put the whole number, including
those at London, at 20,000. All these are entirely maintained, and do
nothing towards a subsistence; except that in some houses, those who
are tolerably well assist in cleaning the house, making the beds, &c.

"And it is very observable, that these hospitals for the sustenance and
relief of the sick and lame poor have all of them been founded (St.
Bartholomew's, St. Thomas's, &c. excepted) within these forty years:
Hyde-park hospital was founded in 1733.

"The London hospitals are so many and large, and under such prudent
management, that scarce any persons are so destitute of friends, but
they can procure admittance into one or other of them. In this, as
in all other instances, Providence seems to have proportioned the
quantity of pity and compassion to the real wants and distresses of the

There are numbers of well-disposed persons who would contribute to
the support of charitable institutions, were they introduced to their
notice in a manner congenial to the bent of their inclination. A man of
a grave and sedentary turn of mind may be prevailed upon by a tale of
distress to open his purse, but similar methods will not succeed with
the _bon vivant_; full of life and spirit, he drives care from him by
every artifice in his power; and yet the governors of our hospitals
and benevolent foundations have contrived a trap for him, and he
cheerfully catches at the bait.--_Ecce signum!_

                         _Magdalen-house charity, Prescot-street,
                                Goodman's fields, Feb. 10, 1762._

     "The _anniversary feast_ of the Governors of this Charity
     will be held on Thursday, the 18th of March next, at
     Drapers-hall, in Throgmorton-street; after a Sermon to be
     preached at the parish church of St George's, Hanover-square,
     before the Right honourable the earl of Hertford, president,
     the vice-presidents, treasurer, and governors of this
     Charity, by the Rev. William Dodd, A. M. chaplain to the
     bishop of St. David's. Prayers will begin at 11 o'clock

     "_And dinner will be on the table at three o'clock._

     "N. B. A _Te Deum_ composed by Mr. Handel, for the late duke
     of Chandos's chapel, with _Jubilate_ and other Anthems, will
     be performed by Mr. Beard, and a proper band of the best
     performers, both vocal and instrumental.

     "Tickets for the feast may be had at the following places at
     _five shillings each_," &c. &c.

The readers of the newspapers of our day will thus perceive that
Solomon was right in saying, 'there is nothing new under the Sun;'
from the above hour, nay long before, conviviality and charity have
coalesced. Dinners, and collections after dinners, when the mind
generously dilates, have relieved thousands from the deepest misery;
and I hope this mode of filling the chasms of more disinterested
benevolence will prevail till such methods are unnecessary.

An occurrence happened in 1762, which places the humanity of his
present Majesty in a very amiable point of view. A female infant had
been left in one of the courts of the palace of St. James's; some
of the officers in waiting sent it to the overseers of St. Martin's
parish, who, with those of St. Margaret's afterwards applied to,
refused to receive the child under the plea that the palace was an
independent jurisdiction. When the King heard of the circumstance, he
immediately ordered that a nurse should be provided, and the fortunate
orphan was subsequently honoured with the name of Georgiana Charlotta

The City of London Lying-in hospital, established many years past,
has served as a pattern for several others in various parts of the
Metropolis. From the date of its commencement to 1762, 3655 married
women had been received, 45 of whom were delivered of twins, and one of
three children; including which, 1896 male and 1806 female infants were
indebted for life to this humane establishment[57:A].

Collections have been frequently made during severe weather, or on some
particularly distressing occasion, from door to door in the various
parishes within the bills of mortality, and considerable sums obtained.
In the winter of 1763, the inhabitants of St. Anne's, Westminster, gave
169_l._ 15_s._ 3_d._ the Princess dowager of Wales 100_l._ and the duke
of York 50_l._ to the poor not relieved by the regular assessments. Nor
was this a solitary instance of generosity, as the duke of Newcastle
gave above 400_l._ to different places at the same period; and the rich
parish of St. James's relieved 1200 persons with gifts of money and

Though so much had been done to prevent the calamities of poverty,
wretchedness prevailed in places where benevolence could not imagine
it existed. Garrets in retired alleys and lanes always afford inmates
in the last stages of disease and starvation; and the instances that
might be adduced would prove very distressing in the recital; but that
_supposed empty houses_ should contain wretches expiring with want,
was beyond the imagination of the most exalted charity; and yet the
following melancholy fact actually occurred in November 1763, the
narrative of which may serve as a hint to overseers, whose duty it is,
I should conceive, to prevent actual _death through want_ in their
respective districts.

A Mr. Stephens, of Fleet-market, was commissioned to shew some empty
houses in Stonecutter-street intended for sale, and one day accompanied
a gentleman to them, who had thoughts of purchasing the estate on which
they were situated. On entering a room on the first floor, an object of
horror attracted their attention, _a naked female corpse_! Stephens,
alarmed beyond expression, fled from the scene; but the other more
courageous ascended to the next floor, where he was soon after joined
by his terrified attendant, and they discovered a second and a third
woman dead, and nearly destitute of clothing; pursuing this dreadful
research, they found in the upper story two women, and a girl about
eighteen years of age, one of whom, and the latter, appeared emaciated
beyond description, but their companion in misery was in better
condition. Prudence and humanity dictated that an examination should
take place as to the cause of so singular and dreadful an occurrence;
in consequence, the survivors were taken into custody, and the ensuing
particulars were related by them before the Coroner and his Jury.

"It appeared on the inquisition, from the evidence of Elizabeth
Stanton, one of these women, that on the Wednesday preceding the
inquiry she came from Westminster, and being in want of lodging,
strolled to this house, and laid herself down on the ground-floor,
where she saw nobody; that about eleven that evening the woman in
good condition (Elizabeth Pattent) a stranger to her, came into the
room where she (Stanton) had laid herself down, and by treading on her
awakened her, at the same time crying out 'Who is there?' To which
Stanton replied, 'No person that will hurt you, for that she was going
away in the morning.' Pattent therefore advised her to go up to the
garret with her, which she did, and stayed there all that night, and
the following day and night, and until she was taken into custody in
the garret upon the above discovery.

"Pattent, being out of place, attended the Fleet-market as a
basket-woman; where she became acquainted with the deceased women, who
were basket-women, and both known by no other names than Bet. Pattent,
being destitute of lodging, was recommended to this ruinous house by
the deceased women, who had lived, or rather starved, there for some
time. Pattent, in the day-time, used to go to her late mistress's, who
kept a Cook's-shop in King-street, Westminster, and worked for her
victuals, and lodged in this house at night, where she continued till
she was taken into custody. About the middle of the week preceding the
inquisition, the deceased women were taken ill; and on Saturday the
12th instant, Pattent pawned her apron for sixpence, and bought some
beef and plumb-pudding at a Cook's-shop in Shoe-lane, and both the
deceased women on Saturday and Sunday ate heartily thereof, and on
Sunday night she heard the deceased women groan. One had the itch, and
the other a fever; and, being fearful of catching the one or the other,
she did not go to them any more; nor did she know of their deaths till
taken into custody.

"Elizabeth Surman, the girl, was the daughter of a deceased Jeweller,
in Bell-alley, Coleman-street; her parents died when she was about
six years of age, and she was taken care of by Mrs. Jones, a next
door neighbour, with whom she lived about four years; Mrs. Jones then
dying, Surman was left destitute; and on being informed she could get
employment in Spital-fields, she went there, and assisted a woman
in winding quills, but she retiring into the country, Surman was
again left destitute; however, she found employment in Spital-fields
market, with Mrs. Bennet, in winding silk, but, not pleasing her, was
discharged in a week. She then went to Mrs. Roach's in that market,
who took in washing and nursed children, where Surman continued six
years, and until she was taken ill, on which account she was discharged
her service. She then went to the churchwarden of the parish where
her father had been housekeeper many years, to desire relief; _but
he refused, without so much as expostulating with her about her
legal settlement, or informing her that she had gained a settlement
by servitude_. She being very ill and weak, _lay all night at the
churchwarden's door, but it had no effect on him_; and this girl
was obliged to lie about in the streets, until she was informed of
this empty house, where she lay every night for near two months; the
deceased women being there when she came, and both then lying on straw
in the two pair of stairs room. For the first week of Surman's being
there, she lay in the room with them on straw, all which week _she was
ill with an ague, and had no sustenance_ whatever; _that then Elizabeth
Pattent relieved her_; and as Surman grew better, she went abroad and
received alms, returning at night, and delivering her money to Pattent,
who bought her victuals. Surman was afterwards received into St.
Andrew's workhouse, where she continued a week; and, about a fortnight
ago, she returned to this empty house, and lodged in the garret; and
being very ill, _was assisted by Pattent_, and for the last fortnight
was not out of the garret till last Friday, when she, with the two
other women, were found in the garret, and taken into custody, and
never saw or heard, all that time, any thing of the deceased women till
she was apprehended.

"On Pattent's being interrogated with respect to the woman's being
stripped naked and selling her cloaths, she strictly denied knowing
any thing of it; alledging, that as they all entered the house at the
cellar, and she being mostly out in the day-time, and attending the
poor girl at night, other persons might strip the deceased unknown to

"There were no marks of violence about the deceased women, _but they
appeared as if starved_.

"The Jury were well satisfied with the account they had received from
their most deplorable evidence. The Coroner gave them some money; and
the Jury ordered them a supper, and that care might be taken of them in
the Casualty-house."

These pitiable objects, worthy of a far better fate, who starved rather
than they would steal, and met death surrounded with tenfold terrors,
supported by pure consciences, deserve statues to their memory; nay,
Pattent would have done honour to Roman virtue, who worked the day
through for a miserable subsistence, and passed the night in watching
and relieving the sick--and yet I should be afraid to know the sequel
of her eventful story. Is it not shocking to think on this catastrophe,
when we reflect how many would have contributed to the relief of this
family of misery, had they known their wants, when advertisements for
relief daily appeared from the distressed and were successful. Even at
the moment they were dying a thousand lingering deaths through every
possible privation, Catharine Shaw, a widow, with seven children and
a mother, acknowledged the bounty of the publick in the receipt of
191_l._ 13_s._ 9_d._ and presentations to Christ's hospital for two of
her boys.

The Marine Society, mentioned in "Londinium Redivivum," relieved 295
youths _a second time_ in 1763. These lads, rescued originally from
ruin, and sent by the Society into the King's service, were discharged
on the conclusion of peace; when they apprenticed 15 to fishermen,
71 to trades, 17 to manufacturers, 6 to public-houses, 29 to the
merchant's service, 80 to naval officers for three years, one to
agriculture, and nine to water and lightermen; assisted 17 to procure
masters, sent 29 to their friends, and 21 provided for themselves.

The unfavourable weather which occurred in July 1764, did infinite
damage to the grain near London; and a hail-storm that fell on the 23d
injured the inferior farmers' property to the amount of 4864_l._ in
Middlesex only: the benevolent inhabitants of the Metropolis, touched
with their misfortunes, opened a subscription, and restored their

A second scene of wretchedness and distress attracted commiseration
in the above year, for certain Germans; who, deceived by splendid
offers of prosperity provided they emigrated to America, were left
by their inhuman deceivers to perish in the neighbourhood of London,
because they found some deficiencies in their own calculations of
profit. Such was the miserable situation of those poor Palatines, that
they actually lay in the fields near Bow, where, it is asserted, they
had not eaten for two days previous to the following generous act
recorded of a baker, who should have been a Prince. This worthy man
(whose name has unfortunately not been mentioned) passing along the
road near the Germans with his basket on his shoulder, containing 28
two-penny loaves, perceiving their forlorn situation, threw it down,
and observed, that his customers must fast a little longer that day,
and immediately distributed the bread, for no other return than signs
of gratitude and tears of joy.

This affecting circumstance is the first intimation the publick
received of their situation; but Mr. Wachsel, Minister of the German
Lutheran church, in Little Ayliffe-street, Goodman's-fields, thus
addressed the publick immediately afterwards, through the medium of the

"I hope you will permit me, by means of your paper, to inform those
who have the power to redress it, of the very deplorable situation of
the poor unhappy Palatines, lately arrived here from Germany. They are
in number, men, women, and children, about _six hundred_, consisting
of Wurtzburghers and Palatines, all Protestants; and were brought
hither from their native country by a German officer, with a promise
of being sent to settle, at his own expence, in the Island of St. John
and Le Croix, in America; but _by inability he has been obliged to
decline the undertaking_; so that, instead of their being shipped off
for those places, some of them have lain during the late heavy rains,
and are now lying, in the open fields adjacent to this Metropolis,
without covering, without money, and, in short, without the common
necessaries of life; others lie languishing under the complicated evils
of sickness and extreme want, at the Statute-hall in Goodman's-fields;
and more than 200 remain on board the ship which brought them over, on
account of their passage not being paid for, where they are perishing
for food, and rotting in filth and nastiness. Collections have been
made at the German churches and chapels here, several times, to afford
them some relief; but as the number of these poor creatures is so
considerable, it is impossible, by such means, to furnish them with a
regular and continued supply, adequate to their wants; so that, unless
some provision is very speedily made for them, they must inevitably
perish. These unfortunate people would think themselves inexpressibly
happy, if the English Government would be graciously pleased to take
them under its protection; to allow them, for the present, some ground
to lie on; tents to cover them; and any manner of subsistence, till it
shall be thought proper to ship them off, and settle them in any of
the English colonies in America; where, I doubt not, they will give
their protectors and benefactors constant proofs of their affection
and gratitude for such kindness, by behaving as becometh honest,
industrious, and dutiful subjects to the British government. I take
the liberty of thus expressing the hopes and wishes of these wretched
beings, as they have no friend to intercede for them who has interest
sufficient for such an undertaking, or even a knowledge of the proper
method of application.

"That their distresses are unutterably great, I myself have been too
often a mournful witness of, in my attendance on them to administer
the duties of my function; with one instance of which I shall conclude
this melancholy detail. One of the poor women was seized with the pangs
of labour in the open fields, and was delivered by the ignorant people
about her in the best manner they were able; but, from the injury the
tender infant received in the operation, it died soon after I had
baptized it; and the wretched mother, after receiving the Sacrament at
my hands, expired from the want of proper care and necessaries suitable
to her afflicting and truly lamentable condition.

"That the Almighty may, of his infinite mercy, incline the hearts of
the great and good of this Kingdom, distinguished for its charity and
hospitality, to take under their protection these their unhappy fellow
Christians, who did not intrude themselves into this country, but were
invited hither, and send them whithersoever they in their wisdom and
goodness shall think proper, is the most ardent prayer of

                                                  G. A. WACHSEL."

A subscription was opened at Batson's Coffee-house, where eight hundred
pounds was instantly subscribed; and Government, fully impressed
with the urgency of the case, immediately sent 100 tents and other
necessaries from the Tower. On the following Sunday 120_l._ was
collected at Whitechapel-church, and several other parishes followed
this most urgent example; but one unknown good Samaritan sent Mr.
Wachsel an 100_l._ bank note, who soon after addressed the Editors of
the Newspapers with the following welcome information:

"As I have twice solicited the attention of the publick through
your paper in regard to the German Emigrants, give me leave now to
inform those beloved servants of the Lord, of every rank, who so
cheerfully fulfilled the will of their Divine Master, in kindly
receiving, feeding, clothing, and visiting these poor strangers, that
the remainder of them on the 6th instant (November 1764), left this
Christian hospitable shore, to settle in America, on the spot assigned
them by the bounty of the gracious Ruler of this happy realm. For all
which extraordinary and unparalleled instances of beneficence, and
likewise for the attention paid to them by the most worthy gentlemen of
the Committee, who not only generously contributed to their relief, but
have also been indefatigably employed in conducting this charity with
the utmost wisdom and integrity, my warmest and most respectful thanks,
as well as those of my poor brethren, are too mean a tribute. But,
though they earnestly entreated me to convey their humble and sincere
acknowledgments to their very humane and generous benefactors, it is
out of the power of language justly to describe their grateful feelings
on this occasion: I am, however, confident, that the remembrance of the
benefits so seasonably and liberally bestowed on them will remain on
their minds to the latest period of their existence; and that they will
seize every opportunity of testifying their gratitude to this nation.

"I have been applied to by anonymous letters, complaining of the delay
of the promised account of receipts and disbursements; to which I take
this opportunity of replying, that when the gentlemen subscribers,
after the publication of my first letter, had formed themselves into
a Committee for the management of this Charity, I gave into their
hands an account of what I had received and expended before their
establishment; and to them I have paid all the monies since received by
me, &c. &c.

                                                  G. A. WACHSEL."

The King sent 300_l._ to the Committee alluded to by the indefatigable
Wachsel, who exerted themselves with the utmost perseverance, in
providing food and other necessaries, while the Minister read
prayers and preached daily before the Palatines, in addition to his
other unwearied exertions in their favour. After the more immediate
attentions had been paid to their wants, the Committee determined to
petition the King, that he would be pleased to grant the Germans lands
in some of the American provinces; which they had no sooner done, than
they were informed land in South Carolina should be appropriated for
that purpose, and that they would be allowed 150 stand of arms to be
used by them on their settlements for defence from the Indians and for
hunting. Upon this favourable result, the Committee agreed with certain
ship-owners to convey the objects of their care to the place of their
destination, on the following liberal terms:

"Two ships of not less than 200 tons each, and to carry no more
than 200 persons in each ship, to be ready to sail in ten days: the
necessaries to be provided were, one pound of bread of sixteen ounces
for each person, men, women, and children, every day; one man, one
woman, and three children to a mess: Sunday, for each mess, a piece of
beef of four pounds, flour three pounds, fruit or suet half a pound,
and a quart of pease. Monday, stock-fish three pounds, butter one
pound, cheese one pound, potatoes three pounds. Tuesday, two pieces
of pork six pounds, rice two pounds. Wednesday, grits five pounds,
butter two pounds, cheese two pounds. Thursday, the same as Sunday,
only potatoes instead of pease. Friday, grey pease two quarts, butter
two pounds, cheese two pounds. Saturday, flour three pounds, fruit
half a pound, potatoes two pounds, butter two pounds, and cheese two
pounds. Sufficient of vinegar, pepper, and salt every day; a ton of
water for every three persons; six quarts of good ship beer each mess,
for the first three weeks; and for the remainder of the voyage, a pint
of British spirits each day; medicines, and a doctor to each ship,
provided by the Committee.

"Half the freight to be paid before sailing from Gravesend, the other
moiety at their delivery at South Carolina, deducting one half of the
second payment for every person that dies on their passage: all that
exceed fourteen years on the first of September, to be deemed whole
passengers; all under two to be deemed as one passenger. Security is
required for the exact performance of the above contract."

On Saturday, October 6, the Germans left their tents, to embark on
board of lighters which were to convey them to Blackwall, attended by
the Treasurer and several gentlemen of the Committee.

The parting between those poor people and their guardian Wachsel was
exceedingly affecting; nor were their expressions of gratitude to the
inhabitants of London less fervent, who accompanied them in crowds in
boats, admiring the devotion with which they sung various hymns on
their way.

One detestable act disgraced this dignified scene of disinterested
Charity, which seems almost beyond credibility, and yet it is certainly
a fact; the Committee had filled four tents with clothing, which were
guarded by children during the time their parents were attending Divine
Service; at that critical moment, several wretches decoyed the guards
away by a distribution of half-pence to buy cakes, and immediately
stole every article worth conveyance.

The above splendid æra in the annals of Charity was equally
distinguished by the exertions of other individuals, who obtained
large sums by contributions from the publick, with which they relieved
4931 persons who had been compelled to pawn their clothes, and other
necessary articles, to supply the deficiencies in their earnings,
through the decline of the Silk manufactory in Spitalfields. I am,
however, sorry to add that the conduct of those artizans did not in
the least resemble that of the Germans; clamorous assemblies of men,
women, and children, under turbulent leaders, with a black flag carried
before them, approached the Royal residence of St. James's; where,
disappointed of meeting the King, many of the most violent presumed to
follow his Majesty to Richmond with a petition, which certainly ought
to have been presented to the House of Commons through the medium of
a Member; others met in Old Palace-yard, where they obstructed the
passage of the Peers, and were only prevented from committing acts of
violence by a party of guards. Thus disappointed of their aim, they
spread in various directions, and almost filled Bloomsbury-square in
defiance of parties of horse and foot soldiers sent to keep the peace.
After suffering several severe injuries, self-committed by pressure,
they returned towards home; but in their way broke all Messrs. Carr and
Co.'s windows on Ludgate-hill, and would have done other damage, had
not a patrole of grenadier guards interfered and dispersed them; but,
as this article should be wholly devoted to the peaceful operations
of benevolence, I must refer the reader to "Popular Tumults," for the
remainder of the event.

The King gave 1000_l._ to the sufferers by a fire in
Bishopsgate-street, London, in November 1765; and the Society of
Quakers 500_l._

During the severity of the winter of 1767-8, a great deal was done for
the relief of the poor, particularly in the following instances: Earl
Percy gave 400_l._; 200_l._ was collected at Almack's; Daniel Giles,
esq. distributed 20 chaldrons of coals; the Archbishop of Canterbury
gave 5_s._ 3_d._ each, to upwards of 200 watermen of Lambeth; the
Lord Mayor had 50 pounds of beef boiled every day, and distributed it
and the broth from it; an unknown person released 26 prisoners from
the Poultry, and others from Wood-street, confined for debts between
forty shillings and six pounds, and each received thirty shillings,
the surplus of the cash sent; besides these generous acts, large sums
were collected in various parishes, and the Queen gave 500_l._ under a
feigned name, through the hands of Dr. Hill[74:A].

Sir John Fielding, long celebrated for his activity as the supreme
director of the Police Westward of Temple-bar, thus addressed the
publick in March 1770:

"The worthy and ingenious Mr. Nelson, in a book, intituled, 'An Address
to Persons of Quality and Estate,' relative to the different methods
of doing good, seems from the benevolence of his mind, and from that
rich fountain of humanity in his heart, to have furnished hints for
almost all the charities which have been established since his time;
and, indeed, from the present number of them, one should imagine, that
scarce a distress could arise to the poor, but there is an hospital,
infirmary, or asylum to relieve; yet, alas, how short-sighted is the
eye of man! for, behold a new Charity makes its appearance, of a
most striking nature indeed; namely, a Dispensary for the benefit of
the infants of the industrious poor; and how objects so essential to
the community should have been so long overlooked by the ingenious
and benevolent, is very surprising. The fate of those children that
have fallen to the lot of workhouses in their tender state, has been
proved, beyond contradiction, to have been dreadful to the last degree;
few, indeed, of such lives having been preserved. For this evil some
remedies have been provided by law, which, I hope to God, may prove
effectual. The next class of distressed objects of this kind are, the
infants of the industrious poor, who, being careful and temperate,
have frequently large families, which they may indeed subsist, but
numbers of these sort of children are precipitately snatched from the
fond mother's embrace by sudden diseases, which the poverty and the
ignorance of the parent render them incapable of contending with. The
lives of children hang on a slender thread, and their diseases, though
few, require immediate and able assistance: behold then Armstrong's
Dispensary opening its bosom for the relief of these tender patients!
It seems a work of supererogation to recommend such a charity as this;
it speaks for itself, and needs but to be considered to be encouraged;
and to the mother's breast it speaks a feeling language indeed; for the
experience that may be acquired in the knowledge and cure of diseases
incident to children, by this institution, may be the happy means of
preserving heirs to many valuable families, and of preventing much of
that sorrow which swells the mother's heart when the little object of
her affection is snatched from her tender arms.

                                                    "J. FIELDING.

"The remarkable success hitherto experienced in treating the little
patients, as appears from the account published after the meetings
of the Committee, must doubtless be no small recommendation of this

This Dispensary, calculated for infants only, was accompanied by a plan
(separately recommended by Mr. Daniel Sutton) for the _eradication_
of the Small-pox by inoculation, at receiving-houses in various parts
of the Metropolis. The latter, however, appears to have been the most
successful application to the feelings of the publick, as I believe
amongst the numerous Dispensaries, which at present do honour to
London, there is not one appropriated exclusively to children; nor is
it necessary when relief is afforded at all to every description of
disease in either infants or adults.

The excellent Institution for the relief of persons confined for
Small Debts, which originated from the active mind of the late
unfortunate Dr. Dodd, and which has been continued to the present
moment, principally through the exertions of Mr. Neild, gave the
following flattering account of their success, even in the infancy of
the undertaking, Jan. 1773: "535 persons discharged, together with 245
wives and 1496 children, amounting in all to 2276 souls relieved by
means of the public humanity."

An Act was passed in 1773, for the better regulation of Lying-in
hospitals and other places of reception for pregnant women, and to
provide for the safety of illegitimate children born within them; a
clause of which enacts, "That from and after the first day of November,
1773, no hospital or place shall be established, used, or appropriated,
or continue to be used or appropriated, for the public reception of
pregnant women, under public or private support, regulation, and
management, in any parish in England, unless a licence shall be first
had and obtained, in manner therein-mentioned, from the Justices of the
Peace at some one of their General Quarter Sessions to be held for the
County, Riding, Division, City, or Corporation, wherein such hospital
or place shall be situated."

One of the most singular methods of obtaining charity perhaps ever
adopted, occurred in January 1774. The severity of the weather had
rendered navigable canals useless; and with others, those of Oxford and
Coventry; consequently the persons employed on them were distressed
for want of employment. Eighteen of the sufferers obtained a waggon,
which a gentleman of Willoughby generously filled with the best coals;
and thus furnished, they harnessed themselves to the vehicle, and set
off from Bedworth in Warwickshire to draw it to St. James's, there to
present the coals to the King. The oddity of their contrivance proved
highly beneficial to them on their road; and when they arrived at the
Palace, the Board of Green-cloth ordered them twenty guineas, but
refused the coals, which were disposed of, and the produce greatly
augmented by gifts from numbers of persons who witnessed the exertions
of these human _drafts-men_[78:A].

Several instances have been already given of individuals endeavouring
to alleviate the calamities arising from the resentment of inexorable
creditors, by the discharge of the debts which excited it. Every
possible praise is certainly due to those philanthropists; nor is the
Society just mentioned less deserving of the thanks of the community;
but their's is an Herculean labour, and a sum equal to the revenues of
a state would be little more than sufficient to accomplish the release
of all entitled to commiseration. Impressed with similar sentiments,
John Howard, esq. determined to explore the various prisons in England,
and indeed throughout Europe, not so much with a view to discharge
captives, as to render them the most essential service while such,
by exposing their unwarranted sufferings, inflicted in defiance of
the dictates of humanity, and even contrary to law. His labours in
this pursuit, his disregard of opposition, his manly reprobation of
oppression to the oppressor, disdain of personal danger from vindictive
revenge and disease, his death, and the honours decreed him by public
bodies and public gratitude, are all fresh in the memories of my
readers: I shall therefore merely quote his own words in explanation of
his intentions, when they were perhaps not fully developed to himself.

     "To the Publisher of the London Chronicle.

                                     _Cardington, March 6, 1774._

     "Mr. WILKIE,

     "The account I gave before the House of the state of Gaols
     being somewhat misrepresented in the papers, I must beg the
     favour in your next to set it right.

     "I am, Sir, &c.

                                                     JOHN HOWARD.

     "I informed the House that I had travelled and seen 38 out
     of the 42 gaols in the Lent circuit, besides others, as
     Bristol, Ely, Litchfield, &c.: that those I had not seen in
     the circuit, in a few days I should set out to visit them:
     that I released a person out of Norwich City gaol, who had
     been confined five weeks for the gaoler's fee of 13_s._
     4_d._: that at Launceston the keeper, deputy keeper, and ten
     out of eleven prisoners, lay ill of the gaol distemper; at
     Monmouth, last Wednesday se'night, the keeper lay dangerously
     ill, and three of the prisoners were ill; at Oxford, eleven
     died last year of the small-pox.

     "That as to fees, those in the Western counties were highest,
     as at Dorchester, 1_l._ 3_s._ 9_d._ Winchester, 1_l._ 7_s._
     4_d._ Salisbury, 1_l._ 6_s._ 4_d._: but in the county of York
     only 9_s._

     "That the gaols were generally close and confined, the felons
     wards nasty, dirty, confined, and unhealthy. That even
     York-castle, which to a superficial viewer might be thought
     a very fine gaol, I thought quite otherwise; with regard
     to felons their wards were dark, dirty, and small, no way
     proportioned to the number of unhappy persons confined there.
     Many others are the same; as Gloucester, Warwick, Hereford,
     Sussex, &c. The latter had not for felons, or even for
     debtors, at their county gaol at Horsham, the least outlet;
     but the poor unhappy creatures were ever confined within
     doors without the least breath of fresh air.

     "I was asked my reasons for visiting the gaols? I answered, I
     had seen and heard the distress of gaols, and had an earnest
     desire to relieve it in my own district as well as others.
     It was then asked me, if it was done at my own expence? I
     answered, undoubtedly. Some conversation passed relative
     to gaolers taking off their prisoners irons; but that was
     private, and not at the bar of the House.

     "The above account, including that of garnish, which was from
     3 and 4_s._ to 8_s._ which I said was a cruel custom, and
     connived at and permitted by gaolers, was the whole of what
     passed at the House as to myself, except the great honour
     they did me in their thanks _nem. con._"

This true Patriot addressed the printer a second time, March 7, in the
same year.


"I shall set off for the gaols in Westmoreland, Cumberland, and
Northumberland, next Monday, and also visit again some which I have
already seen, likewise Lancaster, Chester, and Shrewsbury, _if I am not
taken off with the gaol distemper_; as Dr. Fothergill says, 'I carry my
life in my hand, and it is a wonder I have not been taken off.'

"The misery in gaols is great beyond description; Sheriffs for many
years not having set foot into the prisons of most of the counties
in England. There are many of them (the felons wards I mean) dirty,
infectious, miserable places; so that, instead of sending healthy
useful hands to our Colonies as transports out of our gaols, they
become infectious, sickly, miserable objects: half of whom die on
their passage; and many of those that arrive at the places of their
destination infect the families they enter into. I saw lately in your
paper, what I knew our Colonies complained of from Philadelphia: 'An
Act passed to prevent infectious diseases being brought into that

"Another great evil in gaols is, that the poor debtors on the common
side in most counties have not even the felons' county allowance of
bread; and I have not found twelve people that have sued out their
groats in all the county gaols; that benevolent Act of 32 George II.
being frustrated, as no attornies will, without pay, take a poor
debtor's case in hand. These I have found some of the most pitiable
objects in our gaols.

"I am, &c.

                                                    JOHN HOWARD."

The result of the visits thus announced has long been before the
publick, and that infinite improvement followed must be admitted;
yet much still remains to be done, merely to obtain that order and
cleanliness which the Legislature has at various periods declared
should be maintained in each prison throughout the Kingdom. Mr. Neild,
the worthy magistrate, has undertaken the task left incomplete by his
exalted predecessor; and there cannot be a doubt that he has done
incredible service to the criminal, and the debtor, most unaccountably
immured within the _inclosures intended for the purpose of justice

The same distresses which accompany every severe winter recurred in
1776, and the utmost exertions were made to alleviate them; when the
Corporation of London gave 1500_l._ and several rich Citizens from
100_l._ to 20_l._ each, to be distributed to poor housekeepers. This
fund was augmented by the exertions of the Sheriffs, Aldermen, and
Deputies, who went from house to house soliciting contributions.

The Humane Society, instituted for the recovery of persons supposed
to be dead from the effect of disease, suffocation, and drowning,
had arrived to that degree of importance in 1776, as to be enabled
to distribute several gold and silver medals, from a die executed
by Lewis Pingo, from a design by Dr. Watkinson. The four gentlemen
first honoured with this mark of distinction were Dr. Hawes, who had
frequently advertised, before the Society was formed, offering a reward
to those who would call for his assistance in cases where the functions
of life were suspended; and Dr. Cogan, his colleague, in establishing
the first principles of the Institution; Alderman Bull, president; and
Dr. Watkinson.

Since the above period, the enterprising spirit and activity of Dr.
Hawes has been constantly exerted in promoting the continuation of the
Humane Society, which, though under Royal Patronage, derives very small
pecuniary aid from the publick, compared with some Institutions of less
importance; nor has the Legislature granted it a farthing; though, as
the Doctor once observed to me, there are benefactions recorded in the
Journals of the House of Commons for a Veterinary College, to recover
horses from diseases[84:A].

Sermons, and an annual dinner, with a procession of those recovered
from death by the Society, are substituted to obtain contributions; and
I am happy to add, that they have always amounted, with other voluntary
gifts, to a sum which has enabled the Governors to render thousands of
persons supremely blest by the restoration of their relatives from the
relentless grave.

Similar Institutions now existing throughout Europe and America,
are strong proofs of the honours due to the founders, Hawes and
Cogan--honours to be paid by posterity.

A most melancholy circumstance occurred in 1777, which deprived the
inhabitants of London of one of the best orators in the cause of
benevolence they had ever possessed. The reader must be aware that I
allude to the ignominious death of Dr. Dodd, whose conduct cannot but
be allowed to have been inconsistent beyond parallel; a teacher of
the most exalted benevolence, and one who practised it to the degree
he taught; and yet a luxurious spendthrift, and a violator of the
penal laws of his country, to support unjustifiable extravagance and
splendour of living. When we reflect on the thousands of pounds his
exertions _have_ collected, and _will yet_ collect, for the relief of
penitent Prostitutes, in the establishment (in conjunction with Mr.
Dingley) of the Magdalen hospital, and the Society for the relief of
prisoners confined for Small Debts; besides those, the fruits of his
preaching on numerous occasions; we cannot but lament that mercy was
withheld which _a Nation_ solicited. His was a singular case--but
enough--Justice required his life; and Death, the portion of forgery,
closed the scene.

We have now arrived at a period within the recollection of most of my
readers; it will not therefore be necessary to notice every Institution
existing at present, the result of recent exertion; they are numerous
beyond all former example. From the temporary relief afforded during
severe winters, and the charities even to passing mendicancy, with
that to individuals advertising for assistance, up to the incorporated
Societies for constant duration; all are successful, and none more
so than the Patriotic Fund, established for relieving and rewarding
military and naval sufferings and merit.

Exclusive of the various means, described in the preceding pages, for
effecting the great work of alleviating the wants of mankind, there are
others of established and permanent operation. I mean, the constant
charitable bequests, continued even from the establishment of masses
for the repose of the souls of the testators. In those the poor were
always remembered; but the Protestant, more disinterested, has long
given the whole of his money to the wretched, and _required_ no prayers
in return. Were I to collect the items of bequests from the days of
Henry VIII. to the present moment, this work would not contain them,
and the reader would barely credit the enormous amount: and yet this
is independent of the Alms-houses and Hospitals which we meet with in
every direction, where many thousands are absolutely supported by the
benevolence of those who have very long since paid the debt of nature.

Such are the effects of the general charity of the Natives of London;
such their attempts to smooth the path of life, and to render the
person those services which are necessary to maintain its dignity and
proportion. I am now compelled to turn from this grateful scene, and
to exhibit what has been done by depravity and laxity of manners, to
shorten life, and destroy the fine proportions of the Citizen.


[13:A] Gent. Mag.

[13:B] Jour. of House of Commons.

[15:A] See the plate of the North side of the Foundling.

[15:B] Gent. Mag. The origin of the Welsh Society, and the subsequent
charity school, may perhaps be dated from the celebration of
the birth-day of the Princess of Wales, Feb. 1715, when several
distinguished sons of St. David heard a Sermon preached in their native
language, by Dr. Lewis, at St. Paul's, Covent-garden; whence they
adjourned to Haberdashers hall, where, invigorated by repletion, the
Antient British Society was planned for the double celebration of the
Prince's birth-day, and the commemoration of their Patron Saint.

[23:A] Original proposal.

[24:A] Statement of the trustees.

[24:B] Newspapers.

[25:A] This Royal donation is still annually repeated; and a collection
under the King's letters patent is also made in all the parishes within
the Bills of Mortality.

[27:A] All these statements are from the Daily papers.

[31:A] Statements in Newspapers.

[44:A] Newspapers.

[45:A] Treasurer's statement.

[47:A] See the view of this superb structure--Seymour's London.

[57:A] London Chronicle.

[64:A] London Chronicle.

[74:A] London Chronicle.

[78:A] London Chronicle.

[84:A] The worthy Doctor died in December 1808. See a Tribute to his
Memory in Gent. Mag. vol. LXXVIII. p. 1121.



Mankind may be universally divided into two classes, the honest and
dishonest; for I admit of no medium. That those distinctions have
existed from the very remotest periods, I believe no one will deny;
therefore it is perfectly natural to suppose, that depraved and idle
wretches, who would rather steal the effects of another than labour
to acquire property for themselves, have infested London, from the
hour in which an hundred persons inhabited it in huts or caverns. How
those depredators on Society were treated by the Cits of very very very
antient times is not worth enquiry; but that death was often inflicted
cannot be doubted; and that might be effected by twenty different
methods. Strangulation was certainly used before the time of Henry I.
in London: punishment for crimes of inferior magnitude are always
species of torture; to repeat the probable modes would be far from

Whatever may have been the other inventions of the idle to obtain
bread, that of begging in all its ramifications was the most antient;
the fraternity of mendicants have resisted every attempt to dissolve
their body, nor will they vanish till the last day shall remove every
living creature from the surface of the earth. After the establishment
of Christianity, flocks of Christians determined to devote themselves
to the service of the Lord _in their way_, and work no more; such were
some orders of Monks and Friars mendicants! The monasteries afterwards,
acting upon a mistaken idea of charity, gave alms, and fed the poor and
idle indiscriminately at their gates: thus a wretch might invigorate
his body with the viands of the Abbots and Monks in the day, and pass
the night in attacks upon the defenceless traveller, perhaps often
relieved in presence of the depredator by the blind religious.

In vain have the Monarch, the Law, and the Judge, from the days of the
Aborigines down to the present moment, exerted their authority and
terrors; and I am compelled, for brevity's sake, to confine myself
to the disgraceful acts of a single century. To mention the numbers
who were condemned at the Old Bailey in 14 years from 1700, will be
sufficient, without particularizing their crimes.

  Years.  Condemned.                           Executed.
  1701       118      4 died after conviction     66
  1702        49                                  13
  1703        38                                  18
  1704        35                                  17
  1705        44                                  16
  1706        33                                   5
  1707        23                                  18
  1708        34                                  18
  1709        39                                  10
  1710        36                                   8
  1711        36                                  13
  1712        43                                  15
  1713        60                                  25
  1714       108                                  59
             ---                                 ---
             696         Reprieved 391           301

In the mayoralty of Sir Francis Child, 1732, 502 persons were indicted
at the Old Bailey; 70 of whom received sentence of death; 208 of
transportation; eight fined, imprisoned, or pilloried; four burnt in
the hand; four whipped; and 288 acquitted.

In 1722, ten pounds reward was offered by the Clerk of the New River
Company, for the apprehension of persons who had wantonly tapped the
pipes, and others that had cut the banks to let water on their own

Lotteries.--These pernicious contrivances to raise money were in full
vigour at the commencement of the century. There was the "Greenwich
Hospital adventure," sanctioned by an Act of Parliament, which the
managers describe as "liable to none of the objections made against
other Lotteries, _as to the fairness_ of the drawing, it being not
possible there should be any deceit in it, _as it has been suspected
in others_." Mr. Sydenham's Land Lottery, who declared it was "found
very difficult and troublesome for the adventurers for to search and
find out what prizes they have come up in their number tickets, _from
the badness of the print_, the _many errors in them_, and the _great
quantity of the number of the prizes_:" the Twelve-penny or Nonsuch:
and "the Fortunatus."

Esquire Sydenham's lady's gentlewoman obtained an estate worth 600_l.
per annum_, in her master's Lottery; but the unfortunate holders of
blanks, suspecting foul play, advertized an intended meeting on the
11th January 1700, for the purpose of entering into an investigation
of their real or fancied wrongs. This produced a denial on the part
of his Trustees, but did not prevent the meeting from taking place,
when it was unanimously resolved to appoint an eminent goldsmith in
Lombard-street cashier, for the receipt of subscriptions to carry their
purposes into effect; which being accomplished, they exhibited a Bill
in Chancery against the unfortunate Squire[90:A].

Guinea-dropping was practised in 1700; and it was customary for thieves
to carry cocks into retired or vacant places to throw at them, in
order to collect spectators, and empty their pockets. The following
extract from the Protestant Mercury of February 14, 1700, point out
three of those places of iniquity: "Last Tuesday, a Brewer's servant
in Southwark took his walks round _Tower-hill_, _Moor-fields_, and
_Lincoln's-Inn-fields_, and knocked down so many cocks, that, by
selling them again, he returned home twenty-eight shillings odd pence a
richer man than he came out."

In collecting materials for this portion of my review of London, order
and regularity are unnecessary; cheats, impostors, knaves, and thieves,
members of one great family, will be indiscriminately introduced, with
their schemes and crimes to mark _them_, and the cullibility of the
good Citizens of London, a large portion of whom are ever ready to
catch at the most silly and absurd baits, provided they happen to agree
with their pursuits. Money-lenders, those excellent members of Society,
the friends of youth, the alleviators of distress, who hold forth their
thousands to the publick, merely with a view to accommodate the wants
of their countrymen, and without the least wish of private advantage
to themselves, were known to the inhabitants of this Metropolis at the
period from which I date my present researches. The reader will find
a wonderful similarity in the ensuing advertisement to some of very
recent date. "From our house, New Tuttle-street, near the Royal-oak,
Westminster, or Young Man's Coffee-house, at Charing-cross, in the
morning. All gentlemen and others that have business in Treasury,
Admiralty, or Navy offices, or any of the Courts of Law or Equity, may
have it faithfully solicited. We buy and sell estates, _help persons to
money_ on good security. We help persons to employments, &c. and have
now several to be disposed of, of 400_l._ 100_l._ 80_l._ 60_l._ 40_l.
per annum_[92:A]; any that shall give in timely notice of places to be
disposed of shall be rewarded for the same. _And because many have been
defrauded of considerable sums of money_ by one that lately printed
from Salisbury-court, Fleet-street; that none may be served so that
apply themselves to us, _nor the reputation of this undertaking ruined,
because ill men have had the management of it_, we shall not take our
gratuity, _till we have done their business_; which must be allowed to
be a candid acknowledgment of _our intention_."

In so populous a City as London, no place is sacred from the contrivances
of Sharpers. Even plate used at the Coronation feast of Queen Anne, in
Westminster-hall, April 1702, was stolen, with table-linen and a great
deal of pewter[92:B].

To second the operations of the Royal Proclamation for the Suppression
of Vice, certain well-disposed Citizens entered into the following
agreement, to promote the Reformation of Manners.

"We whose names are hereunto subscribed, out of a sense of the duty we
owe to Almighty God, in pursuance of His Majesty's Proclamation for the
discouragement and prosecution of debauchery and prophaneness, and for
the suppressing of them, do agree as followeth:

"That we meet weekly at ----, under the penalty of ---- each default
without a just cause; to consult how we may be most serviceable
in promoting the execution of the Laws against prophaneness and
debauchery. That we use all proper means to prevail with men of
all ranks to concur with us in this design, especially such as are
under the obligation of oaths to do so; and in order to their acting
vigorously therein, that we endeavour to persuade them to form
themselves into Societies, at least to have frequent meetings for this

"That we encourage and assist officers in the discharge of their
duty, of discovering disorderly houses, of taking up of offenders,
and carrying them before the magistrates, and, moreover, endeavour to
assist both magistrates and officers, by giving information ourselves
as we have opportunity.

"That, for order sake, every Member in his turn be Chairman (unless any
desire to be excused) for four successive days of meeting; that as soon
as four members are met, the Chairman, or, in his absence, the next in
order upon the list (that shall be made for that purpose) shall take
his place: and that from that time to the breaking up of the meeting,
we forbear all discourse of public news or our private affairs, as also
all unnecessary disputes upon speculative and controversial points of

"That when any thing is proposed and seconded, the Chairman shall put
it to the question, which shall be determined by the majority; and such
determination shall remain till altered by a majority upon another

"That, if upon any matter in debate the voices are equal, the question
shall be again proposed by the Chairman at the same meeting, if more of
the members come in, or otherwise at the next or some other meeting.

"That it be part of the office of the Chairman to take notice of the
breach of any of our orders, to enquire of every member how he hath
discharged the business that was allotted him at the last meeting,
and what difficulties he hath met with, in order to find out proper
remedies. To read over the agreement of this Society once a month. To
read over the minutes of what hath been resolved upon at the end of
every meeting, and the list of the members; and to go or send to such
as have been absent twice successively, without a just excuse known to
some member of the Society; and, the next time any such persons shall
be present, the Chairman for the time being shall put them in mind of
the great importance of the business they are engaged in, and of the
obligations they have laid themselves under by their subscriptions to
attend the meetings of this Society.

"That we endeavour to find out proper persons to be brought into
this Society; and that no member shall be proposed for a member but
when four or more of the Society are present; and that none shall be
admitted into this Society till he hath been proposed by three several
meetings, and are thought to be men of piety and temper; and that after
any person hath been proposed a second time for a member, two persons
shall be appointed by the major part of the Society to make enquiry
concerning his life and conversation.

"That in cases of difficulty that shall occur, we consult the learned
in the Law, or other proper persons, that we by no means go further
than the Law will warrant us.

"That we keep an exact account of our proceedings in a book kept for
that purpose.

"That the debates and resolutions of the Society be kept secret; and,
therefore, no person shall be admitted to be present at any debate, in
any meeting, that is not a member, unless upon special occasion, and by
agreement of the majority present.

"That we look upon ourselves as under a peculiar obligation to pray for
the Reformation of the Nation in general, and to implore the Divine
direction and blessing upon this our undertaking in particular[96:A]."

Every man may be considered as included within this class, who hazards
a falsehood to forward his views, whether they are in the course of
trade, or deviate into cheating. Mr. Sheridan, in the Critick, forcibly
exposes the various kinds of puffs used by Tradesmen and Authors;
and he classes them very justly into the puff direct, indirect, &c.
The first instance which occurs of a case in point, after 1700, is
the following from a Hair-dresser, which fraternity is notorious for
extreme modesty and truth in their addresses to the publick: "Whereas
a pretended Hair-cutter, between the Maypole in the Strand and St.
Clement's church, hath, without any provocation, maliciously abused
Jenkin Cuthbeartson behind his back, at several persons' houses, and
at his own shop, which hath been very much to his disadvantage, by
saying that he was a pitiful fellow and a blockhead, and that he did
not understand how to cut hair or shave: I therefore, the said Jenkin
Cuthbeartson, think myself obliged to justify myself, and _to let the
world know_ that I do understand my trade so far, that I challenge the
aforesaid pretended hair-cutter, or any that belongs to him, either to
shave or cut hair, or any thing that belongs to the trade, for five
or ten pounds, to be judged by two sufficient men of our trade, as
witness my hand this 9th day of November, 1702, Jenkin Cuthbeartson,
King-street, Westminster[97:A]."

Fellows who pretended to calculate Nativities were to be met with
in several parts of London at the same period: they sold ridiculous
inventions which they termed _Sigils_; and the possessor of those
had but to fancy they would protect themselves and property, and the
object of the Conjurer was accomplished. Almanack John obtained great
celebrity in this art. It appears that he was a Shoe-maker, and resided
in the Strand. This fellow, and others of his fraternity, preyed upon
fools or very silly people only; their losses were therefore of little
moment, and the turpitude of Almanack John was not quite so great as
that of the villains who affected illness and deformity, thus to rob
the charitable, whose gifts would otherwise have been directed to the
relief of the _real_ sufferer.

The reader will presently perceive that, in one instance, the depravity
of the community of Beggars is but too stationary since 1702. "That
people may not be imposed upon by Beggars who pretend to be lame, dumb,
&c. which really are not so; this is to give notice, that the President
and Governors for the poor of London, pitying the case of one Richard
Alegil, a boy of 11 years of age, who pretended himself lame of both
his legs, so that he used to go shoving himself along on his breech;
they ordered him to be taken into their workhouse, intending to make
him a taylor, upon which he confessed that his brother, a boy of 17
years of age, about four years ago, by the advice of other beggars,
contracted his legs, and turned them backwards, so that he never used
them from that time to this, but followed the trade of begging; that
he usually got 5_s._ a day, sometimes 10_s._; that he hath been all
over the counties, especially the West of England, where his brother
carried him on a horse, and pretended he was born so, and cut out of
his mother's womb. He hath also given an account that he knows of other
beggars that pretend to be dumb and lame, and of some that tie their
arms in their breeches, and wear a wooden stump in their sleeve. The
said President and Governors have caused the legs of the said Alegil to
be set straight; he now has the use of them, and walks upright; they
have ordered him to be put to spinning, and his brother to be kept to
hard labour. Several other able beggars are by their order taken up and
set to work, and when brought into the Workhouse have from 10_s._ to
5_l._ in their pockets."

A person during the fair of 1703 had the audacity to advertise, that
the spoils taken at Vigo were to be seen for sixpence at his booth;
and he imposed upon the public curiosity by exhibiting fictitious
representations of an Altar-piece of silver, with six Angels in full
proportion, four Apostles supporting the four pillars, and four Angels
attending them, with each a lamp for incense in their hands; also
a Crown set with valuable stones, a Holy-water pot garnished with
filligree-work, &c. &c. "_all brought from Vigo_, having been first
lodged in the Tower, _and never exposed before but in the Tower_."

John Bonner, of Short's Gardens, had the barefaced effrontery, in 1703,
to offer his assistance, by necromancy, to those who had lost any thing
at Sturbridge Fair, at Churches or other assemblies, "he being paid for
his labour and expences."

The Corporation of London aimed a severe blow, in the same year, at
impostors and sturdy beggars, by offering a reward of one shilling
each for such as were apprehended, and sent to the Workhouse in

The Post-boy of July 21, 1711, contains the following paragraph: "It is
thought proper to give notice of a common notorious cheat frequently
practised by men who pretend to be soldiers, and others, in a game by
them called Cups and Balls, particularly at the wall next the Mewsgate,
within the Verge of the Court."

At a petty Sessions for Westminster held in April 1714, an account
was returned from the proper officers of the receipt of 42_l._ in the
preceding six months, as penalties for profanations of the Sabbath,
swearing, and drunkenness.

There was a place of resort for the vicious, called the Cave, at
Highgate, which was indicted, and the indictment opposed by the
proprietors, in a trial before Lord Chief Justice Parker, December
1714; but the defendants lost the cause, and the Cave was suppressed,
to the satisfaction, as a paragraph expresses it in the Flying Post, of
those "who are enemies to such a nursery of profaneness and debauchery."

A shocking instance of depravity occurred in March 1718. A Quaker
potter, of the name of Oades, who resided in Gravel-lane, Southwark,
had four sons, whom he admitted into partnership with him, and at the
same time suffered them to carry on business on their own account.
This method of proceeding naturally led to jealousies and envy on both
sides, which increased to a degree of rancour, that the father and sons
appear to have acted towards each other as if no connection subsisted
between them. The immediate cause of the horrid event that renders the
tale odious, was the arrest of Oades by his sons, for the violation
of the peace, which they had bound him in a penalty to observe, and
the consequent expulsion of their mother from her dwelling. This
act attracted the notice of the populace, who seldom fail to adopt
the right side of a question of justice, and as usual they began to
execute summary vengeance on the house. The sons, an attorney, and
another person, secured themselves within it, whence they read the
Riot Act, and fired immediately after; a bullet entered the head of
a woman, who fell dead; the assault then became more furious, and
persons were sent for Mr. Lade, a Justice; that gentleman bailed the
father, and commanded the sons to submit in vain: he therefore found it
necessary to send for a guard of Soldiers, who arrived and commenced
a regular siege, but the fortress was not stormed till two o'clock in
the morning, when a courageous fellow scaled a palisade on the back
part of the house, and admitted his party, who rushed in, and secured
the garrison. The son of Oades, who shot the woman, was tried for the
murder, found guilty, but pardoned on his father's intercession,
provided he banished himself.

The villain who occasioned the ensuing advertisement mixed cruelty
with his fraud. "Whereas a person who went by the name of Dr. Cock,
did about two months since come to Mrs. Robinson, in Putney, being
indisposed; he pretended to come from an acquaintance of hers from
London to give her advice; accordingly he applied a plaster to her
stomach, by which she has received a great deal of injury. He had for
his fee ten shillings, and demanded six shillings for his plaster; it
is supposed he took a handkerchief with him and a shirt. It appearing
that nobody sent him, whoever can give notice of him, &c."

The next Sharper upon _public_ record worthy notice was Jones, a
footman, who had contrived to attract the favours of the lady of
Esquire Dormer, of Rousam, Oxfordshire, a gentleman worth 3500_l.
per annum_; which being discovered by the injured husband, an action
was commenced for Crim. Con. against the party-coloured enamorato,
and pursued to conviction; but, just as sir Thomas Cross, the foreman
of the Jury, was about to pronounce the tremendous sound of 5000_l._
damages, or, in other words, imprisonment for life, master Jones rushed
through the Hall, flew to a boat, was rowed across the Thames, and took
sanctuary in the Mint, before the Lord Chief Justice's Tip-staff could
prevent him.

An escape accomplished by a still greater villain in 1716, was far more
extraordinary: a highwayman, named Goodman, had been apprehended with
great exertion and difficulty, and brought to trial at the Old Bailey,
where the Jury pronounced him guilty; but, at the instant their verdict
was given, he sprang over the enclosure, and eluded every endeavour to
arrest his progress.

Such was the daring folly of this man, that he frequently appeared
in public, and presuming on his supposed security, actually went to
Mackerel's Quaker Coffee-house in Bartlett's-buildings, for the purpose
of procuring the arrest of a Carrier, to whom he had intrusted 16_l._
to be conveyed to his wife in the country, and who, supposing Goodman
would be hanged, had converted it to his own use: there he met an
Attorney by appointment, and stationed four desperadoes at the door
armed with pistols, in order to repel any attempt at seizing him. The
Attorney, aware of his precaution, listened to the case of the Carrier,
and studiously avoided betraying him; but the instant Goodman departed,
he declared who his client was, upon which several persons watched the
wretch to his place of concealment, where they attacked him, and he
them, with the utmost resolution; after a severe conflict, in which the
assailants were compelled to bruise him dreadfully, he was secured;
but, throwing himself down in the streets, they were at last compelled
to bind and carry him in a cart to prison: he was hanged not long

The Mistress of Child's Coffee-house was defrauded of a considerable
sum, in September 1716, by an artful stratagem. She received a note by
the Penny-post, which appeared to come from Dr. Mead, who frequented
her house; saying, that a parcel would be sent there for him from
Bristol, containing choice drugs, and begging her to pay the sum of
6_l._ 11_s._ to the bearer of it. The reader will probably anticipate
the _denouement_; the bundle was brought, the money paid; the Doctor
declared his ignorance of the transaction, the parcel was opened, and
the contents found to be ---- rags[104:A].

It is not often that thefts can be narrated which are calculated to
excite a smile; and yet I am much mistaken if the reader doth not relax
his risible faculties, when he is informed of a singular method of
stealing wigs, practised in 1717. This I present him _verbatim_ from
the Weekly Journal of March 30. "The Thieves have got such a villainous
way now of robbing gentlemen, that they cut holes through the backs
of Hackney coaches, and take away their wigs, or fine head-dresses of
gentlewomen; so a gentleman was served last Sunday in Tooley-street,
and another but last Tuesday in Fenchurch-street; wherefore, this may
serve for a caution to gentlemen or gentlewomen that ride single in
the night-time, to sit on the fore-seat, which will prevent that way of

The first notice of Mr. Law, the chief Director of the Royal Bank at
Paris, that I have met with, was in August 1717; when it was said he
had betted that the French State-bills would not fall 10 _per cent._
within a year, and given 10 Louis to receive 100 if he won; he offered
the earl of Stair 100 for 1000 in the same way, which was refused; and
the event proved, that the bills fell 50 _per cent._

Gaming was dreadfully prevalent in 1718. This will be demonstrated by
the effect of one night's search by the Leet Jury of Westminster, who
presented no less than 35 houses to the Justices for prosecution.

The Society for the Reformation of Manners published the ensuing
effects of their labours for one year, ending in December 1718.

Prosecuted for lewd and disorderly practices, 1253.

Keeping of bawdy and disorderly houses, 31.

Exercising their trades or callings on the Lord's-day, 492.

Profane swearing and cursing, 202.

Drunkenness, 17.

Keeping common gaming-houses, 8.

We have now arrived at a grand æra of villainy, the golden harvest of
scheming, in which Mr. Law acted the first part in France. A person
under the signature of Publicus, in the Thursday's Journal of December
17, 1719, very justly observes: "If any of the days of us or our
forefathers might be called the _projecting_ age, I think this is the
time. If ever there was a nation that had been 23 years ruining itself
and recovered in a moment, this is the time. If ever a government paid
its debts without money, and exchanged all the cash in the kingdom
for bits of paper, which had neither anybody to pay them for, or any
intrinsic fund to pay themselves, this is the time. If ever a credit
was raised without a foundation, and built up to a height that not only
was likely to fall, but indeed was impossible to stand, this is the

Speaking of Mr. Law, he says, "First, he has entirely restored credit
in France; or, as it may be said, he has planted credit in a soil where
credit never could thrive, and never did thrive before; I mean in a
tyrannic absolute government, a thing inconsistent with credit, and the
very name of it; for when was ever credit established to any degree,
where the Sovereign was able to seize upon the foundation on which it
stood, by his absolute power, and at his pleasure.

"2dly, He has established such a bank, and so fortified it with an
established settlement, and on such a stock, as nothing can come up to
it in the world, except only the Banks of London and Amsterdam.

"3dly, He has erected a Company immense and inimitable on a trifling
fund, and the trifle made up of the most precarious things that could
be then imagined, being State bills, Town-house rents, and public
funds, which in their own esteem were not at that time to be rated
at above 35 or 40 _per cent._ nor would they have fetched more to
have been sold then in open market; and these has he brought up to be
worth 2000_l. per cent._ in the same market where they were under
40 _per cent._ before. The man that has done all this was here but a
contemptible person, a Silversmith's son at Edinburgh, then a rake,
then a soldier, then a kind of bully, then a murderer; he was tried
at the Old Bailey for killing Mr. Wilson, commonly called _Beau_
Wilson, in a duel; he was condemned to be hanged, but found means to
break out of Newgate; some say he got out by a silver key, and from
thence made his escape into France: there he lived without character
and without employment, till entering into the schemes which he has
since laid open, and talking freely of them, it came to the ears of
the Regent, who employing some men to talk with him, and they finding
his head turned for great projects, he was heard by more considerable
persons, and finally by the Regent himself, with whom he established
these just maxims as fundamentals; namely: That a fund of credit was
equal to a fund of money. That credit might be raised upon personal
funds, not upon the publick, because the power was absolute. Upon these
foundations he first erected the Royal bank; which, having been done
by a subscription, and having a sufficient fund in specie to answer
all the bills on demand, began to take, and having stood several
severe shocks from the attempts of merchants and others to ruin its
reputation, established itself upon the punctual discharge of its first
credit, till by time it increased to such a magnitude as we now see it,
being able to pay bills as was tried by its enemy for a million and a
quarter, sterling, in one day. This Bank, being thus past the first
hazards, stands too fast for the power of art to shake it; and immense
sums being lodged with them, their payments are much safer than the
money in any man's pocket.

"This raised Mr. Law's fame to the pitch it is now at, and set him
above the power of all his enemies. From thence he grounded his
Mississippi project, got it filled up, joined it to the East-India
Company; undertook the whole coinage, embraced several other projects,
as a Royal fishery, the Tobacco farm, and at last the trade to Norway
for naval stores, deals, timber, &c.

"It is true that a stock advanced to 2000 _per cent._ may undertake any
thing; but depend upon it, a stock advanced to 2000 _per cent._ upon
no foundation, must at last come to nothing, and the only use is to
raise estates upon the first advance of it; and perhaps it may appear
at last, that the imaginary value of the stock declining in the humours
of the times, it will by no means be able to support itself, which,
whenever it happens, blows it up all at once."

Such were the prophetic reasonings of our observer, which the event
fully justified by the ruin of thousands in England. To authenticate
this assertion, I shall present the reader a succession of paragraphs
from the Newspapers, pointing out the ramifications from the parent
_stock_, and the facility with which the publick were imposed upon.

"Here has been the oddest bite put upon the Town that ever was heard
of. We having of late had several new subscriptions set on foot, for
raising great sums of money for erecting Offices of Insurance, &c.;
at length, some gentlemen, to convince the world how easy it was
for projectors to impose upon mankind, set up a pretended office in
Exchange-alley, for the receiving subscriptions for raising a million
of money to establish an _effectual_ Company of Insurers as they called
it. Upon which, the day being come to subscribe, the people flocked in,
and paid down 5_s._ for every 1000_l._ they subscribed, pursuant to the
Company's proposals; but, after some hundreds had so subscribed (that
the thing might be fully known), the gentlemen were at the expence to
advertise, that the people might have their money again without any
deductions; and to let them know that the persons who paid in their
money, contented themselves with a fictitious name, set by an unknown
hand to the receipts delivered out for the money so paid in; and that
the said name was composed only of the first letters of six persons
names concerned in the said publication." Weekly Packet, January 2,

The original Weekly Journal immediately after observes: "It was the
observation of a very witty knight many years ago, that the English
people were something like a flight of birds at a barn door; shoot
among them and kill ever so many, the rest shall return to the same
place in a very little time, without any remembrance of the evil that
had befallen their fellows. Thus the English, though they have had
examples enough in these latter times of people ruined by engaging
in Projects, yet they still fall in with the next that appears.
Thus, after Neal's Lottery, how many were trumped up in a year or
two's time, till the Legislature itself was fain to suppress them.
Sometime after this, there was a new project set on foot for the
prodigious improvement of small sums of money, in which they who put
in, for example, 5_l._ must by the proposal make above 100_l._ of it
in a year's time. People never examined how they could perform this
proposal; but, blind with the hopes of gain, threw their money into the
Denmark-court Office in so extravagant a manner, that, if the humour
could have gone on, they must have had passed through their hands in
a few months half the cash of the nation. The success of this Office
begot many more in all parts of the Town, all which ended in the ruin
of many families.

"Our cunning men are now carrying on a cause very much like these that
are past, but infinitely more extravagant than all of them; though I
believe it will prove less detrimental than any of them, because they
are already multiplied to that degree, that the sharpers, _alias_
projectors, are infinitely too numerous for the bubbles; since the
Stocks they have proposed to raise amounts to 28,000,000_l._; above
twice as much as the current coin of the Nation, nay more than the
third-part of all the payments the circulation of that current coin
performs in the whole kingdom; but, because the placing these projects
all in one view must certainly be useful to your readers, I here send
you an abstract of them.

"For a general insurance on houses and merchandize, at the three Tuns,
Swithin's-alley, 2,000,000_l._

For building and buying ships to let or freight, at Garraway's,
Exchange-alley, 1,200,000_l._

To be lent by way of Loan on Stock at Garraway's, 1,200,000_l._

For granting annuities by way of survivorship, and providing for
widows, orphans, &c. at the Rainbow, Cornhill, 1,200,000_l._

For the raising the growth of raw silk, 1,000,000_l._

For lending upon the deposit of goods, stock, annuities, tallies, &c.
at Robin's, Exchange-alley, 1,200,000_l._

For settling and carrying on a trade to Germany, 1,200,000_l._ at the

For insuring of houses and goods from fire, at Sadlers-hall,

For carrying on a trade to Germany, 1,200,000_l._ at the Virginia

For securing goods and houses from fire, at the Swan and Rummer,

For buying and selling of estates, public stocks, government
securities, and to lend money, 3,000,000_l._

For insuring ships and merchandize, 2,000,000_l._ at the Marine
Coffee-house, Birchin-lane.

For purchasing government securities, and lending money to merchants to
pay their duties with, 1,500,000_l._

For carrying on the _undertaking_ business, for _furnishing funerals_,
1,200,000_l._ at the Fleece-tavern, Cornhill.

For carrying on trade between Great-Britain and Ireland, and the
Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain, 1,000,000_l._

For carrying on the coal-trade from Newcastle to London, 2,000,000_l._
Cooper's Coffee-house.

For preventing and suppressing of thieves and robbers, and for insuring
all persons goods from the same, 2,000,000_l._ at Cooper's."

Here ceases the enumeration of the Journalist, but his hiatus shall be
supplied faithfully from other original advertisements.

A grand Dispensary, 3,000,000_l._ at the Buffaloe's-head.

Subscription for a sail-cloth manufactory in Ireland, at the Swan and
Hoop, Cornhill.

4,000,000_l._ for a trade to Norway and Sweden, to procure pitch, tar,
deals, and oak, at Waghorn's.

For buying lead mines and working them, Ship-tavern.

A subscription for manufacturing Ditties or Manchester stuffs of thread
and cotton, Mulford's.

4,000,000_l._ for purchasing and improving commons and waste lands,
Hanover Coffee-house.

A Royal fishery, Skinners-hall.

A subscription for effectually settling the Islands of Blanco and

For supplying the London-market with cattle, Garraway's.

For smelting lead-ore in Derbyshire, Swan and Rummer.

For manufacturing of muslins and calico, Portugal Coffee-house.

2,000,000_l._ for the purchase of pitch, tar, and turpentine,

2,000,000_l._ for importing walnut-tree from Virginia, Garraway's.

2,000,000_l._ for making crystal mirrors, coach glasses, and for sash
windows, Cole's.

For purchasing tin and lead mines in Cornwall and Derbyshire, Half-moon

For preventing the running of wool, and encouraging the wool
manufactory, King's Arms.

For a manufactory of rape-seed oil, Fleece-tavern.

2,000,000_l._ for an engine to supply Deal with fresh water, &c. Black

2,000,000_l._ at the Sun Tavern, for importing beaver fur.

For making of Joppa and Castile soap, Castle Tavern.

4,000,000_l._ for exporting woollen stuffs, and importing copper,
brass, and iron, and carrying on a general foundery, Virginia

For making pasteboard, packing-paper, &c. Montague Coffee-house.

A _Hair_ copartnership, permits 5_s._ 6_d._ each, at the Ship Tavern,
Paternoster-row; "_by reason all places near the Exchange are so much
crowded at this juncture_."

For importing masts, spars, oak, &c. for the Navy, Ship Tavern.

"This day, the 8th instant, at Sam's Coffee-house, behind the Royal
Exchange, at three in the afternoon, a book will be opened for
entering into a joint-copartnership for carrying _on a thing_ that
will turn to the advantage of the concerned."

For importing oils and materials for the woollen manufactory, permits
10_s._ each, Rainbow.

For a settlement in the Island of St. Croix, Cross Keys.

Improving the manufacture of silk, Sun Tavern.

For purchasing a Manor and Royalty in Essex, Garraway's.

5,000,000_l._ for buying and selling lands, and lending on landed
security, Garraway's.

For raising and manufacturing madder in Great Britain, Pennsylvania

2000 shares for discounting pensions, &c. Globe Tavern.

4,000,000_l._ for improving all kinds of malt-liquors, Ship Tavern.

2,500,000_l._ for importing linens from Holland, and Flanders lace.

A Society for landing and entering goods at the Custom-house on
commissions, Robin's.

For making of glass and bottles, Salutation Tavern.

The grand American fishery, Ship and Castle.

2,000,000_l._ for a friendly Society, for purchasing merchandize, and
lending money, King's-arms.

2,000,000_l._ for purchasing and improving Fens in Lincolnshire, Sam's.

Improving soap-making, Mulford's Coffee-house.

For making English pitch and tar, Castle Tavern.

4,000,000_l._ for improving lands in Great-Britain, Pope's-head.

A woollen manufactory in the North of England, Swan and Rummer.

A paper manufactory, Hamlin's Coffee-house.

For improving gardens, and raising fruit-trees, Garraway's.

For insuring Seamen's wages, Sam's Coffee-house.

The North-America Society, Swan and Rummer.

The gold and silver Society.

2,000,000_l._ for manufacturing baize and flannel, Virginia

For extracting silver from lead, Vine Tavern.

1,000,000_l._ for manufacturing China and Delft wares, Rainbow.

4,000,000_l._ for importing tobacco from Virginia, Salutation Tavern.

For trading to Barbary and Africa, Lloyd's.

For the clothing and pantile trade, Swan and Hoop.

Making iron with pit-coal.

A copartnership for buying and selling _live hair_, Castle Tavern.

Insurance office for horses, dying natural deaths, stolen, or disabled,
Crown Tavern, Smithfield.

A rival to the above for 2,000,000_l._ at Robin's.

Insurance office for servants' thefts, &c. 3000 shares of 1000_l._
each, Devil Tavern.

For tillage and breeding cattle, Cross-keys.

For furnishing London with hay and straw, Great James's Tavern.

For bleaching coarse sugars to a fine colour without fire or loss of
substance, Fleece.

1,000,000_l._ for a perpetual motion, by means of a wheel moving by
force of its own weight, Ship Tavern.

A copartnership for insuring and increasing children's fortunes,
Fountain Tavern.

4,000,000_l._ for manufacturing iron and steel, Black Swan Tavern.

2,000,000_l._ for dealing in lace, &c. &c. &c. Sam's.

10,000,000_l._ for a Royal fishery of Great-Britain, Black Swan.

2,000,000_l._ to be lent upon pledges, Blue-coat Coffee-house.

Turnpikes and wharfs, Sword-blade Coffee-house.

For the British alum works, Salutation.

2,000,000_l._ for erecting salt-pans in Holy Island, John's

2,000,000_l._ for a snuff manufactory, Garraway's.

3,000,000_l._ for building and rebuilding houses, Globe Tavern.

The reader will find that I have given him the titles of _ninety_
of these symptoms of public phrenzy, exclusive of the South-Sea
scheme[118:A]. Such of the projects as have not mentioned millions,
appear to have been forlorn wights, who were contented perforce to
receive the few loose pounds left in the pockets of the subscribers, by
those whose aggregate sums amount to _one hundred and ten millions_.

The sufferers in this monstrous scene of wickedness and folly could not
plead ignorance or deception; the baits were so clumsily affixed to the
hooks, that the Journalists were continually employed in warning the
publick, sometimes seriously, and frequently piercing them with the
keenest shafts of ridicule: Sir Richard Steele endeavoured to warn the
maniacs of the South-Sea Stock, fruitlessly.

"Notwithstanding what has been published, that the annuitants would
not subscribe their annuities in the South-Sea Stock, we find that
they now run in crowds to subscribe them, though they know not how
much Stock they are to have. Some people say as much as will make 30
years' purchase; but this is uncertain. It was, indeed, expected that
before the Company would take those subscriptions, they would have
given notice of it in the Gazette, and have put up advertisements at
their house and at the Royal Exchange, at least eight days before;
but it seems the Annuitants have such a good opinion of the Directors
of the South-Sea, that without this they come and surrender their
ALL as it were, leaving it to the pleasure, discretion, and
honour of the Directors, to give them as much Stock as they shall think
fit. The like, we suppose, never was heard of before. It is said there
has already been above 300,000_l. per annum_ subscribed. The reason
of people running to it in such haste is, that it has been whispered
the first subscribers would receive a greater advantage than those that
shall stay longer. A million has also been subscribed, at the rate of
400_l. per cent._ the money to be paid in three years' time, but they
are to have the benefit of the next half year's dividend; by this last
subscription the Company will get 3,000,000_l._ of money; and it is
said they will shortly take another subscription at 500_l._ to pay in
seven years, and to have the next half year's dividend; by which means
they will get, together with those before, above 11 millions of money.
In all appearance, the Company will carry every thing before them; for
we see that, notwithstanding what has been said against their Stock by
Sir Richard Steele and others, that people are as eager for it as if
nothing had been said against it. Those fine writers might as well have
attempted to stop the tide under London-bridge, as to stop the people
from buying or subscribing in that Stock: as to the first of these,
they know something of what they do, but the Annuitants run blindfold
into the hands of the Directors, as if they should say: 'Gentlemen, We
have so many 1000_l._ or 100_l. per annum_ in the annuities for 99
years; we know you to be both just and honourable, give us as much of
your South-Sea Stock as you please, we oblige ourselves to be content
with whatever you shall give us;' and this is, in short, the sum and
substance of the case." London Journal, May 7, 1720.

The Weekly Packet of the same date adds: "The subscriptions that were
lately carried on for raising more millions of money than all Europe
can afford, are not as yet quite dead, but are very much withered by
the breath of the Senate, or a nipping blast from Westminster. It is
observed, that many of those projects are so ridiculous and chimerical,
that it is hard to tell which is most to be wondered at, the impudence
of those that make the proposals, or the stupid folly of those that
subscribe to them; yet many a gudgeon hath been caught in the net,
though one would think that, with half an eye, they might discern the
cheat. When these bites can no longer go on with their bubbles, happy
will be the consequence to many honest but unthinking men that stand in
danger to be drawn in by them; but unhappy to themselves that they have
been used to such dishonest ways of living, and hardly will take up
with any course of life that is not so; insomuch that it is feared, as
one says, that many of them will go out a marauding; then stand clear
the Bristol Mail."

On the 4th of June, the Newspapers intimated the intentions of
Parliament, directed to the prevention of any farther mischief from
Schemes and Stock-jobbing; and yet, so willing were people to be
ruined, that the London Journal of the 11th declares: "The hurry of our
Stock-jobbing bubblers, especially, has been so great this week, that
it has even exceeded all that ever was known before. The subscriptions
are innumerable; and so eager all sorts of people have been to engage
in them, how improbable or ridiculous soever they have appeared, that
there has been nothing but running about from one Coffee-house to
another, and from one Tavern to another, to subscribe, and without
examining what the proposals were. The general cry has been, 'For G--'s
sake let us but subscribe to something, we do not care what it is!' So
that, in short, many have taken them at their words, and entered them
adventurers in some of the grossest cheats and improbable undertakings
that ever the world heard of: and yet, by all these, the projectors
have got money, and have had their subscriptions full as soon as

The auspicious 24th of June at length arrived, which gave the force
of law to the following words: "And it is further enacted, by the
authority aforesaid, that if any Merchant or Trader, after the 24th day
of June 1720, shall suffer any particular damage in his, her, or their
trade, commerce, or their lawful occasions, by occasion or means of
any undertaking, or attempt, matter, or thing, by this Act declared to
be unlawful as aforesaid, and will sue to be relieved therein: then,
and in every such case, such Merchant or Trader shall and may have his
remedy for the same, by an action or actions, to be grounded upon this
Statute, against the persons, societies, or partnerships, or any of
them, who, contrary to this Act, shall be engaged or interested in any
such unlawful undertaking or attempt; and any such action and actions
shall be heard and determined in any of His Majesty's Courts of Record,
wherein no Essoign shall be allowed."

This necessary Act was faintly opposed in an attempt to evade its
penalties, by the projectors terming themselves and their Subscribers
co-partners; but the interposition of the Legislature stamped all their
schemes with discredit, and the elopement of several principals utterly
destroyed the contrivances of those who dared popular vengeance by
keeping their posts.

"The destruction of the bubbles has been a very heavy blow to many
families here, and some are entirely ruined by them. There appeared
the utmost consternation in Exchange-alley, the day the Act for
suppressing them took place, which, because of the confusion and
terror it struck among those brethren in iniquity, they called the day
of judgment. It might be well indeed with many of them, if no future
inquisition would be made into their conduct in this matter, though, if
so, they would not wholly escape; for many of those who have been the
most assiduous in drawing other poor wretches in to their ruin have,
besides their wealth, acquired an infamy they can never wipe off; and
as the rage of those who have drunk deep of the delusion is at this
time pretty great, the others do not seem fond of appearing too much
in public for the present; they being followed with the reproaches,
threats, and bitterest curses, of the poor people they have deluded to
their destruction. So that if all of them escape the resentment of the
populace, it must be more owing to the care of the Magistracy, than the
want of will or desperation in the injured." London Journal, July 2.

A waggish Scale-maker ventured, at the same time, into Exchange-alley,
at the very height of business, with his right hand extended, holding
a pair of scales, exclaiming, "Make room for Justice: I sell Justice,
who buys Justice _here_?" And the butchers' boys, actuated by the same,
though less civilized principle, made a tumultuous sham funeral for the
entertainment of the vicinity.

Although this great point was accomplished, the grand fortress yet
remained to be subdued.

Applebee's Journal of August 5, says, "Our South-sea equipages increase
every day; the City ladies buy South-Sea jewels; hire South-Sea maids;
and take new country South-Sea houses; the gentlemen set up South-Sea
coaches, and buy South-Sea estates, that they neither examine the
situation, the nature or quality of the soil, or price of the purchase,
only the annual rent and the title: for the rest, they take all by
the lump, and give 40 to 50 years' purchase. This has brought so many
estates to market, that the number of land-jobbers begin to increase to
a great degree, almost equal to the Stock-jobbers we had before."

On the 10th of August, the Lords Justices gave positive orders to
the Attorney-General, to bring Writs of _scire facias_ against the
York-buildings Company, the Lustring, the English Copper, and Welsh
Copper and Lead Companies, or any others that persisted in their
endeavours to evade the Law; and the Royal proclamation issued in aid
of it.

Government received numberless adventitious aids in their exertions.
Pamphlets, paragraphs, and calculations, proving the losses that must
follow from the monstrous price of 1000 _per cent._ for South-Sea
Stock; issued in shoals from the press; and, as usual, much malignity
and some wit composed the ingredients. One scrap of doggrel may be
worth inserting:

     In London stands a famous pile,
       And near that pile an alley,
     Where merry crowds for riches toil,
       And Wisdom stoops to Folly.
     Here sad and joyful, high and low,
       Court Fortune for her graces,
     And as she smiles or frowns, they show
       Their gestures and grimaces.

     Here stars and garters too appear
       Among our lords the rabble;
     To buy and sell, to see and hear,
       The Jews and Gentiles squabble.
     Here crafty Courtiers are too wise
       For those who trust to Fortune:
     They see the cheat with clearer eyes,
       Who peep behind the curtain.

     Our greatest ladies hither come,
       And ply in chariots daily,
     Oft pawn their jewels for a sum,
       To venture it in the Alley,
     Young harlots, too, from Drury-lane,
       Approach the 'Change in coaches,
     To fool away the gold they gain
       By their obscene debauches.

     Long heads may thrive by sober rules,
       Because they think, and drink not;
     But headlongs are our thriving fools,
       Who only drink, and think not.
     The lucky rogues, like spaniel dogs,
       Leap into South-Sea water,
     And there they fish for golden frogs,
       Not caring what comes after.

     'Tis said that Alchemists of old
       Could turn a brazen kettle,
     Or leaden cistern, into gold,
       That noble tempting metal;
     But if it here may be allow'd
       To bring in great with small things,
     Our cunning South-Sea, like a god,
       Turns nothing into all things.

     What need have we of Indian wealth,
       Or commerce with our neighbours,
     Our constitution is in health,
       And riches crown our labours:
     Our South-Sea ships have golden shrouds,
       They bring us wealth, 'tis granted;
     But lodge their treasure in the clouds,
       To hide it till it's wanted.

     O Britain, bless thy present state,
       Thou only happy Nation,
     So oddly rich, so madly great,
       Since bubbles came in fashion.
     Successful rakes exert their pride,
       And count their airy millions;
     Whilst homely drabs in coaches ride,
       Brought up to town on pillions.

     Few men who follow Reason's rules
       Grow fat with South-Sea diet;
     Young rattles and unthinking fools,
       Are those that flourish by it.
     Old musty jades and pushing blades,
       Who've least consideration,
     Grow rich apace, whilst wiser heads
       Are struck with admiration.

     A race of men who t'other day
       Lay crush'd beneath disasters,
     Are now by stock brought into play,
       And made our lords and masters.
     But should our South-Sea Babel fall,
       What numbers would be frowning;
     The losers then must ease their gall,
       By hanging or by drowning.

     Five hundred millions notes and bonds,
       Our stocks are worth in value;
     But neither lie in goods or lands,
       Or money, let me tell you;
     Yet, though our foreign trade is lost,
       Of mighty wealth we vapour;
     When all the riches that we boast,
       Consist in scraps of paper.

October 1, South-Sea Stock had fallen to 370; on the 6th to 180. The
consternation occasioned by this event to those who had purchased at
980, may readily be conceived. The Saturday's Post of the 1st remarks:
"It is impossible to express the vast alterations made by the sudden
and unaccountable fall of the South-Sea Stock, as well as other Stocks;
some few of the dealers in them, indeed, had happily secured themselves
before the storm arose; but the far greater number who are involved in
this public calamity, appear with such dejected looks, that a man of
little skill in the art of physiognomy may easily distinguish them.

"Exchange-alley sounds no longer of thousands got in an instant; but,
on the contrary, all corners of the town are filled with the groans of
the afflicted; and they who lately rode in great state to that famous
mart of money, now condescend to walk the streets on foot, and, instead
of adding to their equipages, have at once lost their estates. And
even those of the trading rank who talked loudly of retiring into the
country, purchasing estates, there building fine houses, and in every
thing imitating their betters, are now become bankrupts, and have, by
necessity, shut up their shops, because they could not keep them open
any longer; however, for the comfort of such whose condition will admit
of a remedy, it is said, a gentleman has formed a scheme for the relief
of those concerned."

Mist's Journal contains a paragraph, said to have been copied from a
work, intituled, "The Lord knows what, by the Lord knows who;" which
seems to place the South-Sea Stock in a true light: "I shall make a
familiar simile, which every reader may carry in his mind without
the help of figures, and which, I think, has a very near resemblance
to the South-Sea scheme, as it has been executed: _viz._ A, having
100_l._ Stock in Trade, though pretty much in debt, gives it out to
be worth 300_l._ on account of many privileges and advantages to
which he is entitled. B, relying on his great wisdom and integrity,
sues to be admitted a partner on those terms, and accordingly brings
300_l._ into the partnership. The trade being afterwards given out or
discovered to be very improving, C comes in at 500_l._; and afterwards
D, at 1100_l._; and the capital is then completed to 2000_l._ If the
partnership had gone on no farther than A and B, then A had got and
B had lost 100_l._; if it had stopt at C, A had got and C had lost
200_l._; and B had been as he was before. But D also coming in, A
gains 400_l._ and B 200_l._ and C neither gains nor loses, but D loses
600_l._ Indeed, if A could show that the said capital was intrinsically
worth 4,400_l._, there would be no harm done to D, and B and C would
have been much obliged to him. But if the capital at first was worth
but 100_l._ and increased only by the subsequent partnerships, it must
then be acknowledged that B and C have been imposed on in their turns;
and that unfortunate, thoughtless D pays the piper."

I shall conclude my notices of the money-making schemes of 1720, with
a beautiful invocation written by Mr. Philips: "O Eunomius (Earl
Cowper), oraculous in thy speech! happy had it been for thy country
if thy wisdom and integrity could have prevailed over the rashness of
some, and the avarice of others! Hereafter may'st thou never speak
in vain; and may thy counsels help to remedy those evils they might
have prevented! may the King hasten his return to his deluded, abused
subjects, and the Council of the Nation be speedily summoned for the
redress of the land! In the mean time let us mutually bear with, and
assist one another in our present necessities: and since we are as
free, though not so rich, a people as we have been; and still claim,
as our birthright, the liberty to debate, to speak, to write manfully
for the public good; let us not be dejected like our neighbours, after
whose inventions we have gone astray, not sorrow, even as others who
have no hope.

"Have we been delivered from the curse of arbitrary power; have we
been preserved from the destruction of the sword, the rage of fire,
the scourge of pestilence, and the ghastly terrors of famine, to
suffer by the mean artifices of money-changers? O my fellow citizens,
you have joined with the spoilers; yet have you not added to your
stores. Let me print the remembrance of your past inadvertency upon
your hearts, that it may abide as a memorial to you and to your
children; that deceivers may not hereafter inherit your possessions.
And whereunto shall I liken our past inadvertency, that it may abide
as a memorial to us and to our children? O my fellow-citizens, we
have waged a civil war throughout the land; who hath not committed
hostilities against his neighbour, and what hath it profited? The
wealth, the inheritance of the Island, are transferred to the meanest
of the people; those chiefly have gained who had nothing to lose: the
nobility, the gentry, the merchants, have been a prey to the idle, the
licentious, the spendthrifts; men whose habitations were not known. All
the calamities have we felt of a civil war, bloodshed only excepted:
they who abounded suffer want. The industry, the trade of the Nation,
has been suspended, and even arts and sciences have languished in the
general confusion: the very women have been exposed to plunder, whose
condition is the more deplorable, because they are not acquainted with
the methods of gain to repair their broken fortunes. Some are driven
from their country, others forced into confinement, some are weary of
life; and others there are who can neither be comforted nor recovered
to the use of reason. Had his Majesty been present to see the wild
proceedings of the people, his goodness would have saved us from these
extremities; for though a King can, in his absence, delegate his power
and authority, yet can he not delegate his wisdom and his justice."

Immediately after the disclosure of the shocking villainy practised
by Stock-jobbers and the South-Sea Directors, another impostor was
exposed to public view, and the Charity that had voluntarily flown
into his pockets turned to more worthy channels. It is true, the
fellow was a little villain, but his arts may serve as a beacon to
the unwary. This wretch pretended to be subject to epileptic fits,
and would fall purposely into some dirty pool, whence he never failed
to be conveyed to a dry place, or to receive handsome donations;
sometimes he terrified the spectators with frightful gestures and
convulsive motions, as if he would beat his head and limbs to pieces,
and, gradually recovering, receive the rewards of his performance; but
the frequency of the exploit at length attracted the notice of the
Police, by whom he was conveyed in a dreadful fit to the Lord Mayor, in
whose presence the symptoms continued with the utmost violence; that
respectable Magistrate, undertaking the office of physician, prescribed
the Compter, and finally the Workhouse, where he had no sooner arrived,
than, finding it useless to counterfeit, he began to amend, and beat
his hemp with double earnestness.

A brother in iniquity went to as many as twenty taverns in one
afternoon, the landlords of which were ordered by him to prepare a
supper for three officers of the guards, and to pay him a shilling for
his trouble, and charge it to the officers.

The following Report of a Committee was made to his Majesty's Justices
of the Peace for the County of Middlesex, in their General Quarter
Sessions, assembled 1725.

"In pursuance of an order made in the last Quarter Sessions held for
this County; whereby it was referred to us, among others, to enquire
into the number of houses and places within such parts of this town
and county as are therein mentioned, where Geneva and other strong
waters are sold by retail, and the mischiefs occasioned thereby: We,
whose names are subscribed, do hereby certify, that by the returns of
the high and petty constables, made upon their oaths, it appears there
are within the weekly Bills of Mortality, and such other parts of this
County as are now by the contiguity of buildings become part of this
Town, exclusive of London and Southwark, 6187 houses and shops, wherein
Geneva or other strong waters are sold by retail. And, although this
number is exceeding great, and far beyond all proportion to the real
wants of the inhabitants (being in some parishes every tenth house, in
others every seventh, and in one of the largest every fifth house),
we have great reason to believe it is very short of the true number,
there being none returned but such who sell publicly in shops or
houses, though it is known there are many others who sell by retail,
even in the streets and highways, some on bulks and stalls set up for
that purpose, and others in wheelbarrows, who are not returned; and
many more who sell privately in garrets, cellars, back-rooms, and other
places not publicly exposed to view, and which thereby escaped the
notice of our officers; and yet there have been a considerable number
lately suppressed, or obliged to leave off, by the Justices within
their parishes, though it has proved of no effect, having only served
to drive those who before were used to these liquors into greater
shops, which are now to be seen full of poor people from morning to

"But in this number of 6187 are included such victuallers who sell
Geneva or other strong waters, as well as Ale and Beer: though it is
highly probable, from the great and sudden decay of the brewing-trade,
without any diminution in the number of victuallers, that the
quantities of strong waters now drank in Alehouses is vastly increased
of late beyond what was usual; and it appears by the constables'
returns, where they are distinguished, that the number of Geneva and
other strong water shops are fully equal to the number of Alehouses,
and rather exceed than otherwise.

"It is with the deepest concern your Committee observe the strong
inclination of the inferior sort of people to these destructive
liquors; and yet, as if that were not sufficient, all arts are used to
tempt and invite them. All Chandlers, many Tobacconists, and several
who sell fruit or herbs in stalls or wheelbarrows, sell Geneva; and
many inferior tradesmen begin now to keep it in their shops for
their customers; whereby it is scarce possible for soldiers, seamen,
servants, or others of their rank, to go any where without being drawn
in, either by those who sell it, or by their acquaintance they meet
with in the streets, who generally begin with inviting them to a dram,
which is every where near at hand; especially where, of all other
places, it ought to be kept at the greatest distance; near churches,
work-houses, stables, yards, and markets.

"Your Committee, after having informed themselves as well as they were
able of the numbers of those houses, proceeded to enquire according
to your directions into the mischiefs arising from them, and from the
immoderate use of these liquors, and more especially Geneva; and those
appear to be endless and innumerable, affecting not only particular
persons and families, but also the trade of the Nation and the public

"With respect to particular persons; it deprives them of their money,
time, health, and understanding, weakens and enfeebles them to the
last degree; and yet, while under its immediate influence, raises
the most violent and outrageous passions, renders them incapable of
hard labour, as well as indisposes them to it, ruins their health,
and destroys their lives; besides the fatal effects it has on their
morals and religion. And among the women (who seem to be almost equally
infected) it has this farther effect, by inflaming their blood, and
stupifying their senses, to expose them an easy prey to the attacks
of vicious men; and yet many of them are so blind to these dismal
consequences, that they are often seen to give it to their youngest
children, even to such whom they carry in their arms.

"With regard to their families, this pernicious liquor is still more
fatal: whilst the husband, and perhaps his wife also, are drinking and
spending their money in Geneva-shops, their children are starved and
naked at home, without bread to eat, or clothes to put on, and either
become a burden to their parishes, or, being suffered to ramble about
the streets, are forced to beg while they are children, and learn
as they grow up to pilfer and steal; which your Committee conceive
to be one of the chief causes of the vast increase of thieves and
pilferers of all kinds, notwithstanding the great numbers who have been
transported by virtue of the excellent law made for that purpose. Under
this head may also be added, the common practice of pawning their own
and children's clothes (which exposes them to all the extortions of
pawnbrokers), and their running in debt, and cheating by all the ways
and means they can devise, to get money to spend in this destructive
liquor, which generally ends in the husband's being thrown into a gaol,
and his whole family on the parish. And this your Committee conceive
to be one of the principal causes of the great increase of beggars and
parish poor, notwithstanding the high wages now given to all sorts of
workmen and servants.

"And lastly, with regard to trade, and the public welfare, the
consequences are yet more ruinous and destructive. It has been already
observed, that the constant use of strong-waters, and particularly
of Geneva, never fails to produce an invincible aversion to work and
labour; this, by necessary consequence, deprives us of great numbers
of useful hands, which would otherwise be employed to the advantage of
the publick. And as to those who yet do work sometimes, or follow any
employment, the loss of their time in frequent tippling, the getting
often drunk in the morning, and the spending of their money this way,
must very much cramp and straiten them, and so far diminish their
trade, and the profit which would accrue from thence to the publick, as
well as to themselves. But it is farther to be observed, that although
the retail trade of wine and ale is generally confined to Vintners and
Victuallers, this of Geneva is now sold, not only by Distillers and
Geneva-shops, but by most other inferior traders, particularly by all
chandlers, many weavers, and several tobacconists, dyers, carpenters,
gardeners, barbers, shoemakers, labourers, and others, there being in
the hamlet of Bethnal-green only above 40 weavers who sell this liquor;
and these and other trades which make our manufactures, generally
employing many journeymen and artificers under them, who having always
this liquor ready at hand, are easily tempted to drink freely of it,
especially as they may drink the whole week upon score, and perhaps
without minding how fast the score rises upon them, whereby at the
week's end they find themselves without any surplusage to carry home
to their families, which of course must starve, or be thrown on the
parish. And as this evil (wherein the masters may perhaps find their
own account, by drawing back the greatest part of their workmen's
wages) will naturally go on increasing, and extend to most other trades
where numbers of workmen are employed, your Committee apprehend, it may
(if not timely prevented) affect our manufactures in the most sensible
manner, and be of the last consequence to our trade and welfare.

"Under this head it may be proper also to take some notice of
the pernicious influence, the permitting of chandlers, and other
inferior trades, to deal in this destructive liquor, or any other
strong-waters, has in this town, on the servants of the nobility and
gentry; it being too common a practice among chandlers and others,
where servants are continually going on one occasion or other, to tempt
and press them to drink, and even to give them drams of this liquor,
which we may reasonably suppose must be paid for by the masters, either
in the price, weight, or measure of the goods they are sent for, and
which, besides the immediate damage, encourages them to wrong their
masters in greater matters, and, as we conceive, may be one cause of
the great complaints that are made against servants.

"And if we may judge what will happen in other workhouses now erecting,
by what has already happened by that of St. Giles's in the Fields,
we have reason to fear, that the violent fondness and desire of this
liquor, which unaccountably possesses all our poor, may prevent in
great measure the good effects proposed by them, and which in all
other respects seem very hopeful and promising; it appearing by the
return from Holborn division, wherein that workhouse is situate,
that notwithstanding all the care that has been taken, Geneva is
clandestinely brought in among the poor there, and that they will
suffer any punishment or inconveniences rather than live without it,
though they cannot avoid seeing its fatal effects by the death of those
amongst them who had drank most freely of it; and it is found by
experience there, that those who use this liquor are not only the most
lazy and unfit for work, but also the most turbulent and ungovernable,
and on that account several of them have been turned out, and left to
struggle with the greatest wants abroad, which they submit to, rather
than they will discover who brought in the Geneva to them, though they
have been offered to be forgiven on that condition.

"Your Committee, having thus laid before you the numbers of the houses
and places wherein Geneva and other strong-waters are sold, as also
some of the many mischievous effects derived from them, submit to the
consideration and judgment of the Sessions, how far it is in their
power, and by what means, to suppress this great nuisance; or whether
any, and what application to superiors may be proper in order to a more
effectual remedy.

"_Jan. 13, 1725._


The Society for the Reformation of Manners published a Statement of
their proceedings almost immediately after, by which it appears, they
had prosecuted from December 1, 1724, to December 1, 1725, 2506
persons for keeping lewd and disorderly houses, swearing, drunkenness,
gaming, and proceeding in their usual occupations on Sundays. The total
amount of their prosecutions for 34 years amounted to the amazing
number of 91,899[141:A].

A grand masqued ball, given at the Opera-house in February 1726,
commenced at 12 o'clock on Monday night the 13th; deep play at Hazard
succeeded, when one of the company threw for 50_l._ and lost; and still
holding the box without paying, threw a second time for 150_l._ with no
better success; the winners then insisted upon a deposit of the money,
which was complied with in four supposed roleaus, of 50 guineas each;
but, some suspicions arising, they were opened and found to be rolls or
parcels of halfpence; the sharper was immediately seized and committed
to the custody of an officer of the guard, whom he soon terrified
into a release, by declaring he was a lawyer thoroughly acquainted
with the acts concerning unlawful games at Hazard, and, at the same
time, advising him not to incur the penalties usually inflicted on
those who committed trespasses on the liberty of the subject by false
imprisonment. When carried to a Magistrate, he obliged that respectable
guardian of the public peace to acknowledge that he could do nothing
with him, and he was discharged accordingly.

The King directed the following note

     "To the Right Honourable the Lord De la Warr, Chairman of the
      Session for the City and Liberty of Westminster; or, in his
      Lordship's absence, to the Deputy Chairman.

                                  _Windsor Castle, Oct. 8, 1728._

     "MY LORD,

     "His Majesty, being very much concerned at the frequent
     robberies of late committed in the streets of London,
     Westminster, and parts adjacent; and being informed, that
     they are greatly to be imputed to the unlawful return of
     felons convict who have been transported to his Majesty's
     Plantations, has been graciously pleased, for the better
     discovering and apprehending of such felons, to give orders
     to the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury, to
     cause to be paid to any person or persons, who, before the
     first day of March next, shall discover any of them, so as
     they may be apprehended and brought to justice, a reward of
     40_l._ for each felon convict returned, or that shall return
     from transportation before the expiration of the term for
     which he or she was transported; who shall, by the means of
     such discovery, be brought to condign punishment.

     "And it having been farther represented to his Majesty,
     that such felons and other robbers, and their accomplices,
     are greatly encouraged and harboured by persons who make
     it their business to keep night-houses, which are resorted
     to by great numbers of loose and disorderly people; and
     that the gaming-houses, as also the shops where Geneva and
     other spirits and strong liquors are drank to excess, much
     contribute to the corruption of the morals of those of an
     inferior rank, and to the leading them into these wicked
     courses: His Majesty has commanded me to recommend it, in
     his name, in the strongest manner, to his Majesty's Justices
     of the Peace for the City and Liberty of Westminster, to
     employ their utmost care and vigilance, in the preventing
     and suppressing of these disorders; and that they do, in
     their several parishes or other divisions, hold frequent
     petty Sessions for this purpose, and call before them the
     High Constable, Petty Constables, and other proper officers
     under their direction, and give them the strictest orders
     and warrants, from time to time, as there shall be occasion,
     to search for and apprehend rogues, vagabonds, idle and
     disorderly persons, in order to their being examined and
     dealt with according to the statutes and laws in that behalf;
     and the said Justices are also to proceed according to law,
     as well against all persons harbouring such offenders in
     their houses, as against those that sell Geneva or other
     spirits and strong liquors, who shall suffer tippling in
     their houses or shops, contrary to law; and against such
     as keep common gaming-houses, or practise or encourage
     unlawful gaming. And his Majesty, having very much at heart
     the performance of this service, wherein the honour of his
     government, the preserving of the peace, and the safety of
     his Majesty's subjects are so much concerned, does further
     require the said Justices, in their respective Sessions, to
     draw up in writing, from time to time, an account of their
     proceedings herein, inserting the names of the Justices of
     the Peace attending such meetings, and of the Peace-officers
     whom they shall employ, taking particular notice of the zeal
     and diligence of each of them in the performance of his duty;
     which accounts are to be transmitted from the said several
     Sessions to one of his Majesty's principal Secretaries of
     State, to be laid before his Majesty; who, being himself
     informed of their behaviour, may bestow marks of his Royal
     bounty upon such of the said officers as shall remarkably
     distinguish themselves by the faithful and diligent execution
     of their office; his Majesty not doubting but the said
     Justices, on their part, will take care to punish with
     rigour, as by law they may, those who shall appear to have
     been guilty of corruption or negligence therein.

     "Your Lordship will be pleased to acquaint the Justices of
     the Peace for the said City and Liberty, and all others whom
     it may concern, with this his Majesty's pleasure; that the
     same may be duly and punctually complied with.

     "I am, &c.


When Government issues such notices as the preceding, it authenticates
the paragraphs of Newspapers, which might otherwise be doubted; indeed,
they abound at this period with the most horrid tales of murders,
beatings, and robberies, in every direction.

The Post-man of October 19, observes: "The persons authorized by
Government to employ men to drive Hackney-coaches have made great
complaints for the want of trade, occasioned by the increase of
street-robbers; so that people, especially in an evening, choose
rather to walk than ride in a coach, on account that they are in a
readier posture to defend themselves, or call out for help if attacked.
Mean-time it is apparent, that whereas a figure for driving of an
Hackney-coach used lately to be sold for about 60_l._ besides paying
the usual duties to the Commissioners for licensing, they are at this
time, for the reasons aforesaid, sold for 3_l. per figure_ good-will."

The year 1730 introduced a new and dreadful trait in the customs of
thieves and other villains, which seems to have originated in the
lazy constitutions of some predatory wretches in Bristol; where they
sent a letter to a Ship's Carpenter, threatening destruction to
himself and property, if he did not deposit a certain sum in a place
pointed out by them. As that unfortunate person neglected to do so,
his house was burnt in defiance of every precaution; and the practice
was immediately adopted throughout the Kingdom, to the constant terror
of the opulent. London had a threefold share of incendiaries; indeed,
the letters inserted in the newspapers, received by various persons,
are disgraceful even to the most abandoned character. The King was at
length induced to issue his Proclamation, forbidding any person to
comply with demands for money, and offering 300_l._ reward for the
apprehension of such as had, for four months previous to the date of
the Proclamation, sent incendiary letters, or maimed or injured his
subjects for non-compliance.

A female of tolerable appearance, and between 30 and 40 years of age,
was the cause of much alarm in 1731, by pretending to _hang herself_
in different parts of the town. Her method was thus: she found a
convenient situation for the experiment, and suspended herself; an
accomplice, always at hand for the purpose, immediately released
her from the rope, and after rousing the neighbourhood absconded.
Humanity induced the spectators sometimes to take her into houses, and
always to relieve her, who were told, _when sufficiently recovered to
articulate_, that she had possessed 1500_l._; but that, marrying an
Irish Captain, he robbed her of every penny, and fled, which produced
despair, and a determination to commit suicide.

According to the Report of Thomas Railton, Esq. eldest Justice of
the Peace, in April 1731, it appeared that a Committee appointed for
the suppression of night-houses, night-cellars, and other disorderly
houses, had bound over to the Quarter Sessions 58 persons charged with
keeping houses of the above description, and committed 16 to prison for
the same offence; besides 24 who were indicted, and their neighbours
bound to prosecute them; 26 houses were utterly suppressed, and their
landlords absconded. In addition to this laudable reformation, the
Committee sent 127 vagabonds to the House of Correction, and convicted
11 persons for profane swearing.

I have too frequently had occasion to notice the general depravity of
the publick, which must have had its origin from the same indifference
towards religion, observable in the Cathedral of St. Paul, where
unthinking people walked and talked as much at their ease as if they
trod the Mall in St. James's-park. One wretched family, neglecting
those precepts which are aimed against despondency and suicide,
_reasoned_ themselves into a contempt of death. Pernicious and
detestable as the doctrine is, and contrary to every visible operation
of nature placed in our view by the Divinity; too many, I am afraid,
_still cherish_ an idea that the soul perishes with the body. As an
antidote for such persons, let them read the horrid murders committed
by Richard Smith and his wife in April 1732. This wretched pair were
found in their lodgings, within the Liberties of the King's-bench,
hanged, and their infant child shot to death in its cradle. The
following letters will explain the opinions entertained by them, which,
if adopted, would soon render the world a desert. It is the essence of
cowardice to fly from misfortunes.

     "To Mr. BRIGHTRED.


     "The necessity of my affairs has obliged me to give you this
     trouble; I hope I have left more than is sufficient for the
     money I owe you. I beg of you that you will be pleased to
     send these inclosed papers, as directed, immediately by some
     porter, and that without shewing them to any one, &c.

                                                  RICHARD SMITH."

            *       *       *       *       *

     "I have a suit of black clothes at the Cock, in Mint-street,
     which lies for 17_s._ 6_d._ If you can find any chap for my
     dog and antient cat, it would be kind. I have here sent a
     shilling for the porter."

            *       *       *       *       *


     "It is now about the time I promised payment to Mr. Brooks,
     which I have performed in the best manner I was able. I wish
     it had been done more to your satisfaction; but the thing
     was impossible. I here return you my hearty thanks for the
     favours which I have received; it being all the tribute I am
     able to pay. There is a certain anonymous person whom you
     have some knowledge of, who, I am informed, has taken some
     pains to make the world believe he has done me services: I
     wish that said person had never troubled his head about my
     affairs; I am sure he had no business with them; for it is
     entirely owing to his meddling that I came pennyless into
     this place; whereas, had I brought 20_l._ in with me, which I
     could easily have done, I could not then have missed getting
     my bread here, and in time have been able to come to terms
     with my plaintiff; whose lunacy, I believe, could not have
     lasted always. I must not here conclude, for my meddling
     friend's man Sancho Panca would perhaps take it ill, did I
     not make mention of him; therefore, if it lies in your way,
     let Sancho know that his impudence and insolence was not so
     much forgotten as despised. I shall now make an end of this
     epistle, desiring you to publish the inclosed; as to the
     manner how, I leave it entirely to your judgment.

     "That all happiness may attend you and yours, is the prayer
     of, your affectionate kinsman even to death,

                                                   RICHARD SMITH.

     "If it lies in your way, let that good-natured man Mr.
     Duncome know that I remembered him with my latest breath."

            *       *       *       *       *

     "These actions, considered in all their circumstances, being
     somewhat uncommon, it may not be improper to give some
     account of the cause, and that it was an inveterate hatred
     we conceived against poverty and rags; evils that, through
     a train of unlucky accidents, were become inevitable; for
     we appeal to all that ever knew us, whether we were either
     idle or extravagant, whether or no we have not taken as
     much pains to our living as our neighbours, although not
     attended with the same success. We apprehend that the taking
     our child's life away, to be a circumstance for which we
     shall be generally condemned; but for our own parts, we are
     perfectly easy upon that head. We are satisfied it is less
     cruel to take the child with us, even supposing a state of
     annihilation (as some dream of) than to leave her friendless
     in the world, exposed to ignorance and misery. Now in order
     to obviate some censures, which may proceed either from
     ignorance or malice, we think it proper to inform the world,
     that we firmly believe the existence of Almighty God; that
     this belief of ours is not an implicit faith, but deduced
     from the nature and reason of things. We believe the
     existence of an Almighty Being, from the consideration of his
     wonderful works; from a consideration of those innumerable
     celestial and glorious bodies, and from their wonderful order
     and harmony. We have also spent some time in viewing those
     wonders which are to be seen in the minute part of the world,
     and that with great pleasure and satisfaction; from all which
     particulars, we are satisfied that such amazing things could
     not possibly be without a first mover, without the existence
     of an Almighty Being; and as we know the wonderful God to be
     Almighty, so we cannot help believing but that he is also
     good, not implacable; not like such wretches as men are, not
     taking delight in the miseries of his creature; for which
     reason we resign up our breaths unto him without any terrible
     apprehensions, submitting ourselves to those ways, which in
     his goodness he shall please to appoint after death. We also
     believe the existence of unbodied creatures, and think we
     have reason for that belief; although we do not pretend to
     know their way of subsisting. We are not ignorant of those
     laws made _in terrorem_, but leave the disposal of our bodies
     to the wisdom of the Coroner and his Jury; the thing being
     indifferent to us where our bodies are laid; from whence it
     will appear how little anxious we are about a _Hic jacet_; we
     for our parts neither expect nor desire such honours, but
     shall content ourselves with a borrowed epitaph, which we
     shall insert in this paper:

          Without a name, for ever silent, dumb;
          Dust, ashes, nought else is within this tomb;
          Where we were born or bred it matters not,
          Who were our parents, or hath us begot;
          We were, but now are not; think no more of us,
          For as we are, so you'll be turn'd to dust.

     "It is the opinion of naturalists, that our bodies are, at
     certain stages of life, composed of new matter; so that a
     great many poor men have new bodies oftener than new clothes;
     now, as Divines are not able to inform us which of those
     several bodies shall rise at the resurrection; it is very
     probable that the deceased body may be for ever silent as
     well as any other.

                                                  "RICHARD SMITH,
                                                  BRIDGET SMITH."

Smith was pronounced by the Coroner's Jury, _felo de se_, and guilty of
murder with respect to the child: his wife they declared a lunatic.

At a Sermon preached at Bow-church in 1734, before eight Bishops, many
Magistrates, and a numerous auditory, by the Rev. Mr. Bedford, on the
Anniversary of the Society for the Reformation of Manners; it was
stated, that the Society had prosecuted, between December 1732 and
December 1733, 89 persons for disorderly and lewd practices; 13 for
keeping disorderly houses, and for exercising their trades on Sundays

Three different sets of sharpers infested the Metropolis in the
following winter, who went from house to house with counterfeited
letters of request from the Magistrates and Rectors of Tid St. Mary's,
Lincolnshire, and Outwell and Terrington, Norfolk; representing, that
dreadful fires had almost desolated those places; when, in truth, no
such events had happened.

The Weekly Register of December 8, 1733, declares: "Those honest City
Tradesmen and others, who so lovingly carry their wives and mistresses
to the neighbouring villages in chaises to regale them on a Sunday,
are seldom sensible of the great inconveniencies and dangers they are
exposed to; for besides the common accidents of the road, there are
a set of regular rogues kept constantly in pay to incommode them in
their passage, and these are the drivers of what are called waiting
jobs, and other Hackney travelling coaches, with sets of horses, who
are commissioned by their masters to annoy, sink, and destroy all the
single and double horse chaises they can conveniently meet with, or
overtake in their way, without regard to the lives or limbs of the
persons who travel in them. What havock these industrious sons of blood
and wounds have made within twenty miles of London, in the compass
of a Summer's season, is best known by the articles of accidents in
the newspapers; the miserable shrieks of women and children not being
sufficient to deter the villains from doing what they call their duty
to their masters; for, besides their daily or weekly wages, they have
an extraordinary stated allowance for every chaise they can reverse,
ditch, or _bring by the road_, as the term or phrase is.

"I heard a fellow, who drove a hired coach and four horses, give a
long detail of a hard chace he gave last Summer to a two-horse chaise
which was going with a gentleman and three ladies to Windsor. He said
he first came in view of the chaise at Knightsbridge, and there put on
hard after it to Kensington; but that being drawn by a pair of good
cattle, and the gentleman in the seat pretty expert at driving, they
made the town before him; and there stopping at a tavern-door to take
a glass of wine, he halted also; but the chaise not yet coming on,
he affected another delay, by pretending that one of his horses had
taken up a stone, and so dismounting, as if to search, lay by till
the enemy had passed him; that then they kept a trot on together to
Turnham-green, when the people suspecting his design, again put on;
that he then whipped after them for _dear blood_, thinking to have done
their business between that place and Brentford. But here he was again
disappointed, for the two horses still kept their courage, till they
came between Longford and Colnbrook, where he plainly perceived them
begin to droop or _knock-up_, and found he had then a sure game of it.
He went on leisurely after them, till both parties came into a narrow
road, where there was no possibility of an escape, when he gave his
horses a sudden jerk, and came with such violence upon the people, that
he pulled their machine quite over. He said, the cries of the women
were so loud, that the B--s might be heard to his Majesty's garden,
Piccadilly; that, there being nobody near to assist the people, he got
clear off with two or three blind old women his passengers some miles
beyond Maidenhead, safe both from pursuit and evidence.

"I have been credibly informed, that many of the coachmen and
postillions belonging to the gentry, are seduced by the masters of
the travelling-coaches to involve themselves in the guilt of this
monstrous iniquity, and have certain fees for dismounting persons on
single horses, and overturning chaises, when it shall suit with their
convenience to do it with safety (that is, within the verge of the
law); and in case of an action or indictment, if the master or mistress
will not stand by their servant, and believe the mischief was merely
accidental, the offender is then defended by a general contribution
from all the Stage-coach masters within the Bills of Mortality.

"Those Hackney gentlemen who drive about the City and suburbs of
London, have by their overgrown insolence obliged the Government to
take notice of them, and make laws for their regulation; and as there
are Commissioners for receiving the Tax they pay to the publick, so
those Commissioners have power to hear and determine between the
drivers and their passengers upon any abuse that happens: and yet these
ordinary coachmen abate very little of their abusive conduct; but
not only impose in price upon those that hire them, but refuse to go
this or that way as they are called; whereas the Law obliges them to
go wherever they are legally required, and at reasonable hours. This
treatment, and the particular saucy impudent behaviour of the coachman,
in demanding the other _twelver_ or _tester_ above their fare, has been
the occasion of innumerable quarrels, fighting, and abuses; affronting
gentlemen, frighting and insulting women; and such rudenesses, that
no Civil Government will, or, indeed, ought to suffer; and above all,
has been the occasion of killing several coachmen, by gentlemen that
have been provoked by the villainous tongues of those fellows beyond
the extent of their patience. Their intolerable behaviour has rendered
them so contemptible and odious in the eyes of all degrees of people
whatever, that there is more joy seen for one Hackney-coachman's going
to the gallows, than for a dozen highwaymen and street-robbers.

"The driver of a Hackney-coach, having the misfortune to break a leg
and an arm by a fall from his box, was rendered incapable of following
that business any longer; and therefore posted himself at the corner
of one of the principal avenues leading to Covent-garden, with his
limbs bound up in the most advantageous manner to move the passengers
to commiseration. He told his deplorable case to all, but all passed
without pity; and the man must have inevitably perished, had it not
come into his head to shift the scene and his situation. The transition
was easy; he whipped on a leather apron, and from a Coachman became a
poor Joiner, with a wife and four children, that had broke his limbs
by a fall from the top of a house. Showers of pence poured daily into
his hat, and in a few years he became able to purchase many figures as
well as horses; and he is now master of one of the most considerable
Livery-stables in London.

"The next are the Watermen; and indeed the insolence of these, though
they are under some limitations too, is yet such at this time, that
it stands in greater need than any other of severe Laws, and those
Laws being put in speedy execution. A few months ago, one of these
very people being steersman of a passage boat between Queenhithe
and Windsor, drowned fifteen people at one time; and when many of
them begged of him to put them on shore, or take down his sails, he
impudently mocked them, asked some of the poor frighted women if they
were afraid of going to the Devil, and bid them say their prayers;
then used a vulgar water-phrase, which such fellows have in their
mouths, '_Blow, Devil, the more wind the better boat_.' A man of a
very considerable substance perishing with the rest of the unfortunate
passengers, this villain, who had saved himself by swimming, had the
surprising impudence to go the next morning to his widow, who lived
at Kingston-upon-Thames. The poor woman, surrounded by a number of
sorrowful friends, was astonished to think what could be the occasion
of the fellow's coming to her; but thinking he was come to give some
account of her husband's body being found, at last she condescended to
see him. After a scurvy scrape or two, the monster very modestly 'hoped
his good mistress would give him half a-crown to drink her health, by
way of satisfaction for a pair of oars and a sail he had lost the night
before, when her husband was drowned.'

"I have many times passed between London and Gravesend with these
fellows; when I have seen them, in spite of the shrieks and cries of
the women, and the persuasions of the men-passengers, and indeed, as
if they were the more bold by how much the passengers were the more
afraid; I have seen them run needless hazards, and go as it were within
an inch of death, when they have been under no necessity of it; and
if not in contempt of the passengers, it has been in mere laziness, to
avoid their rowing. And I have been sometimes obliged, especially when
there have been more men in the boat of the same mind, so that we have
been strong enough for them, to threaten to cut their throats, to make
them hand their sails, and keep under shore, not to fright, as well as
hazard the lives of the passengers, when there was no need of it. But
I am satisfied, that the less frighted and timorous their passengers
are, the more cautious and careful the Watermen are, and the least apt
to run into danger. Whereas, if their passengers appear frighted, then
the Watermen grow saucy and audacious, show themselves venturous, and
contemn the dangers they are really exposed to.

"_Set one knave to catch another_, is a proverbial saying of great
antiquity and repute in this kingdom. Thus the vigilant Vintner,
notwithstanding all his little arts of base brewings, abridging his
bottles, and connecting his guests together, does not always reap
the fruits of his own care and industry. Few people being aware of
the underhand understandings, and petty partnerships these sons
of Benecarlo and Cyder have topped upon them; and the many other
private inconveniences that they, in the course of their business,
are subjected to. Now, to let my readers into this great _arcanum_
or secret, I must acquaint them, that nothing is more certain and
frequent, than for some of the principal customers to a tavern to
have a secret allowance, by way of drawback, of 6_d._ or 7_d._; nay,
sometimes I have heard of 8_d._ on every bottle of port-wine that
themselves shall drink, or cause to be drank in the house, and for
which they have seemingly paid the price of 2_s._; and so are a sort of
Vintners in vizards and setters of society. Those are mostly sharping
Shopkeepers, who, by being considerable dealers, hold numbers of
other inferior tradesmen in a state of dependency upon them; officers
of parishes, old seasoned soakers, who, by having served an age to
tippling, have contracted a boundless acquaintance; house-stewards,
clerks of kitchens, song-singers, horse-racers, valets-de-chambre,
merry story-tellers, attorneys and solicitors, with legions of
wrangling clients always at their elbows. Wherefore, as they have got
the lead upon a great part of mankind, they are for ever establishing
clubs and friendly-societies at Taverns, and drawing to them every soul
they have any dealings or acquaintance with.

"The young fellows are mostly sure to be their followers and admirers,
as esteeming it a great favour to be admitted amongst their seniors
and betters, thinking to learn to know the world and themselves. One
constant topic of conversation is, the civility of the people, the
diligent attendance, together with the goodness of the wines and
cheapness of the eatables, with a side-wind reflection on another
house. And, if at any time the wine is complained of, it is answered
with 'People's palates are not at all times alike; my landlord
generally hath as good, or better, than any one in the town.' And often
the poor innocent bottle, or else the cork, falls under a false and
heavy accusation.

"In a morning there is no passing through any part of the town without
being _hemmed_ and _yelped_ after by these locusts from the windows of
Taverns, where they post themselves at the most convenient views, to
observe such passengers as they have but the least knowledge of; and if
a person be in the greatest haste, going upon extraordinary occasions,
or not caring to vitiate his palate before dinner, and so attempts an
escape, then, like a pack of hounds, they join in full cry after him,
and the landlord is detached upon his dropsical pedestals, or else a
more nimble-footed drawer is at your heels, bawling out 'Sir, Sir, it
is your old friend Mr. Swallow, who wants you upon particular business.'

"The sums which are expended daily by this method are really
surprising. I knew a clerk to a vestry, a half-pay officer, a chancery
solicitor, and a broken apothecary, that made a tolerable good
livelihood, by calling into a tavern all their friends that passed
by the window in this manner. Their custom was, to sit with a quart
of white port before them in a morning; every person they decoyed
into their company for a minute or two never threw down less than
his sixpence, and few drank more than one gill; and, if two or three
glasses, he seldom came off with less than one shilling. The master of
the house constantly provided them with a plain dinner, _gratis_. All
dinner-time they kept their room, still in full view of the street, and
so sat catching gudgeons (as they used to call it) from morning till
night; when, besides amply filling their own carcases, and discharging
the whole reckoning, they seldom divided less than seven or eight
shillings per man, _per diem_.

"Some people, unacquainted with this fellow-feeling at Taverns, often
wonder how such-a-one does to hold it; that he spends a confounded deal
of money, is seldom out of a Tavern, and never in his business: when,
in reality, he is thus never out of his business, and so helps to run
away with the chief profits of the house.

"Nor are these all the hardships many of the Vintners lie under; for,
besides, their purses must too often stand a private examination behind
the bar, when any of these sort of customers necessities shall require

"It is such dealings drives the poor Devils to all the little tricks
and shifts imaginable. I went one day into a Tavern near Charing-cross,
to enquire after a person whom I knew had once used the house. The
Mistress being in the bar, cried out, 'What an unfortunate thing
it was, Mr. ---- being that instant gone out of the house, and was
surprised I did not meet him at the door, but that he had left word he
expected a gentleman to come to him, and would return immediately.' I
staid the sipping of two or three half pints, and began to shew some
uneasiness that he did not come according to her expectation, when she
again wondered at it, saying, 'it was one of his times of coming; for
that he was a worthy good gentleman, and constantly whetted four or
five times in a morning.' At length being out of all patience, I paid,
and went to my friend's house, about twenty doors farther; where his
wife informed me, he had been gone about three months before to Jamaica.

"The bankruptcies so frequently happening among the sons of Bacchus,
are doubtless to be attributed chiefly to such leeches as I have
been describing, lying so closely upon them; and then an innocent
industrious man is to be called forsworn rogue, villain, and what
not: and to be told that he affected a failure, to sink a dozen or
fourteen shillings in the pound upon his creditors, when, in reality,
he hath not a single shilling left in the world, and shall oftentimes
be obliged to become a common waiter to a more fortunate fellow, and
one perhaps too that he once had thoughts of circumventing in his
business and trade, by no other means than a more humble and tractable

"A Vintner, who has been looked upon by all mankind to have been a
20,000_l._ man at least, hath died not worth eighteen-pence; and then
the poor wretch has been worried to his grave, with the character of a
private gamester."

Colonel De Veil, as celebrated for his address and the number of his
commitments as Sir John Fielding afterwards was, had two legal culprits
brought before him for examination, in 1737, who were a Counsellor
and an Attorney, and as rare bucks and swindlers as ever disgraced
the annals of turpitude. These gentlemen were charged with defrauding
Mrs. Eddowes, keeper of a Bagnio in St. James's-street, and two other
persons, of 12_l._, by proceeding to the Bagnio in the characters of
country gentlemen just arrived; the Attorney styling himself Sir John
Peering, and the Counsellor plain _Tom_. After remaining a short time
with Mrs. E. they sent a porter for _ladies_, and one kind soul even
left her bed to visit them; they then proposed to hire a coach and
four, in order to make an excursion for pleasure, and promised the
woman a velvet cap and riding habit if she would make one of the party;
this she consented to do, provided they would permit her to go home
to dress; but Sir John and Tom, entertaining doubts whether she would
return, demanded, and received, _and kept_ two guineas as a pledge.
The coach was hired and used, and two days and two nights were passed
at the Bagnio; but when the _charges_ were to be _discharged_, the
Knight and Tom had nothing to produce but a valuable box carefully
corded, containing the writings of Sir John's vast estates and several
bank notes. This they offered to leave as _security_ till _their
return_; but Mrs. E. suspecting a fraud, had them immediately conveyed
to the Magistrate, in whose presence the following _writings_ were
taken from the box: a parcel of rags and some hay, an empty bottle, an
earthen pipkin, an earthen candlestick, and a japanned tin box. They
were bound over for trial.

While the unthinking part of the community fled from place to place,
rather in search of amusement than the means of preserving their
health, the Police of the City appointed Beadles and Watchmen as
follows, under the then recent Act, for better regulating the night
watch of London:

                                                   £.    _s._
  In Aldersgate ward, one beadle at 30_l.
    per annum_, 25 watchmen at 13_l. per
    annum_. To be raised, for defraying
    the charges                                   415      0

  In Aldgate ward, one beadle at 40_l._ 31
    watchmen 13_l._ each, charge                  501      0

  In Bassishaw ward, one beadle at 40_l._
    6 watchmen at 13_l._                          131      0

  In Billingsgate ward, two beadles at 70_l._
    20 watchmen at 13_l._                         381      0

  In Bishopsgate ward, two beadles at 100_l._
    49 watchmen at 13_l._                         794      0

  In Bread-street ward, one beadle at 50_l._
    12 watchmen at 13_l._                         220      0

  In Bridge ward, one beadle at 30_l._ 22
    watchmen at 13_l._                            360      0

  In Broad-street ward, one beadle at 50_l._
    38 watchmen at 13_l._                         634      0

  In Candlewick ward, one beadle at 25_l._
    16 watchmen at 13_l._                         293      8

  Castle-Baynard ward, one beadle at 50_l._
    24 watchmen at 13_l._                         442      0

  Cheap ward, one beadle at 50_l._ 26
    watchmen at 13_l._                            430      0

  Coleman-street ward, one beadle at 40_l._
    24 watchmen at 13_l._                         407      0

  Cordwainer's ward, one beadle at 45_l._
    16 watchmen at 13_l._                         318     14

  Cornhill ward, one beadle at 50_l._ 18
    watchmen at 13_l._                            305      0

  Cripplegate Within, one beadle at 50_l._
    26 watchmen at 13_l._                         430      0

  ---- Without, one beadle at 32_l._
    28 watchmen at 13_l._                         550      0

  Dowgate ward, one beadle at 50_l._ 16
    watchmen at 13_l._                            300      0

  Farringdon Within, two beadles at 85_l._
    49 watchmen at 13_l._                         764     10

  ---- Without, four beadles at
  100_l._ 89 watchmen at 13_l._                  1550      0

  Langbourn ward, one beadle at 40_l._ 23
    watchmen at 13_l._                            450      0

  Lime-street ward, one beadle at 50_l._ 10
    watchmen at 13_l._                            200      0

  Portsoken ward, one beadle at 50_l._ 28
    watchmen at 13_l._                            474      5

  Queenhithe ward, one beadle at 30_l._
    10 watchmen at 13_l._                         202      0

  Tower ward, one beadle at 40_l._ 32
    watchmen at 13_l._                            571      0

  Vintry ward, one beadle at 40_l._ 16
    watchmen at 13_l._                            312      0

  Wallbrook ward, one beadle at 50_l._ 18
    watchmen at 13_l._                            349      0

By this arrangement, the guardianship of the City was intrusted to 32
beadles and 913 watchmen.

The wretches, kept in some degree of awe by the above members of the
Police, when nothing occurred to set their passions afloat, or to
assemble them from all parts of the town to one point, committed horrid
excesses at Tyburn this year, by the brutal practice of throwing stones
and dirt; besides which they had one ludicrous contrivance that will
force a smile, though disgust and abhorrence must succeed, when it
is recollected it was performed at the hour of execution. The mob dug
two large holes in the fields, and filled them with soil: those they
carefully covered with turf; the populace of course walked into the
filth, from which they were ushered amidst loud huzza's and laughter,
while every effort was made to entice or force others into them.

The extreme misery of the lowest description of Londoners received
some amelioration, about 1750, through the commendable inquiries
and remedies made and applied by the Legislature, relating to their
monstrous excesses in drinking ardent spirits. The evidence given
before a Committee is too interesting to be omitted; yet it is a
disgusting and melancholy picture of London, as it was at that date.

An eminent Physician to one of our Hospitals gave the following
information: "That the increase of patients in all the hospitals from
1704 to 1718, being 14 years, the total increase was from 5612 to 8189,
which was somewhat above one-fourth; that from 1718 to 1734, being 16
years, the total increase was from 8189 to 12,710, or perhaps 13,000,
which was above one-third; but that from 1734 to 1749, being 15 years,
the total increase was from 12,710 to 38,147, which was near three
times the number." Being asked his opinion, whence he apprehended
so great an increase could arise, he answered from the melancholy
consequences of Gin-drinking principally; which opinion he enforced
with such strong reasons (in which he was supported by another eminent
Physician to one of the Hospitals) as gave full conviction to the house.

It appeared by the evidence of John Wyburn, of Whitechapel, and John
Rogers, of Trinity-lane, both of whom had followed the trade of bakers
for 30 years: "that the consumption of bread amongst the poor was
greatly diminished since the excessive drinking of Gin, which would
proportionably increase again as that vice abated; that the poor laid
out their earnings in gin, which ought to purchase them bread for
themselves and families; and that, in many of the out-parts, the bakers
were obliged to cut their loaves into halfpenny-worths, a practice
unknown to the trade till gin was so universally drank by the poor."

It appeared "that one house in seven, from the Hermitage to Bell-wharf,
was a gin-shop: it appeared there were about 16,000 houses in the City
of London, and that there were about 1050 licences granted yearly to
victuallers, which was about one house to fifteen."

"It appeared by the evidence of the High Constable of Westminster, that
there were in that City about 17,000 houses, of which 1300 licenced,
and 900 unlicenced that sold liquors, which was about one house in

"It appeared by the evidence of the High Constable of Holborn, that
there were in his division 7066 houses, of which 1350 licenced and
unlicenced, being about one house in five and a quarter. That in St.
Giles's there were about 2000 houses and 506 gin-shops, being above one
house in four; besides about 82 twopenny-houses of the greatest infamy,
where gin was the principal liquor drank."

Hateful as the subject is, its ramifications spread, though rather
softened, into higher scenes of life. Cordials, _alias_ drams, were not
_quite_ unknown to the ladies; it was almost noon--

             ----ere Celia rose,
     But up she rear'd, and rang her bell,
     When in came dainty Mistress Nell;
     "Oh dear, my lady, e'ent you well?"
     "Well! yes--why what's o'clock?--Oh Heaven"--
     "A little bit a-past eleven."
     "No more! why then I'll lay me down--
     No, I'll get up--Child, bring my gown;
     My eyes so ache I scarce can see;
     Nelly, _a little Ratifia_[170:A]."

A vile impostor was detected in January 1757, and committed to
Bridewell by John Fielding, Esq. This wretch had a practice of
lying upon his back in some court or narrow passage, and feigning
insensibility; at other times he would appear in the habit of a
countryman just arrived in London, where he knew no person, and would
declare that, being destitute of money, he had not eaten for four
days: another trick represented him as an old worn-out and pennyless
Soldier, just arrived from Jamaica; but the repetition of the first
performance proved fatal to his _finesse_. A physician found him in the
fainting scene, conveyed him to a comfortable bed, and gave him money;
but meeting Master Anthony Needham a second time, to all appearance
breathing his last, he adopted a new prescription, which procured the
healthful exercises of Bridewell. Cash and provisions were found in
his pockets when he arrived at the Police-office, though he had just
declared he had fasted four days.

When an author is to be found who disinterestedly examines into any
particular abuse, another writing on the same subject cannot surely
do amiss in quoting such facts from his publication as may suit his
purpose. A person who assumed the signature of Philanthropos exposed
the villainy of Register-offices, as they were in 1757, in the
following forcible manner: "I come now to the article of places under
the Government, &c. to be sold, which we see frequently advertised from
Register-offices in these or such like terms, and which you generally
find in their hand-bills: 'A place to be disposed of for 100 guineas,
which brings in 100_l. per annum_. A public office to be sold, where
nothing less than gold is taken for any business transacted, &c.'

"I have the happiness to assure the publick, that most of the
advertisements that have appeared within these twelve months past have
been carefully perused, and an impartial enquiry made after several of
the places to be disposed of (which are not confined to private life,
but comprehend Church and State), by a public-spirited gentleman, who
has been at the expence of applying to the offices from whence they
were advertised, and was so kind as to furnish me with the remarks
I offer to the publick, on the exposing to sale public offices and
employments. The result of an enquiry after the place which brought
in 100_l. per annum_, and might be purchased for 100 guineas, was,
that the proprietor of the office took one shilling for answering to
the question, 'What is the place?' notwithstanding it was so publicly
advertised; and then told the gentleman, that it was a place in the
Custom-house, and that he must apply for particulars to Mr. ----, at a
certain Coffee-house. This the gentleman patiently submitted to; but
when he came there, on enquiring for the person he was directed to, he
was told at the bar, that he was just gone, and the place sold; and,
notwithstanding the most diligent enquiry, the gentleman could never
find out either who bought, or who sold the place. On his return to
the Register-office, he naturally demanded his shilling again; but was
told it was only the customary fee of the Office, that it was a pity
he had not applied earlier (it was then only three o'clock on the very
day the advertisement appeared in the paper); and if the place had not
been gone, perhaps it would not have suited the gentleman's talents, as
accompts were requisite; and if that had been the case, it was no fault
of the Office; thus intimating, let what would be the success attending
the enquiry, the Office-keeper was intitled to one shilling. It is
highly probable that eight or ten more might have paid for the same

Sir John Fielding received an _involuntary_ present, in November
1757, from a number of Publicans, consisting of Billiard-tables,
Mississippi-tables, Shuffle-boards, and Skittles, which the worthy
Magistrate caused to be piled in a pyramidal form, near thirty-feet
high, at the end of Bow-street near the Police-office, where they were
consumed. A good hint for the Magistrates at present, as the word
Billiards is really very conspicuous in various parts of the Metropolis
every night, and, indeed, may be found not an hundred doors from the
facetious Knight's old office.

One of the most wicked impositions practised by knaves in London, is
the adulteration of Bread. The wretch who improves his circumstances
by this detestable method of increasing his profits, is an assassin,
full as wicked as the celebrated Italian Tophana: that human fiend
poisoned her victims by degrees, suited to the malice of her employers;
the Baker who throws slow poisons into his trough does worse, for he
undermines the constitutions of his supporters, his customers. He that
eats bread without butter or meat, throughout London, at the present
moment, and afterwards visits a friend in the country who makes his
own, cannot fail of perceiving the delicious sweetness which the
mercy of our Creator hath diffused through the invaluable grain that
produces it; the inducement held out to us, to preserve life by the
most innocent means, is thus in a great measure lost to the inhabitants
of London. I once broke a piece of alum with my teeth, which lay in
the depth of a slice of bread, when at breakfast, as large as a pea;
and was only deterred from prosecuting the baker by the dread of that
obloquy which attends the least interested informers. At another time I
lodged a week at a baker's house in a country-town, and during a lazy
fit, strolled into the bake-house where bread was mixing; in an instant
my landlord's countenance changed, and I was rudely desired to leave
the place, as he would allow no one to pry into his business. This
conduct from a man who had before behaved with the utmost civility,
convinced me all was not right, and that other materials were within
view than simple flour, yeast, and a little inoffensive salt. Let me
not, however, be understood to apply this censure indiscriminately;
it is aimed only at the guilty; the honest baker will adopt my
sentiments, which are merely an echo of a little work published in
1757, intituled, "Poison detected: or, Frightful Truths, and alarming
to the British Metropolis," &c. The Author asserts that, "Good bread
ought to be composed of flour well kneaded with the slightest water,
seasoned with a little salt, fermented with fine yeast or leaven, and
sufficiently baked with a proper fire; but, to increase its weight,
and deceive the buyer by its fraudulent fineness, lime, chalk, alum,
&c. are constituent parts of that most common food in London. Alum
is a very powerful astringent and styptic, occasioning heat and
costiveness; the frequent use of it closes up the mouths of the small
alimentary ducts, and by its corrosive concretions, seals up the
lacteals, indurates every mass it is mixed with upon the stomach, makes
it hard of digestion, and consolidates the fæces in the intestines.
Experience convinces me (the Author was a physician) that any animal
will live longer in health and vigour upon two ounces of good and
wholesome bread, than upon one pound of this adulterated compound; a
consideration which may be useful, if attended to in the times of

After explaining many deleterious effects produced by alum, the Author
proceeds, "But it is not alum alone that suffices the lucrative
iniquity of bakers: there is also added a considerable portion of lime
and chalk; so that if alum be prejudicial alone, what must be the
consequences of eating our bread mingled with alum, chalk, and lime?
Obstructions, the causes of most diseases, are naturally formed by
bread thus abused. I have seen a quantity of lime and chalk, in the
proportion of one to six, extracted from this kind of bread; possibly
the baker was not so expert at his craft as to conceal it, the larger
granules were visible enough: perhaps a more minute analysis would have
produced a much greater portion of these pernicious materials."

An _Author_ cannot be suspected of wishing to restrain the inoffensive
liberty of the press; but he may, without fear or resentment, venture
to reprobate the turpitude which it too often promotes. There have
been, and still are, persons who will take a few facts, and compound
them with many falsehoods, and, thus prepared, present them to some
hungry printer or editor, to answer their own base purposes; the
unsuspecting read them with avidity, and public bodies and individuals
suffer without remedy; an instance of this description produced the
following address to the community from John Fielding, Esq. in
November 1759.

"About twelve months ago a very salutary law took place, to the
great benefit of a large and useful body of men, commonly called
Coal-heavers. By this law they were not only relieved from the
impositions they then complained of, and the profits of their severe
labour secured to themselves; but a provision was made for the
infirm, sick, and disabled coal-heavers, and their dead buried, by
their paying two shillings in the pound out of their earnings into an
office established by the said law, and under the inspection of so
worthy and so able a magistrate in the City, that it is impossible
for any coal-heaver to be deprived of any advantage, privilege, or
support, that the nature of this institution entitles them to. On
Sunday the 28th of last month, one Patrick Crevey, a coal-heaver,
chairman, and an Irishman, was buried according to the usual custom of
burying coal-heavers, and was carried from Gravel-lane to St. Pancras
church-yard; his corpse being preceded, as is customary, by the beadle
of the coal-heavers' office, with a long staff in his hand, the common
ensign of his office; the pall was supported by six chairmen, and
eight others followed the corpse as mourners in black cloaks; for
whenever a chairman is buried, he is constantly attended by as many of
his brethren as can be got together: these mourners were followed by
a considerable number of coal-heavers, who walked two and two. This
procession gave rise to that extraordinary paragraph in the London
Chronicle, on the 30th day of October last, wherein it is confidently
asserted, that a Roman-catholic was carried through the streets of
London to be buried at St. Pancras, and that the Host was carried,
and Priests walked publicly before the corpse; and that the numerous
attendants that followed, insulted and knocked down all who did not
pay due obedience to their foreign foppery, and beat many persons whom
common curiosity excited to ask any questions relative to the said
procession. Should any part of this alarming account be true, the
offenders cannot be punished with too much severity; but should it be a
misrepresentation of facts, the publick would be equally pleased to be
undeceived, and he who indiscreetly or wickedly propagated the report
without foundation will be the only offender.

"In order therefore to get at the real truth of this matter, a few days
ago, the informations on oath of the beadle of the said coal-heavers
office, of the pall-bearers, mourners, undertaker, his servant, the
landlord of the house from whence the corpse was carried, and some
other inhabitants who followed the corpse (several of whom were
Protestants), were taken before John Fielding, Esq.; and they all
positively declared that at, or from the house, whence the man was
carried to the grave in Pancras church-yard, no Host, representation
of Host, crucifix, or other visible and external mark of the deceased
Patrick Crevey being a Roman-catholick, was carried either before or
after the said corpse; and that no Catholic Priest of any sort, to
their knowledge, attended the said burial; but that the said Crevey
(though a Roman-catholic) was buried by a Clergyman of the Church of
England, and strictly conformable to the ceremonies of the said Church.
And the aforesaid beadle, pall-bearers, mourners, and undertaker,
further declare, that they themselves during their passage from the
house to the grave, neither met with, nor were witnesses to any
obstruction whatever; but that they afterwards heard that some of the
coal-heavers who were at farther distance from the corpse behind had
some dispute, which occasioned blows, with some persons who imitated
the Irish howl, and called out _Paddy_, by way of derision to the
deceased and his attendants, &c. &c.

                                                 "JOHN FIELDING."


There is something so absurd and ridiculous in the terrors spread by
_Miss Parsons_, that I think it hardly fair to class her operations
with really serious offences against the laws of morality; but,
recollecting that her _knockings indicated_ a charge of poisoning, my
scruples are removed, and I proceed to sketch the principal outlines of
an incident that agitated the public mind till 1762, when all who had
"three ideas in continuity" were convinced that the _spirit_ possessed
no _supernatural_ powers.

For two years previous to the above date, knockings and scratchings had
frequently been heard during the night in the first floor of a person
named Parsons, who held the office of Clerk to St. Sepulchre's-church,
and resided in Cock-lane, near West Smithfield. This man, _alarmed_
at the circumstance, made several experiments to discover the cause,
and at last had the amazing good fortune to trace the sounds to a
bedstead, on which two of his children reposed after the fatigues of
the day; the eldest of whom, _though a most surprising girl of her
age_, had numbered but twelve winters. Justly supposing the children
might suffer some dreadful injury from the knocker, this affectionate
parent removed them a story higher; but, horror upon horror, the
tremendous noise followed the _innocents_, and even disturbed their
rest for whole nights. But this was not all: a publican, resident in
the neighbourhood, was frightened into serious illness by the form of a
fleeting female ghost, which saluted his vision one fatal evening when
in Parsons's house; nay, that worthy Clerk saw it himself about an hour

Facts of this description cannot be concealed: reports of the noises
and of the appearance of the phantom spread from the lane into a vast
circle of space; numbers visited the unfortunate house, and others
sat the night through with the tortured infant, appalled by sounds
terrific; at length a Clergyman determined to adjure the Spirit, and
thus obtain direct replies to the following questions: "Whether any
person in that house had been injured?" The answer, expressed by the
_number_ of knocks (as the ghost was denied the power of speech, and
of shewing herself _within reach_), was in the affirmative. "Was she
a woman?"--"Yes; the Spirit then explained, that she had been kept by
Mr. ----, who poisoned her when ill of the Small-pox, and that her body
was deposited in the vault of St. John's-church, Clerkenwell." During
this examination, the girl exhibited a considerable deal of art, but
betrayed herself decidedly in several instances. The result was, that
the Spirit ardently desired the murderer might be punished for her
alledged death. A wise-acre, who narrated the above particulars in a
newspaper of the time, observes, with wonderful sagacity, "What _is_
remarkable _is_, that the Spirit _is_ never heard _till the children
are in bed_. This knocking was heard by the _supposed woman_ when
alive, who declared it foretold her death." Another account of the
affair asserts that the person accused had married two sisters, and
that Fanny, the daughter of Parsons, had slept with the lady that
_appeared_ by _knocking_ and _scratching_ during her husband's absence
at a wedding; but the knocking the deceased heard, was declared by the
girl to be caused by the Spirit of the previously deceased sister; if
so, the girl's infernal acts may have caused the death of the woman, as
it is well known the agitation of a mind under the terrors of supposed
supernatural visitation must have a fatal tendency in such a disorder
as the small-pox.

As an astonishing proof of the folly of certain persons on this
occasion, I shall quote the following paragraphs from the London
Chronicle, vol. XI. p. 74, which conclude a string of questions and
answers, put to, and received from the horrid girl, who, young as she
was, richly deserved hanging, with her prompters. "What must occasion
credulity is, the afflicting an _innocent child_, whom this Spirit
acknowledges to be so, and that it is not the part of a good Spirit so
to do, while, _she knocks that she is_, and permitted by God, not by
Satan, to appear. _What is more astonishing_, that she will not cease
troubling the child after satisfaction had. There is such a mixture
_of truth_ and _contradictions_, that a person _cannot help doubting_
of the veracity of this knocker. It is, we humbly presume, fit to be
enquired into, for the satisfaction of the publick, and to bring to
exemplary punishment the impostor or impostors, _if any_, to relieve a
distressed family, to preserve the reputation of the innocent, or to
vindicate the cause of the injured. The publick are desired to rest
satisfied, as the fraud, _if any_, will be discovered soon; of which
they may rest assured.

"The gentleman intended to be accused in this affair, of perpetrating
upon two wives the most atrocious of all crimes, was married about
six months since, to a very agreeable young lady, with a fortune of
3000_l._ The unhappy situation in which they must both be, from so
horrid an aspersion upon the former, may be more easily conceived than

This shameful affair terminated in the manner described in the ensuing
words, extracted from one of the newspapers published in February 1762.
"February 1. On this night many gentlemen, eminent for their rank
and character, were, by the invitation of the Rev. Mr. Aldrich, of
Clerkenwell, assembled at his house, for the examination of the noises
supposed to be made by a departed Spirit, for the detection of some
enormous crime. About ten at night, the gentlemen met in the chamber,
in which the girl supposed to be disturbed by a Spirit had, with proper
caution, been put to bed by several ladies. They sat rather more than
an hour, and hearing nothing went down stairs; when they interrogated
the father of the girl, who denied, in the strongest terms, any
_knowledge or belief_ of fraud. The supposed Spirit had before publicly
promised, by an affirmative knock, _that it would attend_ one of the
gentlemen _into the vault_, under the Church of St. John's Clerkenwell,
where the body is deposited, and give a token of _her presence there_,
by a knock upon her coffin. It was therefore determined to make this
trial of the existence or veracity of the supposed Spirit.

"While they were enquiring and deliberating, they were summoned into
the girl's chamber by some ladies, who were near her bed, and who
had heard knocks and scratches. When the gentlemen entered, the girl
declared that she felt the Spirit like a mouse upon her back, and
was required to hold her hands out of bed. From that time, though
the Spirit was very solemnly required to manifest its existence,
by appearance, by impression on the hand or body of any present,
by scratches, knocks, or any other agency, _no evidence of any
preter-natural power was exhibited_.

"_The Spirit was then very seriously advertised_, that the person to
whom the promise was made, of striking the coffin, was then about to
visit the vault, and that the performance of the promise was then
claimed. The company, at one, went into the Church; and the gentleman
to whom the promise was made went with one more into the vault. _The
Spirit was solemnly required_ to perform its promise; _but nothing more
than silence ensued_. The person supposed to be accused by the Spirit
then went down with several others, _but no effect was perceived_. Upon
their return, they examined the girl, but _could draw no confession
from her_. Between two and three she desired, and was permitted to go
home with her father.

"It is therefore the opinion of the whole assembly, that the child has
some art of making or counterfeiting particular noises[185:A], _and
that there is no agency of any higher cause_."

Completely exasperated at the base methods adopted by his enemies
to ruin his character, if not to affect his life, the injured party
at length had recourse to the justice of his Country; and exactly
one year after the exposure of this ridiculous as well as wicked
imposture, the principals made him pecuniary satisfaction, to avoid
worse consequences; but Parsons received sentence of imprisonment for
two years, and to be pilloried three times; his wife imprisonment one
year, and their servant six months. Thus ended the serio-comedy of
_Fanny the phantom_, which afforded fine sport for the wits of the
day; nay, Parsons shared in the joke, for the populace pitied his
_unmerited_ sufferings, and, instead of pelting, cherished him when on
the pillory, and even gathered money for him.

The Mayoralty of William Beckford, Esq. was distinguished by the trial
of a greater number of felons than had occurred for many preceding
years: 508 were placed at the bar of the Old Bailey; 58 received
sentence of death; 187 were ordered to be transported; 15 to be branded
in the hand, and five to be whipped.

Amongst the mal-practices of the Century may be included the Private
Mad-houses. At first view such receptacles appear useful, and in many
respects preferable to Public; but the avarice of the keepers, who were
under no other controul than their own consciences, led them to assist
in the most nefarious plans for confining sane persons, whose relations
or guardians, impelled by the same motive, or private vengeance,
sometimes forgot all the restraints of nature, and immured them in the
horrors of a prison, under a charge of insanity.

Turlington kept a private Mad-house at Chelsea: to this place Mrs.
Hawley was conveyed by her mother and husband, September 5, 1762, under
pretence of their going on a party of pleasure to Turnham-green. She
was rescued from the coercion of this man by a writ of _Habeas corpus_,
obtained by Mr. La Fortune, to whom the lady was denied by Turlington
and Dr. Riddle; but the latter having been fortunate enough to see her
at a window, her release was accomplished. It was fully proved upon
examination, that no medicines were offered to Mrs. Hawley, and that
she was perfectly sane. This fact might be supported by the cases of
Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Durant, &c.

"Mr. Turlington having, in defence of the proceedings of this house,
referred himself to Mr. King as the person entrusted and employed
by him, the Committee of the House of Commons thought it necessary
to summons him. Mr. King said he had been in the Wool-trade, but
for six years past he had been employed by Mr. Turlington to keep
his Mad-house: that he had received no written directions from Mr.
Turlington; that he found several patients in the house on his being
employed, and all lunatic; that since his being employed _he had
admitted several for drunkenness_, and for other reasons of the same
sort alledged by their _friends_ or relations bringing them, which he
had always thought a sufficient authority. As to the treatment of the
persons confined, he said, that they had the liberty of walking in the
garden, and passing from one room to another; and as to their diet
and apartments, he said, it was according to the allowance they paid,
which was from 60_l._ to 20_l._ a year. He admitted that he knew Mrs.
Hawley; that she was confined at the representation of a woman who
called herself her mother; and that the reason alledged by her for the
confinement of her daughter was drunkenness. He said, that he did not
remember that she was refused pen, ink, and paper; but at the same time
acknowledged it was the established order of the house, that no letter
should be sent by any of the persons confined to their friends and

Dr. Battie celebrated for his knowledge in cases of insanity, related
the case "of a person whom he visited in confinement for Lunacy, in
Macdonald's Mad-house, and who had been, as the Doctor believes, for
some years in this confinement. Upon being desired by Macdonald to
attend him by the order, as Macdonald pretended, of the relations of
the patient, he found him chained to his bed, and without ever having
had the assistance of any physician before; but some time after, upon
being sent for by one of the relations to a house in the City, and
then told, Macdonald had received no orders for desiring the Doctor's
attendance, the Doctor understood this to be a dismission, and he never
heard any thing more of the unhappy patient, till Macdonald told him
some time after that he died of a fever, without having had any farther
medical assistance; and a sum of money devolved upon his death to the
person who had the care of him."

Upon those and other instances of wickedness and inhumanity, leave was
given to bring in a Bill "for the regulation of Private Mad-houses in
this Kingdom."


The report of a Committee of the House of Commons, appointed in 1770,
will illustrate this subject from undoubted facts. "Sir John Fielding,
being asked what number of houses have been broken open in and about
the cities of London and Westminster, and whether it is a growing evil,
said, that all robberies, with the circumstances attending them, and
particulars of goods stolen, are registered at his office; and from
that register informations are grounded, and offenders are detected
several years after the offences are committed; and he delivered in
lists of houses broken into, with computation of the goods stolen.

From Michaelmas 1766 to 14 March 1770, in half-yearly periods, by which
it appeared that from Michaelmas 1766 to Lady-day 1767, 13 houses had
been broken open, and goods stolen to the value of 289_l._

From Lady-day 1767 to Michaelmas 1767, 36 houses, value 627_l._

From Michaelmas 1767 to Lady-day 1768, 52 houses, value 569_l._

From Lady-day 1768 to Michaelmas 1768, 48 houses, value 1332_l._

From Michaelmas 1768 to Lady-day 1769, 35 houses, value 1448_l._ 15_s._

From Lady-day 1769 to Michaelmas 1769, 63 houses, value 1616_l._

From Michaelmas 1769 to 14 March 1770, 104 houses, value 4241_l._

He farther informed the Committee, that it is supposed the last 104
houses were broken open by a number of house-breakers not exceeding
20, and few of them more than 20 years of age, 16 or 17 of whom are
in custody with little probability of their being convicted: that the
evil increases amazingly, and never was at so great a height as since
last Michaelmas. Being asked, what is the cause of this increase of
housebreaking; he said, that felons formerly carried their goods to
pawnbrokers; but by the present method of quick notice to pawnbrokers,
silversmiths, and others, that plan is defeated, and the housebreakers
now go to Jews, who melt the plate immediately, and destroy other
things that might be evidence, which in burglary can be nothing but
the goods, though in other cases the person may be sworn to; that they
disguise jewels by knocking them out of the sockets, so that they
cannot be sworn to; that the present gang of house-breakers are sons
of unfortunate people, and of no trade; that they began when boys as
pick-pockets, but turned house-breakers when they grew up, in order to
procure a greater income to supply their increased expences. And he
informed the Committee, that for 20 years a footpad has not escaped;
that highwaymen cannot escape, upon account of the early information
given to the aforesaid office, and the great number of prosecutors who
always appear against them, which he thinks must in time put an end
to that evil[191:A]. He then said, he had detected several persons
in Duke's-place with plate, and has offered a reward of five guineas
for apprehending one person in the same place. Being asked what he
thought of the present method of watching the town; he said, the watch
is insufficient, their duty too hard, and their pay too small; that
he has known serjeants in the guards employed as watchmen; that the
watchmen are paid eightpence halfpenny in St. Margaret's parish, and
a gratuity of two guineas a year, out of which they find their own
candle; that as they are paid monthly, they borrow their money of an
usurer once a week; that in other parishes the watch are paid from
tenpence to one-shilling per night; that the watch in Westminster is in
every parish under the direction of a separate commission, composed of
persons who have served the offices of Churchwarden and Overseer; that
Commissioners of the respective parishes appoint the beats of their
watchmen without conferring together, which leaves the frontiers of
each parish in a confused state; for that, where one side of a street
lies in one parish, and the other side in another parish, the watchmen
of one side cannot lend any assistance to persons on the other side,
other than as a private person, except in cases of felony.

James Sayer, Esq. Deputy High-steward of Westminster, confirmed the
above evidence; and added, that St. Margaret's parish has a select
vestry, the majority of which is composed of tradesmen; that they will
pay no more than eightpence halfpenny a night to their watchmen, and
have no way of punishing them for neglect of duty than by dismissing
them, which in fact is not a punishment, for they find it difficult to
get men to serve in that office; and he further said, that their number
is not sufficient. Being asked the reason for changing the constables
from being parochial to be constables for the whole City and Liberty,
he said, that before 29 George II. constables were parochial; that he
apprehended the reason for the change was, that a constable could not
execute any official act out of his parish without being specially
authorised so to do. He mentioned an instance of a constable's being
killed when he was serving a warrant out of his parish; that the person
who killed him was tried and found guilty of manslaughter only, though
he would have been guilty of murder, if it had happened in the parish
to which the constable belonged.

Sir John Fielding being asked what remedies he could suggest to prevent
the above evils; he produced two papers relating to constables,
watchmen, and other officers, which were read to and confirmed by him,
and are as follows:

"Watchmen too old--should be from 25 to 50; their beats too
extensive--should not exceed 20 houses on each side of the way.
Watchmen too few, the sum raised for the watch too little, being only
fourpence in the pound--should be sixpence.

"Ward-officers to be chosen out of those inhabitants that have served
the office of constable, and to have a good salary. One half of the
constables to be discharged within the year, so that one half remaining
two years will be able to instruct the new officers, and the whole
duty will be well done. If the new provisions for the watch can be
established by the Commissioners remaining where they are, it will
save trouble; for then the money may be raised by them as it now is,
and every parish may pay and clothe their own watchmen; so that the
appointment, distribution, direction, wages, number, and punishment
of the watch, may be in the Magistrates by a new commission, and the
paying and clothing be in the present Commissioners.

"The words 'A Constable of the City and Liberties of Westminster,'
to be placed over the Constable's doors; the words 'Ward-officer,'
over the Ward-officers' doors. Beadles by name to be discharged; and
the necessary part of their duty they now do, to be performed by
the Ward-officers. That it would be right to confine the intended
improvement and constables to Westminster only, as the watch in
the adjoining parishes of Middlesex remain on the same footing as
originally settled by the Statute of Winchester."

Second Paper. "The watch of Westminster is extremely defective; the
number ought to be increased, their pay augmented, and the whole
direction of them put under one Commission, and that Commission should
be Magistrates of the City and Liberty of Westminster; the watch
should be attended by ward-officers and relieved in the night, a whole
night's duty being too hard. The round-houses should be capacious,
no liquor should be sold in them; publicans should be punished for
permitting watchmen to tipple during their duty, and watchmen should be
particularly rewarded for diligence, and punished for neglect, by the
civil power. High Constables should not quit their office at the end
of three years. Constables should be increased, half the number only
discharged annually. The constable of the night should be considered
for his attendance on that duty, and punished for neglect.

"The power for raising money at present for the watch is too confined;
it should be enlarged, raised by the present Commissioners, the
watchmen paid by them, but their number, direction, and appointment,
be by the new Commission of Magistrates. Receivers of stolen goods,
especially of those taken by burglary or highway-robbery, should be
made principals, with a power of mitigation in the Judge."

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, approved of Sir John Fielding's
plan; and added, that the beadles are an unnecessary set of men,
advanced in years, and servants to the Churchwardens and Overseers,
are forty in number over the whole City and Liberty; they have an
allowance of 20_l. per annum_ apiece, which they make up 30_l._;
that he apprehends, if the number was increased to sixty, and the City
and Liberty divided into so many divisions, a beadle to each division,
and the object of their duty to take up vagrants, they might be of
great service: that, if the beadle was to have two shillings for every
vagrant he took up, and four shillings was given to any other person
who should apprehend one, the one-half to be deducted out of the
beadle's salary of that district where the vagrant was apprehended, it
would have a good effect.

Mr. T. Rainsforth, High-constable of Westminster, being examined, said,
he had been in office twelve months; that he had visited the different
night watch-houses in the City and Liberty of Westminster frequently
from twelve to three in the morning, found many of the peace-officers
upon duty, some were not. That there is a general complaint of
peace-officers neglecting their duty, to which neglect it is owing,
that the watchmen and beadles are not present; and this general neglect
he apprehends is the reason why so many houses are robbed; that he has
frequently found seven or eight watchmen together in an alehouse; he
thinks, that the High-constable should visit the round-house in the
night-time, once a month at least, or oftener if required.

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, said, that Constables are
appointed under Acts 29 and 31 George II. which Acts are in many
articles defective; that 80 constables, which is the number limited,
are not sufficient; that they are appointed by the Leet-jury, which has
been attended by great partialities; for the Leet jury being composed
of the Overseers of the several parishes of the preceding year, they
protect each other from serving the office of Constable; that in
general opulent inhabitants are excused, and young tradesmen returned;
that, if a rich man is now and then returned, he is generally got off
by pleading age and infirmities; that deputies are generally hired men,
and though they cannot be appointed unless approved of by the Deputy
High Steward, yet, as it is impossible for him to get a true character
of the person nominated, he finds many unfit persons are appointed,
who, he is informed, make a trade of serving the office; for remedy of
which he proposed, that the number of constables should be increased
to 120. He thinks the burthen of serving the office of constable
should not lay wholly on the trading inhabitants, as it does by the
late Act; that, by common law, every person able and fit is liable to
serve: that the fine for not serving the office should be enlarged from
8_l._ to 20_l._ which fine should be distributed among those that do
serve: and he added, that twelve being obliged to attend daily during
the Session of Parliament, as long as either House sits, the duty
comes round to each individual every sixth day, eight being excepted,
who may be sick, or kept in reserve; during which attendance the
constables must necessarily neglect their own business. With respect
to the High-constable, he said, it is an office of great burthen and
trust; that, by law, he the witness is obliged to appoint a substantial
tradesman to that office; that the person appointed is not to continue
in office above three years, and is liable to a penalty of 20_l._ for
refusing to serve, which penalty goes to the poor of the parish; upon
which he observed, that the High-constable should not be a tradesman,
because his power enables him to oblige the keepers of public-houses
to deal with him, or those with whom he is concerned in his way of
trade; that the penalty on persons refusing to serve the office should
be increased; that the High-constable should have a reward for his
service, and that the constables of the night should have a reward

Sir John Fielding being again examined, said, that ballad-singers are
a greater nuisance than beggars, because they give opportunity to
pick-pockets by collecting people together; that the songs they sing
are generally immoral and obscene; the people themselves capable of
work, and of the lowest and most abandoned order of people; for remedy
of which, he proposed that all ballad-singers should be considered as
vagrants, and made liable to the same punishments, no person being
a vagrant now but who comes within some one of the descriptions of
vagrancy in the Vagrant Act. And the High-constable being again
examined, informed the Committee that he has often had warrants for
taking up ballad-singers; that he has apprehended a great many,
notwithstanding which their numbers increase, and they are become a
very great nuisance; that they have often been dispersed, but still
continue the practice.

Sir John Fielding, being again examined, said, that the City of
Westminster is a franchise under the Dean and Chapter of Westminster;
that the common gaol thereof is called the Gatehouse, to which
offenders of every kind, apprehended within the Liberty of Westminster,
have been usually committed for several years back, to the number of
600 or 700 annually; that in this gaol there is little or no allowance
or provisions for the prisoners but what arises from the charity of
passengers, seldom amounting to more than five or six shillings a-week,
the greatest part of which is given to the beggar at the window for the
day. That the said gaol appears, from experience of the Magistrates,
to be too small for the number, and too weak for the safe custody of
prisoners; that to this gaol persons for execution in debts recovered
in the Court of Conscience, are committed; and he said, he believed
this is the only gaol in England where there is not some provision for
the poor and distressed prisoners; and he added, that when a Magistrate
commits a man to that gaol for an assault, he does not know but he
commits him there to starve. For these reasons, as well upon the
principles of humanity as of civil policy, this ought to be remedied;
and that, on account of the vast increase of inhabitants, property,
and number of offenders, there ought to be in Westminster a strong,
capacious, and useful gaol, and there is no such thing at present; that
the said gaol, called the Gatehouse, is a very old building, subject
to be repaired by the said Dean and Chapter, who appoint the Gaoler;
that the supposed original use of this gaol was for the purposes of
committing Clerks convict. The commission of Magistrates is not later
than Charles the First's reign; they began first to commit offenders
to this gaol, rather by sufferance than by right; and he observed
that, however proper it may have been for its original purposes, it
is unequal to the present occasions, and, as he apprehends, cannot be
altered without a Law. And he further informed the Committee, that the
Magistrates of Westminster have represented this matter to the Dean
and Chapter, who acknowledge it, are willing to pull it down, and to
give a piece of ground in their Royalty in Tothill-fields to build a
new gaol upon, and to subject the same, with every thing thereunto
belonging, to the Magistrates of Westminster, under such regulations as
the Legislature shall think proper, provided a sum be granted by the
publick for building the same; and he added, that estimates have been
made, by which it appears that a very effectual gaol may be built for
the sum of 2500_l._ In order, therefore, to remedy the inconveniences
above-mentioned, he proposed that such gaol should be built and kept
in repair out of the County rate, which he said may be done without
injury to the County at large, for this reason, that there is but one
rate at present for Middlesex and Westminster, near one-third of which
is paid by the latter since the increase of buildings there; that
this proportion is much greater than the expences required by the Act
for County rates would subject Westminster to; and he added, that the
gaol, called the House of Correction, Westminster, is repaired by the
Magistrates of Westminster, and the expence is paid by virtue of their
orders on the County Treasurer; that the same thing, if allowed by
Parliament for the repairs of the proposed new gaol, will answer the
purpose without separating the rate.

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, concurred with Sir John
Fielding in every particular.

Sir John informed the Committee, that about six or seven years ago the
Magistrates of Westminster had no other Court-house but a place at the
bottom of the stairs leading to the House of Commons, called _Hell_,
to keep their Sessions in. The increase of business and of offences in
Westminster made it impracticable to carry on the business there. The
nuisance was represented by the Magistrates to the Lord Lieutenant,
Lord Northumberland, who said, he had then applied for redress, and
told the Chairman it could not be taken up by Government then, but
would be in future considered: in the mean time, at his own expence,
amounting to 800_l._ he directed the Chairman to prepare a large house
in King-street Westminster, which was formerly a tavern, to be made
proper for a Court-house; that the Magistrates for their Sessions,
the Burgesses for their Courts, the Lieutenancy for the Militia,
Commissioners of Sewers for their business, Grand Juries for the
County of Middlesex, Writs of Enquiry for the Sheriffs, and meeting of
inhabitants for nominating their Representatives, should use the said
building; for all which purposes it has been constantly, effectually,
and conveniently used; that it is scarce possible for the above
business to be transacted without it, and the establishment of it is
as essential to the Civil Power as any thing that has been mentioned.
That the purchase of the said building and fitting it up, cost the Duke
of Northumberland near 4000_l._; and he added, that this building also
might be kept in repair by the County rate, at an average of 30 or
40_l._ a year.

Sir John Fielding said, he thinks the acting part of the Magistrates
in Westminster is in as good a state as it ever was, and more free
from imputation of or neglect of duty; that it would be useful to have
some persons of rank and condition in the Commission of the Peace for
Westminster, who would attend at the Quarter Sessions, where they would
become acquainted with the conduct of the Magistrates in general,
give a dignity to the Commission, support the acting Magistrates on
great occasions, and give encouragement to such of them as discharged
their trust becoming the honour of the Commission, and discountenance
those who did not; and he added, that for the last two or three years
the Magistrates of Westminster have gone through very painful duty,
and have been very diligent in it; and having been sensible of the
necessity of their attendance, have mutually agreed to attend at any
time or place upon the least notice from their Chairman.

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, admitted that the Magistracy
at present is composed in general of persons of character, and that
justice is administered with activity, diligence, and skill, but
alledged that it has been otherwise formerly, and may be the case
hereafter; and therefore, he was of opinion that a regulation in
the Magistracy of Westminster is necessary. That there should be a
qualification of Justices, that they should have a reward for acting,
as the most part of their time will be devoted to the public service;
that the fees to be taken by their clerks should be devoted to some
public service; such as a vagrant hospital; that there should be
certain Rotation-offices established by Law; that, as he apprehends,
one such office might be sufficient if properly regulated; that
the Rotation-office should do all the business except in emergent
cases, and that the private office of Justice of the Peace should be
abolished, because it sometimes happens, that a man committed for a
notorious bailable offence is carried to another Justice, who bails
him without knowing the enormity of his offence; and Sir John Fielding
said, that in criminal offences, that nearly regard the publick, it
is impracticable to use a Rotation-office as there are many things
necessary to be kept secret; and, though the whole of the circumstances
must be known to the acting Magistrate, yet they cannot be known by
a fresh Magistrate who attends in rotation; and he added, that the
great number of brothels and irregular taverns carried on without
licence from the Magistrates, are another great cause of robberies,
burglaries, and other disorders, and also of neglect of watchmen and
constables of the night in their respective duties. That these taverns
are kept by persons of the most abandoned characters, such as bawds,
thieves, receivers of stolen goods, and Marshalsea-court and Sheriffs
officers who keep lock-up houses. The principal of these houses are
situate in Covent-garden, about thirty in St. Mary-le-Strand, about
twelve in St. Martin's, in the vicinity of Covent-garden, about twelve
in St. Clement's, five or six at Charing-cross, and in Hedge-lane
about twenty; that there are many more dispersed in different parts
of Westminster, in Goodman's-fields, and Whitechapel, many of which
are remarkably infamous, and are the cause of disorders of every kind,
shelters for bullies to protect prostitutes, and for thieves, are a
terror to the watchmen and peace-officers of the night, a nuisance to
the inhabitants in the neighbourhood, and difficult to be suppressed
by prosecution for want of evidence, and, in short, pregnant with
every other mischief to Society; that any person desirous of gaining
a livelihood by keeping a place of public entertainment, who is of
good reputation, can obtain a licence with ease from the Magistrates
to keep such house, when a public-house in any neighbourhood happens
to be vacant that has been licensed before; the Magistrates of
Middlesex and Westminster having long held it to be a rule essential
to the public good, rather to diminish than increase the number of
public-houses. That persons of abandoned characters, by applying
to the Commissioners of the Stamp-office, may obtain a licence for
selling wine; by virtue of such licences it is that the taverns above
described are kept open, for the aforesaid Commissioners are impowered
by law to grant such licences to whom they shall think fit; that
licences for selling spirituous liquors by retail are not granted
by the Commissioners of Excise, unless the parties produce to them
a licence under the hands and seals of two Justices of the Peace to
sell ale. That Magistrates cannot by Law authorise any person to sell
ale, without a certificate of such person's being of good fame and
sober life and conversation, so that producing this licence to the
Commissioners establishes their character with them, and takes away
the necessity of any enquiry; for remedy of which, he proposed that
Wine-licences should be placed by Law under the same restraint as
the licences for selling spirituous liquors now are. This remedy, he
apprehended, might probably reduce the Revenue of Wine-licences; if
confined to the Bills of Mortality, it would in his opinion diminish
it no more than 400_l._; but if extended to Portsmouth, Plymouth,
Chatham, and other Dock-yards, it might lessen it 200_l._ more; he
added, that he thinks it more necessary to correct the evil in those
parts, as it has a direct tendency to corrupt and destroy the very
vitals of the Constitution, the lives of the useful seamen, who by
means of these houses become the objects of plunder as long as they
have any money, and are induced to become robbers when they have none;
and he informed the Committee that there is another great evil which
is the cause of these disorders, namely, the immense number of common
prostitutes, who, mostly from necessity, infest the streets of the
City and Liberty of Westminster and parts adjacent, attended by common
soldiers and other bullies to protect them from the civil power; these
prostitutes, when they have secured the unwary customers, lead them to
some of the aforesaid taverns, from whence they seldom escape without
being robbed. The cause of this evil, as he apprehends, is the great
difficulty, as the Law now stands, to punish those offenders, they
being, as common prostitutes, scarce, if at all, within the description
of any Statute now in being; and he added, that this subjects watchmen,
round-house keepers, constables, and even the Magistrates themselves to
prosecutions from low Attorneys; that the remedy in his opinion should
be to declare, that persons walking or plying in the said streets
for lewd purposes after the watch is set, standing at the doors, or
appearing at the windows of such taverns in an indecent manner for
lewd purposes, shall be considered as vagrants, and punished as such.
That as to the circumstance of street-beggars, it never came to his
knowledge that they are under contribution to the beadles.

Mr. Rainsforth the High-constable being called, delivered in a paper
called "The State of the Watch in Westminster;" which paper is hereunto
annexed: and said, that all the watchmen being assembled at Guildhall
on Saturday, March 24, to see the housebreakers, they appeared to him
in general very infirm and unfit to execute that office.

Mr. Thomas Heath, a Burgess of the Duchy of Lancaster, being examined,
said, that both the constables and watch within the said Duchy are very
insufficient and defective."

The Committee concluded their Report with thirteen resolutions, exactly
corresponding with the evidence received, which were all agreed to by
the House, and a Bill or Bills ordered to be brought in for carrying
them into effect.

The High Constable's remarks:

_St. Margaret's._

"Three quarters past 11. Constable came after I was there, house-man
and beadle on duty; 41 watchmen, with St. John's united, at eightpence
halfpenny _per night_, with one guinea at Christmas, and one guinea at
Lady-day, and great coats as a present; their beats large; was obliged
to take a soldier into custody for being out of his quarters, and very
insolent, with several more soldiers, in the streets at 12 o'clock;
called out "Watch," but could get no assistance from them.

_St. George's._

Half-past 12. Constable and four house-men on duty; 57 watchmen at one
shilling _per night_, and great coats; two men had attempted to break
into Lady Cavendish's house, but were prevented.

_St. James's._

One o'clock. Constable and beadle on duty, streets very quiet, meeting
with no disorders; 56 watchmen at one shilling _per night_ for five
months, and eight-pence for seven months, with coats, lanterns, and

_St. Anne's._

Half-past 1. Constable gone his rounds; 23 watchmen at one shilling
_per night_ for six months, and nine-pence the other six, with candles;
no disorders.

_St. Martin's._

Two o'clock. Constable, regulator, and beadle on duty; 43 watchmen at
14_l. per ann._ candles and great coats, every thing quiet, beats large.

_St. Paul's, Covent-garden._

Half-past 2. Constable, house-keeper, and beadle on duty; 22 watchmen
at one shilling _per night_, down to eightpence halfpenny; no

_St. Clement's Danes._

Past 3. No constable on duty, found a watchman there at a great
distance from his beat; from thence went to the night-cellar facing
Arundel-street in the Strand, which is in the Dutchy, and there found
four of St. Clement's watchmen drinking; St. Clement's watchmen 22 at
one shilling each.

_St. Mary-le-Strand._

No attendance, having only two constables which only attend every
other night; 3 watchmen, Dutchy included, at one shilling each; a very
disorderly cellar near the New-church for selling saloop, &c. to very
loose and suspected persons."

The number of felons who had been imprisoned in Newgate during the
year 1772, amounted to the amazing number of 1475; from 1747 to 1764,
the number had never exceeded 1300; from the year 1763 to 1772, the
greatest number of prisoners who died in Newgate within twelve months
was 36, and the least 14.

Impressed with the melancholy consequences to Society from this
shocking increase of depravity, Sir John Fielding thus emphatically
addressed the Grand Jury at the Quarter-sessions for Westminster,
October 12, 1773.

"Gentlemen of the Grand Jury,

"By virtue of the trust now reposed in you, as a Grand Jury for
the City and Liberty of Westminster, you are become the temporary
guardians of the lives, liberty, property, and reputation of your
fellow-citizens; nor can a higher trust than this be placed in man.
And in order that it may be discharged with a conscientious regard to
truth, and a fidelity becoming its importance, you are bound by the
solemn tie of an oath to execute this office without malice, without
resentment, without favour, and without affection. Under this sacred
obligation, your fellow-subjects have reason to hope and expect that
you will hear with patience, enquire with diligence, judge with
candour, and present with impartiality.

"I am sorry to inform you, Gentlemen, that it appears from our
Calendar, that there are a number of persons in confinement charged
with felonies of different degrees, but it is a melancholy truth;
probably some of these unfortunate fellow-creatures may suffer
ignominious punishments; but, as prevention is far superior to
punishment, permit me to call forth to your attention some of those
public offences which first corrupt, and then precipitate the unwary
to infamy and destruction. I mean the keeping of gaming-houses,
disorderly houses, bawdy-houses, for it is these seminaries of vice,
these polluted fountains, that first poison the moral spring of our
youth, and consequently make footpads, highwaymen, and housebreakers,
of those who might otherwise have been useful, nay, perhaps honourable
members of society; and although I am convinced it is in the power
of many of the inhabitants of this City and Liberty to remove, by
prosecution, some of these nuisances; yet I am aware that they are
deterred from it by the hateful idea indiscriminately annexed to the
name of an informer; and thus, gentlemen, the parties injured, by a
criminal cowardice, neglect their duty to the publick, whilst the
ignorant and abandoned slanderer unjustly reviles the Magistrate for
the continuation of these evils; but, if public spirit should produce
any prosecutors of the keepers of such houses, I hope you will do your
utmost to bring such miscreants to condign punishment, that the publick
may have a fair opportunity of judging in what a detestable light the
Magistrates of this Bench consider such offenders and offences. Let
the inhabitants but complain, and if the Justice neglect his duty, may
contempt and confusion overtake him! But till then, place confidence,
and pay respect to that authority where confidence and respect are due.

"And now, gentlemen, give me leave to take notice of one public
offence, so alarming in its nature, and so mischievous in its effects,
that, like a pestilence, it does not only stand in need of your
immediate assistance, but that of all good men, to stop its corroding
progress; I mean the exposing to sale, and selling such indecent and
obscene prints and books as are sufficient to put impudence itself
to the blush. Surely, gentlemen, Providence has placed too strong
propensions in our nature to stand in need of such inflammatory aids
as these; on the contrary, in this particular, we rather require
restraints than encouragements; but, if at that period of life when
our children and apprentices stand in need of a parent to advise, a
master to restrain, or a friend to admonish and check the first impulse
of passion, pictures like these are held forth to meet their early
feelings, what but destruction must be the event? Indeed, by care, you
may prevent youth in some degree from frequenting bad company; you may
accustom them to good habits, afford them examples worthy imitation,
and by shutting your doors early, may oblige them to keep good hours;
but, alas! what doors, what bolts, what bars, can be any security to
their innocence, whilst Vice in this deluding form counteracts all
caution, and bids defiance to the force of precept, prudence, and
example, by affording such foul but palatable hints as are destructive
to modesty, sobriety, and obedience? But, what is still more shocking,
I am informed that women, nay mothers of families, to the disgrace of
their sex, are the cruel dispensers of this high-seasoned mischief;
but, if duty or humanity should spirit up any one to prosecute such
offenders, I conjure you as fathers, masters, and subjects, to afford
them the best assistance in your power, to put a stop to this shameful
and abominable practice.

"I am very sensible that I have already trespassed much on your time,
but cannot take my leave without acquainting you that our Courts of
Judicature of late have abounded with prosecutions for wilful and
corrupt perjury--dreadful offence! But, as oaths are the foundation
of all our judicial proceedings, and the negligent administration of
these oaths is one great cause of perjury, I do earnestly recommend it
to you, Mr. Foreman, not to permit any witness to give his testimony
without reminding him that he is about to speak under the sacred
influence of an oath, and that he has called the great God himself to
witness that he is speaking truth."

An Act, passed in 1774, has operated through the following clause, in
suppressing some of the enormities which lead to the crimes Sir John
deprecated. "That every watchman, as well patroles as others, and every
beadle, shall, during his respective time of watching, to the utmost of
his power endeavour to prevent as well all mischiefs happening by fire,
as all murders, burglaries, robberies, affrays, and other outrages and
disorders; _and to that end_, during the time of watching, each and
every of them shall and may, and are hereby authorised and impowered
to arrest and apprehend _all night-walkers_, malefactors, rogues,
vagabonds, and other loose, idle, and disorderly persons, and all
persons lying or loitering in any street, square, court, mews, lane,
alley, or elsewhere; to apprehend and bring them as soon as convenient
before the constable of the night. And if any person or persons shall
assault or resist any watchman in the execution of his office, they
shall pay any sum not exceeding five pounds."

The publication of obscene prints and books (though so justly
reprobated by Sir John Fielding) had proceeded with very little
interruption, almost through the space of time which elapsed between
his charge and the termination of the century. A few prosecutions were
instituted, but nothing systematic in opposition took place, till the
Society for the Suppression of Vice attacked the enemies of virtue and
decency with vigour, and obtained almost a complete victory. For this
essential service rendered to the community they deserve every praise;
and, however the publick may be divided in opinion as to their methods
of proceeding, and the propriety of some of their operations, all will
agree that vending obscene books and prints, riotous and disorderly
houses, lotteries, and little-goes, and cruelty to animals, ought to be
finally prevented. I shall close this article with a summary of their
convictions during the first year of their establishment, ending in
April 1803.

_Profanation of the Sabbath._

         _Offenders._        |      _Punishments._        |  _No._
  Two hundred and twenty-two | Some convicted in the      |
    Shop-keepers, for        |   full penalty, with costs,|
    pursuing their ordinary  |   and others in costs      |
    callings; and two hundred|   only.--Before the        |   440
    and eighteen Publicans,  |   Magistrates.             |
    for suffering Tippling   |                            |
    during Divine Service,   |                            |
    (having disregarded      |                            |
    the warning previously   |                            |
    delivered them).         |                            |

_Vending Obscene Books and Prints._

         _Offenders._        |       _Punishments._       |  _No._
  GAINER, an Itinerant       | Six Months                 |
    Hawker.                  |   Imprisonment.--Middlesex |
                             |   Sessions.                |
  HARRIS, a Vender of Ballads| Two Years Imprisonment     |
    and Obscene Books and    |   and Pillory.--Westminster|
    Prints, at Whitehall.    |   Sessions.                |     7
  BERTAZZI*, an Italian      | Six Months Imprisonment.   |
    Itinerant Hawker.        |   Middlesex Sessions.      |
  BERTAZZI, on two other     | Six Months Imprisonment    |
    Indictments.             |   for each offence, and    |
                             |   twice Pillory.--Court    |
                             |   of King's Bench.         |
  ANN AITKIN, Printseller,   | One Year's Imprisonment    |
    Castle-street,           |   and hard Labour.--Court  |
    Leicester-fields.        |   of King's Bench.         |
  BAINES, Keeper of a Stall, | One Year's                 |
    Skinner-street,          |   Imprisonment.--Old       |
    Snow-hill.               |   Bailey Sessions.         |

     * _N.B._ This man, in connection with many others, went
     about the City selling obscene books and prints, at
     boarding-schools of both sexes.

_Riotous and Disorderly Houses_, &c.

            _Offenders._          |         _Punishments._        |  _No._
  Four Keepers of Houses          |All suppressed in a summary    |
    where unlawful Dances         |  way.--Before the Magistrates.|   11
    were held, two on Sundays;    |                               |
    three Keepers of              |                               |
    Public-houses, and two        |                               |
    of Private Theatres--being    |                               |
    all receptacles for disorderly|                               |
    and abandoned                 |                               |
    characters, and places for    |                               |
    the seduction of youth of     |                               |
    both sexes; and two           |                               |
    Keepers of Brothels,          |                               |
    where practices of the        |                               |
    grossest prostitution were    |                               |
    carried on.                   |                               |

Lotteries and Little Goes._

           _Offenders._         |      _Punishments._        |  _No._
  Twenty-five Persons for       |From Two to Six Months      |
    illegal Insurances, &c.     |  Imprisonment each.--Before|
    some principals, and some   |  the Magistrates.          |
    agents.                     |                            |   26
  SAMUEL BEST, a Fortune-teller |Committed as a Vagrant.     |
    and Impostor.               |                            |

_Cruelty to Animals._

                                |                            |
         _Offenders._           |       _Punishments._       |  _No._
                                |                            |
  Two Drovers.                  | Imprisonment One Month     |
                                |   each.--Before the        |
                                |   Magistrates.             |
  Several persons guilty of     | Suppressed by the          |   3
    Bear and Badger baiting,    |   Magistrates.             |
    in Black-boy-alley,         |                            |
    Chick-lane, where the most  |                            |
    shocking scenes of          |                            |
    barbarity had been practised|                            |
    for twenty-two years, even  |                            |
    on Sundays.                 |                            |

_Total Convictions._

  Profanation of the Sabbath            440
  Vending Obscene Books and Prints        7
  Riotous and Disorderly Houses, &c.     11
  Lotteries and Little Goes              26
  Cruelty to Animals                      3

Mr. Carlton, Deputy Clerk of the Peace, and Clerk to the Justices for
Westminster, stated to a Committee of the House of Commons in 1782,
that E-O tables were very numerous; that one house in the parish of St.
Anne, Soho, contained five, and that there were more than 300 in the
above parish and St. James's; those were used every day of the week,
and servants enticed to them by cards of direction thrown down the

I have hitherto noticed those general circumstances of depravity,
which ever have and ever will prevail in a greater or less degree in
every Metropolis; and shall conclude the black list with mentioning
the _monster_, who terrified the females of London in 1790, by cutting
at their clothes with a sharp instrument, and frequently injuring
their persons. Renwick Williams was at length apprehended, tried, and
convicted, for cutting the garments and person of Miss Anne Porter;
and the horrid acts were never repeated.


The man who, without experience or education, undertakes to compound
drugs, and, when compounded, to administer them as remedies for
diseases of the human body, may justly be pronounced a dishonest
adventurer, and an enemy to life and the fair proportions of his
fellow-citizens. Quackery is an antient profession in London. Henry
VIII. despised them, and endeavoured to suppress their nostrums by
establishing Censors in Physick; but I do not profess to meddle with
them before 1700.

"At the Angel and Crown, in Basing-lane, near Bow-lane, lives J.
Pechey, a Graduate in the University of Oxford, and of many years
standing in the College of Physicians, London; where all sick people
that come to him may have, _for sixpence_, a faithful account of their
diseases, and plain directions for diet and other things they can
prepare themselves; and such as have occasion for medicines may have
them of him at reasonable rates, without paying any thing for advice;
and he will visit any sick person in London or the Liberties thereof,
in the day-time, for 2_s._ 6_d._ and any where else within the Bills of
Mortality for 5_s._; and if he be called by any person as he passes by
in any of these places, he will require but 1_s._ for his advice."

The ridiculous falsehoods of Quacks have long been detested by the
sensible part of the Community; but every thing that has been said and
written against them avails nothing: thousands of silly people are yet
duped, nay, are bigoted in their belief of the efficacy of nostrums.
Be it my task to shew the reader a few of the contrivances and schemes
of a Century, and to bring before him _genuine_ effusions of impudence
which have daily insulted and deceived the inhabitants of London.

"April 12, 1700.

A satisfactory experiment for the curious.

"If you please to pour one part of _Sal volatile oleosum_, or any
other oily salts into a narrow-bottomed wine-glass, and near the like
quantity of Stringer's Elixir, _febrifugium martis_, there will be a
pleasant conflict: the elixir will immediately make a preparation of
and precipitate those oily volatile salts into a fixed armoniac salt
in the bottom, and receive the spirituous aromatic oily parts into
itself, and yet retain its own virtues, colour, and taste. There is
no other true and genuine elixir but Mr. Stringer's that is exposed
to sale; for those called _Elixir proprietatu_ and _Elixir salutis_,
&c. are mere tinctures drawn by brandy or nasty spirits; but this is a
perfect elixir or quintessence, whose perfect principles of spirits,
oil, and salt, are so inseparably united, that it can neither decay,
putrefy, nor die, _no more than the glass that contains it_; and is so
far from being a harsh corrosive, that it feels like oil, yet dries
like a spirit, cleanses the skin like soap, and not only allays all
putrefactive ferments in a moment, _but immediately cures the most
malignant fevers_, takes away all _sorts of corns and hardness_ in the
skin, and makes the roughest hands smooth and white, only by anointing
with it morning and night for a month together: which medicine with his
other called Salt of Lemons, _in despite of all opposers_, will approve
themselves nearest of affinity to an _universal medicine_."

In this admirable medicine the Londoner of 1700 had an internal and
an external application, and materials to cleanse and soften the
hands, which would at the same time enable him to walk the streets in
comfort and ease, in defiance of corns and _horny_ excrescences. Happy
Londoners! possessing such men as Dr. Pechey and Mr. Stringer, aided
by Dr. Case, whose _unguentum panchrestum_, prepared by the _Spagyrick
art_, might justly be called the _Golden Mine_. This wonderful
preparation cured by its _sympathetical_ powers; in short, the Doctor
found "it more infallible than the _Zenexton_ of _Paracelsus_." This
great Doctor was the means of informing us that Quacks were then in
the habit of employing persons to thrust bills into the hands of
passengers in the streets. For example: "Your old friend, Dr. Case,
desires you not to forget him, although he has left the _common way of

A _brother Quack_ this year issued the following notice: "John Poley,
at Broken-wharf, over-against the Water-mill in Thames-street, next
door to the Bell, will undertake to cure any smokey chimneys. _No cure,
no money._"

I very much doubt whether even the lowest class of ignorants would be
deceived at present by the ensuing impudent falsehood. "Whereas it has
been industriously reported, that _Doctor_ Herwig, who _cures madness_
and most distempers by _sympathy_, has left England, and returned to
Germany: This is to give notice, that he lives at the same place,
_viz._ at Mr. Gagelman's, in Suffolk-street, Charing-cross, about the
middle of the street, _over-against_ the _green_ balcony."

The reader will undoubtedly admire the modesty of Mr. Bartlett,
who, in 1704, advertised, "Bartlett's inventions of Steel Trusses,
Instruments, Medicines, and methods to cure Ruptures and other faults
of those parts, and to make the weak strong, and crooked strait, most
of which I could help with the twentieth part of the trouble and charge
occasioned only by delay. I reduce desperate ruptures in a few minutes,
though likely to be mortal in a few hours, and have made the only true
discovery of cause and cure. Infants and others born so, and to men of
fifty or sixty years, in a few weeks cured. I sell strait stockings,
collars, and swings, and such like things. Advice and medicines to the
poor _gratis_."

Of all the inventions for the amendment and recovery of the human frame
from disease _and death_, none equals the Dutch stiptick, _seriously_
mentioned in the Supplement, printed by John Morphew, April 27, 1709;
but which I suspect proceeded from the waggish pen of Mr. Bickerstaff,
or some other wit, who sent their effusions to the publisher of the
Tatler. "There is prepared by a person of quality in Holland a stiptick
water; for the receipt of which, exclusive of all others, the French
King has offered 150,000 pistoles; but the proprietor refused to
take the same. It was tried upon a Hen, before his Grace the Duke of
Marlborough, on board the Peregrine galley. The feathers being all
plucked from her head, a large nail was drove through her brains,
gullet, tongue, &c. and fastened her head to a table, where it was left
near a minute; after which, drawing out the nail and touching the part
immediately with the aforesaid stiptick, she was laid upon the deck,
and in half an hour's time recovered, and began to eat bread. Several
as extraordinary experiments have been made upon dogs, cats, calves,
lambs, and other animals, by cutting their guts in several places,
the nut of the thigh, and other parts; and it is affirmed, that this
stiptick cures any part of the body, except the heart or bladder."

John Marten, with his "Attila of the Gout," and specifick, seemed
determined in 1712, to expel that disorder from every human body in
the Kingdom. Those who in 1807 read his advertisement, and are not
thenceforward converts, must be stubborn unbelievers indeed. "I should
be wanting (saith Mr. Marten) as well to the publick as myself, did I
not reveal the _stupendious_ effects of my specifick in the gout, which
daily experience more and more confirms. And whatever mean opinion any
who are strangers to its excellency may entertain of it, either through
unbelief, or being prejudiced by those whose interest it is to explode
it; let them remember, _I tell_ them (as will many reputable people I
will refer them to who have tried it), that if they ever expect certain
and speedy relief, without the least detriment to their healths, they
_must_ have it. I say they _must_, because the surprising benefit
all receive by it indicates that nothing else _can_ more intimately
dilute, and friendly and instantly obtrude and subdue by its soft balmy
alterative nature, the acrimony of the humours that distend and torture
the joints, and gently lead them away by urine, the only sensible
operation it has. And as it is a medicine that will make its own way,
it cannot but come (by degrees) to be as universally used and approved
of in that distemper, as the Jesuits' bark is for agues, if not more;
for none that shall drink it in time will ever be confined a day with
the gout, nor others continue in pain an hour after drinking it, though
they have lain for weeks together upon the _wreck_. Any may be further
satisfied, and have all objections answered, _by word of mouth_, or by
consulting the book I lately published, intituled, "The Attila of the
Gout," being a peculiar account of that distemper, in which _the vanity
of all_ that has hitherto been writ and practised to remove it, and an
infallible method to cure it, are demonstrated; with ample testimonies
of patients cured by John Marten, Surgeon, in Hatton-garden."

I have before observed, that every profession has its Quacks, or
persons who deviate from established rules. Such was the _Quack
writer_ who inserted the ensuing advertisement in the Evening Post of
January 22, 1717. "Whereas a certain pretender to Penmanship has, in
an ill_e_terate manner, _fell_ upon my late performance, let him know
_I look down upon him_, yet thus give him his answer: if I did keep
monsters for my diversion, that does not affect me in my art; and it
is well known that I have not now a deformed creature in my house,
which is more than he can say _while he is within doors_. I pass by the
unworthy reflections on my N and O, which I could return upon his R
and T; but his own ink will blacken him enough, while it appears in his
own irregular scrawls.

     While Cross of Paul's shines in the middle sky,
     _Thy_ name shall _stink_, but _mine_ shall never die."

The above elegant production has a parallel in the following modest
notice of August 1717. "This is to give notice, that Dr. Benjamin
Thornhill, sworn servant to his Majesty King George, _seventh
son_ of _the seventh son_, who has kept a stage in the Rounds of
West-Smithfield for several months past, will continue to be advised
with every day in the week, from eight in the morning till eight at
night, at his lodgings at the Swan Tavern, in West-Smithfield, till
Michaelmas, for the good of all people that lie languishing under
distempers, he knowing that _Talenta in agro non est abscondita_, that
a talent ought not to be hid in the Earth; therefore he exposes himself
in public for the good of the poor. The many cures he had performed has
given the world great satisfaction, having cured 1500 people of the
King's evil, and several hundreds that have been blind, lame, deaf, and
diseased. God Almighty having been pleased to bestow upon him so great
a talent, he thinks himself bound in duty to be helpful to all sorts
of persons that are afflicted with any distemper. He will tell you in
a minute what distemper you are troubled with, and whether you are
curable or not; if not curable, he will not take any one in hand, if
he might have 500_l._ for a reward.

"N. B. The Doctor has an infallible cure for the Gout, which in a few
hours gives ease, and in a short time makes a perfect cure; likewise a
never-failing remedy for the wind colic in the stomach and bowels."

The Original Weekly Journal of December 28, 1723, contains a set of
queries, which seem better suited to the ideas of a person despising
Quacks than to have been written by one. "An appeal to the judicious
part of mankind, if it is not the grossest imposition imaginable
to cram the public prints in so fulsome a manner with infallible
specificks, arcana's, Italian boluses, and innumerable Quack-medicines
put to sale at Toy-shops and other places, only to hide the shame, and
screen from the resentment of injured people, the preparers of such
notorious cheats. Are the best physicians or most eminent surgeons
ashamed of their prescriptions? Can men of sense be gulled out of
their money by the severe affliction of another's pocket (though, in
his own words, of their body), because his pretended charity to their
deplorable circumstances has induced him to publish what he does not
own? Are not the degrees of distempers and the constitutions of men
various? Was ever any one thing infallible? Can all people eat the most
innocent food with equal advantage? Have we not ingenious Physicians
and Surgeons, who act in public, not only to their own honour, but
that of their country, and are, by their transcendant skill, become
inimitable in all the world? Are not some disappointed in the success
of a prescription from the most judicious hand? and will they depend
upon what has no known author, and who refers them to the advice of
some able Surgeon after cheating them himself? Shall any man's misery
prevail upon his credulity to make him more miserable? or will any
Surgeon expose his patient? For your _own sake_, apply to some man
of ingenuity and probity, who appears to justify his practice by his
success; _one of which invites you to his house_, at the Golden-heart
and Square-lamp, in Crane-court, near Fetter-lane. Ask for the Surgeon,
who is to be advised with every morning till 11 o'clock, and from two
till nine at night, in any distemper."

After the above interrogatories, it would be absurd to attempt the
application of any argument against Quackery. The queries of this
extraordinary Quack are absolutely unanswerable; but it will be
necessary to add, for the _information of posterity_, that the daily
papers are still filled with false advertisements and false testimonies
of cures performed; and that the angles of the streets, walls, and
fences of London, are covered with bills issued by Quacks, while,
perhaps, upwards of an hundred persons obtain a livelihood by handing
them to passengers in every street.

This method of proceeding may be pronounced one of the customs which
distinguish London; and, as I purpose tracing those, the reader will
forgive my entering upon the subject without any other preliminary
observation, than that I am afraid he will find some of the number
trench very closely upon the rights of the articles under the head of


[90:A] The gentleman who reviews this work in the European Magazine,
mentions 'the Royal Oak Lottery,' on the authority of Congreve's "Love
for Love," as particularly ruinous.

[92:A] Mark the regularity of the gradations.

[92:B] Gazette.

[96:A] Original proposals.

[97:A] The artist against whom this advertisement was levelled, "was
Bat Pigeon, whose sign of a Bat and a Pigeon once attracted much
attention, and of whom honourable mention has been made both by Steele
and Addison. Honest Bat had a very handsome house and shop on the
North side of the Strand, a few doors from St. Clement's Church Yard."
European Magazine.

[104:A] Newspapers.

[118:A] A writer in the European Magazine says, he could add _sixty
other schemes_ to my list; I should however imagine my readers are
already satisfied.

[141:A] This amount seems impossible; but the authority from which it
was taken is correctly copied.

[170:A] Poems for Children six feet high, 1757.

[185:A] In other words a Ventriloquist.

[191:A] The worthy Magistrate was right in his conjecture, for highway
robbery is very uncommon at present in the neighbourhood of London.



A Weekly Paper, intituled "The Dutch Prophet," was published at the
commencement of the Century. The Author, in one of those, gives the
outlines of each day in the week as employed by different persons; it
is a filthy publication, and the following is almost the only decent
part. "Wednesday, several Shop-keepers near St. Paul's will rise
before six, _be upon their knees at chapel_ a little after; promise
God Almighty to live soberly and righteously before seven; _take half
a pint of Sack and a dash of Gentian before eight_; tell fifty lies
behind their counters by nine; and spend the rest of the morning over
_Tea and Tobacco_ at Child's Coffee-house."

"Sunday, a world of women, with _green aprons_, get on their pattens
after eight; reach Brewers-hall and White-hart court by nine; are
ready to burst with the Spirit a minute or two after, and delivered
of it by ten. Much sighing at Salters-hall about the same hour;
great frowning at St. Paul's while the service is singing, tolerable
attention to the Sermon, but no respect shewn at all to the Sacrament,"
&c. &c.

These extracts inform us that Tradesmen were in the habit of attending
Matins, which is certainly not the case at present; that they
breakfasted upon sack and the root Gentian, and drank tea and chewed
tobacco at the Coffee-house. Mark the change of 100 years: they now
breakfast upon tea, and never chew tobacco; nor do many of them enter
the Coffee-house once in a year.

The Halls of the different Companies appear to have been used at the
above period for almost every public purpose, but particularly for
the sighings of grace and over-righteousness, and to reverberate in
thrice dissonant thunder the voices of the Elect, who saved themselves,
and dealt eternal misery to all around them. Here again is a change:
I believe not one Hall is now used for such purposes. The Cathedral
service is admired, the Sermon neglected, and the Sacrament received
with awe and devotion.

The effect of the Queen's proclamation against Vice and Debauchery in
1703 is thus noticed by Observator in his 92d number; some of the
customs of the lower classes may be collected from the quotation. He
says, the Vintners and their wives were particularly affected by it,
some of the latter of which "had the profit of the Sunday's claret, to
buy them pins, and to enable them every now and then to take a turn
with the Wine-merchant's eldest 'prentice to _Cupid's_[231:A] garden,
or on-board the _Polly_[231:B]. The Whetters are very much disobliged
at this Proclamation, who used on Sundays to meet on their parade
at the Quaker's meeting-house, in Gracechurch-street, and adjourn
from thence through the Tavern back-door to take a whet of white and
wormwood, and to eat a bit of the Cook-maid's dumpling, and then home
to their dinner with their dear spouses, and afterwards return to the
Tavern to take a flask or two for digestion. They tell me, all the
Cake-houses at Islington, Stepney, and the suburbane villages, have
hung their signs in mourning: every little kennel of debauchery is
quite dismantled by this Proclamation; and the beaux who sit at home
on Sundays, and play at piquet and back-gammon, are under dreadful
apprehension of a thundering prohibition of stage-playing."

The Grand Jury, impanneled July 7, 1703, renewed their presentment
against the Play-houses, Bartholomew-fair, &c. and clearly demonstrated
that the elasticity of Vice had recovered from its temporary depression
by the weight of Justice. Upon this presentment, _Heraclitus Ridens_
made the following observations, which will point out a new scene in
the customs of the Londoners:

"_Earnest._ But the Grand Jury tell you, in their presentment, that
the toleration of these houses corrupts the City youth, makes them
dissolute and immoral, and entices them to take lewd courses.

"_Jest._ I am sorry to hear the Citizens' instructions bear so little
weight with them, and am apt to think they are not so exemplary in
their lives and conversations as they have been supposed to be. Would
their masters keep a strict hand over them, there would be no reasons
for complaints; and I dare be persuaded, there is more debauchery
_occasioned by pretending to eat Custards_ towards Hampstead,
Islington, and Sir George Whitmore's[232:A], in a week, than is
possible to be brought about by a Playhouse in a twelvemonth."

The reader of this work who has visited St. Paul's or Westminster-abbey
within the present Century, will subscribe to the faithful
representation of the manners of a certain class of Citizens, that
seem to have survived the usual period of life, or have scrupulously
transmitted them to their posterity, in a dialogue between Jest and
Earnest, 1703[233:A].

"_Jest._ Certainly you have never been at St. Paul's. The flux of
people there would cause you to make use of your handkerchief; and the
largest Meeting-house in London bears no proportion to it.

"_Earnest._ And what should I do there, where men go out of curiosity
and interest, not for the sake of religion? Your shop-keepers assemble
there as at full 'Change, and the buyers and sellers are far from
being cast out of the Temple. _The body of the Church every Lord's-day
contains three times the number of the choir_; and when _the organ_
has done playing _an adieu to devotion_, _the greatest_ part of the
audience give you their room rather than their company."

If an advertisement frequently published about this time may be
credited, Dram-drinking prevailed rather more than a sound moralist
would have approved of. Mr. Baker, a bookseller at Mercers Chapel,
offered his Nectar and Ambrosia, "prepared from the richest spices,
herbs, and flowers, and done with right French Brandy;" and declares
that, "when originally invented, it was designed only for ladies'
closets, to entertain visitors with, and for gentlemen's private
drinking, _being much used that way_;" but, becoming more common, he
then offered it in two-penny dram glasses, which were sold, inclosed in
gilt frames, by the gallon, quart, or two-shilling bottles.

One of the _customs_ of the Police of 1708, was the sending a Constable
through the streets at night, with proper assistants, to apprehend
offenders of all descriptions, but particularly idle men, who were
immediately dispatched to the receptacles of _this species_ of recruits
for her Majesty's service; but it was a hazardous employment; and one
of those peace-officers, named Dent, lost his life in endeavouring to
convey a woman to Covent-garden watch-house, by the cuts and stabs
of three soldiers, who were all seized, and committed to Newgate.
The above Mr. John Dent was buried at St. Clement's Danes, March 24,
1708-9, when a Sermon was pronounced by Thomas Bray, D. D. Minister
of St. Botolph, Aldgate, and afterwards published under the title of
"The good Fight of Faith, in the cause of God, against the Kingdom
of Satan," by desire of the Justices and the Societies for the
Reformation of Manners, who were present at the solemnity.

Mrs. Crackenthorpe, the Female Tatler of 1709, justly reprehends the
practice of pew-opening for money during Divine service; and thus
describes "A set of gentlemen that are called Sermon-tasters: They
peep in at 20 different churches in a service, which gives disturbance
to those united in devotion; where, instead of attention, they stare
about, make some ridiculous observations, and are gone." And the same
lady informs us that the fashionable young men were quite as much at
a loss how to _kill_ time as those of the present day; they played at
quoits, nine-pins, threw at cocks, wrestled, and rowed upon the Thames.
Nor were ridiculous wagers unknown: they betted upon the Walking
Dutchman; and Mrs. C. adds, that "four worthy Senators lately threw
their hats into a river, laid a crown each whose hat should swim first
to the mill, and ran hallooing after them; and he that won the prize
was in a greater rapture than if he had carried the most dangerous
point in Parliament."

To this voluble Tatler I am indebted for an illustration of the manners
of the _male_ shopmen of 1709; and I will consent to be accounted an
_ignoramus_ if it can be proved that the shopmen of 1809 are not an
improved race. "This afternoon some ladies, having an opinion of my
fancy in clothes, desired me to accompany them to Ludgate-hill, which I
take to be as agreeable an amusement as a lady can pass away three or
four hours in. The shops are perfect gilded theatres, the variety of
wrought silks so many changes of fine scenes, and the Mercers are the
performers in the Opera; and, instead of _vivitur ingenio_, you have in
gold capitals, '_No trust by retail_.' They are the sweetest, fairest,
nicest, dished-out creatures; and, by their elegant address and soft
speeches, you would guess them to be Italians. As people glance within
their doors, they salute them with--Garden-silks, ladies Italian silks,
brocades, tissues, cloth of silver, or cloth of gold, very fine mantua
silks, any right Geneva velvet, English velvet, velvet embossed. And
to the meaner sort--Fine thread satins both striped and plain, fine
mohair silk, satinnets, burdets, Persianets, Norwich crapes, anterines,
silks for hoods and scarves, hair camlets, druggets, or sagathies,
gentlemen's night-gowns ready made, shallons, durances, and right
Scotch plaids.

"We went into a shop which had three partners: two of them were to
flourish out their silks; and, after an obliging smile and a pretty
mouth made, Cicero like, to expatiate on their goodness; and the
other's sole business was to be gentleman usher of the shop, to stand
completely dressed at the door, bow to all the coaches that pass by,
and hand ladies out and in.

"We saw abundance of gay fancies, fit for Sea-captains' wives,
Sheriffs' feasts, and Taunton-dean ladies. This, Madam, is wonderful
charming. This, Madam, is so diverting a silk. This, Madam--my stars!
how cool it looks! But this, Madam--ye Gods! would I had 10,000 yards
of it! Then gathers up a sleeve, and places it to our shoulders. It
suits your Ladyship's face wonderfully well. When we had pleased
ourselves, and bid him ten shillings a-yard for what he asked fifteen;
'Fan me, ye winds, your Ladyship rallies me! Should I part with it at
such a price, the Weavers would rise upon the very shop. Was you at the
Park last night, Madam? Your ladyship shall abate me sixpence. Have you
read the Tatler to-day?' &c.

"These fellows are positively the greatest fops in the Kingdom; they
have their toilets and their fine night-gowns; their _chocolate in the
morning_, and their _green tea two hours after_; turkey-polts for their
dinner; and their perfumes, washes, and clean linen, equip them for the

It is not improbable that many of those effeminate drivelers composed
part at least of the various Clubs held at different Taverns: the
_Beaux_ was an attractive title for them; and if they were not
_Virtuoso's_, the _Beefsteak_ had irresistible charms; besides, they
had the choice of many others, such as the Kit-cat, Knights of the
Golden-fleece, Florists, Quacks, &c. &c. which were supplied by no less
than fifty-five newspapers weekly.

The Fashionables of 1709 dined by candle-light, and visited on Sundays;
and their footmen announced them in the same ridiculous manner upon
the doors of their friends as at present. A quotation from the Tatler
will confirm this assertion: "A very odd fellow visited me to-day at my
lodgings, and desired encouragement and recommendation from me for a
new invention of knockers to doors, which he told me he had made, and
professed to teach rustic servants the use of them. I desired him to
shew me an experiment of this invention; upon which he fixed one of his
knockers to my parlour-door. He then gave me a complete set of knocks,
from the _solitary_ rap of the dun and beggar, to the _thunderings_ of
the saucy footmen of quality, with several flourishes and rattlings
never yet performed. He likewise played over some private notes,
distinguishing the familiar friend or relation from the most modish
visitor, and directing when the reserve candles are to be lighted. He
has several other curiosities in this art. He waits only to receive my
approbation of the main design. He is now ready to practise to such as
shall apply themselves to him; but I have put off his public licence
till next Court-day.

"N. B. He teaches _under ground_."

It appears from the lucubrations of Mr. Bickerstaff, that the idea of
obtaining a wife by advertisement was not unknown in 1710; there is a
specimen in the Tatler of September 23. It will be remembered that the
hint has been pretty well improved upon.

There was a paper published in 1711, called The Growler. True to the
assumed character, this modern Diogenes snarled at the vices and
follies of the day. One of his subjects was the Mercers, who are
thus introduced: "Alas! a handsome young Mercer cannot carry on his
business with any reputation without an embroidered coat to stand at
the shop-door in, instead of a sign or a footman in a laced livery, to
invite in his customers."

The Tatler of May 1, 1711, speaks of the strange infatuation then and
at present prevalent, of walking in the Park during the Spring. He says
that "No frost, snow, nor East wind, can hinder a large set of people
from going to the Park in February; no dust, nor heat in June. And this
is come to such an intrepid regularity, that those agreeable creatures
that would shriek at an hind-wheel in a deep gutter, are not afraid in
their proper sphere of the disorder and danger of seven rings."

Perfumes scented the air, and rendered the paths of fashion delightful
and inviting, long before the period at which I date my review. The
votaries of this fickle Goddess distributed their money so liberally
amongst the inventors and combiners of sweets, that they had become
very conspicuous persons by the reign of Queen Anne; as Mr. Charles
Lillie will serve to prove, who had the good fortune to be celebrated
by Sir Richard Steele in his Tatlers, and by the authors of the
original numbers of the Spectator. But, that this gentleman may not
monopolize all the fame of his day, I shall proceed to exhibit the
flowing periods of another retailer of essences, who points out in
which way they were generally used by the belles and beaux of the time.
"Incomparable perfuming drops for handkerchiefs, and all other linen,
clothes, gloves, &c. being the most excellent for that purpose in the
Universe; for they stain nothing that is perfumed with them any more
than fair water; but are the most delectable, fragrant, and odoriferous
perfume in nature, good against all diseases of the head and brain.
By their delicious smell, they comfort, revive, and refresh all the
senses, _natural_, _vital_, and _animal_, enliven the _spirits_, cheer
the heart, and drive away melancholy; they also perfume rooms, beds,
presses, drawers, boxes, &c. making them smell surprizingly fine and
odoriferous. They perfume the hands excellently, are an extraordinary
scent for the pocket, and, in short, are so exceeding pleasant and
delightful, so admirably curious and delicate, _and of such general
use_, that nothing in the world can compare with them. Sold only at Mr.
Payn's Toy-shop, at the Angel and Crown in St. Paul's Church-yard, near
Cheapside, at 2_s._ 6_d._ a bottle, with directions."

One of the most inconsiderate and provoking customs prevalent in the
lower classes of the community was the peal rattled in the ears of a
new-married pair on the morning after their nuptials. The Spectator
mentions drums on such occasions; those, though they were continued
till within these very few years, are not now used; and I believe the
practice is confined to the procession of Butchers' men and boys,
who ring their discordant cleavers with leg-bones of oxen in a sort
of chime, which may be prevented by a few pence, and is always a
_day-light_ operation.

Another of the customs of the Londoners is thus accidentally noticed in
the British Mercury, October 1712, "who plied there to be hired, like
Chimney-sweepers, at Cheapside Conduit."

The Peace of 1713 gave great satisfaction to the Citizens; and the
Proclamation of it was honoured with the usual State ceremonies, the
responses of shouts and bonfires, and with general illuminations.
Although many eccentric methods may have been taken by individuals to
express their joy, one only of those has been recorded, which was the
thought of the keeper of the Spread Eagle Inn, in Gracechurch-street,
who advertized one shilling tickets for a _Peace_ Pudding, nine feet in
length, twenty inches in breadth, and six inches deep.

The ingenuity of Mr. Winstanley, exhibited at his Winter Theatre by his
widow on the same occasion, may be worthy notice. That lady advertised,
as a specimen of their skill in Hydraulicks, "six sorts of wine and
brandy coming out of the famous barrel, to drink the Queen's health,
and Peace. Being enlarged, there will be an addition of claret, pale
ale, and stout, playing out of the head of the barrel when it is in the
pully, and water at the same time, &c. &c."

"A Coach-maker, of Long-acre, actuated by mistaken zeal, provided the
effigies of Dr. Burges, just then deceased, which he placed in an old
chariot, with a pipe in the mouth, and two tapers before him. Thus
represented, as if in his pulpit, he gave the whole to the mob to burn,
which they did in due time, much to his shame."

The tenth number of the Lover, published March 18, 1714, treats on
the absurdity of filling the best rooms of the houses of fashionable
females with china. The author says, that the venders of articles
of this description usually bartered them for rejected clothing, a
custom now faintly discernible amongst certain Jews, who exchange with
servants glass, earthen-ware, and a little china, for old clothes.
Mr. Addison, who wrote the paper, adds, that he remembered when the
largest article of china was a coffee-cup; but that it had then swelled
to vases as large as a half-hogshead, and that those useless jars
were accompanied by a variety of absurd representations, arranged, I
suppose, in cupboards and on mantle-pieces, as the reader may have
seen in some _old-fashioned_ apartments of the present day: indeed,
I believe some of the jars may be found in corners yet; but it would
perhaps puzzle the owners to designate their use, or to prove in what
respect they are even ornamental.

The year 1714 gave rise to the practice of a contrariety of customs.
The Queen died, and the Nation outwardly mourned in black habits.
Custom was thus complied with in relation to Death. But the joyful
entry of George the First required the gayest apparel and the
appearance of happiness. Surely the publick must have been puzzled
how to express these opposite feelings; to-day all grief and sables,
to-morrow all splendour, laces, scarlet, gold, and jewels; and the
third, a recurrence to mourning.

As the public entry of this King undoubtedly secured the succession in
the Protestant line, I shall be diffuse upon the ceremonies attending
it; and those will be best explained by the ensuing original orders,
published by the Earl of Suffolk.

     "A Ceremonial for the Reception of his most sacred Majesty
      GEORGE, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain,
      &c. upon his arrival from Holland to his Kingdom of Great

"The King being arrived at Greenwich, and the day fixed for his
Majesty's Royal Entry; public notice thereof is to be given by the Lord
Marshal of the times and places where the Nobility, the Lord Mayor,
Aldermen, and Citizens of London, &c. are to meet, in order to attend
his Majesty. And some of the Officers of Arms, being appointed by
the Lord Marshal, to go to Greenwich early that morning, to rank the
coaches of the Great Officers, the Nobility, and others, in order, the
juniors first, which are to assemble by ten of the clock in the morning
in the Park there, in order to precede the King's coach: And notice
being given to the Officers of Arms when his Majesty is ready to set
out: His Majesty, preceded as aforesaid, and attended by his _guard du
corps_, is to proceed from thence in his coach towards London, in the
following order; _viz._

                  Four of the Knight Marshal's Men on

           Coaches[244:A] of Esquires with six horses each.

                     Coaches of Knights Bachelors.

                 Baronets of Ireland, Nova Scotia, and
                            Great Britain.

              The King's Solicitor. The King's Attorney.

                 Younger Sons of Barons of Ireland and
                            Great Britain.

               Younger Sons of Viscounts of Ireland and
                            Great Britain.

          Barons of the Exchequer and  }  according to their
          Justices of both Benches     }      Seniority.

                Lord Chief Justice of the Common-Pleas
                         (may go as a Baron.)

            Master of the Rolls,        }  may go as Privy
            Lord Chief Justice of the   }   Counsellors.
                  King's-bench,         }

                     Privy Counsellors not Peers.

                 Eldest Sons of Barons of Ireland and
                            Great Britain.

                 Younger Sons of Earls of Ireland and
                            Great Britain.

                Eldest Sons of Viscounts of Ireland and
                            Great Britain.

                 The Speaker of the House of Commons.

                 Barons of Ireland and Great Britain.

                          Bishops of England.

                      Younger Sons of Marquisses.

          Eldest Sons of Earls of Ireland and Great Britain.

                Viscounts of Ireland and Great Britain.

                Younger Sons of Dukes of Great Britain.

              Eldest Sons of Marquisses of Great Britain.

                  Earls of Ireland and Great Britain.

           Earl Poulet Lord Steward of the King's Household.

             Earl of Suffolk and Bindon, as exercising the
                  Office of Earl Marshal of England.

                Eldest Sons of Dukes of Great Britain.

                     Marquisses of Great Britain.

              Marquis of Lindsey, Lord Great Chamberlain
                              of England.

                  Dukes of Ireland and Great Britain.

           The Lord Chamberlain (who appears as Treasurer.)

                      The Great Officers, _viz._

                         The Lord Privy Seal.

                  The Lord President of the Council.

                       The Lord High Treasurer.

                     The Lord Archbishop of York.

                           Lord Chancellor.

                    Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.

             His Royal Highness the Prince, (if not in the
                       Coach with his Majesty.)

                   The KING's Majesty in his Coach.

               The King's Guards of Horse, commanded by
                      the Captains of the Guards.

In this manner his Majesty, preceded by the Nobility and others in
their Coaches as aforesaid, is to be attended from the Queen's House in
the Park through Greenwich and Deptford to Kent-street end, and from
thence to St. Margaret's-hill in Southwark, where the Lord Mayor of
London and others wait his arrival.

And upon notice that the Nobility, &c. are arrived near to St.
Margaret's-hill in their coaches, the Officers of Arms are to begin to
draw out the grand proceeding, in the following order; _viz._

                 A detachment of the Artillery Company
                          in buff-coats, &c.

            The two City Marshals on Horseback, with their
                       men on foot to make way.

                Two of the City Trumpets on horseback.

           The Sheriffs' Officers on foot, with javelins in
                             their hands.

             The Lord Mayor's Officers in black gowns, on
                          foot, two and two.

              Two more of the City Trumpets on horseback.

     The City Banner borne by the Water-bailiff on horseback, with
     a servant on foot in a coloured livery.

     Then the City Officers on horseback, in their proper gowns,
     each attended by a servant on foot in coloured liveries.

                   The four Attorneys, two and two.

                 The Solicitor, and the Remembrancer.

                         The two Secondaries.

                           The Comptroller.

                       The four Common Pleaders.

                            The two Judges.

                            The Town-clerk.

               The Common Serjeant, and the Chamberlain.

              Two more of the City Trumpets on horseback.

     The King's Banner, borne by the Common Hunt on horseback,
     with a servant on foot in a coloured livery.

     The Common Cryer in his gown, and the City Sword-bearer in
     his black damask gown and gold chain, both on horseback, each
     having a servant on foot in coloured liveries.

     Then those who have fined for Sheriff or Alderman, or
     served the office of Sheriff or Alderman, in scarlet gowns
     on horseback, according to their seniorities, two and two,
     the juniors first, each attended by two servants on foot in
     coloured liveries.

     The two Sheriffs in scarlet gowns on horseback, with their
     gold chains, and their white staves in their hands, each
     attended by two servants on foot in coloured liveries.

     The Aldermen below the Chair on horseback in scarlet gowns,
     two and two, each attended by his beadle and two servants on
     foot in coloured liveries.

     Then the Recorder in a scarlet gown on horseback, attended by
     two servants on foot.

     Then the Aldermen above the Chair in scarlet gowns, on
     horseback, wearing their gold chains, attended by their
     beadles, and two servants each, in coloured liveries.

     Then the coaches of the Nobility, Great Officers, &c. in the
     order they come from Greenwich.

                The Knight Marshal's Men on horseback,
                             two and two.

           The Knight Marshal, or his Deputy, on horseback.

                       The King's Kettle-drums.

                            The Drum-major.

                   The King's Trumpets, two and two.

     Serjeants    The Serjeant Trumpet with his mace.    Serjeants
     at Arms                                             at Arms
     with            Pursuivants of Arms uncovered,      with
     their                    two and two.               their
     Maces,                                              Maces,
     bare-headed.     Heralds of Arms, as before.        bare-headed.

                       Kings of Arms, as before.

                       The PRINCE in his Coach.

     Gentleman Usher      The Lord-mayor of London    Garter King
     of the Black-rod,    in his Crimson Velvet       of Arms, or
     on his left-hand,    Gown on horseback,          his Deputy,
     uncovered.           wearing his rich collar     on the right
                          and jewel, uncovered,       hand, uncovered.
                          bearing the City-sword
                          by his Majesty's
                          permission, with only
                          four servants on foot,
                          bareheaded, in coloured

     Yeomen of the                                 Yeomen of the
     guard, Footmen,    The KING in his Coach.     guard, Footmen,
     Equerries.                                    Equerries.

                 His Majesty's Horse-guards as before,
                       to close the proceeding.

     Thus the KING is to pass from St. Margaret's-hill (after the
     Recorder has made his speech, and the Lord Mayor received
     the City sword from his Majesty) to his Royal-palace of St.

     The Trained-bands of Southwark, by order of the
     Lord-Lieutenant of Surrey, are to line the way from
     Kent-street end, to the foot of London-bridge.

     Three regiments of the City Trained-bands are to make a guard
     from the Bridge to the Stocks-market.

     The several Companies of London, with their Ensigns, are to
     line the streets on both sides, from the Stocks-market to St.
     Paul's Church-yard; at the East-end whereof, the Children of
     Christ's-hospital are to stand, and one of the King's boys
     makes a speech to his Majesty.

     And the other three regiments of the City Trained-bands are
     to guard the way from St. Paul's Church-yard to Temple-bar.
     From Temple-bar, the Steward, High-bailiff, and Burgesses
     of Westminster, in their gowns, attended by all the
     Constables and Beadles with their respective staves: and the
     High-bailiff's officers, with their ensigns of office, are
     to line the way: and next to them the Militia of Westminster
     make a guard, leaving a space between them and his Majesty's
     Foot-guards (who line the way from St. James's into the
     Strand) for the Artillery-company to draw up in.

     Against St. Alban's-street in the Pall-mall, the Sheriffs'
     officers and Lord Mayor's officers are to make a stand on the

     Those who have served, or fined for Sheriffs or Aldermen of
     London, are to make their stand between the passages into St.

     The Sheriffs and Aldermen make their stand towards the
     upper-end of the Pall-mall, on the right-hand leading to St.

     The Nobility, and others who go in their coaches, are to
     alight at St. James's-gate; and the coaches to pass by St.
     James's Meuse into St. James's-park, and go out again at the
     upper gate by Hyde-park.

     The Knight-marshal's men, kettle-drums, trumpets, and
     serjeant-trumpet, are to make a stand on the right-hand side
     from the end of the Pall-mall, by the Gloucester-tavern.

     The Officers of arms and Serjeants at arms are to pass on to
     the second gate-way, and there alight.

     The Lord-mayor, with Garter, and the Gentleman-usher of the
     Black-rod, are to attend his Majesty into St. James's, to
     the foot of the stairs leading up to the Guard-chamber; where
     they alight, and the Lord Mayor humbly takes his leave of his

     During the whole proceeding from St. Margaret's-hill, the
     Conduits at Stocks-market and other parts of the City are
     to run with wine as usual. And the great guns at the Tower
     are to be twice discharged: first, at his Majesty's taking
     coach at Greenwich; and secondly, after his passing over
     London-bridge. And at his Majesty's arrival at his Royal
     Palace, the foot-guards in the Park fire three volleys, and
     the cannon in the Park are to be discharged."

Such was the eagerness evinced on this occasion, that seats were
erected in every situation where it was possible the King could be
seen, and the balconies in Cheapside, Cornhill, &c. were let for 20
and 30 guineas each. It must, however, be acknowledged to have been
a superb spectacle, to grace which the publick provided prudently
and amply. Coaches, carts, &c. were forbid to enter the streets, and
those were lined by six regiments of Trained bands; the Conduits
ran with wine; the Charity-children, assembled on a vast range of
seats, sung Hymns; the Livery Companies exhibited their persons and
costume; and a number of aged gentlemen, whose hairs were silvered
by time, determined to invite others to join them in white camblet
cloaks, and seated on white horses to form part of the procession;
but some unforeseen obstacles intervening, they were compelled to
substitute a stand at the East-end of St. Paul's, erected over another
appointed for a boy from Christ's-hospital to pronounce an oration
to the King, where a considerable number appeared to shew their
loyalty.--One of the newspapers of the day observes, that the weather
was uncommonly fine, and that the cavalcade of the procession and
volunteers reached from Greenwich to St. Paul's. Exclusive of the
usual evening demonstrations of joy, a fire-work was exhibited in St.
Paul's church-yard, representing two flaming dragons on one side, and
on the other the Crown accompanied by the motto, "_Floreat Civitas_."
Cockades of ribband, and ribbands decorated with mottos and devices
in gold and silver, were very generally worn on this occasion, and at
the subsequent Coronation; previous to which, the Envoys of Sicily and
Venice had a warm dispute on precedency in the box prepared for the
Ambassadors in Westminster-hall; this the Marshal of the Ceremonies
adroitly parried, by declaring all precedency ceased _in_ the box.
Every description of utensils and table-linen were purloined from
Westminster-hall, as at the preceding Coronation.

Dreadful accidents occurred during the procession, by the fall of
over-loaded scaffolds in Old Palace-yard and the Broad Sanctuary:
nineteen persons were killed and wounded, amongst whom was Lady Burton,
far advanced in pregnancy; this unhappy lady died in a few minutes.
Every recompence was made to the survivors, by the King's orders, that
pecuniary assistance could afford.

The King soon after witnessed the Lord Mayor's annual ceremony from
Mr. Taylor's balcony in Cheapside. This gentleman was a Quaker and a
Linen-draper, to whom the Monarch offered the honour of Knighthood in
return for his civility; but the wary Friend declined the tempting
bait, which would have procured him the less acceptable ceremony of
being read out of Meeting.

The Proprietors of Sion gardens advertised the following singular
method of selling deer from their park, in May 1715. They appointed
the afternoons of Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, for killing those
animals; when the publick were admitted at one shilling each to see the
operation, or they might purchase tickets from four to ten shillings,
which entitled them, I suppose by way of Lottery, to different parts
of the beast, as they say the quantity killed was to be divided into
sixteen lots, and the first choice to be governed by the numbers on
the tickets; a ten shilling ticket was entitled to a fillet; eight
a shoulder; seven a loin, &c. If the full price of the Deer was not
received on a given day, the keeper held the money till that sum was
obtained. They offered to sell whole deer, and to purchase as many as
might be offered.

A singular wedding occurred in November 1715, _secundum usum
Tremulorum_, between a rich Quaker Apothecary, and a daughter of
Daniel Quare, the celebrated watch-maker in Exchange-alley. The place
of entertainment was Skinners-hall, "where 300 persons were present,
amongst whom was the Duchess of Marlborough, &c. The Princess of Wales
was invited, but did not go."

However unpleasant the yells of Barrow-women are at present, no other
mischief arises from them than the obstruction of the ways. It was far
otherwise before 1716, when they generally carried Dice with them,
and children were enticed to throw for fruit and nuts, or indeed any
persons of more advanced age. However, in the year just mentioned, the
pernicious consequences of the practice beginning to be felt, the Lord
Mayor issued an order to apprehend all retailers so offending, which
speedily put an end to street-gaming; though, I am sorry to observe,
that some miscreants now carry little wheels marked with numbers, which
being turned govern the chance by the figure a hand in the centre
points to when stopped.

The first notice of coloured lamps for illuminations that I have met
with is in the year 1716, when Dr. Chamberlain displayed 200 on the
front of his house in Surrey-street, in honour of the King's birth-day.

The same year produced the annual rowing-match by six young watermen
who have just completed their apprenticeship, which was founded by Mr.
Doggett, the Comedian, who left a certain sum in trust for the purchase
of the prize, an orange-coloured coat with a silver badge, representing
the Hanoverian horse, as I take it; but the papers of the day will have
it to represent _the wild unbridled horse_ Liberty.

The reader will find in the following advertisement a singular method
of invitation to a public-house and gardens; and I think he will agree
with me, that this custom of our predecessors is better honoured in the
breach than in the observance.

"Sion Chapel, at Hampstead, being a private and pleasant place, many
persons of the best fashion have been lately married there. Now, as
a Minister is obliged constantly to attend, this is to give notice,
that all persons, upon bringing a licence, and who shall have their
wedding-dinner at the house in the gardens, may be married in the said
Chapel without giving any fee or reward; and such as do not keep their
wedding at the gardens, only five shillings will be demanded of them
for all fees."

A grand aquatic procession occurred in July 1717. The King, accompanied
by the Dutchess of Newcastle, Lady Godolphin, Madam Kilmanseck and
the Earl of Orkney, went in the evening in an open barge to Chelsea.
As they floated up the tide, surrounded by thousands of boats, fifty
performers in a City-barge serenaded his Majesty with the strains of
Handel, composed expressly for this occasion, with which he was so
enraptured that they were thrice repeated. At eleven o'clock the boats
had reached Chelsea; there the Monarch landed, and, proceeding to the
mansion of Lady Catharine Jones[257:A] he supped, was entertained by
a concert, and returned at two in the morning. The Princess of Wales
frequently hired the common watermen, and glided about the same part
of the river; and once honoured a West-country barge with a visit,
partaking with the men their homely fare of salt-pork and bread, and
distributing a tenfold equivalent of guineas. This honour was so
acceptable to the Master of the vessel, that he immediately gave her
a Royal title, and expended great part of the money in purchasing a
splendid cockade as a _distinguishing vane_ for his head, vowing to
_renew it when decayed_.

Such were the happier moments of Royalty! Thanks to our Constitution,
happiness reigns in gradations from the Throne to the Cottage; and
while George I. solaced in his Gondola, fanned by the evening breeze,
and lulled by the sweet notes of Handel, his peasants were celebrating
their Florists' feast at Bethnal-green, with a Carnation named after
him, the King of the Year; the Stewards bearing gilded staves, crowned
with laurel, and bedecked with flowers, and 90 cultivators in their
rear, each bearing his blooming trophy, traversed the fields to the
sound of musick, happy in themselves, and rendering the numerous
spectators not less so. Why is this pleasing custom neglected and

It would have been well if the Society for the Reformation of Manners
had attempted the reform of a class of people whose manners were
extremely provoking and very disgusting.

I beg leave to introduce a paragraph from the Medley of May 16, which
will explain my meaning, and support my assertion, that in this
particular the watermen of our day are greatly improved, though still
very rough in their actions and conversation.

"On Monday last, being the day King George set out for Hanover,
several of his lower domesticks went before; and while they were upon
the Thames, a brisk bold lass, that was perfectly well versed in
water-language, gave them several plaguy broadsides; certain it is,
she made use of several odd, comical, out-of-the-way expressions, at
which, though at the same time they were heartily vexed, they could
not forbear laughing. The phrases she made use of should be repeated
here, but only they were of such a rude nature, that, though they did
not fall under the cognizance of the law by water, yet they would be
perfectly punishable by land; and I question whether if they would not
even be deemed treasonable. The Thames seems to have a charter for
rudeness; and the sons of Triton and Neptune have not only a freedom
of, but a licence for, any sort of speech. The privilege, by being so
antient, is grown incontestible; and scandal there is as it were a law
by prescription. Crowned heads in former times did not go scot-free,
and yet no punishment ensued; so that Majesty then seemed, by conniving
in silence at the abuse, to give the Royal assent to those rough
water-laws. Several bitter jests were cast on our good Queen Catharine;
and people told her Majesty merrily of the several children King
Charles had by his concubines, and made it a matter of ludicrous wonder
and surprize, that the constant bedfellow of so mettlesome a Prince
should not give the world one token of their mutual love."

Such were the manners of watermen; and, without doubt, their passengers
frequently bore a part in the low _amusement of abuse_. Mr. Mist, well
known as one of the heroes of the Dunciad, enables me to shew those of
some of the landsmen of the same period. He introduces them in very
good advice to parents and masters previous to the holidays of May;
and observes, that many coaches were in a state of requisition for the
conveyance of journeymen, apprentices, and their masters' daughters, to
the churches of St. Pancras and Mary-le-bon, for private marriage.

He conjures all sober honest tradesmen who love their wives to walk
abroad with them and their children. "And whereas Mr. Mist has
been informed, that in holiday times divers persons of distinction
and figure _transform themselves into the shapes of journeymen,
apprentices_, and other mechanical habits, to trepan young wenches out
of their modesty; he therefore requires of all viceroys and governors
of families to give the strictest orders for their female children and
servants to repair to their respective habitations before candle-light.

"All journeymen Drapers, Mercers, Lawyers-clerks, _and other ten or
twelve-shilling workmen_, are strictly forbid to cause riots and routs
in the streets _concerning precedency_, as they return from their
carouses in the night-time.

"N. B. Bullies and Gamesters, who have an indisputable right to make
disturbances every night in the year, are not meant in this article.

"Journeymen Shoemakers are desired to take notice, that by an antient
statute, yet unrepealed, any of their function going sober to bed on
the night of Whitsun-Monday forfeits 5_s._; upon non-payment to be
levied by distress, one moiety to the informer, and the other to the
poor alehouse-keepers of the Parish where the fact was committed."

The horrid custom of Duelling never was at a greater height than at the
above date. The newspapers from 1700 to 1719 appear to have preserved
their progression faithfully; every gaming-table, despicable brothel,
tavern, coffee-house, masquerade, the theatres, and even festive
meetings, produced its duellist; and the universal fashion of wearing
swords allowed no time for passion to subside, or reason to reflect;
a walk into the street or into an adjoining room, enabled the parties
to wound each other in an instant; revenge and pain maddened them; and
death frequently ensued to both. Government at length interfered; but
duelling has again recovered from _temporary_ interruption!--Doctors
Mead and Woodward fought like a pair of butchers, in June 1719, at the
very gates of Gresham-college; and every drunken rake who staggered
through the streets had it in his power to plunge a sword into an
unoffending breast, or to _wound_ where he now _dare_ not _strike_.
Dead bodies were frequently found; and the thief and the duellist
seemed emulous which should furnish the Diaries of the time with the
greater number of victims. Robberies, attended with monstrous cruelty,
were dreadfully frequent; and such was the general profligacy of the
age, that the paragraph-writers endeavoured to convey horrid facts
with a levity of expression suited to the coarseness of their style,
which was truly vulgar throughout all the newspapers. Let one instance
speak for me: "People sicken and die at an uncommon rate in and about
this city and suburbs; and there is a sad outcry raised (especially
by antient females) of a plague, pestilence, and what not, which has
occasioned abundance of people to leave the town, and fly to the
_countries_ for refuge, whilst horse and foot physicians, mountebanks,
_dead-mongers_, parish-clerks, and other lesser _ministers of dust
and ashes_, are continually in motion in one part or other to perform
their several offices; and we hear that in some parishes the sexton or
grave-digger can afford to employ two or three journeymen."

                         _Original Weekly Journal, May 22, 1719._

It must, however, be allowed that frequent attempts were made to
resist the progress of vice, and many of the Justices concurred in
warning the people of the illegality of their conduct; ten of them,
at a special Session held for the division of the Tower, in pursuance
of an order made at the General Quarter Sessions for Middlesex, on
the 19th of January 1719, for putting in execution the Statute of 33
Henry VIII. Cap. 9, directed authentic copies of the order to be given
to all victuallers, &c. whom it concerned, and also to be affixed
in all public places within that Division; "That none shall keep or
maintain any house or place of unlawful games, on pain of 40_s._ for
every day, of forfeiting their recognizance, and of being suppressed;
that none shall use or haunt such places on pain of 6_s._ 8_d._ for
every offence; and that no artificer, or his journeyman, husbandman,
apprentice, labourer, servant at husbandry, mariner, fisherman,
waterman, or serving-man, shall play at tables, tennis, dice, cards,
bowls, clash, coiting, loggating, or any other unlawful game, out of
Christmas, or then out of their master's house or presence, on pain of

But, though it was sometimes possible to prevent the depravity of the
lower order of people, there were others, that moved in the sphere
of gentlemen, who set the worst of examples to their inferiors. Such
were those that had assembled on the evening of a Court drawing-room
at the Royal Chocolate-house in St. James's-street; where disputes at
hazard produced a quarrel, which became general throughout the room;
and, as they fought with their swords, three gentlemen were mortally
wounded; and the affray was at length ended by the interposition of the
Royal-guards, who were compelled to knock the parties down with the
butt-ends of their muskets indiscriminately, as intreaties and commands
were of no avail. A footman of Colonel Cunningham's, greatly attached
to his master, rushed through the swords, seized, and literally carried
him out by force without injury.

This horrid rencontre was the effect of sudden passion, roused by
disappointment and avarice; there was nothing of depravity prepense,
except the act of gaming. Weak as this palliative may be, the members
of two other clubs had them not to plead for their infamous profligacy.
The wretches who associated under the titles of the "_Bold Bucks_" and
the "_Hell-fires_," are described in a paper of February 20, 1720, as
deliberate abandoned villains. "The principles of the first are to
come up to the flaming lust of their worthy patrons, from whom they
take their denomination, by their examples; they attempt all females
of their own species promiscuously--grandmothers and mothers, as well
as daughters; even their own sisters fear their violence, and fly
their privacies. Blind and bold Love is their motto, and their soul's
faculties strictly terminated in a participation of entertainment and
judgment with brutes."

"The Hell-fires, you may guess by the appellation, aim at a more
transcendant malignity; deriding the forms of Religion as a trifle
with them, by a natural progression from the form they turn to the
substance; with Lucifer they fly at Divinity. The third person of the
Trinity is what they peculiarly attack; by the following specimen
you may judge of their good will: _i. e._ their calling for a Holy
Ghost-pye at the Tavern, in which, by the bye, you may still observe
the propriety and justice of God's judgment on them, that blasts the
advantages of their education, so as to make this shocking stupidity to
be the poignancy of their wit, and the life they lead, the sublimity
of their genius. Such is their disposition; the next things to be
remarked are their education and usual place of conference. Their
education then, after the care of tender parents, and their initiation
into the liberal arts, is proposed to be finished in an academy; (do
not mistake me) not a scholastic schismatical one, but a riding one;
where obsceneness, curses, blasphemy, exclamations, with revolving
regularity, meet each curvet of the more rational animal. Their usual
place of conference in full council, is a diminutive Tavern not very
far from thence; where the master and cook may perhaps in time hear
something from a Magistrate for striking in with the rakes' blasphemous
jests, and supplying them with cards and dice on Sundays."

As a further illustration of the manners of the times, the following
paragraph is of importance: "On Wednesday night last, about twelve,
there was such a great riot in Windmill-street, near the Haymarket,
that near 100 gentlemen and others were all engaged at one time, some
with swords, and others with sticks and canes, wherein abundance
were dangerously wounded; the watchmen that came to put an end to the
affray were knocked down and barbarously used; at last the patrole of
Horse-guards came, and finding them obdurate, rode through them cutting
all the way with their swords; yet we hear of none that were killed
upon the spot, though many, it is thought, cannot recover of their
wounds. When they saw their own time, they gave over; and, upon summing
up the matter, the quarrel began at first by two chairmen only[266:A]."

On the evening of May 28, Captain Fitzgerald and three young men his
companions met a lady in the Strand, returning from St. James's,
conveyed in a sedan-chair. They immediately endeavoured to force her
out, but were opposed by the chairmen, upon which they drew their
swords, and proceeded to demolish the vehicle. The noise brought a
watchman to the spot, who instantly received a deadly wound through the
back, and as instantly expired. This mighty son of Mars was secured;
but the others fled from their foul deed, like true cowards.

It may be supposed that this laxity of manners influenced all ranks,
when inroads upon the paths of decorum prevailed even in the Church.
In order that this fact may not rest upon my mere assertion, I shall
quote the concluding lines of a letter to the Author of the London
Journal, dated December 21, 1720, and signed "A. A. a lover of decency
and order." He speaks of an impropriety, _now_ become quite common,
in the Stewards of the Sons of the Clergy permitting persons from the
Theatres to perform in their annual celebration at St. Paul's; and then
proceeds: "There are other things truly blameable to be observed, when
the _Te Deum_ or Anthem hath been performing, yes, when the parson hath
been preaching, (viz.) _persons eating, drinking wine_, laughing and
talking; a conduct much more becoming those who attend the performances
of Drury-lane or the Haymarket, than the Temple of the Lord.

"What is here taken notice of, as it is fact, so it is abominable,
and ought to be exposed; the doing of which may tend to reform such
irregularities for the future, and keep those disorders from the House
of God, which cannot admit of a justification unless by those who may
think the same liberties may be taken in places set apart for devotion,
as are in the Synagogue of Satan."

The progress of the shocking Clubs already noticed became so alarming,
that the King found it necessary to issue his proclamation for their
suppression, in April 1721, which establishes their existence beyond
all dispute.

     "At the Court of St. James's, the 28th day of April 1721.

     Present, the King's most excellent Majesty in Council.

"His Majesty having received information which gives great reason
to suspect that there have been lately, and still are, in and about
the Cities of London and Westminster, certain scandalous Clubs or
Societies of young persons, who meet together, and in the most impious
and blasphemous manner insult the most sacred principles of our Holy
Religion, affront Almighty God himself, and corrupt the minds and
morals of one another; and being resolved to make use of all the
authority committed to him by Almighty God to punish such enormous
offenders, and to crush such shocking impieties, before they increase,
and draw down the vengeance of God upon this nation: His Majesty
has thought fit to command the Lord Chancellor, and his Lordship is
hereby required, to call together his Majesty's Justices of the Peace
of Middlesex and Westminster, and strictly to enjoin them in the
most effectual manner, that they and every of them do make the most
diligent and careful inquiry and search for the discovery of any thing
of this and the like sort, tending in any wise to the corruption of
the principles and manners of men, and to lay before his Lordship
such discoveries as from time to time may be made, to the end that
all proper methods may be taken for the utter suppression of all such
detestable practices. His Lordship is further directed to urge them
to the due execution of their office, in detecting and prosecuting
with vigour all profaneness, immorality, and debauchery, as they
value the blessing of Almighty God, as they regard the happiness of
their country, which cannot subsist if things sacred and virtuous are
trampled upon; and, as they tender his Majesty's favour, to which they
cannot recommend themselves more effectually than by shewing the utmost
zeal upon so important an occasion; to which end his Lordship is to
acquaint them, that as his Majesty, for himself, has nothing more at
heart than to regard the honour of God so impiously struck at, and is
determined to shew all marks of displeasure and discouragement to any
who may lie even under the suspicion of such practices; so he shall
always account it the greatest and substantial service they can do to
his Majesty or his government, to exert themselves in discovering any
who are guilty of such impieties, that they may be openly prosecuted
and punished with the utmost severity and most public ignominy which
the laws of the land can inflict.

                                               EDWARD SOUTHWELL."

"His Majesty has been pleased to give orders to the principal officers
of his Household, to make strict and diligent enquiry whether any of
his Majesty's servants are guilty of the horrid impieties mentioned in
the Order of Council inserted above, and to make their report to his

The dreadful consequences of this attempt to set aside all virtue and
all religion were conspicuously observable, even at the moment, in
the sudden deaths of four members of these dreadful clubs; not that
I mean to insinuate the Almighty interfered by miracles to shew his
displeasure; on the contrary, the event was produced by natural causes
inherent in each diabolical act. The hurry of the spirits, occasioned
by ardent liquors and the terrors of conscience, were sufficient;
Nature shrunk from the contest; and he that drank a toast too shocking
to repeat fainted under the recollection; and she that had assumed the
character of the Mother of Christ fell a victim to the keen horrors
of remembrance in her lucid moments of repentance. It was said, that
one of the clubs met at Somerset-house, where they celebrated their
infamous orgies to the sound of musick during the hours of Divine
service, which will account for the concluding paragraph of the
Proclamation. The number of Justices who attended the Lord Chancellor's
summons exceeded 100; they received his most strenuous recommendation
to exert themselves in the execution of the order, but I find no
recorded effects of its operation.

The mob carried the same brutality more brutalised to the feet of
the gallows; and even while the miserable wretches, who afforded
them a spectacle, were supplicating that forgiveness which the laws
of morality denied on earth, they were interrupted by shouts and
execrations, and injured by stones, dirt, and filth, thrown with
violence in every direction. At an execution, June 1721, several
persons had their limbs broken, others their eyes almost beaten out;
and Barbara Spencer, carried to Tyburn to be strangled and burnt,
was beaten down by a stone when beseeching on her knees the mercy of
Heaven. These wretches frequently robbed the Surgeons.

The wretched manner in which the lowest description of people lodged
in 1721, may be gathered from the ensuing extract from an order of the
Court at a General Quarter Session, October 4. "It is now become a
common practice in the extreme parts of the town, to receive into their
houses persons unknown, without distinction of age or sex, on their
paying one penny or more _per night_ for lying in such houses without
beds or covering; and that it is frequent in those houses for 15 or 20,
or more, to lie in a small room."

These miserable people, thus indiscriminately mixed, corrupted each
other, and licentiousness reigned triumphant amongst them; in truth,
the population of London always exceeded the means of subsistence;
and I believe there are now, upon an average, three families to each
house, and thousands of homeless wanderers. Fleet marriages were common
in 1723; and the wonderful omissions of government at that period,
in permitting so sacred an office to be celebrated, and registers of
marriages kept at ale-houses and brandy-shops within the rules, where
32 couples are known to have been joined in three days, was one cause
of the overgrown community. An author of the time alluded to says: "It
is pleasant to see certain fellows plying by Fleet-bridge to take poor
Sailors, &c. into the noose of matrimony every day throughout the week,
and the clocks at their offices for that purpose _still standing at the
canonical hour_, though perhaps the time of the day be six or seven in
the afternoon."

Macky gives a good sketch of the manner of living in 1724. The
following is extracted from his Journey through England, vol. I. p. 190.

"I am lodged in the street called Pall-mall, the ordinary residence
of all strangers, because of its vicinity to the King's Palace, the
Park, the Parliament house, the Theatres, and the Chocolate and
Coffee-houses, where the best company frequent. If you would know our
manner of living, it is thus: we rise by nine, and those that frequent
great men's levees find entertainment at them till eleven, or, as in
Holland, go to tea-tables. About twelve the _beau-monde_ assembles
in several chocolate and coffee-houses; the best of which are the
Cocoa-tree and White's chocolate-houses, St. James's, the Smyrna, and
the British coffee-houses; and all these so near one another, that in
less than an hour you see the company of them all. We are carried to
these places in chairs (or sedans) which are here very cheap, a guinea
a-week, or a shilling _per_ hour, and your chairmen serve you for
porters to run on errands as your gondoliers (watermen) do at Venice.

"If it be fine weather, we take a turn in the Park till two, when we go
to dinner; and if it be dirty, you are entertained at Picket or Basset
at White's, or you may talk politics at the Smyrna and St. James's.
I must not forget to tell you, that the parties have their different
places, where, however, a stranger is always well received; but a Whig
will no more go to the Cocoa-tree or Ozinda's, than a Tory will be seen
at the coffee-house of St. James's.

"The Scots go generally to the British, and a mixture of all sorts
to the Smyrna. There are other little coffee-houses much frequented
in this neighbourhood, Young-man's for officers, Old-man's for
stock-jobbers, pay-masters, and courtiers, and Little-man's for
sharpers. I never was so confounded in my life, as when I entered into
this last: I saw two or three tables full at Faro, heard the box and
dice rattling in the room above-stairs, and was surrounded by a set of
sharp-faces, that I was afraid would have devoured me with their eyes.
I was glad to drop two or three half-crowns at Faro, to get off with a
clear skin, and was overjoyed I was so got rid of them.

"At two we generally go to dinner: ordinaries are not so common here
as abroad; yet the French have set up two or three pretty good ones,
for the conveniency of foreigners, in Suffolk-street, where one is
tolerably well served; but the general way here is to make a party at
the coffee-house to go dine at the tavern, where we sit till six, then
we go to the play; except you are invited to the table of some great
man, which strangers are always courted to, and nobly entertained.

"I know abundance of French, that by keeping a pocket-list of tables,
live so almost all the year round, and yet never appear at the same
place above once in a fortnight. By looking into their pocket-book in
the morning, they fix their place of dining, as on Monday with my Lord
----, and so for two weeks, fourteen Lords, Foreign Ministers, or men
of quality; and so they run their round all the year long, without
notice being taken of them.

"There are three very noble Theatres here: that for Opera's at the end
of the Pall-mall, or Hay-market, is the finest I ever saw, and where
we are entertained in Italian music generally twice a-week: that for
History, Tragedy, and Comedy, is in Covent-garden (a Piazza I shall
describe to you in the sequel of this letter), and the third for the
same, is by Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, at a small distance from the other.

"The Theatres here differ from those abroad; in that those at Venice,
Paris, Brussels, Genoa, and other parts, you know, are composed of
rows of small shut-boxes, three or four stories in a semi-circle, with
a Parterre below; whereas here the Parterre, commonly called the Pit,
contains the gentlemen on benches; and on the first story of boxes
sit all the ladies of quality; in the second, the Citizens wives and
daughters; and in the third, the common people and footmen: so that
between the Acts you are as much diverted by viewing the beauties of
the audience, as, while they act, with the subject of the Play; and
the whole is illuminated to the greatest advantage. Whereas abroad,
the stage being only illuminated, and the lodge or boxes close, you
lose the pleasure of seeing the company; and indeed the English have
reason in this, for no nation in the world can shew such an assembly of
shining beauties as here.

"The English affect more the Italian than the French music; and their
own compositions are between the gravity of the first, and the levity
of the other. They have had several great masters of their own: Henry
Purcel's works in that kind are esteemed beyond Lully's every where;
and they have now a good many very eminent masters: but the taste of
the town being at this day all Italian, it is a great discouragement to

"No nation represents History so naturally, so much to the life, and
so close to truth, as the English; they have most of the occurrences
of their own History, and all those of the Roman Empire, nobly acted.
One Shakespear, who lived in the last century, laid down a masterly
foundation for this in his excellent plays; and the late Mr. Addison
hath improved that taste by his admirable Cato, which hath been
translated into several languages, particularly into Italian blank
verse, and is frequently acted in Italy.

"Their comedies are designed to lash the growing follies in every
age; and scarce a fool or a coxcomb appears in town, but his folly is
represented. And most of their comedians, in imitation of Moliere, have
taken that province; in which Mr. Cibber, an extreme good player, hath
succeeded very well.

"They seldom degenerate into farce, as the Italians; nor do they
confine their tragedies to rhyme and whining, as the French. In short,
if you would see the greatest actions of past ages performed over
again, and the present follies of mankind exposed, you must come here.

"After the Play, the best company generally go to Tom's and Will's
coffee-houses, near adjoining, where there is playing at Picket, and
the best of conversation till midnight. Here you will see blue and
green ribbons and stars sitting familiarly with private gentlemen, and
talking with the same freedom, as if they had left their quality and
degrees of distance at home; and a stranger tastes with pleasure the
universal liberty of speech of the English nation. Or, if you like
rather the company of ladies, there are assemblies at most people of
quality's houses. And in all the Coffee-houses you have not only the
foreign prints, but several English ones with the Foreign Occurrences,
besides papers of morality and party-disputes.

"My Bills of Exchange oblige me now and then to take a turn to the
Royal-Exchange, in a hackney-coach, to meet my merchant. These coaches
are very necessary conveniencies not to be met with any where abroad;
for you know that at Paris, Brussels, Rome or Vienna, you must either
hire a coach by the day, or take it at least by the hour: but here you
have coaches at the corner of every street, which for a shilling will
carry you any where within a reasonable distance; and for two, from one
end of the City to the other. There are eight hundred of them licensed
by Act of Parliament, and carry their number on their coaches; so that
if you should chance to leave any thing in a coach, and know but the
number of it, you know presently where to lay your claim to it; and be
you ever so late at a friend's house in any place of this great City,
your friend, by taking the number of the coach, secures your safety

"The Royal-Exchange is the resort of all the trading part of this City,
foreign and domestic, from half an hour after one, till near three in
the afternoon; but the better sort generally meet in Exchange-alley a
little before, at three celebrated Coffee-houses, called Garraway's,
Robin's, and Jonathan's. In the first, the people of quality who have
business in the City, and the most considerable and wealthy Citizens,
frequent. In the second, the Foreign Banquiers, and often even Foreign
Ministers. And in the third, the buyers and sellers of Stock.

"When I entered into this last, I was afraid I had got into
Little-man's Coffee-house again; for busy faces run about here as
there, with the same sharp intent looks, with the difference only, that
here it is selling of Bank-stock, East-India, South-Sea, and Lottery
Tickets, and there it is all cards and dice.

"You will see a fellow in shabby clothes selling ten or twelve thousand
pounds in stock, though perhaps he may not be worth at the same time
ten shillings, and with as much zeal as if he were a Director, which
they call selling a Bear-skin; and these men find bubbles enough to get
bread by it, as the others do by gaming; and some few of them manage
it so, as to get pretty large estates.

"Near this Exchange are two very good French eating-houses, the one at
the sign of Pontack, a President of the Parliament of Bourdeaux, from
whose name the best French clarets are called so, and where you may
bespeak a dinner from four or five shillings a-head to a guinea, or
what sum you please; the other is Caveack's, where there is a constant
ordinary, as abroad, for all comers without distinction, and at a very
reasonable price.

"I am told, that while wagers were allowed to be made on taking of
towns, and gaining of battles, during the last war, this Exchange-alley
was the sharpest place in the World; but the abuse of intelligence,
sham letters spread upon the Exchange, and private letters coming
before the Mails, made that practice so notorious, that the Queen and
Parliament wisely thought fit to put a stop to it by a seasonable
provisional Act against it, as they have endeavoured to do by another
Act against excessive gaming, being both equally looked on as a cheat
and imposition upon the well-meaning subject. However, some great men
have not disdained to be deeply concerned in both, and have got good
estates: for tricking is not here reckoned so despicable a quality as
abroad, when it is cleanly done; therefore, my friend, when you come
here, play not in England, nor venture to lay wagers, except you know
your company very well, or are sure of your fact. The fatal South-Sea
scheme, and the wicked execution of it, proves what I foretold you to
be too true."

The pernicious and general custom of wearing masks enabled
half-repentant sinners to mix with the most profligate of the female
sex undiscovered, and to indulge in excesses which they would not
have dared to commit had their features been exposed as at present.
This practice afforded opportunities of gratifying very improper
curiosity, and of visiting places at unseasonable hours; an instance
of this description occurred in May 1724. The White-lion[280:A], in
Wych-street, had long been famed for riotous assemblies under the
pretence of Concerts; and the neighbouring moralists waited with
impatience for the hour when they should effectually transgress the
Law: that hour at length arrived, and a posse of Constables, executing
a warrant obtained for the purpose, discovered females even of some
distinction, tradesmen's wives, their daughters, and many common
prostitutes, a collection that really surprised each other; the vicious
hardly crediting that they were in so much good company, and the
noviciates frightened at the features of unmasked depravity. The latter
received wholesome admonition, and were sent home; the former visited

The custom of walking and talking in the Nave of St. Paul's cathedral
had become so very prevalent in 1725, that the Bishop of London found
it necessary, at his visitation in that year, to declare his positive
intention of enforcing the 18th Canon, and the Act of the First of
William and Mary, by which transgressors forfeited 20_l._ for every

A subscription was opened in 1727 for the relief of Mrs. Clark, the
aged and only surviving daughter of Milton. An author, under the
signature of Bruyere, in the London Journal, ardently recommended
liberal contributions; and drew the following picture of the manners
then prevailing. "At White's we see nothing but what wears the mask at
least of gaiety and pleasure; powder and embroidery are the ornaments
of the place, not to forget that _intolerable stink_ of perfumes,
which almost poisons the miserable chairmen that besiege the door.
Conversation is not known here; the enquiries after news turn chiefly
upon what happened last night at the Groom Porters. The business of the
place is to promote some musical subscription; to make all possible
court to some young man of quality that is next expected to take
possession of a great estate; to take care to be very well with a knot
of well-dressed people that meet here, and modestly call themselves
_the world_; but, above all, to solicit a share in the direction of the
moneyed interest, which is established here under the name of a Faro

"At Tom's Coffee-house, in Cornhill, there is a very different face
of things. Plenty, the parent of Cheerfulness, seems to have fixed
her residence on this spot; while Joy, which is the offspring of
Folly, seems to be utterly unknown. Industry, the first principle of
a Citizen, is an infallible specifick to keep the spirits awake, and
prevent that stagnation and corruption of humours which make our fine
gentlemen such horrible torments to one another and to themselves.
Decency in dress is finery enough in a place where they are taught from
their childhood to expect no honours from what they seem to be, but
from what they really are. The conversation turns principally on the
interests of Europe, in which they themselves are chiefly concerned;
and the business here is to enlarge the commerce of their country, by
which the publick is to gain much more than the merchant himself.
For the rest I need not add, that there is a vein of strong sense and
useful knowledge runs through their whole discourse, which makes them
to wise men very desirable companions. If I should say that in this
house I have met with Merchants of as liberal education and generous
principles, of as exquisite taste in classical knowledge and polite
learning, as are to be found at Court or in the College, I should be
confident of every reader's credit when he knows that in this place was
first projected the subscription for the relief of the sightless old
age of Milton's daughter."

The Monarchs of this happy Island have frequently honoured the Citizens
of London with their presence at Guildhall, when the Lord Mayor enters
upon his office. On the 29th of October 1727, and in the Mayoralty
of Sir Edward Becher, Knight, and afterwards Baronet, George II.
his Queen, the Princess Royal, and the Princess Carolina, proceeded
to Cheapside at three o'clock in the afternoon, attended by a great
number of the Nobility and others, through a double line of the
London Militia. A balcony near Bow-church had been prepared for their
reception, whence they viewed the procession, and the houses decorated
with carpet, and tapestry to do them honour. After the City-officers
were disposed in due order for the reception of the King in Guildhall,
the Sheriffs waited on him, and conducted him there; the Lord Mayor,
kneeling at the entrance, presented the Sword of State to his Majesty,
who returned it, and followed the Mayor to the Council Chamber, where
Sir William Thompson (as Recorder) thus addressed the King:

"May it please your Majesty,

"The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons of this City, beg leave to offer
their most humble acknowledgments for this great honour to the City, by
the presence of your Majesty, your Royal Consort, the Princess Royal,
and her Royal Highness. Their joy is inexpressible, to behold their
Sovereign condescending to accept their good-will and affections, and
in the most engaging manner vouchsafing here to receive their homage
and duty.

"This day will be ever remembered by them with the highest
satisfaction: this happy day, which gave birth to their most gracious
King, who is pleased thus to honour them, and who protects them in
the enjoyment of all their rights and privileges: a Prince who takes
pleasure in promoting their happiness, and who thinks it gives the
truest lustre to his Crown, to preserve the religion, the laws, and
liberties of his people. Fortunate is their present condition, and
delightful is their prospect while they have in view your Majesty,
their most gracious and justly admired Queen, and the illustrious
branches of your Royal Family. Permit, Sire, these your Majesty's most
faithful subjects to take this opportunity of assuring your Majesty of
their unalterable attachment to your Royal Person, and of their warmest
zeal for the support of your government.

"The best, the only security of our excellent Constitution in Church
and State, and of every thing which is dear and valuable to Englishmen,
Gratitude and Interest, make these the unanimous sentiments of this
your Majesty's most loyal and most dutiful City of London."

Their Majesties (preceded by the Lord Mayor bearing the Sword) went
to the Hustings, where they dined in company with the Princesses and
the Ladies of the Bed-chamber. The entertainment was of the most
sumptuous description, and served at different tables, prepared for the
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council, the foreign Ministers, the
Nobility, Privy Counsellors, the Judges, ladies, &c. &c. After silence
had been commanded, the Common Cryer announced that the King drank to
the health of the Lord Mayor, and prosperity to the City of London and
the trade thereof, and, that her Majesty drank, confirming the same.
He then proclaimed that the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council
drank health, long life, and a prosperous happy reign to our Sovereign
Lord King George; and that they drank to the health, long life, and
happiness of our most gracious Queen Caroline, and all the Royal family.

When the dinner was concluded, their Majesties returned to the Council
Chamber, where they were seated till 11 o'clock during a ball in the
area below. The City was illuminated on this occasion.

An author of this period, treating on the number of poor, and their
manner of living, very justly observes: "If any person is born with any
defect or deformity, or maimed by fire or any other casualty, or any
inveterate distemper which renders them miserable objects, their way is
open to London; where they have free liberty of shewing their nauseous
sights, to terrify people, and force them to give money to get rid of
them; and those vagrants have for many years past been moved out of
several parts of the three Kingdoms, and taken their stations in this
Metropolis, to the interruption of conversation and business.

"The Quaker workhouse is an example for each parish: the poor orphans
among them, as well as the children of such poor as are unable to
subsist them, are put to their workhouse, where they are taught to read
and write certain hours of the day, and at other times are put to spin,
or other employments. And as the Nation has found great advantage by
those workhouses, which have been established by Act of Parliament, it
is a great pity that so profitable an Institution was not made general
through the Nation, that so there might be no pretence for any beggar
to appear abroad. Their example is very pernicious, for what they get
by begging is consumed commonly in Ale-houses, Gin-shops, &c.; and one
drunken beggar is an inducement to a great many to follow the same

"But, as to those creatures that go about the streets to shew their
maimed limbs, nauseous sores, stump hands or feet, or any other
deformity; they are by no means objects fit to go abroad; and
considering the frights and pernicious impressions which such horrid
sights have given to pregnant women, should move all tender husbands to
desire the redress of this enormity."

I have frequently observed, in the course of my researches, the strange
methods and customs peculiar to gaming, horse-racing, dice, and wagers;
the latter are generally governed by whim and extreme folly. We have
already noticed Noblemen running their coaches and footmen. In 1729,
a Poulterer of Leadenhall-market betted 50_l._ he would walk 202
times round the area of Upper Moorfields in 27 hours, and accordingly
proceeded at the rate of five miles an hour on the _amusing pursuit_,
to the infinite improvement of his business, and great edification of
hundreds of spectators.--Wagers are now a favourite custom with too
many of the Londoners; they very frequently, however, originate over
the bottle or the porter-pot.

A curious exhibition distinguished the anniversary of the Queen's
birth-day, March 3, 1730; 100 wool-combers assembled in their
shirts, with various coloured woollen caps on their heads, in
Bishopsgate-street, from whence they went in procession to St. James's
Palace, preceded by the Steward of their company and a person on
horseback, representing Bishop Blaze, in wigs of wool neatly curled;
the Bishop carried a wool-comb in one hand, and a Prayer-book in the
other. They arranged themselves in the Park facing the Palace; and
their leader addressed the King and Queen, who appeared at a window,
thanking his Majesty for the encouragement they had received, and
intreating his future protection.

A writer in Read's Weekly Journal of January 9, 1731, has obliged us
with a concise and pleasing description of Christmas customs prevalent
at that period, which I shall transcribe for the reader's information.

"My house, Sir, is directly opposite to a great Church; and it was
with great pleasure I observed from my window, last Christmas-day, the
numerous poor that waited at the doors very liberally relieved; but
my joy was soon over, for no sooner were the charitable congregation
dispersed, but these wretches, who before appeared the very pictures
of misery, forgot their cant, and fell to quarrelling about the
dividend; oaths and curses flew about amongst them, very plentifully,
and passion grew so high that they fell hard upon one another's faults.
In short, Sir, I learned from their own mouths that they were all
impostors, both men and women; and that amongst their whole number,
which was very large, there was not one object of charity. When they
had tired themselves with scolding, they very lovingly adjourned to
a neighbouring brandy-shop, from whence they returned in a condition
neither fit for me to describe nor you to hear.

"The next day I met with another wonder; for, by that time I was up, my
servants could do nothing but run to the door. Enquiring the meaning,
I was answered, the people were come for their Christmas-box; this was
logick to me; but I found at last, that, because I had laid out a great
deal of ready-money with my brewer, baker, and other tradesmen, they
kindly thought it my duty to present their servants with some money for
the favour of having their goods. This provoked me a little; but, being
told it was the custom, I complied. These were followed by the watch,
beadles, dust-men, and an innumerable tribe; but what vexed me the most
was the Clerk, who has an extraordinary place, and makes as good an
appearance as most tradesmen in the parish; to see him come a-boxing,
_alias begging_, I thought was intolerable; however, I found it was
the custom too, so I gave him half-a-crown; as I was likewise obliged
to do to the bell-man, for breaking my rest for many nights together.

"Having talked this matter over with a friend, he promised to carry me
where I might see the good effects of this giving box-money. In the
evening away we went to a neighbouring ale-house, where abundance of
these gentry were assembled round a stately piece of roast-beef and as
large a plumb-pudding. When the drink and brandy began to work, they
fell to reckoning of their several gains that day; one was cursed for a
stingy dog for giving but sixpence; another called an extravagant fool
for giving half-a-crown, which perhaps he might want before the year
was out; so I found these good people were never to be pleased. Some of
them were got to cards by themselves, which soon produced a quarrel and
broken heads. In the interim came in some of their wives, who roundly
cursed the people for having given them money, adding, that instead of
doing good it ruined their families, and set them in a road of drinking
and gaming, which never ceased till not only their gifts, but their
wages, were gone. One good woman said, if people had a mind to give
charity, they should send it home to their families; I was very much of
her opinion; but, being tired with the noise, we left them to agree as
they could.

"My friend next carried me to the upper-end of Piccadilly, where, one
pair of stairs over a stable, we found near an hundred people of both
sexes, some masked, others not, a great part of which were dancing to
the musick of two sorry fiddles. It is impossible to describe this
medley of mortals fully; however, I will do it as well as I can.
There were footmen, servant-maids, butchers, apprentices, oyster and
orange-women, common w----s, and sharpers, which appeared to be the
best of the company. This horrid place seemed to me the very sink of
hell, where, however virtuous young people may be before, they will not
come often thither before they learn to be both w----s and thieves.
It is a notable nursery for the gallows. My friend informed me, it
was called a three-penny hop; and while we were talking, to my great
satisfaction, by order of the Westminster Justices, to their immortal
honour, entered the constables and their assistants, who carried off
all the company that was left; and, had not my friend been known to
them, we might have paid dear for our curiosity.

"I believe I have almost tired you as well as myself with an account
of the lower sort of diversions. I come next to expatiate on the
entertainment and good cheer I met with in the City, whither my friend
carried me to dinner these holidays. It was at the house of an eminent
and worthy merchant; and though, Sir, I have been accustomed in my
own county to what may very well be called good house-keeping, yet, I
assure you, I should have taken this dinner to have been provided for a
whole parish, rather than for about a dozen gentlemen. It is impossible
for me to give you half our bill of fare; so you must be content to
know that we had turkeys, geese, capons, puddings of a dozen sorts,
more than I had ever seen in my life, besides brawn, roast-beef, and
many things of which I know not the names; mince-pies in abundance,
and a thing they call plumb-pottage, which may be good for aught I
know, though it seems to me to have 50 different tastes. Our wines
were of the best, as were all the rest of our liquors; in short, the
God of Plenty seemed to reign here. And, to make every thing perfect,
our company was polite, and every way agreeable; nothing but mirth and
loyal healths went round.

"I allowed myself now but one day more to finish my ramble and my
curiosity; and that was last Wednesday, being Twelfth-day. The
preparations which were made for the keeping this day, which is
reckoned the conclusion of the holidays, were reported to me to be so
great, and the cheerfulness and good humour with which most persons
spoke of its approach appeared so remarkable, that my expectation was
not a little impatient for the sight of this last scene of the Jubilee.
And as I had the honour of having been several times invited by a
person of quality, with whom I had transacted some affairs since my
being in town, to take the freedom of his table; I determined with
myself that I could not choose a more agreeable time for the acceptance
of his courtesy than this. Accordingly, I dressed myself in a manner
as suitable as I could to the place where I proposed to make my visit,
and took coach for the Court end of the town; in my passage to which,
from the extreme part of the City, I was highly entertained with almost
one continued subject of wonder and amusement. All the trades in town
seemed to be suspended for a while, and to yield to that single one of
the pastry-cooks; and no other manufactories were thought on but the
grocery and confectionary wares, that were taken up in the incredible
number of cakes prepared for this night's revel. The pomp and pageantry
with which the several pastry-shops were set out, the fancy, richness,
and number of their flags and streamers, and the contention which
appeared in every one to outdo his neighbour in splendor and delicacy,
were pleasingly remarkable; and failed not of attracting the eyes of
successive crowds of admirers.

"Having passed through this diverting scene, I was set down at last
at my nobleman's door, who, being at home, gave me a free, noble, and
generous reception. There was a pretty deal of company besides, but
all perfectly easy and cheerful, without stiffness or ceremony. I need
not, I believe, inform you that we had a very elegant and sumptuous
entertainment; and that one article of it was the reigning topick of
the day, an immense rich twelfth-cake. The sight of this immediately
introduced the ceremony of choosing King and Queen, a custom, whose
rise or antiquity very few I believe are able to give us. Through the
extraordinary bounty of my stars, the election of King fell upon me;
whereupon, I instantly received the compliments of the company upon
my new dignity. The title of Queen came to a beautiful lady who sat
opposite to me. There were inferior characters, which fell amongst
others of the company. In short, after having supported my mock Royalty
with a great deal of innocent and decent mirth for some hours, till
the night was pretty far wasted, making my profoundest respects to his
lordship and company, and rewarding the servants, according to the rank
I had borne that night, I very contentedly drove home, and having taken
a hearty sleep, I found myself in the morning entirely divested of all
Royalty, and no more than your plain humble servant,


An attempt was made, at the commencement of 1731, to suppress some
of the most considerable gaming-houses in London and the Suburbs,
particularly one behind Gray's-Inn walks. The Editor of the St.
James's Evening-Post, observed upon this occasion: "It may be matter
of instruction as well as amusement, to present our readers with the
following list of officers which are established in the most notorious

"A _Commissioner_, always a proprietor, who looks in of a night; and
the week's account is audited by him and two others of the proprietors.

"A _Director_, who superintends the room.

"An _Operator_, who deals the cards at a cheating game called Faro.

"Two _Crowpees_, who watch the cards, and gather the money for the Bank.

"Two _Puffs_, who have money given them to decoy others to play.

"A _Clerk_, who is a check upon the Puffs, to see that they sink none
of the money given them to play with.

"A _Squib_ is a Puff of a lower rank, who serves at half-salary, while
he is learning to deal.

"A _Flasher_, to swear how often the bank has been stripped.

"A _Dunner_, who goes about to recover money lost at play.

"A _Waiter_, to fill out wine, snuff candles, and attend in the

"An _Attorney_, a _Newgate_ solicitor.

"A _Captain_, who is to fight any gentleman that is peevish for losing
his money.

"An _Usher_, who lights gentlemen up and down stairs, and gives the
word to the Porter.

"A _Porter_, who is generally a soldier of the foot-guards.

"An _Orderly-man_, who walks up and down the outside of the door, to
give notice to the Porter, and alarm the house at the approach of the

"A _Runner_, who is to get intelligence of the Justices meetings.

"Link-boys, watchmen, chairmen, drawers, or others, who bring the first
intelligence of the Justices meetings, or of the Constables being
out--half a-guinea reward.

"Common-bail, affidavit-men, ruffians, bravoes, _cum multis aliis_."

To characterise the follies of the day, it will be necessary to add
to the account of the _walking_ man, in a preceding page, another
of a _hopping_ man, who engaged to hop 500 yards in 50 hops, in St.
James's-park, which he performed in 46. This important event occurred
in December 1731.

The Lord Mayor issued a notice in December 1732, observing, that
vagrant children were suffered to _skulk_ about the streets and lanes,
and sleep upon bulks, stalls, and other places, "whereby many of them
perish by the extremity of the weather." In order to prevent this, he
commanded constables, &c. to apprehend them, and to have them properly
taken care of according to Law.

The Citizens of London have been particularly distinguished for their
loyalty since the Revolution of 1688; this they have evinced by
public rejoicings or respectful mourning on any great event occurring
in the domestic concerns of their Sovereigns; thus it has become
an established custom to celebrate the marriages of the respective
branches of the Royal family. When that of the Prince of Orange and
the Princess Royal took place in March 1734, the City was brilliantly
illuminated; but, as that of Ludgate exhibited on each front, at the
expence of Henry Vander Esche, surpassed every other, I shall present
the reader with a minute description.

"First, A pyramid, whose base and perpendicular were 25 feet each, on
each side of which was placed an obelisk, standing upon a pedestal,
supported by the arms of the most noble and antient City of London.

"Secondly, A little higher on the face of the plan, were interwoven
the cyphers of Prince William of Nassau, and her Royal highness the
Princess Anne of Great-Britain.

"Lastly, At the extreme height of the building, were the Royal arms,
over a large transparent semicircle, on which were delineated the
several hieroglyphicks following. In the middle stood his Highness
the Prince of Orange, hand-in-hand with his illustrious bride, the
Princess Royal.

     "For these bless'd nuptials, loyal hearts contend
     Which shall the most with ardent joy transcend.

"On the left-hand of his Highness was represented Prudence, by a woman
with two faces, having a helmet on her head, a looking-glass in one
hand, and in the other a remora, which retards the motion of a ship.

     "Whilst others court applause by feats of arms,
     The fair, 'tis Nassau's wit and prudence, charms.

"Behind, on the right hand of his Highness, appeared the emblem
of Fortitude, a virtue which enables us to overcome the greatest
difficulties, and frequently rewards with riches and glory those who
are happily endowed with it.

     "'Tis this which bears aloft on the wings of fame,
     Great Cæsar's, and royal William's greater name.

"Farther forward on the right-hand near his highness stood Hymen, the
God of Marriage, with a burning torch, the emblem of ardent love, in
one hand, in the other a flame-coloured veil, the emblem of modesty,
called _flammeum_, with which the bride used to be covered to conceal
her blushes.

     "Patron of marriage! bless the Royal pair,
     Nor veil, nor burning torch are wanting there.

"Near Hymen's right-hand was pourtrayed Religion, a woman with her face
veiled, fire in her left hand, and in her right a book with a cross;
veiled because she is always secret; the cross is the victorious banner
of the Christian religion; the book the Holy Scriptures.

     "True piety ne'er so lovely does appear,
     As when conspicuous in the great and fair.

"Over the Prince near the sweep of the circle was the figure of Fame,
holding a trumpet in her right-hand, with which she celebrates the
glorious actions of heroes; now flying abroad with this joyful motto:

                   "Happy Union!
     Happy, thrice happy, may this Union be,
     And prove the firm support of Liberty!

"On the right-hand of Fame was represented Diana, the goddess of
chastity and sister of Apollo, with a crescent on her forehead and
lance in her hand; her dress, though careless, yet decent, and
behaviour modest and unaffected.

     "As amongst the rural nymphs her beauties shine,
     Amidst the British fair, so Anna, thine.

"On the other side of Fame, is seen the figure of Divine Justice, a
winged woman with a crown on her head, her hair dishevelled, a sword
in the right-hand, and a shield in her left, from which shines the
piercing eye of Justice; she flying thus to the assistance of Hercules,
the emblem of heroic Virtue, who is chasing away faction, envy, malice,
and tyranny, in the defence of Britannia, who is seated leaning upon
the British arms, holding those of Nassau in her right hand.

     "Thrice happy Isle, where Peace and Plenty reign;
     Whose Royal fleets give laws unto the main.

"On the fore-ground, on the left-hand of the circle, stood Peace,
a young woman winged, crowned with olive and ears of corn; having
seated by her on the ground, Plenty crowned with a garland, holding
a cornucopiæ in her right hand, denoting the affluence of all things
necessary for human life.

     "What by those joyful emblems are design'd,
     May Britain in abundance ever find;
     May Peace and Plenty still join hand-in-hand,
     And unanimity spread o'er the land!

"Lastly, on the left-hand and on the foremost ground were Thame and
Isis, whose united streams, as they flow with a long and easy course

     "So may great Nassau and his Royal Dame,
     In blended love, glide with a gentle stream,
     Nor ebb 'till sweet repose of night they know,
     At day's return, fresh tides of transport flow."

2000 lamps were used for the above transparencies: the monument was
singularly ornamented with lamps suspended on the urn and flame, and
the Duke of Newcastle caused a large bonfire to be lighted before
his door in Lincoln's-inn-fields, where he regaled the populace with

The humane Act for the transportation of felons had saved 6000 lives in
the Metropolis alone, from the date of its commencement till 1734.

The Beau of 1734 "was like the cinnamon-tree; his bark is worth more
than his body. A creature of the doubtful gender, masculine in habit,
and feminine in manners; one who has so little manners, that he himself
doth not regard it half so much as his body. All his reading has been
the academy of compliments; and his heels have profited as much by it
as his head. The cut of his clothes he learnt at Paris, the tone of
his voice in Italy, and his affectation every where. In his dressing
he shews his industry; for he spends four hours a day constantly in it
without being fatigued or out of patience. His genius appears in the
variety of his suits, and his generosity in his taylor's bills; his
delicacy in not so much as bearing a breath of wind to blow on him, and
his innocency in being seen with ladies at all hours, and never once
suspected of doing an uncivil thing. When he is dressed, the business
of the day is over; when he is undressed, he grows invisible, for his
clothes are all that is seen of him; when he dies, they are his only
valuable remains, and hung up as trophies in Monmouth-street."

The customs and manners of a part of the community of 1735 are
satirically detailed in a "Covent-garden Eclogue:"

       "The _midnight_ Justice, now devoid of care,
     Began to slumber in his elbow-chair;
     Long had he wak'd, but now his trade was o'er,
     Nor could expect a single shilling more:
     The watch had cry'd _Past one_, with hollow strain,
     And to their stands return'd to sleep again;
     Grave cits and bullies, rakes and squeamish beaux,
     Came reeling with their doxies from the Rose;
     Jephson's and Mitchell's hurry now was done,
     And now Tom King's (so rakes ordain'd) begun;
     Bright shone the Moon, and calm around the sky,
     No cinder-wench, nor straggling link-boy nigh,
     When in that _garden_, where with mimic pow'r
     Strut the mock-purple heroes of an hour;
     Where by grave _matrons_ cabbages are sold,
     Who all the live-long day drink _gin_ and _scold_;" &c.

The St. James's Evening Post of August 21, 1735, contains the
following paragraph: "Yesterday the antient company of Archers of this
City met at the Pied Horse, at the Artillery-ground, where a grand
entertainment was provided for them, after which they performed their
exercise with bows and arrows. This company is of several hundred years
standing, and used formerly to muster at this time of the year in the
Artillery-ground, as our Trained Bands do now. Some time after the
invention of fire-arms the City voted them useless; but they have ever
since kept up the company and their annual meeting, having a Marshal
handsomely equipped in a green livery with a large silver badge."

Michaelmas or Mile-end fair was presented as a nuisance by the Grand
Jury of Middlesex in 1735, which had been extended to seven days
continuance beyond the original grant.

Another Royal marriage was celebrated in 1736, which is so amply
described by Read in his Weekly Journal of May 1, that I cannot do
better than give it in his own words:

"Monday between one and two in the afternoon his Royal Highness the
Prince of Wales set out from St. James's, and crossing the water at
Whitehall, went on horseback to Greenwich, where he dined with the
Princess, and returned in the evening to St. James's in his barge.

"The crowd of people at Greenwich was the greatest that had ever been
seen; it is thought there was not less than 10,000 persons at one time
in the Park: and her Highness had the goodness to shew herself for
upwards of half an hour from the gallery of the Palace, which drew the
loudest acclamations.

"On Tuesday the King's leading coach, followed by his Majesty's body
coach, drawn by his cream-coloured horses, brought her Highness and her
retinue to Lambeth, where the King's barge waited, and carried her
over to Whitehall, and from thence in the King's own chair through the
Park to St. James's house, where the Court was in the Drawing-rooms,
and appeared in their new clothes to receive her with all imaginable

"When her Royal Highness the Princess came to St. James's, she was
dressed in a suit of rich silk; deep ground, trimmed with gold; and
embroidered with green, scarlet, and purple flowers: in which manner
her Highness was so condescending, that she shewed herself in several
of the windows of the Prince of Wales's apartments, to gratify the
curiosity of the people, who expressed their joy and satisfaction with
the loudest acclamations.

"About four o'clock her Highness dined with the Prince of Wales and the
Princess Amelia and Caroline, in his Royal Highness's apartment.

"Between six and seven o'clock her Highness, dressed in her
wedding-clothes, which were of silver tissue, and all over white,
with her hair curled and stuck with jewels, after the German fashion,
was presented to her Majesty, who presented her to the Prince; whose
clothes were of silver tissue, with white shoes and stockings.

"In the evening the ceremony of the marriage was performed; and the
procession from the King's apartments down the great stairs, under the
Piazza, to the Chapel Royal, was as follows: Four drums, drum-major,
eight trumpets, four and four. Kettle-drum. Serjeant-trumpeter in his
collar of SS. bearing his mace. The master of the ceremonies, with the
Right Honourable the Lord Carnarvon, Gentleman Usher, between the two
senior heralds. The Prince of Wales in his nuptial apparel, invested
with the collar of the garter, conducted by the Lord Chamberlain and
Vice Chamberlain, and supported by two Lords Bachelors. The officers
attendant upon the Prince followed by pairs.

"Upon the entry into the Chapel, the Master of the Ceremonies, with the
Gentleman Usher, went to the seats assigned them; and the Bridegroom
was brought to the stool placed for his Highness, fronting his
Majesty's Throne.

"The Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamberlain returned to conduct the
Bride; and the two Heralds returned with them to perform other
functions, as did the Drums and Trumpets.

_Procession of the Bride._

"Gentleman Usher to the Bride, between two Provincial Kings at Arms.
The Bride, in her nuptial habit, with a coronet, conducted by the
Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamberlain, and supported by the Duke of
Cumberland; her train borne by ten young ladies.

"Upon the entry, the Bride was conducted to her stool, below her
Majesty's Chair of State, opposite to the Prince; the Duke sat on a
stool near the Altar; and the ladies who bore the train stood near the
Bride, to perform their duties while the Marriage was solemnizing.

"The Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamberlain returned, with the
Provincial Kings, to wait upon his Majesty.

_His Majesty proceeded in this manner._

"Knight Marshal. Pursuivants. Heralds. Sir Robert Walpole, Knight of
the Garter, with his collar. The Comptroller of the Household. The
Bishop of London, &c. Two Provincial Kings at Arms. Lord Privy Seal.
Lord Chancellor. Garter Principal King at Arms, between two Gentlemen
Ushers. The Earl Marshal with his gold staff. The Sword of State
carried by the Duke of Portland. His Majesty in the Great Collar of the
Garter. The Lord of the Bed-chamber in waiting.

"Her Majesty, preceded by Mr. Coke, Vice Chamberlain, and supported by
the Earl of Grantham, her Lord Chamberlain, and the Earl of Pomfret,
her Master of the Horse.

"The Princesses Amelia, Carolina, Mary, and Louisa, supported severally
by two Gentlemen Ushers.

"The Ladies of her Majesty's Bed-chamber, Maids of Honour, and Women of
the Bed-chamber.

"Upon the entry into the Chapel, none of the persons in this procession
remained upon the Hautpas, except the Lord of the Bed-chamber in
waiting behind the King, the Lord who bore the Sword, who continued
holding it erect upon his Majesty's right-hand, and the Lord
Chamberlain, who stood upon the left-hand of his Majesty, having the
Vice Chamberlain next to him.

"His Majesty was seated in his Chair of State in the upper angle of the
Hautpas, on the right side.

"Her Majesty was seated in her Chair of State, on the other side of the

"And the four Princesses on stools placed next the Duke at the side of
the Altar.

"Her Majesty's Lord Chamberlain, Master of the Horse, and Vice
Chamberlain, stood upon the Hautpas behind her.

"The Ladies of the Bed-chamber, &c. went to the places assigned them.

"During all this time the organ played; but, as soon as the persons
were thus seated, the organ ceased, and Divine Service began.

"After the Bishop of London and Dean of the Chapel had given the
Blessing, their Majesties removed to the Throne, erected on the
right-hand of the Altar of crimson velvet, richly laced with gold.

"Then the Prince of Wales, leading the Princess of Wales, went up to
the Altar, and kneeled there.

"When the Dean had finished the Divine Service, the married pair rose,
and retired back to their stools upon the Hautpas; where they remained
while an Anthem composed by Mr. Handel was sung by his Majesty's band
of musick, which was placed in a gallery over the Communion-table.

_The Return was in the manner following._

"The drums, &c. as before.

"The Prince of Wales, supported by two married Dukes, &c.

"The Princess, supported as before.

"Then their Majesties and the Princesses, in the same manner as they
went to the Chapel.

"As soon as the Procession came back to the door of the latter
Drawing-room, the company stopped; but their Majesties, the Prince
and Princess of Wales, the Duke and the Princesses, went in, when the
Prince and Princess received their Majesties' blessing.

"About half an hour after ten the Royal Family supped in public, in
the Great State Ballroom. Their Majesties were placed at the upper end
of the table under a canopy: on the right-hand the Prince of Wales and
the Duke; and on the left the Princess of Wales, and the Princesses
Amelia, &c.

"The first course consisted of fifteen dishes cold and fifteen hot, the
second of thirty dishes hot; and then came the dessert, which formed
a fine garden rising to a terrace, the ascent to which was adorned
with the resemblance of fountains, grottoes, groves, flowers, &c. In
the middle was the Temple of Hymen, the dome of which was supported
on transparent columns three foot high. As the meats were the most
exquisite and rare that could be procured, so the dessert contained a
profusion of the finest fruits, amongst which were cherries in great
perfection, apricots, pine-apples, &c. At the end of the first course,
their Majesties drank to the Bride and Bridegroom; and soon after, the
Prince and Princesses rising up, drank the healths of their Majesties,
during which the Duke and Princesses stood likewise. When the Royal
Family rose from table, the sweetmeats were distributed amongst the

"Their Majesties retired to the apartments of his Royal Highness the
Prince of Wales; the Bride was conducted to her bed-chamber, and the
Bridegroom to his dressing-room, where the Duke undressed him, and
his Majesty did his Royal Highness the honour to put on his shirt.
The Bride was undressed by the Princesses; and being in bed in a rich
undress, his Majesty came into the room, and the Prince following soon
after in a night-gown of silver stuff, and cap of the finest lace, the
Quality were admitted to see the Bride and Bridegroom sitting up in the
bed, surrounded by all the Royal Family.

"His Majesty was dressed in a gold brocade turned up with silk,
embroidered with large flowers in silver and colours, as was the
waistcoat; the buttons and star were diamonds. Her Majesty was in a
plain yellow silk, robed and laced with pearl diamonds, and other
jewels of immense value.

"The Dukes of Grafton, Newcastle, and St. Alban's, the Earl of
Albemarle, Lord Hervey, Colonel Pelham, and many other noblemen, were
in gold brocades of 3 to 500_l._ a suit. The Duke of Marlborough was in
a white velvet and gold brocade, upon which was an exceeding rich Point
d'Espagne; the Earl of Euston, and many others, were in cloths flowered
or sprigged with gold; the Duke of Montague in a gold brocaded tissue.
The waistcoats were universally brocades, with large flowers. It is
assured that most of the rich cloths were the manufacture of England;
and it must be acknowledged, in honour of our own Artists, that the few
which were French did not come up to these in richness, goodness, or
fancy, as may be seen by the Royal Family, which are all of the British

"The ladies were principally in brocades of gold and silver, with large
flowers, and wore their sleeves much lower than had been done for some

"Some worthy Citizens, on this further strengthening the Protestant
Succession, a truly joyful occasion, finely illuminated the Monument
(as was indeed the whole City), to shew their regard to his Majesty,
and his most illustrious Family, the great protectors of it.

"At the Drawing-room on Wednesday morning his Royal Highness saluted
all the ladies, and afterwards the Princess Amelia presented them to
her Royal Highness, to kiss her hand; when the Honourable Colonel
Townshend informed her Royal Highness of the names of every particular
lady as they came up.

"His Royal Highness presented all his chief officers and servants
himself to his Royal Consort; and they had severally the honour of
kissing her Royal Highness's hand.

"Wednesday at noon there was the greatest appearance of the Nobility,
Quality, and Gentry at Court, that has been known in the memory of man,
to congratulate their Royal Highnesses on their nuptials.

"The ladies were variously dressed, though with all the richness and
grandeur imaginable; many of them had their heads dressed English of
fine Brussels lace, of exceeding rich patterns, made up on narrow
wires, and small round rolls, and the hair pinned to large puff caps,
and but a few without powder; some few had their hair curled down on
the sides: pink and silver, white and gold, were the general knots
wore. There were a vast number in Dutch heads, their hair curled down
in short curls on the sides and behind; and some had their hair in
large ringlets behind, all very much powdered, with ribbands frilled
on their heads variously disposed, and some had diamonds set on
ribbands on their heads; laced tippets were pretty general, and some
had ribbands between the frills; treble-laced ruffles were universally
worn, though abundance had them not tacked up. Their gowns were either
gold stuffs, or rich silks, with gold or silver flowers, or pink or
white silks, with either gold or silver nets, or trimmings; the sleeves
to the gowns were middling (not so short as formerly) and wide, and
their facings and robings broad; several had flounced sleeves and
petticoats, and gold or silver fringe set on the flounces; some had
stomachers of the same sort of the gown, others had large bunches of
made flowers at their breasts; the gowns were variously pinned, but
in general flat, the hoops French, and the petticoats of a moderate
length, and a little sloped behind. The ladies were exceeding brilliant
likewise in jewels, some had them in their necklaces and ear-rings,
others with diamond solitaires to pearl necklaces of three or four
rows; some had necklaces of diamonds and pearls intermixed, but made
up very broad; several had their gown-sleeves buttoned with diamonds,
others had diamond sprigs in their hair, &c. The ladies' shoes were
exceeding rich, being either pink, white, or green silk, with gold or
silver lace and braid all over, with low heels, and low hind-quarters,
and low flaps, and abundance had large diamond shoe-buckles.

"The gentlemen's clothes were generally gold stuffs, flowered velvets,
embroidered or trimmed with gold, or cloth trimmed, the colours
various. Their waistcoats were also exceeding rich silks flowered with
gold, of a large pattern, all open sleeves, and longer than formerly,
and the cuff broader; the clothes were longer waisted than of late, and
the plaits of the coat were made to stick out very much (in imitation
of the ladies hoops) and long. The wigs were of various sorts; the
tyes, higher foretops than formerly, and tied behind with a large flat
tye; the bag-wigs, &c. as usual. White stockings were universally worn
by the gentlemen as well as the ladies.

"Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales left 100 guineas to be
distributed among Sir John Jennings's servants at Greenwich.

"The officers of the horse and foot-guards that mounted on Tuesday at
St. James's wore Ramellie periwigs by his Majesty's order."

The now almost obsolete practice of giving strong-beer to the populace
on public rejoicings always occasioned riots instead of merriment. This
assertion is supported by the behaviour of the mob in August 1737, when
the present Duchess of Brunswick was born. The Prince of Wales ordered
four loads of faggots and a number of tar-barrels to be burnt before
Carleton-house as a bonfire, to celebrate the event; and directed the
Brewer to his household to place four barrels of beer near it, for
the use of those who chose to partake of the beverage, which certain
individuals had no sooner done, than they pronounced the liquor of
an inferior quality: this declaration served as a signal for revolt,
the beer was thrown into each other's faces, and the barrels into the
fire, "to the great surprize of the spectators; it being perhaps the
first instance of Sir John Barleycorn's being brought to the stake, and
publicly burnt by the rabble in Great Britain."

The Prince had the good-nature to order a second bonfire on the
succeeding night, and procured the same quantity of beer from another
brewer, with which the populace were pleased to be satisfied. Such was
the strange disposition of the collected mind of the lower classes; a
mind compounded of insensibility of kindness, pride, and independence,
that condescended to accept of an entertainment, and that had the
ill-nature to condemn the provision even in the presence of their
Prince, who must have been ignorant that the beer was bad--_if it
really was so_.

An instance of blind folly arising from a better motive occurred very
soon after, during the exercise of an antient custom practised by the
mob at that period, though now discontinued.

Two loose women had seized upon an inebriated gentleman, and were
conveying him to their lodgings at noon-day: the populace concluded he
would at least be robbed, and determined to rescue him immediately;
which they did, and severely ducked the women in the Chequers Inn yard.
Thus far justice proceeded in its due channel; but an unfortunate
journeyman cutler happened to exert himself rather too outrageously,
and attracted notice: he was observed to hold the woman or women in
a manner that might be supposed real efforts of anger, or as efforts
intended to mask an intention to release them; the word was instantly
given to duck him as _their bully_--the women were released, and
escaped; the cutler was thrown into the horse-pond in defiance of his
protestations of innocence; and when his wife endeavoured to rescue
him, she underwent the same discipline.

Many of the follies committed in this wanton manner must doubtlessly
have originated from the excessive use of beer and gin; to suppress
which, every possible effort was then making; but such was the demand
for the latter, that no less than 587 persons were convicted, and paid
a penalty of 100_l._ each, between September 1736 and August 1737, for
retailing it, besides 127 committed to Bridewell.

_Practical_ jokes sometimes distinguished the manners of the Citizens
of London: those were generally innocent, and generally very silly;
but one of a contrary description marked the Autumn of the year just
mentioned. A well-dressed man rode down the King's road from Fulham
at a most furious rate, commanding each turnpike-gate to be thrown
open, as he was a Messenger, conveying the news of the Queen's sudden
death. The alarm instantly spread into every quarter of the City; the
Trained-bands, who were on their parade, desisted from their exercise,
furled their colours, and returned home with their arms reversed. The
shop-keepers began to collect sables; when the jest was discovered, but
not the author of it.

The following ballad gives a pleasant review of the customs, or, if you
please, fashions of the Citizens, previous to 1737, in care of their

       "On fashions a ditty I mean to indite,
     Since surely you'll own, 'tis the fashion to write:
     And, if you don't like it, then e'en lay it down,
     The fashion is not to be scar'd with a frown.

     To fashion our healths, as our figures, we owe;
     And, while 'twas the fashion to _Tunbridge_ to go,
     Its waters ne'er fail'd us, let ail us what wou'd;
     It cemented crack'd bones, and it sweeten'd the blood.

     When Fashion resolv'd to raise _Epsom_ to fame,
     Poor _Tunbridge_ did nought: but the blind or the lame,
     Or the sick or the healthy, 'twas equally one,
     By _Epsom's_ assistance their business was done.

     _Bath's_ springs next in fashion came rapidly on,
     And out-did by far whate'er _Epsom_ had done;
     There the gay and the sullen found instant relief,
     And the sighing young widow was eas'd of her grief.

     Unrival'd by any, _Bath_ flourish'd alone,
     And fail'd not to cure in gout, colic, or stone,
     Till _Scarborough_ waters, by secret unknown,
     Stole all the fam'd qualities _Bath_ thought her own.

     Ev'n _Islington_ waters, _though close to the Town_,
     By Fashion one Summer were brought to renown;
     Where we flock'd in such numbers, that for a supply,
     We almost had tippled the _New-river dry_.

     It late was the fashion by _Ward_ to be cur'd;
     And his pill mov'd the cause on't, whate'er we endur'd;
     While every eye saw on which _Taylor_ laid hand,
     And no cripple _Mapp_ touch'd, but could instantly stand.

     But since 'tis the fashion to banter their skill,
     Our eyes are relaps'd, and we're worse for the pill;
     Our joints are contracted, our anguish so sore,
     We fly to the Doctors we laugh'd at before."

One of the strange and perverse customs practised by the Society of
Quakers is, their determination to open their shops on those days
held sacred by other classes of Religion. On the Fast-day of February
1757, the Lord Mayor sent the proper officers to close their windows
_per_ force, which they did to the number of 70: yet a person of this
persuasion had the presumption to wait on the Chief Magistrate with an
anonymous letter he had received, threatening to destroy his house if
his windows were opened, at the same time soliciting him to go there
and read the Riot Act; thus demanding protection from the vengeance he
provoked, by insulting the piety of others, exclusive of the impiety
of opposing respect and supplication, directed to the same Divinity he

Curiosity may be said to have become so prevalent throughout
all classes of the inhabitants of London, that it is actually a
distinguishing trait in their general character; nor is it by any
means a new one, an assertion that might be supported by many proofs.
An essayist of 1757 says: "I have that opinion of the ladies and
gentlemen of the present age, that if the French were in full march
along the New-road, and they had no engagement of pleasure on their
hands, they would go out to see a _new_ army, as, indeed, there would
be a variety in it; the clothes, standards, &c. being different; nor do
I believe that any one person would put off their intended pleasure,
even though they heard the enemy's drums beating."


     "Would you a modern beau commence,
     Shake off that foe to pleasure, sense;
     Be trifling, talkative, and vain;
     Of ev'ry absent friend complain.
     Their worth contemn, their faults deride,
     With all the insolence of pride.
     Scorn real unaffected worth,
     That claims no ancestry by birth:
     Despise the virtuous, good, and brave,
     To ev'ry passion be a slave.
     Let not sincerity molest,
     Or discompose your tranquil breast;
     Barter discretion, wit, and ease,
     As idle things, that seldom please
     The young and gay, who laugh and wink
     At senseless drones who read and think;
     Who all the fleeting hours count o'er,
     And wish the four-and-twenty more;
     Furnish'd with volumes in their head,
     Above all fire, below all lead.
     Be it your passion, joy, and fame,
     To play at ev'ry modish game,
     Fondly to flatter and caress;
     A critick styl'd in point of dress;
     Harangue on fashions, point, and lace,
     On this one's errors, t'other's face;
     Talk much of Italy and France,
     Of a new song and country-dance;
     Be vers'd in politicks and news;
     All Statesmen, Ministers, abuse;
     Set public places in a blaze:
     Loudly exclaim 'gainst Shakspeare's Plays;
     Despise such low insipid strains,
     Fitted for philosophic brains:
     But modern Tragedies extol,
     As kindling rapture in the soul.
     Affect to know each reigning belle,
     That throngs the Playhouse or the Mell,
     Declare you're intimate with all
     You once have met with at a ball;
     At ev'ry female boldly stare,
     And crowd the circles of the fair.
     Tho' swearing you detest a fool,
     Be vers'd in Folly's ample school:
     Learn all her various schemes, her arts,
     To shew your merit, wit, and parts.
     These rules observ'd, each foppish elf
     May view an emblem of himself."

                                              _London Chronicle._


The reader who has waded through my _Londinium_ will find that several
thousands of our vast community are of that profession which might
furnish matter for a very considerable number of pages--_Lawyers_; but
what can I say of their manners or customs, without incurring a charge
of fixing upon a _single class_, and of thus appearing particular in
praising or censuring? In this dilemma I have very fortunately met with
the "Long Vacation, by Jemmy Copywell, of Lincoln's-Inn;" which the
writer and the editor of the London Chronicle, _foreseeing_ the use I
should make of it, have kindly preserved for the present purpose.

     "My Lord now quits his venerable seat,
       The Six-clerk on his padlock turns the key,
     From bus'ness hurries to his snug retreat,
       And leaves vacation and the town to me.

     Now all is hush'd, asleep the eye of Care,
       And Lincoln's-Inn a solemn stillness holds,
     Save where the Porter whistles o'er the Square;
       Or Pompey barks, or basket-woman scolds.

     Save, that from yonder pump, and dusty stair,
       The moping shoe-black, and the laundry-maid,
     Complain of such as from the town repair,
       And leave their usual quarterage unpaid.

     In those dull chambers, where old parchments lie,
       And useless drafts, in many a mould'ring heap,
     Each for parade to catch the client's eye;
       Salkeld and Ventris in oblivion sleep.

     In these dead hours, what now remains for me,
       Still to the stool and to the desk confin'd:
     Debarr'd from Autumn shades, and liberty,
       Whose lips are soft as my Cleora's kind!"

       *       *       *       *       *

       "See Term appears to rule a passive world,
     And awe the frighted rustick with its train
     Of wigs and gowns, and bands. The jemmy clerk,
     Close by his master's side, stands powder'd, while
     His client at a distance cringes. Now,
     Thou dear associate of my busy hours,
     Whom (since Vacation in her sleepy lap
     Lull'd me to indolence, Circæan queen,
     Who poisons while she smiles) I have disdain'd,
     Welcome to my embrace--once again
     Thy presence let me hail--I greet thee well.
     Now will I lead thee thro' the maze of law,
     Perplexing and perplex'd. The knotty point,
     And ev'ry quirk and quibble, will I shew:
     And sometimes on huge folios shalt thou tread
     With black-brow'd sections hideous. There, intent,
     The puzzling clause shalt thou transcribe, until
     Thy pilot sickens. Strait he shall revive,
     And speed thy flight to equitable shores.
     There shalt thou penetrate each deep recess,
     And labour'd labyrinth of a Bill _in Canc._
     Daring to face tautology. How thick
     Thy stream will run, respondent to each note
     Of dull interrogation! Quickly thence,
     As time may prompt, and active fancy flow,
     Thy font I'll purify, and turn its course
     O'er fairy mountains and poetic vales.
     Say! hadst thou rather the Demurrer's bar
     Erect invincible, than waft my sighs
     To my Cythera's bosom, and direct
     Her eyes, those lamps of beauty, where to shine?
     When Cupid's messenger, how dost thou fly,
     Swifter almost than thought! and as I touch,
     In honour of my love, the Sapphic lyre,
     Methinks thy feather dances to the tune.
     But, when I bid thee up the heavy hill,
     Where Bus'ness sits, to travel, how thy pace
     Wants quick'ning! this and that way dost thou writhe,
     Convolv'd, uneasy with the tiresome march.
     Hold up awhile--for sure is the reward
     That waits on labour--Bear, oh! bear me thou
     Thro' long succeeding covenants, from sense
     However devious. Spread thy black'ning cloud
     O'er this fair face of parchment--Haste, dispatch
     This cumbrous load of things. On, quicker on,
     And rid me of the bus'ness of the Term.
     Then in reward for all thy service past
     (Tho' gratitude be held a crime) thy plume
     With gold shall blazon. Safe in silver case
     Shalt thou recline, from vulgar ken remote,
     Nor ever visit more the sons of care,
     Unless to win respect, and be admir'd."

The conduct of both sexes, when mixed in what are generally termed
parties, can only be known by the person who actually views it. How
then am I (who had not received the breath of life in 1758) to draw
a faithful picture of the manners of that period? There is but one
way, quotation from contemporary moralists. The Craftsman says, "A
Frenchman has no more idea of a party of pleasure without ladies, than
an Englishman can entertain the least conception of enjoying himself
until they retreat. From those opposite dispositions it arises, that
the first introduces himself with a becoming unconcern into company,
and master of that _bienseance_ which distinguishes the gentleman, and
performs all offices of life without the least embarrassment; whereas
nothing is more common among us, than to find gentlemen of family and
fortune, who know nothing of the fair sex but what they have collected
from the most abandoned part of it, and can scarce reckon a virtuous
family within the scope of their whole acquaintance. It is not
unpleasant to observe one of this class, when chance or necessity has
brought him in a room with ladies of reputation. An awkward restraint
hangs about him, and he is almost afraid to speak, lest he should
inadvertently bolt out something, which, though extremely suitable
to the dialect of Covent-garden, would be grossly offensive to those
females who had not received their rudiments of education in that
seminary. The gloom that hangs over an English company while the ladies
remain, and the reciprocal restraint that each sex seems to be upon
the other, has been frequently a subject of ludicrous observation to
foreigners; and, indeed, the fair-ones themselves, _though natives, and
to the manner born_, frequently express astonishment, what mysteries
the men can have to celebrate, so opposite to those of the _bona dea_,
that no female must be present at the ceremony.

"At the same time that I condemn my countrymen for separating
themselves from those who have the art of refining every joy this
world affords; I am sorry to be obliged to observe, that the ladies
themselves do in some measure contribute to this great evil. The
scandalous practice so prevalent at present of giving up their whole
thoughts as well as time to cards, has made the company of women,
pardon the expression, extremely insipid to those who would willingly
consider them as rational creatures, and do not depend upon superior
skill in the game of whist for a subsistence. Is it to be imagined that
a man, whose mind is the least raised above the vulgar, will devote
that time which he may employ in conversing agreeably, either with the
dead or the living, to those assemblies, where no ideas enter beyond
the respective excellences of Garrick and Cibber; and the several
possible cases so profoundly calculated by the incomparable Mr. Hoyle?
Yet, from declining these places, I know many intimate friends who have
acquired the odious character of women-haters; though at the same time
they entertain the highest esteem for that amiable sex, and sincerely
regret that the tyrant Fashion has put it out of their power to enjoy
more of their company than a bare view of their persons, agitated by
the various and uncertain revolutions of Fortune's wheel."


Foreigners very justly conceive that a double advantage may be
accomplished in teaching their languages to youth and adults, by
introducing them into their families; the latter pronounce nothing
but what is to be acquired, and the teacher obtains a handsome sum
for lodgings and board. It may be supposed that this was a modern
invention. Who is there that doth not recollect the Advertisements
of Monsieur Du M----d; but Monsieur Switterda precedes him a whole
century; and proves that the rage for acquiring French was in full
vigour when our grandfathers were infants. "Mr. Switterda has lately
given, in the Postman, a very kind and candid invitation to the
nobility and gentry to learn of him to speak Latin, French, and High
Dutch fluently, with as good grace as if it were natural to them,
and no wise _pednatick_, according to Grammar rules, and to explain
any author, as Erasmus, C. Nepos, &c.; but few noblemen and ladies
of quality have taken notice of his proposals, which, if he had sent
them in any Country beyond Sea, had been well accepted, to his great
advantage. He intends to dispose of two Copper-plates, containing the
grounds of the Latin tongue. Those who will study in Divinity, Law,
or Physick, may but come twice a-week to him to learn Latin. He can
be aspersed by none, but by slanderous and interested persons, who
have need to lodge a competent dose of hellebore in themselves. Youth
may board with him at his house in Arundel-street, next to the Temple
passage, where you may have the grounds of the Latin tongue in three
sheets of paper, or grammatical, and Latin and French historical cards,
and a packet to learn _Copiam Verborum_ and _Syntaxim ornatam_. He
teacheth also in Drury-lane, within two doors of the Dog-tavern, at
Mr. Peache's house, or at any place where ladies and gentlemen will
appoint him, if it be worth his acceptance. Thursdays and Saturdays,
from five till eight, he teacheth at the Cock and Bottle in the Strand,
next to Salisbury-street. _Invidiam solertia et virtute vincam._" 1699.

Ladies boarding-schools were in high reputation at the same period,
and had been so for many years before. Mrs. Bellpine, daughter to Mr.
La Marre, a French Minister, who had kept one for thirty years, hired
Mary-le-bon house, near the church, where she professed to teach every
thing then taught in boarding-schools, together with musick, dancing,
and singing.

Observers frequently attacked the general system of female education,
and as frequently exposed the frivolous pursuits taught in the various
schools near the Metropolis; even in the year 1759, two or three
houses might be seen in almost every village, with the inscription,
"Young Ladies boarded and educated," where every description of
tradesmen sent their children to be instructed, not in the useful
attainments necessary for humble life, but the arts of coquetry and
self-consequence--in short, those of a _young lady_. The person who
received the children had then the sounding title of Governess;
and French and Dancing-masters prepared the girl for the hour when
contempt for her parents' deficiencies was to be substituted for
affection and respect. Instead of reading their native language with
propriety and just emphasis, it was totally neglected, and in place
of nervous sentences and flowing periods, the vulgarisms of low
life were continued; while the lady repeated familiar words of the
French language with a sound peculiar to Boarding-schools, and quite
unintelligible to a native of France: the pleasing labours of the
needle were thrown aside, and the young lady soon became an adept in
imitating laces and spoiling the beauty of coloured silks.

Such were the follies of 1759; and they so nearly resemble those of
1807, that I really dread I shall be supposed to criticise the moderns,
when I am in truth repeating the animadversions of an author probably
long since deceased.

                                                "_Jan. 29, 1759._

"At a meeting of the Society for Reformation of Manners, especially
with respect to the Lord's-day: Ordered, that the thanks of the Society
be returned to the worthy person, unknown, for his kind present of
ten guineas. They also hereby give notice to all grocers, chandlers,
butchers, publicans, pastry-cooks, and others whom it may concern; that
they are resolved to put the laws in execution against all such as
shall continue to offend, by exercising their callings on the Lord's
day, in such a manner as may most effectually suppress that great and
growing evil, whether by indictments or otherwise, of which they are
desired to take this friendly public warning."

The reader will observe, that it has long been customary for tradesmen
of the above description to sell on Sundays; but it should be
recollected that the lowest classes of the community are sometimes
paid very late on Saturday evenings, and that they have it not always
in their power to arrange their time, so as to procure every necessary
for the only holiday they have. When such wants are supplied by the
tradesman _before the hour of Divine service_, he must be a rigid
moralist indeed who would prosecute the offender. If persons in opulent
circumstances were in the practice of purchasing on Sundays, it could
be attributed to no other cause than mere indolence in themselves and
servants, and they would deserve punishment; but I cannot help thinking
a grocer or chandler would find very little account from opening his
shop for such, as I do not believe there are five in each parish
throughout London. For the pastry-cooks and publicans I have no excuse.

There were people in the middle of the last Century who had so little
regard for decency, that they even interrupted those solemn hours of
silence which are devoted, in our Courts of Justice, to ascertaining
the guilt or innocence of persons whose lives are in question. Would
it be credited that when an evidence was speaking, a Jury and a
Judge listening, spectators should be seen in deep discourse upon
some irrelevant subject, others quarrelling about places, and young
ladies actually sewing each other's clothes together amidst titters
and suppressed laughter--yet such _was_ the fact. Surely this practice
cannot _now_ prevail.

Illegal concerts were held in 1759, and the conductors of them
collected innocent young men and apprentices, by declaring that the
receipts were intended for charitable purposes. When assembled,
notorious Procuresses made their appearance, attended by the Cyprians,
their progeny; and the consequence to the manners of youth may be
imagined. Sir John Fielding, acting under the authority of the
following clause in a very salutary Act of Parliament, and supported by
a party of guards, dispersed one of those riotous assemblies in April
of the above year, and sent the _ladies_ to Bridewell:

"Any house, room, garden, or other place, kept for public dancing,
music, or other public entertainment of the like kind, in London and
Westminster, or within 20 miles thereof, without a licence had for
that purpose, shall be deemed a disorderly house or place; and that it
shall be lawful for any person, authorised by warrant from a Justice,
to enter such house, and seize every person found therein; and that
every person keeping such house, &c. without such licence shall forfeit
100_l._ and be otherwise punishable as the Law directs in case of
disorderly houses."

Since Sir John Fielding's time, the publick have frequently had
occasion to applaud the vigilance of the Police in their attempts to
prevent illegal assemblies, whether under the title of concerts or
dances; and instances might be related when dancing-masters and groupes
of their pretended scholars have visited the watch-house; but the most
obstinate places of vicious amusement were the Dog and Duck, and the
Apollo-gardens, in St. George's-fields; the latter of which is not
only now suppressed, but the site has become a mere level, and the Dog
and Duck served for several years as a public kitchen for charitable
purposes, after the keeper had been expelled.

At the latter place there was a long room furnished with tables and
benches, and at the upper-end an organ. The company who assembled in
the evening, consisted of some of the finest women of the town of
the middle rank, their bullies, and such young men as could, without
reflection, condescend to supply the thirsty palates of the women with
inflaming liquids: the conversation was--Reader, imagine what!

The Apollo-gardens might _accidentally_ receive decent visitors, but I
presume their stay to have been short. These places flourished much too
long; infinite injury was done by them. But we have now the consolation
to reflect, that Vice is compelled to hide her fascinating visage;
and though it is impossible to dive into all her haunts, we do not
find them blazoned with large characters in the public ways, where
her votaries however contrive intimations which are passed unobserved
by the virtuous, but understood by the vicious; and these Bagnio's,
Seraglio's, or whatever else the reader pleases to term them, are in
many instances large and handsome houses.

The lady who trades upon her own account can never be at a loss for
a sign to indicate her profession, as long as her own sweet person
is permitted to appear at a window, either in _elegant disorder_, or
habited fit for a drawing-room. How shall I number these signs, or
the streets where they most abound? The Reader would disbelieve the

When some concurring circumstances have prevented the rapid letting
of new houses in parts of the parish of St. Mary-le-bon, I believe it
might be safely asserted, that builders have admitted persons into
them who had a girl in almost every room as a distinct lodger; but
they are generally _dislodged_ as respectable inhabitants approach,
and they return to their previous haunts in more obscure situations.
Exeter-street was dreadfully infested with wretched women and thieves
in 1759, and great difficulty occurred in driving them from it; that it
has been accomplished, may serve as a hint for some modern unfortunate

There are but few of our Essayists who have not reprobated the
distribution of _vales_ to the domesticks of those to whom visits were
paid. When the custom was in full vigour, the office of a footman
became very lucrative, and the division of the profits arising from the
contributions of a large company, was a matter of no small importance
to the parti-coloured mendicants; who arranged themselves in their
Master's hall in double ranks, prepared to affront those who infringed
their rights, and were barely civil when they received sums which would
have procured meals for fifty poor families. Card-money, or money
deposited under the candlesticks for the servants where card-parties
were held, deserved less reprehension, as it was in every one's power
to avoid gaming; but when a man in moderate circumstances was insulted
for not giving that which was necessary for his own existence, or
was compelled to decline an invitation to his injury, we cannot but
wonder that such a custom should have prevailed for a year, much less
a Century or more. It was meanness in the master to suffer such an
exaction, and folly to comply with it when himself a visitor. Some
serious attempts were made about 1760 to abolish Vales, which has been
at length gradually accomplished, though there are still unthinking
people who give where it is not expected.

Cock-fighting, Cudgel-playing, and Boxing, were practised in some parts
of the Metropolis in 1761; and most of the promoters of those elegant
customs escaped punishment. Higginson, master of the Tennis-court and
Little Theatre in James-street, near the Haymarket, less fortunate,
was tried at the bar of the King's-bench, and convicted of encouraging
this species of brutality; however, Mr. Higginson contrived either
to set the verdict at defiance, or to evade future penalties, for
subsequent newspapers contained long accounts of a battle between
Meggs, a collier, and the celebrated Nailor, at the Tennis-court, where
the seats let at 5_s._ and 10_s._ 6_d._ to an overflowing audience. The
reader will forgive me, if I at once proceed to notice this hateful
custom of Boxing in its present state; he need not be informed that it
has been encouraged by persons of the highest rank, who have been and
are now known to disgrace their situation in life, by witnessing the
infliction of blows which sometimes produce death, and always disfigure
the human form, for the avaricious purpose of betting on either party,
to the injury at least of their fortunes.

The Magistracy, well aware of the wiles and power of their antagonists
in the race between Justice and Depravity, made but few movements for
a considerable length of time, by which means they gained to their
support all well-disposed persons; in consequence, their exertions
have been so far successful, that when matches are made for battles,
cavalcades of Lords, Knights, Commoners, dustmen, and the rabble in
general, may be observed in motion, destined for an _arena_--they
know not where, as the spot fixed upon for the scene of combat is
frequently occupied by a party of Officers of the Police previous to
their arrival. Thus defeated, they have been known to traverse the
roads and fields for miles, to enter some jurisdiction independent of
their persecutors. Cock-fighting is yet _permitted_ to be publicly
advertised, though but seldom; and Cudgel-playing has lately exhibited
some strong symptoms of revival.


     "He could wish to see Butchers' boys, who gallop through the
     streets of London, punished for so doing, or at least their
     horses seized for the use of the poor of the parish in which
     they so offend; for, though a poor man's life may not be
     worth preserving, his limbs may be of use to him while he
     crawls upon earth.

     "Brewers starting their butts in the day-time, he considers
     as an intolerable nuisance.

     "Ruinous Houses ought to be pulled down, because they may as
     well tumble upon the head of an Alderman as upon that of a

     "A regulation in Smithfield-market, he thinks, ought to
     take place, because a mad Ox may as well gore the lady of a
     _Knight Banneret_, as a poor Oyster-wench.

     "Worn-out Hackney-coaches should in a particular manner be
     looked into, because none but those in easy circumstances
     can be affected by their breaking-down in the streets. This
     regulation in no shape regards my family, because I never
     suffer my _Moll_ to enter one till I have first properly
     surveyed it.

     "That Cheesemongers should not set out their butter and
     cheese so near the edge of their shop-windows, nor put their
     firkins in the path-ways, by which many a good coat and silk
     gown may be spoiled; as by advertising in the papers his
     shop will be sufficiently known, without carrying home the
     shop-bill upon their clothes.

     "Ladders, pieces of timber, &c. should by no means be
     suffered to be carried upon men's shoulders within the posts
     of this City, because, by a sudden stop, they may as well
     poke out the eye of a rich man as that of a poor one.

     "Chairmen, as they are a kind of human nags, ought to amble
     without-side the posts as well as other brutes.

     "It is needless for ladies of a certain cast to patrole the
     streets at noon-day with a bundle in one hand, as they carry
     an evident sign of their profession in their eye.

     "Long swords are a nuisance in the City at Change-time,
     as the wearer may very well receive a bill without that
     dangerous weapon; and as it is not often he comes into it to
     pay one.

     "Churches are no places to sleep in, because, if a person
     snores too loud, he not only disturbs the congregation, but
     is apt to ruffle the preacher's temper.

     "Barbers and Chimney-sweepers have no right by charter
     to rub against a person well-dressed, and then offer him
     satisfaction by single combat.

     "Splashing a gentleman with white silk stockings designedly
     is a breach of decency, and utterly unknown at Wapping or
     Hockley in the Hole.

     "That reading these hints and not endeavouring to redress
     them, will be a fault somewhere, but not in


The whimsical manner in which the above customs are reprehended, was
fairly matched by the following notice from the Publick Advertiser,
issued in downright serious earnest.

"To the Inhabitants of the Parish of St. Faith.

"I have observed of late years, that the London meeting-houses of
all Sectaries have crowded audiences, and that the Prayers of our
established Church are read, and the Sermons of her Ministers
preached, to empty seats, unless at places where some new-fangled
doctrines are propagated to captivate weak minds. It becomes me as
an honest man, and agreeable to the oath I have taken, earnestly to
admonish you to attend the service of the Church on Sundays, unless
prevented by occasions that are lawful.

"It requires I should give you this notice publicly, that no person may
have reason to think me over-officious, if he finds his name among the
presentments my oath obliges me to exhibit before the Ecclesiastical
Court at the expiration of my office.

                                     DAVID RICE, _Churchwarden_."


The spirits of the Community were never more exhilarated than at the
auspicious period which gave England her present King and Queen. The
Coronation was necessarily similar to those described in _Londinium
Redivivum_; and the simplicity of our Church in the article of marriage
admits of little more splendour than that of dress, at all times superb
on such occasions in the British court. The fireworks, illuminations,
and behaviour of the populace, who were in some instances regaled with
beer round a bonfire, was generally decorous, and in some measure
compels me to silence as to incidents, except in one particular case,
when an odd scene of _midnight gratitude_ was exhibited to Earl Temple
and Mr. Pitt, who were returning _incog._ from Guildhall, where they
had dined on the 9th of November 1761. The instant those Patriots were
recognized, the multitude crowded round the carriage, impeded its
progress, and shouted with so much ardour, that the sleeping neighbours
were roused, and, when they had discovered the cause of the tumult,
heartily joined in the shouts with nightcaps instead of hats in hand.

The report of the Committee appointed to provide the entertainment on
the above day, will evince how well they performed their duty.

"At a Court of Common Council held June 17, 1762, the following Report
was presented to the Court:

     "_To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and
      Commons of the City of London, in Common-Council assembled._

     "We your Committee, appointed by your order, of the third
     day of October last, to manage the entertainment for their
     Majesties at the Guildhall of this City, on the then ensuing
     Lord Mayor's Day, beg leave to report, that duly sensible of
     the great honour done us in this appointment, we cheerfully
     devoted our time and utmost endeavours to prepare and
     regulate the said entertainment, so as best to answer the
     intention of this honourable Court.

     "In the preparations for the intended feast, your Committee
     omitted no expence that might serve to improve its splendour,
     elegance, or accommodation: whilst on the other hand they
     retrenched every charge that was not calculated to that end,
     however warranted by former precedents. Their Majesties
     having expressed their Royal inclinations to see the
     Procession of the Lord Mayor to Guildhall, the Committee
     obtained Mr. Barclay's house in Cheapside for that purpose,
     where proper refreshments were provided, and every care taken
     to accommodate their Majesties with a full view of the whole

     "The great hall and adjoining apartments were decorated
     and furnished with as much taste and magnificence as the
     shortness of the time for preparation and the nature of a
     temporary service would permit: the Hustings where their
     Majesties dined, and the new Council Chamber, to which
     they retired both before and after dinner, being spread
     with Turkey carpets, and the rest of the floors over which
     their Majesties were to pass with blue cloth, and the
     whole illuminated with near three thousand wax tapers in
     chandeliers, lustres, girandoles, and sconces.

     "A select band of music, consisting of fifty of the best
     hands, placed in a superb gallery, erected on purpose at the
     lower end of the Hall, entertained their Majesties with a
     concert during the time of dinner, under the direction of a
     gentleman justly celebrated for his great musical talents;
     whilst four other galleries (all covered with crimson, and
     ornamented with festoons) exhibited to their Majesties a
     most brilliant appearance of five hundred of the principal
     Citizens of both sexes.

     "Their Majesties table was served with a new set of rich
     plate, purchased on this occasion, and covered with all
     the delicacies which the season could furnish, or expence
     procure, and prepared by the best hands.

     "A proportionable care was taken of the several other
     tables provided for the Foreign Ambassadors and Ministers;
     the Lords and Gentlemen of his Majesty's most Honourable
     Privy-Council; the Lord Chancellor and Judges; the Lords and
     Ladies in waiting; the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and
     Common Council; and many others, both of the Nobility and
     Gentry: the whole number of guests within the Hall, including
     the galleries, being upwards of twelve hundred; and that of
     the Gentlemen Pensioners, Yeomen of the Guard, Horse and
     Horse-Grenadier Guards, and servants attendant upon their
     Majesties, and the Royal Family, and who were entertained
     at places provided in the neighbourhood, amounting to seven
     hundred and twenty-nine.

     "And that this Court may form some judgment of the manner of
     the entertainment, your Committee have hereunto subjoined
     the bill of fare of their Majesty's table, and the totals of
     the several bills on this occasion, amounting to 6898_l._
     5_s._ 4_d._; which, your Committee have the satisfaction to
     acquaint this Honourable Court, have been all ordered for

     "Your Committee, likewise, having provided a great variety
     of the choicest wines, took care that every guest should
     be supplied with plenty and dispatch; and yet the various
     services performed without hurry or confusion.

     "For this purpose your Committee issued no more tickets for
     admission than what (considering the necessary number of
     attendants, amounting to two hundred and forty persons) would
     fill the Hall without incommoding the Royal Personages for
     whom the feast was intended.

     "And to prevent as much as possible the intrusion of
     strangers (too frequent on such occasions) your Committee
     directed a temporary porch to be erected in the front of the
     Hall, where gentlemen of trust were placed at three several

     "Upon the whole, your Committee omitted no care or pains
     to render the entertainment as commodious and agreeable as
     possible to the Royal Guests, and in some measure expressive
     of the zeal and veneration of this Honourable Court for
     their august Sovereign, his most amiable Consort, and
     illustrious Family, and of their sense of his gracious
     condescension in honouring this City with his Royal Presence:
     happy if they have in any degree answered expectation, and
     are allowed to have done justice to the honourable trust
     reposed in them. Signed this 15th day of June, 1762.

          "_S. Fludyer_,
          _Robert Alsop_,
          _Richard Glyn_,
          _Francis Gosling_,
          _Thomas Long_,
          _Robert Wilsonn_,
          _Francis Ellis_,
          _Henry Kent_,
          _James Walton_,
          _Charles Meredith_,
          _John Rivington_,
          _Thomas Cogan_,
          _Edward Waldo_,
          _W. Reeves_,
          _Samuel Freeman_,
          _William Tyser_,
          _John Paterson_."



                                              £.   _s._   _d._
  12 Dishes of Olio, Turtle, Pottages,
      and Soups                              44     2      0
  12 Ditto Fish; _viz._ John Dories,
      Red Mullet, &c.                        44     2      0
   7 Ditto roast Venison                     10     0      0
   3 Westphalia Hams consume, and
      richly ornamented                       6     6      0
   2 Dishes Pullets à la Royale               2     2      0
   2 Ditto Tongues Espagniole                 3     3      0
   6 Ditto Chickens à la Reine                6     6      0
   1 Ditto Tondron de Vaux à la Danzie        2     2      0
   1 Harrico                                  1     1      0
   1 Dish Popiets of Veale Glasse             1     4      0
   2 Dishes Fillets of Lamba la Conte         2     2      0
   2 Ditto Comports of Squabs                 2     2      0
   2 Ditto Fillets of Beef Marinate           3     0      0
   2 Ditto of Mutton à la Memorance           2     2      0
  32 Ditto fine Vegetables                   16    16      0

     * The orthography of the French words in the following items
     is wrong in almost every instance; but it must be remembered
     that it is _culinary_ orthography!


   6 Dishes fine Ortolans                    25     4     0
  10 Ditto Quails                            15     0     0
  10 Ditto Notts                             30     0     0
   1 Ditto Wheat-ears                         1     1     0
   1 Goodevau Patte                           1    10     0
   1 Perrigoa Pye                             1    10     0
   1 Dish Pea-chicks                          1     1     0
   4 Dishes Woodcocks                         4     4     0
   2 Ditto Pheasants                          3     3     0
   4 Ditto Teal                               3     3     0
   4 Ditto Snipes                             3     3     0
   2 Ditto Partridges                         2     2     0
   2 Ditto Patties Royal                      3     0     0


   1 Ragout Royal                             1      1     0
   8 Dishes fine green Morells                8      8     0
  10 Ditto fine green peas                   10     10     0
   3 Ditto Asparagus Heads                    2      2     0
   3 Ditto fine fat Livers                    1     11     6
   3 Ditto fine Combs                         1     11     6
   5 Ditto green Truffles                     5      5     0
   5 Ditto Artichoaks à la Provincale         2     12     6
   5 Ditto Mushroons au Blanc                 2     12     6
   1 Dish Cardons à la Bejamel                0     10     6
   1 Ditto Knots of Eggs                      0     10     6
   1 Ditto Ducks Tongues                      0     10     6
   3 Dishes of Peths                          1     11     6
   1 Dish of Truffles in Oil                  0     10     6
   4 Dishes of Pallets                        2      2     0
   2 Ditto Ragout Mille                       2      2     0


   2 Curious ornamented Cakes                 2     12     0
  12 Dishes Blomanges, representing
      different figures                      12     12     0
  12 Ditto Clear Marbrays                    14      8     0
  16 Ditto fine Cut Pastry                   16     16     0
   2 Ditto Mille Fuelles                      1     10     6

_The Centre of the Table._

   1 Grand Pyramid of Demies of Shell
      Fish of various sorts                   2      2     0
  32 Cold things of sorts; _viz._
      Temples, Shapes, Landscapes in
      Jellies, savoury Cakes, and Almond
      Gothes                                 33     12     0
   2 Grand Epergnes, filled with fine
      Pickles, and garnished round with
      Plates of Sorts, as Laspicks, Rolards,
      &c.                                     6      6      0
        Total of the King's Table           374      1      0

Totals of the several BILLS.

  Mr. George Dance, Clerk of the Works       65      4      6
  Mr. Richard Gripton, Coffee-man            56     10      0
  Ditto, Coffee, Tea, &c. for the
      Committee                              31     13      0
  Mr. John Read, Carpenter                  876      6      0
  Mr. Kuhff, Confectioner                   212      1      0
  Mr. Wilder, ditto                         121     14      0
  Mr. Scott, ditto                           91     14      0
  Messrs. Kuhff, Wilder, and Scott, ditto   174      9      0
  Mr. Baughan, Wax Chandler                  31      0      0
  Mr. Garrard, ditto                         30     12      0
  Mrs. Jones, ditto                          30     12      0
  Mr. Cotterel, Chinaman                     30     11      0
  Mr. Vere, ditto                            18     12      0
  Mr Wylde, Paul's-head Tavern               47     13      0
  Mr. Edward Wix, Bricklayer                147     16      0
  Mr. Charles Easton, Mason                   6      4      0
  Messrs. Alexander and Shrimpton,
      Smiths                                300     11      0
  Mr. Peter Roberts, Remembrancer            63      0      0
  Messrs. Wareham, Oswald, Angel,
      Horton and Birch, Cooks              1600      0      0
  Mr. Stanley, Band of Musick               115      0      0
  Mr. Thomas Pattle, Hall-keeper            126      0      0
  Messrs. Chesson, Saunders, and
      Woodroffe, Upholsterers               458     19      0
  Mr. Allan, Wine                           178     12      0
  Mr. Francis Magnus, ditto                 175      8      0
  Mr. Frederick Standert, Hock              116      8      0
  Messrs. Brown and Righton, Wine            48      5      0
  Mr. Thomas Burfoot and Son,
      Woollen-drapers                       258      5      0
  Messrs. Pistor and Son, ditto              74     13      0
  Mr. Thomas Gilpin, Plate                   57     17      0
  Mr. Deputy Samuel Ellis and Richard
      Cleeve, Pewterers                     264      3      0
  Mr. Christopher Dent, Butler              190      0      0
  Mr. Robert Dixon, Baker                     8      0     10
  Mrs. Rachel Stephens, Brewer                8      8      0
  Messrs. Barber and Shuttleworth,
      Fruiterers                            100      0      0
  Messrs. Mason and Whitworth, Ribbands       7      3      0
  Mr. Charles Gardner, Engraver              23     13      0
  Artillery Company                          20      0      0
  Mr. Charles Rivington, Printer              3      3      0
  City Musick                                13      3      0
  Mr. Bromwich, Papier Maché                 70     14      0
  Mr. James Dobson, Bear Inn,
      Basinghall-street                      42     15      0
  Mr. John Handford, Swan with Two Necks,
      Lad-lane                               20     15      0
  Mr. John Greenhow, Castle, in
      Wood-street                            29      5      0
  Mr. Richard Overhall, Blossom's-inn, in
      Lawrence-lane                          34      5      0
  Mr. Thomas Whaley, Bell-inn, in Wood
      street                                 12     10      0
  Mr. Richard Walkden, Stationer              6     15      0
  City Marshal                              100      0      0
  Mrs. Mary Harrington, Glazier              15     16      0
  Messrs. Willis and Machel, Plumber         63     12      0
  Messrs. Pope and Son, Painters             27     18      0
  Heron Powney, Esq. Sword-bearer's
      claim                                   5      0      0
  Mr. William Palmer, Senior Attorney of
      the Mayor's Court, claim                2      0      0
  Serjeants of the Chamber, for delivery
      of the Tickets, &c.                     4     10      0
  Yeomen of the Chamber's claim               4      0      0
  Peter Denny, for lighting the
      Chandeliers                            20      0      0
  Sir James Hodges, Town-clerk, for
      attending the Committee               157     10      0
  William Rix, Clerk to Sir James
      Hodges, for ditto                      15     15      0
  Andrew Boson, Hall-keeper's man            10     10      0
  Six Marshal's-men                           1     10      0
  Six Necessary Women                         6      6      0
  Town-clerk's Servants                       5      5      0
  Chamberlain's Household Servants            5      5      0
  Messrs. Chesson, Woodroffe, and
      Saunders, Extra Bill                   10     10      0
  Mr. Thomas Gilpin, for the use of
      Plate                                  20      0      0
  Mr. Chamberlain's Clerks                    5      5      0
  Daniel Philpot, Esq. Cook to his
      Majesty                                10     10      0
  Thomas Denny, for attending the
      Committee                               1      1      0
                                 Total     6898      5      4

It was ordered that the said Report be entered in the Journal of the
Court; and the following motion being made, was unanimously agreed to:

"That the thanks of this Court be, and are hereby given, to the
Committee appointed to conduct the entertainment of their Majesties
and the Royal Family at Guildhall, on Lord Mayor's day last, for their
constant and spirited attention, in that service, to the honour of the
Crown, and the dignity of this City."

A futile plan has long been in use, intended to lessen the number of
women of the town; and particularly in 1762, when the Society for the
Reformation of Manners followed an old and unprofitable example, by
sending some of their constables through the streets to apprehend
those miserable young persons; 40 were taken to Bridewell, eleven were
whipped, one sent to the Magdalen, and the remainder are said to have
been returned to their friends. Such has been the practice at long
intervals ever since, perhaps with some variations in the punishment
inflicted, and I am afraid an omission of enquiring for their friends.
One need only pass through the Strand and Fleet-street late in the
evening, to perceive how ineffectual this method of reformation has

It appears from a very solemn address to the publick inserted in the
Newspapers for 1762, that the brutal custom of throwing at Cocks on
Shrove Tuesday was not then so uncommon as it happily is at present.

When we are passing through the streets of London, it but too
frequently happens that our ears are offended by hearing shocking
oaths, repeated with an emphasis which indicates violent irritation;
but, upon observing the parties thus offending against the laws of
morality and of the realm more closely, it may be immediately perceived
that nothing particular has occurred to produce anger, and that the
vice has become so much a custom, that oaths are now mere flowers of
rhetorick with the vulgar.

However _unpleasant_ the reflection, we may console ourselves in the
certainty that we are not more reprehensible than our predecessors
have been; as a proof, I present the reader with an excellent
Charge delivered by Sir John Fielding, April 6, 1763, at Guildhall,

     "A Charge delivered to the Grand Jury, at the General Quarter
      Session of the Peace, held at Guildhall, Westminster, on
      Wednesday, April 6, 1763, by Sir John Fielding, Knight,
      Chairman of the said Session. Published at the unanimous
      Request of the Magistrates then present, and the Grand Jury."

In order to remind the Grand Jury of their duty, rather than to inform
them of it, Sir John Fielding considers, 1st, the object of the enquiry
they are expected to make, and 2dly, the manner in which it might be

The object of it is, offences towards God, the King, to one another,
and to the publick in general.

Speaking of the offences against God, "I cannot sufficiently lament
(says this devout Magistrate) that shameful, inexcusable, and almost
universal practice of prophane swearing in our streets: a crime so easy
to be punished, and so seldom done, that mankind almost forget it is
an offence; and, to our dishonour be it spoken, it is almost peculiar
to the English nation! I beg, Gentlemen, you would use your utmost
endeavours to suppress this dreadful evil wherever you can; but this
you will best do by your own example, as the offence is punishable
in a judicial way before a Magistrate. Nor should I mention it here,
was I not sensible that I am speaking in the presence of a great
number of peace-officers, whose immediate duty it is to apprehend such
miscreants, and carry them before a Magistrate; and who are not only
blameable, but punishable, for the neglect of this duty.

"The last offence I shall mention on this subject is, the breach of
the Sabbath; a practice as shameful as it is common: but, as these are
unworthy members of the Church, and not only disgraceful, but noxious
members of society, they will therefore, I doubt not, meet with the
detestation of all honest and pious men, and consequently with every
punishment due to such an insolent crime, which it may be in your power
to inflict; for this sort of impious neglect partakes of the deepest
ingratitude from the creature to the Creator."

With regard to offences committed against the Publick in general; "Of
these (says this diligent Magistrate) there are a great variety, but I
shall confine myself to the three following, _viz._ public lewdness,
bawdy-houses, gaming-houses. And first, as to public lewdness:

"It is the observation of a moral writer of eminence, 'That there
is some degree of virtue in a man's keeping his vices to himself:'
for, as example is allowed to be more efficacious than precept in
recommendation of virtue, where men act as it were in opposition to
the depravity of human nature, how must the open and public example of
lewdness draw men into the tide of wickedness, when their own passions
and inclinations serve as winds to carry them down the stream! Men
like these deserve punishment as public as their crimes. But, as this
offence belongs to none but the most abandoned mind, I thank God it is
not common; and perhaps it would be much less seen, were those persons
punished, who exposed to sale the most abandoned prints of lewdness,
and the most infamous books of bawdry, which are considerably bought
by curious youths, to the danger of their modesty, the hazard of their
morals, and too often to the total destruction of their virtue.

"As to bawdy-houses, they are the receptacles of those who still have
some sense of shame left, but not enough to preserve their innocence.

"These houses are all sufficiently injurious, and do great mischief.
But those I would particularly point out to your attention, are the
open, avowed, low, and common bawdy-houses, where vice is rendered
cheap, and consequently within the reach of the common people, who are
the very stamina of the constitution.

"These are the channels through which rottenness is conveyed into the
bones of the artificer, labourer, soldier, and mariner; by this means
weakness and distemper are entailed on their offspring, whose utility
to the publick depends on their health and strength. These are the
houses that harbour and protect undutiful children, idle servants,
and disobedient apprentices. Let me then intreat you, as fathers, as
masters, and as tradesmen, to put an end to these sinks of vice in your
respective neighbourhoods.

"Let not that common vulgar error, of being afraid of these people,
because they are litigious, desperate, and full of threats (for these
fears are groundless, and should not, nay, I hope will not) deter you
from this particular duty. You present; and we will punish.

"As to gaming-houses; such numbers of persons of all ranks have
brought themselves, some to the greatest distresses, and others to
most shameful and ignominious ends, by frequenting these houses, where
gentlemen, sharpers, highwaymen, tradesmen, their servants, nay, often
their apprentices, are mixed together; that, when I mention the very
name of a gaming-house, I am persuaded that it conveys to your minds
such ideas of mischief to society, that you will not suffer any of them
to escape that come to your knowledge: and by a particular attention to
the last-mentioned offences, you may be the happy means of preventing
frauds, thefts, and robberies; most of which take their rise from
these impure fountains of extravagance."

What the Justice, speaking of the manner of the enquiry, remarks with
regard to the contempt of oaths, is but too just, and alarming:

"When I mention the word Oath; where shall I find language to express
the hearty concern I feel, when I consider with what shameful
insensibility this great defence of our lives, this barrier of our
liberties, this security of our properties, an oath, is treated by the
lower rank of the community! I too much fear, that one of the principal
causes of this contempt is the slovenly manner in which this solemn
obligation is administered; which does not only take off the awe, but
even the very idea, of the presence of Almighty God."

A facetious writer presented the following observations to the Editor
of the London Chronicle, in June 1765. I think the Reader will find
they promote the object of this work.

"It is common with the old men to assert, that times alter for the
worse, and that every age increases in ignorance and folly. At the
Theatres, they will tell you, that Garrick and Mrs. Cibber are
tolerable performers, but they will not allow them to be equal to
Booth and Mrs. Oldfield. 'When I was a boy, things were otherwise,' is
their common expression. Now, Mr. Printer, in despite of all this,
I affirm, that instead of altering for the worse, we daily improve,
not only in Commerce, but also in Manners and the Polite Arts. Think
not by the Polite Arts I mean only the Exhibitions in Spring-gardens
and Maiden-lane. No, Sir, my inference is a general one; I include
artists of every denomination, from the genteel Mr. Pencil, the
Portrait-painter, to honest Brush, the Sign-painter; both Mr. Heeltap,
the Shoemaker of St. James's, and plain Crispin, the Cobler of
London-house-yard. And that we only began to improve of late years, is
evident from the sarcastic sneer of a shop-keeper at Epping, who, about
ten years ago, had painted over his door, 'All sorts of Manchester
stuffs sold here; also cardinals, nails, and hats.' The force of
the witticism is too plain to need an explanation. This, I imagine,
gave rise to the number of Dancing-masters, who have of late filled
England; and that we are, since that time, greatly polished, no one, I
dare say, will attempt to deny; but that it may not be thought that I
assert what I am unable to prove, I will only remind your readers of
the revolution that common things have undergone in their names. Have
we now any shops? Are they not all turned into warehouses? Have we
not the English warehouse, the Scotch warehouse, the Irish warehouse,
the shirt warehouse, the stocking warehouse, the shoe warehouse, the
hat warehouse, nay, even the buckle and button warehouse? In like
manner our drinking-houses are refined: they no longer go under the
vulgar denominations of gin-houses, purl-houses, ale-houses, and
porter-houses, but are all turned into coffee-houses without coffee,
taverns without wine, and inns without a stable-yard. Not content
with this, they even left off the showy sign-post and exuberant sign,
which formerly distinguished the best-accustomed houses: convinced of
their own merit, they have come to a right understanding of the words
_simplex munditiis_; and therefore only put up a black board with the
name of their _quondam_ sign upon it. But I would just hint to them,
that it would be something more grammatical, if, instead of '_This
is_ the Boar's-head,' they were to say, '_This was_ the Boar's-head.'
Indeed I cannot help thinking, that a very great improvement might be
made by one of these alehouse innkeepers on the Essex road, who has a
board with a large punch-bowl painted on it, and under it these words:
'The Boar's-head Inn.' Surely he would have more custom, if (like the
man at Bath, who changed his sign of the Royal Oak into that of the Owl
in the Ivy-bush, and wrote under it, 'This is not the Royal Oak') he
would say under his punch-bowl, 'This is not the Punch-bowl Inn.'"

The impropriety and folly of employing young and vigorous men to serve
female customers with articles of dress, and those silly catch-pennies
idly supposed ornaments to the person now so prevalent, is by no
means a new trait in our customs; that it should be continued, though
severely reprehended even so long since as 1765, is astonishing. At
that time the antient sisterhood of _tire-women_ were almost extinct;
but now what head can be dressed fit to be seen without the assistance
of a smart male hair-dresser? or what lady will purchase her bandeaus,
her ribbands, gloves, &c. &c. from the hands of a young woman, when the
same shop contains--a young _man_? Unfortunately this is a fatal custom
to many fine blooming females, who, thus consigned to idleness and
temptations, often fall victims to seduction.

A strange infatuation prevailed for many years in that class of the
community which might be termed demi-fashionables, of sending their
daughters to Convents in France for education; if that could be so
termed, which amounted to nothing more than speaking the French
language tolerably correct, cutting and pasting coloured paper together
in silly shapes, and learning tambour, or working in imitation of lace.
To mention the disadvantages attending the practice would be futile;
the Revolution in France, the dissolution of Monasteries, and our
endless wars, have totally abolished the custom, at least as far as
relates to Convents; though I have no doubt that, should Peace ever
again smile on us, French boarding-schools will be preferred to British.

Many of the pernicious customs which disgrace the populace of London
may, and indeed must be continued, by their attendance at the various
Fairs still held near the Metropolis; some that are now suppressed,
and that of St. Bartholomew's London, will be noticed hereafter. As
long as the Legislature think proper to permit the exhibition of wild
beasts, and the anticks of human brutes, the wicked and the curious
will attend them: thus the profligate receives legal authority to
continue his baneful and licentious manners, and the curious innocent
learns to imitate them without restraint as something very worthy of
imitation. It is well known that the passions of human nature require
the utmost coercion, even in families of undoubted honour and virtue:
is it then prudent, much less wise, to send apprentices, youth from
schools, girls the offspring of the lower classes, and servants, into
these regular scenes of riot and systematic violations of order and
decency, where customs must be acquired which will not bear repetition?
The very tradition of the origin of _Horn_ fair, held at Charlton and
Blackheath, though ridiculously unfounded, was a sufficient cause for
its abolition, when we recollect the absurd reference it had to a
shocking offence against the laws of society. The frequenters of this
fair went to it prepared to laugh at those injured by seduction; and
the exhibition of articles made of Horn invited constant inuendos and
vulgar _double entendre_.

Accident this very day afforded me other arguments against Fairs.
Entering the Kingsland-road, I was astonished at the scene before me:
the foot-paths and the carriage-way were crowded with pedestrians and
vehicles, from the humble dung-cart to the hackney-coach; the two
latter filled with every description of persons, and the whole rushing,
impelled by one governing mind, to Edmonton fair. Hundreds of carts and
waggons, provided with seats placed on the sides, and others lengthways
in the midst, were stationed by the owners in the neighbourhood of
Shoreditch church, where several principal streets communicate with
the road to Edmonton; and were immediately filled by the infant, its
sisters, brothers, parents, the journeyman, the apprentice, and the
master, and the female servant, all dressed in their best clothing;
many of the latter and the daughters of tradesmen in white muslin, silk
spencers, and new straw bonnets, worth at least 30_s._ each. I would
ask what the conversation of five-and-twenty persons thus assembled in
a cart or waggon, some of whom consisted of the very dregs of society,
could well be at noon-day, when sober; but what _at night_ on their
return, when some at least were intoxicated? We will say nothing of the
_fun_ of the Fair.

The succeeding letters which were published in 1768 require no comment.

     "To the Inhabitants of the three united Parishes of St.
      Mary-le-Bow, St. Pancras, and Allhallows Honey-lane.


"It is a pain and grief to me, after having been your Minister
four-and-twenty years, to have any occasion to make any complaint
of your behaviour; but complain of you I must, for suffering the
subscription for the daily prayers to be so diminished, and reduced
almost to nothing; a manifest sign that your Parishes are much poorer
or less religious than they were, for either of which I should be very
sorry, but more especially for the latter; for the former may be your
misfortune, the latter must be your fault.

"The former Inhabitants were so convinced of the reasonableness, the
propriety, the expediency, and necessity of the daily prayers, that
they thought it just and fitting to make an extraordinary allowance
for this extraordinary duty, and entered into a voluntary annual
subscription for this purpose, which contributions have in some measure
been continued from the first building and opening of your church till
within these few years. And will you, Gentlemen, suffer so good a work,
which hath been carried on so many years, to perish in your hands?
Have you so little concern for the honour of your Church, one of the
first and most conspicuous in the City, the principal of the Archbishop
of Canterbury's peculiars, the chief Court of Arches, where so many
Bishops are confirmed, and so much public business is transacted? And
shall such a Church, that ought to be a pattern of regular devotion to
others, be the first to set an example of irreligion? I hope you have
too much sense of honour, too much sense of religion, to bring such
a load of reproach and infamy upon your names and characters: for it
would be an eternal reproach and infamy to you in this world and in the
world to come; and the piety of your predecessors would 'rise up in the
judgment against you, and condemn you.'

"You will say, perhaps, that you have not time to attend the daily
prayers. But why have you not time? What are you doing better? Ask God
and your own conscience. Scarce more than half an hour is taken up
in the daily prayers: and depend upon it, you will find the time not
lost, or ill employed; you will proceed to business with the greater
cheerfulness, and prosper the better for it. But if you cannot or will
not attend the prayers yourselves, yet why should you hinder others
who would attend? Why not rather, to make some amends for your own
deficiency, contribute something, that others may have opportunities
for praying for a blessing upon the community? For what will avail
all your care and attention, all your labour and pains, without the
blessing of God to prosper them? And how can you ever expect the
blessing of God upon your undertakings, if you neglect and despise,
and in effect destroy and abolish his service? The neglect of public
worship is soon followed by the neglect of other duties, and it behoves
you seriously to consider, whether this may not be the first source
and origin, the principal cause and occasion, of so many failures and
bankruptcies among you.

"You will urge perhaps that other charges and taxes lie heavy upon
you, the price of every thing is advanced, and you cannot afford
to do as you have done. But of all charges and expences why must
this of the daily prayers be the first to be retrenched? Retrench
every vanity and folly, retrench every idle pleasure and diversion,
retrench all your superfluous, all your unnecessary expences, rather
than what you contribute to the public service of God. But no great
matter is required or expected from you. As but a very short portion
of your time is taken up in the daily prayers, so a very small part
of your substance will be sufficient to support so pious and useful
an institution. All that I desire of you is, that of the better sort,
every one would subscribe ten shillings a-year, that is half a crown a
quarter, and of those in lower circumstances every one would subscribe
five or four shillings a year, that is, at least a shilling a quarter.
Some few (to their honour be it spoken) have all along continued to do
the very thing that I desire; but I wish the thing to be general, and
every one of you to do the same. You cannot surely think so small and
inconsiderable a sum any loss or burden to you. You may easily make it
otherwise, by riding out a Sunday or two less in a year, or by going an
evening or two less in a year to Vauxhall or Ranelagh, to the Tavern
or the Play. This you will do, if you are not 'lovers of pleasure more
than lovers of God;' and what you thus 'lend unto the Lord,' will be
_paid_ you in blessings _again_.

"But I would rather prefer another proposal to your consideration,
which probably may be more easy and agreeable to you, as it would be
taking nothing immediately out of your own pockets, and certainly would
be more easy and agreeable to your Ministers, as it would be less
precarious and uncertain, though perhaps not altogether so beneficial.
Whatever may be the case of some few individuals, your parishes are in
general very wealthy. Your poor's-rate is low in comparison to that of
many other parishes, where it is nearly equal to that of the land-tax.
You are in possession of several considerable estates left you by the
piety and charity of former inhabitants, amounting to 300_l._ a year
or more: and these estates being left without any appropriation but
to the best uses of your parishes, how can any part of them be applied
to a better use, or more agreeably to the intention of the pious and
charitable donors, than for the public benefit of men in the public
service of God? Let me therefore recommend it to you, out of these
estates, or in any other method that you may think more proper, to
allow to your Rector, that is, not to your Rector properly, but to your
Rector for his Curate and Reader of the daily prayers, a salary of
_five-and-twenty pounds_ a year, which is no more than three shillings
and three-half-pence in a year from every house: and surely you cannot
refuse so small a boon for the honour and credit of your parishes, for
your own character and reputation, for the good of your own souls and
the souls of others. You see I am very moderate and reasonable in my
demands, and I hope you will be as reasonable in your compliance. This
is not making _godliness a gain_. Only _the labourer is worthy of his
hire_: and you would not pay to a Clergyman for double service in a
day, less than you would pay to a porter.

"Though I have now been your Rector, as I said, these four-and-twenty
years, yet I have never in all that time asked any thing of you. I have
not sent any person to collect your Easter offerings, as other City
Rectors do, and I might also justly have done. I have received nothing
from you but what is strictly my due, and what you are obliged by law
to pay: and I shall think I have very little weight and interest with
you, I shall think that either I have preached the word of God, or
you have heard it, to very little purpose, if after all my services I
cannot obtain this favour from you; not that it is any favour to me,
but as it is a real benefit to yourselves, and may prove the happy
means of your salvation. Your not complying with this request would be
such a disparagement and discouragement to my ministry, that I should
almost despair of ever doing any further good among you, and could
only leave you to your own reflections upon that solemn commination of
Christ unto the Angel of the Church of Ephesus, Rev. ii. 5: 'Remember
from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do thy first works; or
else I will come unto thee quickly, and remove thy candlestick out
of its place, except thou repent.' God forbid that this should ever
be your case! On the contrary I wish to say with the Apostle, Heb.
vi. 9, 10, 11: 'Beloved, we are persuaded better things of you, and
things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak. For God is not
unrighteous, to forget your work and labour of love, which ye have
shewed towards his name, in that ye have ministered unto the saints,
and do minister. And we desire that every one of you do shew the same
diligence, to the full assurance of hope unto the end:' And with this
trust and confidence in you, I remain, Gentlemen,

  "Your loving Friend,
   and faithful Servant in Christ Jesus,

                                                "THOMAS BRISTOL."

_March 21, 1768._

     "To the Right Reverend Father in God THOMAS Lord
      Bishop of Bristol, Rector of the Three United Parishes of St.
      Mary-le-Bow, St. Pancras, and Allhallows, Honey-lane.

"My Lord,

"The first sentence in your Address to our united Parishes gave
us inexpressible concern, as we found ourselves charged with some
behaviour which had been the occasion _of great pain and grief to your
Lordship_; but we were happily relieved from this distress, as soon
as your Lordship condescended to mention the nature of the crime with
which we are charged; _viz._ 'That we had suffered the subscription for
the daily prayers to be diminished, and reduced almost to nothing.'

"When we reflect for twenty-four years past you have laboured amongst
us in the Lord, we can have no doubt but this endearing connection
which has so long subsisted between us will occasion your Lordship to
receive with _paternal candour_ every plea we have to offer in our

"Permit us then to remind your Lordship, that, though the attendance on
the morning prayers has been generally omitted, and the subscription to
them reduced, yet we have hitherto endeavoured to promote the honour
and reputation of St. Mary-le-Bow, all that we could. We acknowledge
with your Lordship, 'that it is one of the first and most conspicuous
Churches in the City,' and we often view its lofty spire both with
pride and pleasure; we are happy in 'its being the principal of the
Archbishop of Canterbury's _peculiars_, the chief Court of Arches,
where so many Bishops are confirmed, and so much public business is
transacted;' and we have always endeavoured, at a great expence, to
keep every part of the Church in such good order, as that it might both
decently and conveniently accommodate the good company which frequently
resort there on the above solemn occasions.--Surely, my Lord, this part
of our conduct must convince the world, and your Lordship, that those
motives which you have suggested to us _have already produced_ every
effect which ought to be expected from them.

"But to enter more particularly into our defence.--Our not attending
these _subscription prayers_ is not generally owing either _to the
want of time_, or to _the desire of saving the expence_, but proceeds
from a very different motive--a motive which we cannot urge, till we
have again bespoke your Lordship's affectionate candour. It is this:
That we are not convinced of 'the reasonableness, the propriety, the
expediency, and necessity of having the daily prayers' at those hours,
and under those circumstances, for which your Lordship so warmly
recommends a subscription; and there are two reasons on which our
doubts are founded.

"The first is, that as your Lordship has undertaken the care of our
souls, and in consequence of this trust, receives at least three
hundred pounds _per annum_, we think ourselves fully authorised to
believe, that this _extraordinary duty_, as your Lordship properly
calls it, cannot be essentially necessary to our salvation; for, if
it was so, it would, and must have been, a part of your _Lordship's
own duty_, and consequently have rendered any extraordinary allowance
unnecessary: And we think ourselves assured, that the other high
offices which your Lordship sustains in the Christian Church could by
no means divert you from duly executing the prior engagements made with
us,--even though you had been obliged to employ a Deputy to share with
you the honour of attempting our salvation.

"Nor, secondly, is it possible that these services referred to should
be omitted, if they were really so absolutely necessary to prevent 'the
eternal reproach and infamy in this world, and the next,' of _us_ who
are committed to your care. Your Lordship, receiving 300_l. per annum_
for watching over this flock, could never permit it to be involved in
_eternal infamy_, when so small a boon (as your Lordship acknowledges)
as 25_l. per annum_ would prevent it. Far from us be such imaginary
fears as these! The great _Apostles_, to whom your Lordship succeeds in
an uninterrupted line, were inspired with such divine zeal to promote
the salvation of men, that so far from their hesitating to part with
twenty-five pounds out of three hundred pounds _per annum_, which is
but 8_l._ 6_s._ 8_d. per cent._ deduction, they calmly received
'bonds and afflictions, neither counted they their lives dear unto
themselves, so that they might finish their course with joy, and the
ministry which they had received.' (Acts xx. 24, &c.) 'They gloried in
having coveted no man's silver or gold' (neither for themselves nor
their Curates); and were enabled to make this honourable appeal to
their flock,--'Ye yourselves know, that these hands have ministered
unto our necessities, and to those who were with us.'

"For our part, therefore, we shall rest assured, that as 'the line of
the Apostolic Succession is uninterrupted,' so also is the 'Apostolic
Zeal;' and that, 'as the labourer is worthy of his hire,' so also is
'the hire worthy of a labourer;' and therefore we hope your Lordship
will permit us to conclude, that when a wise, a learned, and pious
Minister of Christ receives _the hire_, he will conscientiously perform
_the labour_, or cause it to be performed.

"Our dependance, therefore, on your Lordship's exact and devout
views of this _awful_ and _responsible connection_ must necessarily
calm every fear on our part concerning our _own_ 'eternal infamy and
reproach on this account;' for we are legally committed to your care,
for the established outward _means of grace_;--and such means as are
absolutely necessary for rendering your Lordship a good Shepherd,
or us a well-fed flock, we are very confident we shall never want,
whilst we have the pleasure of being under your spiritual guidance and

"We are, my Lord, your Lordship's

"Most respectful, affectionate,

                                 "and obliged humble servants,
                                                  A B C D E F G."

  _St. Mary-le-Bow,
  April 12, 1768._

When the King of Denmark visited our Court in 1768, he observed the
eagerness of the middle and lower ranks in their attempts to view his
person; and politely ordered that they should be admitted while he
dined. The consequent press and rudeness was such, that the permission
was rescinded after _one_ trial: that rudeness may be estimated by
the following paragraph: "A correspondent observes, in the London
Chronicle, that the crowds which follow after and so rudely press upon
the King of Denmark, render his situation very disagreeable, as he is
constantly obstructed in the gratification of his curiosity at any
public place of diversion, or of seeing any thing curious in or near
the Metropolis, for fear of being stifled. He adds, that he wishes the
people would consider the great rudeness they are guilty of, by thus
treating so very high and respectable a Personage: and let all who
have once had a view of him in any public place pass on, and not stand
staring in the King's face with such intolerable effrontery as too many
have done, to the annoyance of his Majesty, as well as the hindrance of
others from the pleasure of seeing him."

The hospitality with which this Prince was received by the superior
ranks and all the public bodies, particularly the Corporation of
London, deserves the highest commendation.

The practice of Betting is tolerably prevalent at present, and by no
means confined to any particular class of the community. In short, I am
afraid it might be traced very far back in the history of our customs;
but it will be sufficient for the information of the reader, that I
present him with an article from the London Chronicle for 1768, which I
think will remind him of some recent transactions in the City.

"The introduction and amazing progress of illicit gaming at Lloyd's
Coffee-house is, among others, a powerful and very melancholy proof of
the degeneracy of the times. It is astonishing that this practice was
begun, and has been hitherto carried on, by the matchless effrontery
and impudence of one man. It is equally so, that he has met with so
much encouragement from many of the principal Under-writers, who
are, in every other respect, useful members of society: and it is
owing to the lenity of our laws, and want of spirit in the present
administration, that this pernicious practice has not hitherto been
suppressed. Though gaming in any degree (except what is warranted by
law) is perverting the original and useful design of that Coffee-house,
it may in some measure be excusable to speculate on the following

"Mr. Wilkes being elected Member for London, which was done from 5 to
50 guineas _per cent._

"Ditto for Middlesex, from 20 to 70 guineas _per cent._

"Alderman B----d's life for one year, now doing at 7 _per cent._

"On Sir J---- H---- being turned out in one year, now doing at 20
guineas _per cent._

"On John Wilkes's life for one year, now doing at 5 _per cent._--N. B.
Warranted to remain in prison during that period.

"On a declaration of war with France or Spain in one year, 8 guineas
_per cent._

"And many other innocent things of that kind.

"But when policies come to be opened on two of the first Peers in
Britain losing their heads within a year, at 10_s._ 6_d. per cent._
and on the dissolution of the present Parliament within one year, at
5 guineas _per cent._ which are now actually doing, and underwrote,
chiefly by Scotsmen, at the above Coffee-house; it is surely high time
for Administration to interfere, and by exerting the rigour of the laws
against the authors and encouragers of such insurances (which must be
done for some bad purpose) effectually put a stop to it."

There are certain wags who find great amusement in contriving wonderful
stories for the publick, which are sometimes circulated verbally, and
frequently inserted in the newspapers.--This waggery has recently
received the elegant term of _hoaxing_. Twice very lately crowds have
been sent to the ship-yards below London to witness the launching of
men of war and Indiamen which were not ready to launch; and last winter
_re-produced_ an old story of a gardener digging a pit to receive the
body of a servant he had seduced, _whom he intended to have murdered_,
had not his master luckily discovered the plan by the intervention of a
dream. Many of these inventions are so slightly contrived that persons
of very little sagacity might detect the impostor; and yet numbers are

The newspapers of 1772 furnish a rare instance of this description,
which take _verbatim_:

"At the house of one Mrs. Goulding, a single gentlewoman, at Stockwell,
in the parish of Lambeth, in Surrey, about eleven o'clock in the
forenoon on Monday last, there being no person except herself and
servant (Ann Robinson, aged fifteen years or thereabouts) several
earthen plates, and one dish, of what is called the Queen's-ware, which
were placed on a shelf in one of the kitchens, fell down, and all broke
except the dish, without any visible cause; in a little time after,
several candlesticks, and other things, the furniture of a mantle-piece
in the back kitchen, were thrown into the middle of the floor, though
no person was in that room; then some china, &c. on the mantle-piece
in the other kitchen was in like manner thrown into the middle of the
floor, and broke, and as the pieces lay, they snapped and flew just
as though they had been thrown on an exceeding hot fire; a glazed
lanthorn, which hung on the staircase, was thrown down; a clock also
was thrown down and broke; a red earthen pan, containing salt beef,
flew in pieces, and the beef fell about; and many such like uncommon
things happened; which causing an alarm, the people from the road,
without distinction, ran into the house, some supposing it to be on
fire, others thought the house had received a shock from the explosion
of a powder-mill at Hounslow, which was blown up about an hour before.
However, all concurred in moving the goods; and Mrs. Goulding, together
with her maid-servant, went to Mr. Gresham's, a gentleman who lives
in the next house to Mrs. Goulding's, whither the goods were carried,
and particularly a tray full of china, an iron bread-basket japanned,
two mahogany waiters, several bottles of different sorts of liquors,
a gallipot of jelly, and a pier-glass worth about five pounds, which
glass was taken down by one Mr. Saville (a neighbour to Mrs. Goulding)
who handed it to one Robert Hames, and a part of the gilt-work on each
side of the frame flew off before he could put it down in the garden;
but when it was laid down, remained without farther damage till it was
taken into Mr. Gresham's, and put under a side-board, where it flew to
pieces. Mr. Saville and others going to drink of a bottle of rum and a
bottle of wine, they both flew in pieces, though they were uncorked;
the china in the tray flew in pieces, some while it was in the house,
and the rest in the garden, whither it was removed by the affrighted
spectators after it began to break; the bread-basket was thrown down
and broke, as also were the two mahogany waiters, and the pot of jelly,
together with bottles of liquors and jars of pickles, all of them the
property of Mrs. Goulding. Mrs Goulding, being ill with the fright, was
let blood by Mr. Gardener, a Surgeon of Clapham, who borrowed a pint
china bowl of Mr. Gresham's people to receive the blood, which being
afterwards set upon a side-board, near a bottle of rum, the property of
Mrs. Goulding, both bottle and bowl jumped on the floor and broke, the
bowl going into five pieces (a piece of which is now in the possession
of Mr. Waterfield at the Royal Oak Inn, Vauxhall). Mrs. Goulding and
her servant then went to Mr. Maylin's next door to Mr. Gresham's;
but during their stay there (which was but very short) nothing
extraordinary happened; from thence they went to the house of Farmer
Payne (to whose wife Mrs. Goulding is related) on Rush-common, near
the Wash-way, about half a mile distant from her own house, where they
found Mr. and Miss Gresham, Mr. Payne and his family; it being about
dinner-time, they all dined with Mr. Payne; some time after dinner
Mrs. Goulding's servant was sent home to examine into the state of the
house, and returned with an account that every thing there had been
quiet from the time they left it. In a little time after the return
of the servant, Mr. and Miss Gresham went home (nothing unaccountable
having yet happened at Mr. Payne's); but Mrs. Goulding and her servant
staid, and about seven o'clock in the evening the same kind of uncommon
operations as had been seen at Mrs. Goulding's began at Mr. Payne's,
by seven pewter dishes out of eight falling from the top shelf over a
dresser in the kitchen, without any apparent cause, which was followed
by an infinite number of examples not less strange, and particularly
the following: a pestle and mortar jumped from the mantle-piece in the
kitchen to the floor, about six feet; a row of pewter plates fell from
the second shelf (over the dresser) to the ground, and being taken up,
and put one in the other on the dresser, which is about three feet
high, they were thrown down again, and lay in the same manner as plates
are generally placed on a shelf; the pewter, china, earthen-ware, &c.
were then almost all set upon the floors in the kitchen and parlour (to
prevent being broke or bruised by falling), but four pewter plates were
left on one of the shelves over the dresser, which plates did not move
the whole night. While the things were putting on the ground, a stone
tea-cup jumped out of a beaufet to the floor; on the floor a glass
tumbler jumped about a foot and a half and broke; another that stood
near it jumped also about the same distance, but remained whole for
some hours after, then took another spring and broke also; a china bowl
jumped from the floor in the middle of the parlour, and went behind the
feet of a claw table, which was standing in the same parlour, at the
distance of about eight feet, but did not break at that time, but being
replaced by one Mr. Fowler, remained whole for a considerable time
afterwards, and then flew to pieces; three china cups, which had been
left on the dresser in the kitchen, flew slant-wise across the kitchen
about twelve feet, by which two were broke: an egg flew from the lower
shelf over the dresser, taking the same direction as the cups had
done, and went nearly the same distance; there was another egg on the
shelf, which did not move the whole night: a candlestick flew from the
mantle-piece in the kitchen into the parlour door-way, about fifteen
feet from the place where it stood; a tea-kettle under the dresser was
thrown out about two feet: another tea-kettle, which stood on the side
of the grate, was thrown off against an iron that is fixed to keep the
children from the fire; a mustard-glass, which was a little broke by
some natural accident, was thrown from a table into a pewter-dish on
the floor, at about seven feet distance, but did not break, neither was
it broke afterwards; the cup that had escaped when the other two were
broke (as is before-mentioned) being set on a table in the parlour,
flew off to the distance of nine feet, and broke; a tumbler, with a
little rum and water in it, standing on a waiter upon a table in the
same parlour, jumped about ten feet, and broke; the table then overset,
and threw off a silver tankard of Mrs. Goulding's, a candlestick, and
the waiter the tumbler had jumped from; two hams, which had been hung
up in the chimney to dry, fell down, though the nail and strings on and
by which they had hung were not broke or misplaced; a case-bottle of
liquor, part of which they had just drank, flew into pieces; and, in
short, about four o'clock in the morning of Tuesday, almost every thing
in the parlour and kitchen were animated, and made such a racket, that
Mr. Payne's maid-servant ran up stairs, and took a child out of bed,
and carried it into the stable naked, thinking it was not safe longer
to stay in the house. Mrs. Goulding then seeing the general confusion,
went with her servant across the road to Mr. Fowler's (the same Mr.
Fowler as is before-mentioned in this narrative) and were accompanied
by Mrs. Payne and her son, about nine years of age; and the confusion
at Mr. Payne's immediately ceased, when Mr. Fowler had let them into
his house, he proceeded to light a fire in his back room, which done,
he put the candlestick and candle he had used upon a table in his
fore-room (through which Mrs. Goulding and her servant had passed),
where also stood another candlestick with a tin lamp in it, but they
did not stand long before they were knocked against each other, and
thrown to the ground by some invisible agent; then a lanthorn in the
back-room, that had been used in lighting Mrs. Goulding, &c. across the
road, was thrown to the ground; and lastly a basket of coals, which was
brought from Mr. Payne's, overset, and emptied itself upon the floor.
Mr. Fowler upon this told Mrs. Goulding he feared she had been guilty
of some bad act, as it was plain the cause of such wonderful events
was carried with her; but Mrs. Goulding answered, that her conscience
was clear from any extraordinary evil, and that she could not tell the
cause why she was so troubled, or such like words; however, Mr. Fowler
desired her to quit his house, as he could not afford to have his goods
destroyed; whereupon Mrs. Goulding and her servant left his house,
which has been quiet ever since, and returned to her own house; and,
in a little time after their arrival, a cask with some beer in it was
thrown from its stand, and a pail of water was moved from its place a
little, and some of the water spilled, but nothing more happened; then
she discharged her servant, and has remained quiet ever since."

Another account has the following additional circumstance:

"Some plates of Mr. Gresham's, by way of trial, were placed upon the
same shelf with those of Mrs. Goulding's; the former stood unhurt, the
whole of Mrs. Goulding's were broke in pieces.

"The servant girl is gone home to her father, the clerk of Lewisham
parish; and what remains are now just as inanimate as the furniture of
other houses."

The following extracts from Nugent's translation of M. Grosley's Tour
to London are inserted as the means by which the reader may collect
facts in proof of my opinion, that the manners of the populace are
greatly improved since the above period.

"Amongst the people of London we should properly distinguish the
Porters, Sailors, Chairmen, and the Day-labourers who work in the
streets, not only from persons of condition, most of whom walk a-foot
merely because it is their fancy, but even from the lowest class of

"The former are as insolent a rabble as can be met with in countries
without law or police. The French, at whom their rudeness is chiefly
levelled, would be in the wrong to complain, since even the better
sort of Londoners are not exempt from it. Inquire of them your way to
a street: if it be upon the right, they direct you to the left, or
they send you from one of their vulgar comrades to another. The most
shocking abuse and ill language make a part of their pleasantry upon
these occasions. To be assailed in such a manner, it is not absolutely
necessary to be engaged in conversation with them; it is sufficient
to pass by them. My French air, notwithstanding the simplicity of my
dress, drew upon me, at the corner of every street, a volley of abusive
litanies, in the midst of which I slipped on, returning thanks to God I
did not understand English. The constant burthen of these litanies was,
French dog, French b--: to make any answer to them, was accepting a
challenge to fight; and my curiosity did not carry me so far. I saw in
the streets a scuffle of this kind, between a Porter and a Frenchman,
who spit in his face, not being able to make any other answer to the
torrent of abuse which the former poured out against the latter without
any provocation. The late Marshal Saxe, walking through London streets,
happened to have a dispute with a scavenger, which ended in a boxing
bout, wherein his dexterity received the general applause of the
spectators: he let the scavenger come upon him, then seized him by the
neck, and made him fly up into the air, in such a direction, that he
fell into the middle of his cart, which was brimful of dirt.

"Happening to pass one day through Chelsea, in company with an English
gentleman, a number of Watermen drew themselves up in a line, and
attacked him, on my account, with all the opprobrious terms which the
English language can supply, succeeding each other, like students
who defend a thesis: at the third attack, my friend, stepping short,
cried out to them, that they said the finest things in the world, but
unluckily he was deaf: and that, as for me, I did not understand a word
of English, and that their wit was of consequence thrown away upon me.
This remonstrance appeased them; and they returned laughing to their

"M. de la Condamine, in his journey to London two or three years ago,
was followed, wherever he went, by a numerous crowd, who were drawn
together by a great tube of block-tin, which he had always to his ear;
by an unfolded map of London which he held in his hand; and by frequent
pauses, whenever he met with any object worthy of his attention. At
his first going abroad, being frequently hemmed in by the crowd, which
prevented his advancing forward, he cried out to his interpreter, 'What
would all these people have?' Upon this, the interpreter, applying his
mouth to the tube, answered by crying out to him, 'They are making game
of you.' At last they became used to the sight; and ceased to crowd
about him as he walked the streets.

"The day after my arrival, my servant discovered, by sad experience,
what liberties the mob are accustomed to take with the French, and
all who have the appearance of being such. He had followed the crowd
to Tyburn, where three rogues were hanged, two of whom were father
and son. The execution being over, as he was returning home through
Oxford-road with the remains of the numerous multitude which had been
present at the execution, he was attacked by two or three blackguards;
and, the crowd having soon surrounded him, he made a sight for the
rabble. Jack Ketch, the executioner, joined in the sport, and entering
the circle, struck the poor sufferer upon the shoulder. They began to
drag him about by the skirts of his coat, and by his shoulder-knot;
when luckily for him, he was perceived by three grenadiers belonging
to the French guards, who, having deserted, and crossed the seas, were
then drinking at an ale-house hard by the scene of action. Armed with
such weapons as chance presented them, they suddenly attacked the mob,
laid on soundly upon such as came within their reach, and brought
their countryman off safe to the ale-house, and from thence to my
lodgings. Seven or eight campaigns which he had served with an officer
in the gens-d'armes, and a year which he afterwards passed in Italy,
had not sufficiently inured him to bear this rough treatment; it had
a most surprising effect upon him. He shut himself up in the house a
fortnight, where he vented his indignation in continual imprecations
against England and the English. Strong and robust as he was, if he
had had any knowledge of the language and the country, he might have
come off nobly, by proposing a boxing bout to the man whom he thought
weakest amongst the crowd of assailants: if victorious, he would have
been honourably brought home, and had his triumph celebrated even by
those who now joined against him. This is the first law of this species
of combat; a law which the English punctually observe in the heat of
battle, where the vanquished always find a generous conqueror in that
nation. This should seem to prove, in contradiction to Hobbes, that in
the state of nature, a state with which the street-scufflers of London
are closely connected, man, who is by fits wicked and cruel, is, at the
bottom, good-natured and generous.

"I have already observed, that the English themselves are not secure
from the insolence of the London mob. I had a proof of this from the
young Surgeon who accompanied me from Paris to Boulogne.

"At the first visit which he paid me in London, he informed me, that, a
few days after his arrival, happening to take a walk through the fields
on the Surrey-side of the Thames, dressed in a little green frock which
he had brought from Paris, he was attacked by three of those gentlemen
of the mobility, who, taking him for a Frenchman, not only abused him
with the foulest language, but gave him two or three slaps on the face.
'Luckily,' added he in French, 'I did not return their ill language;
for, if I had, they would certainly have thrown me into the Thames,
as they assured me they would, as soon as they perceived I was an
Englishman, if I ever happened to come in their way again in my Paris

"A Portuguese of my acquaintance, taking a walk in the same fields,
with three of his countrymen, their conversation in Portuguese was
interrupted by two Watermen, who, doubling their fists at them, cried,
'French dogs, speak your damned French, if you dare.'

"Happening to go one evening from the part of the town where I lived
to the Museum, I passed by the Seven-dials. The place was crowded
with people waiting to see a poor wretch stand in the pillory, whose
punishment was deferred to another day. The mob, provoked at this
disappointment, vented their rage upon all that passed that way,
whether a-foot or in coaches; and threw at them dirt, rotten eggs, dead
dogs, and all sorts of trash and ordure, which they had provided to
pelt the unhappy wretch, according to custom. Their fury fell chiefly
upon the hackney-coaches, the drivers of which they forced to salute
them with their whips and their hats, and to cry _huzza_; which word
is a signal for rallying in all public frays. The disturbance upon
this occasion was so much the greater, as the person who was to have
acted the principal part in the scene, which by being postponed had put
the rabble into such an ill-humour, belonged to the nation which that
rabble thinks it has most right to insult.

"In England, no rank or dignity is secure from their insults. The young
Queen herself was exposed to them upon her first arrival at London: the
rabble was affronted at her Majesty's keeping one window of her sedan
chair drawn up.

"The politeness, the civility, and the officiousness of people of
good breeding, whom we meet in the streets, as well as the obliging
readiness of the citizens and shopkeepers, even of the inferior sort,
sufficiently indemnify and console us for the insolence of the mob, as
I have often experienced.

"Whatever haste a gentleman may be in, whom you happen to meet in the
streets, as soon as you speak to him, he stops to answer, and often
steps out of his way to direct you, or to consign you to the care of
some one who seems to be going the same way. A gentleman one day put
me in this manner under the care of a handsome young directress, who
was returning home with a fine young child in her arms. I travelled on
very agreeably, though I had a great way to go, lending an arm to my
guide; and we conversed together as well as two persons could do, one
of whom scarce understood a word spoken by the other. I had frequent
conversations of this sort in the streets, in which, notwithstanding
all the pains I took to make myself understood, and others took to
understand me, I could not succeed: I then would quit my guide, and say
to him, with a laugh, and squeeze of the hand, _Tower of Babylon_! He
would laugh on his side likewise; and so we used to part.

"Having occasion to inquire for a certain person in Oxford-road, I
shewed his address at the first shop I came to; when out stepped a
young man, in white silk stockings, a waistcoat of fine cloth, and
an apron about his waist. After having examined whether I was able
to follow him, he made me a sign, and began to run on before me.
During this race, which was from one end of the street to the other, I
thought that my guide had interest in view; and therefore I got ready a
shilling, which I offered him upon arriving at the proper place; but he
refused it with generous disdain, and taking hold of my hand, which he
shook violently, he thanked me for the pleasure I had procured him. I
afterwards saw him at the tabernacle of the Methodists.

"To take a man in this manner by the arm, and shake it till his
shoulder is almost dislocated, is one of the grand testimonies of
friendship which the English give each other, when they happen to meet:
this they do very coolly; there is no expression of friendship in their
countenances, yet the whole soul enters the arm which gives the shake.
This supplies the place of the embraces and salutes of the French.
The English seem to regulate their behaviour upon these occasions by
the rules prescribed by Alexander Severus to those who approached his

"I met with the same politeness and civil treatment at all the public
and private assemblies to which I was admitted. At the House of Lords
as well as at the House of Commons, a foreigner may take the liberty
to address himself to any gentleman who understands his language; and
those who are applied to upon these occasions think it their duty
to answer his questions. At the first meeting of the House of Lords
to try Lord Byron, I happened to be seated amidst a family as much
distinguished by their high rank as their amiable qualities. They all
shewed the utmost eagerness to satisfy my curiosity with regard to the
several particulars of this extraordinary spectacle; to explain to me
all that was said; to instruct me with regard to the origin of the most
remarkable ceremonies; and, in fine, to share with me the refreshments,
which the length of the trial made it necessary for them to provide.

"When the King came to the House of Lords to give the royal assent
to Bills, one of the Bishops near whom I was seated offered to be my
interpreter; and he took upon him to serve me in that capacity during
the whole time I staid.

"At the courts of Common Pleas, King's Bench, and Exchequer, in
Westminster, I seated myself amongst the Lawyers; and upon my speaking
French to the two next me, neither of whom happened to understand that
language, one of them rose, and brought a brother Lawyer, who, being
acquainted with the French tongue, explained to me the best he could
all that passed.

"At the play-houses and other public diversions, I had the same good
fortune. Those that did not understand me, were eager to look for
somebody that did; and my interpreter, who had taken a bottle of wine
with him, never drank without afterwards presenting me with it: I made
it a rule to drink, because having declined the first time it was
offered, I was given to understand, that such a refusal was contrary to
the laws of English politeness.

"It must, however, be observed, that this obliging behaviour is not
accompanied with all those external demonstrations of civility, which
are customary upon such occasions in France. If an English gentleman,
who did not understand me, went in quest of an interpreter, he rose,
and quitted me with an air, which seemed rather to be that of a
whimsical humourist, than of a gentleman who was going to do a polite
action; and I saw no more of him.

"I met with the same civility and complaisance amongst all the
shop-keepers, whether great or little. The tradesman sent his son or
his daughter to me, who often served me as guide, after having first
acted as an interpreter: for some years past, the French language has
been taught as universally as the English, in all the boarding-schools
of London; so that French will soon be by choice the language of the
people of England, as it was by constraint and necessity under the
Norman Kings. This is a demonstration, that the antipathy of that
Nation for every thing belonging to the French is not universal and
without exception.

"The French are apt to imagine, that it is on account of their country
they are pushed and shoved in the most frequented streets, and often
driven into the kennel; but they are mistaken. The English walk very
fast: their thoughts being entirely engrossed by business, they are
very punctual to their appointments, and those who happen to be in
their way are sure to be sufferers by it: constantly darting forward,
they jostle them with a force proportioned to their bulk and the
velocity of their motion. I have seen foreigners, not used to this
exercise, let themselves be tossed and whirled about a long time, in
the midst of a crowd of passengers, who had nothing else in view but to
get forward. Having soon adopted the English custom, I made the best
of my way through crowded streets, exerting my utmost efforts to shun
persons who were equally careful to avoid me.

"We should be equally in an error, if we were to imagine that the
English fashions, diametrically opposite to those of France, are
contrived in the manner they are, in order to avoid all resemblance
to those of our Nation: on the contrary, if the former are any way
influenced by the latter, it is by the desire of imitating them. A mode
begins to be out of date at Paris, just when it has been introduced at
London by some English Nobleman. The Court and the first-rate Nobility
immediately take it up: it is next introduced about St. James's by
those that ape the manners of the Court; and by the time it has reached
the City, a contrary mode already prevails at Paris, where the English,
bringing with them the obsolete mode, appear like the people of another
world. The little hats, for example, at present so fashionable in
France, begin to be wore by the Nobility, who borrowed the model from
Paris: by degrees the English will come at the diminutive size; but the
great hats will then be resumed at Paris. This holds good in general,
with regard both to men and women's apparel."

It has long been customary for the lower classes to hold a burlesque
election at Wandsworth after a dissolution of Parliament for the
choice of a Mayor of Garratt. To describe the strange proceedings
of the candidates, who are always selected from the most ludicrous
or most hideous of the community, or the riotous freaks of the mob,
would be impossible. One vast wave of the populace rolls impetuous
from London after the candidates and officers of the election; and,
if there is but little taste in their dresses, there is always much
"unreal mockery" of finery disposed in a manner which cannot but excite
laughter, and the curiosity of those who are but little satisfied to
witness the quarrels and intoxication that distinguish the electors of
the borough of Garratt.

Many whimsical and satirical imitations of speeches and promises are
made upon these occasions; but the electors, contrary to the customs of
other elections, always _treat themselves_, though _tin_ sixpences have
sometimes been thrown amongst the mob _as bribes_.

The present member for Garratt is _Sir_ Henry Dimsdale, Citizen and
Muffin-seller, one of the oddest productions of injured nature, _and
an idiot_. It is strange that the people who act these follies cannot
perceive they are satirizing themselves. If they were not willing to
be deceived, promises never meant to be performed would not be made;
and, if they would neither receive bribes nor be treated, candidates
would never offer the former, or furnish materials for the latter. When
they chair a real member through Westminster, after having violated the
freedom of election by deeds which deserve hanging, these wanton fools
pull the hustings over their own heads, and frequently maim peaceable
spectators.--Such are the electors of Garratt and . . . . . . . . !


[231:A] "This should be _Cuper's_ gardens, formerly the Bear Garden."
_European Magazine._

[231:B] "This should be the _Folly_; a very large vessel, said to have
been the hulk of a ship of war or frigate, which was moored on the
Surrey-side of the Thames, nearly opposite Hungerford stairs, and,
consequently, abreast of _Cuper's_ gardens. It was used as a floating
_tavern_ and _bagnio_. The proprietors had an idea, that a licence was
not necessary for a place of this _description on the river_, and it
was continued many years unrestrained, till at length its enormities
became so notorious, that its suppression was deemed a most necessary
object of Police." _Ibid._

[232:A] At Hoxton.

[233:A] Heraclitus Ridens.

[244:A] No Coaches to be admitted but with six horses, nor any Coach to
come into the Park after ten of the clock in the morning.

[257:A] Daughter to the earl of Ranelagh.

[266:A] Original Weekly Journal, May 21, 1720.

[280:A] "This house was one of the last of the hundreds of Drury
Taverns (for in that district it was included). Tradition formerly
said it had, in the reign of Charles II. been much celebrated for
the gaiety of its visitors. The rooms in which the concerts were
performed and balls given, were at the top of the house: these were
large, others smaller; the bar conveniently situated to see who went up
stairs. All the premises, except the Tavern part, which dwindled into a
public-house, were let to an organ-builder and harpsichord-maker."

                                             _European Magazine._

[336:A] _Vide_ London Chronicle, vol. IX. p. 375.

[390:A] "If any Courtier bowed in a cringing manner, or used flattering
expressions, he was either banished the Court, if the nature of his
place admitted of it; or turned into ridicule, if his dignity exempted
him from any severer punishment." Lampridius, Life of Alexander Severus.



To particularise every species of Eccentricity which has distinguished
this great community would be useless; but the whims of certain
individuals of it ought to be noticed, in order that a just estimate
may be formed of the grand whole. In the month of November 1700 an
old gentleman was found lifeless on the floor of his apartment in
Dartmouth-street by his landlady, who had been alarmed by hearing him
fall. He died intestate, and worth 600_l. per annum_; but his manner
of living was penurious to the most extravagant degree, allowing nature
barely four-penny worth of boiled meat and broth _per_ day. When he
went from home he was under the necessity of hiring a boy for a penny
to lead him across the Park, as he was near-sighted; but this was
almost the only intercourse he had with mankind, except to receive his
rents, which may be imagined from the state of his clothing as he lay
dead: the body had seven shirts on it, each dreadfully soiled, and that
next the skin actually decayed; and his other clothing was tied on with
cords, that had even lacerated the flesh.

Eccentricity may exist in the brain of the most exalted character; the
best intentions are often marked by it; therefore the reader must not
suppose that censure is implied when good actions are classed under
this head: he that deviates from the common path is eccentric; but, if
his purposes are virtuous, the good man will forgive the deviation.

Some Professors of Religion are very apt to be eccentric in their
conduct. Joseph Jacobs was the leader of a set of enthusiasts in 1702,
who preached to his votaries at Turners-hall: he was originally a
Linen-draper. "Observator" says, his congregation were "the remnant
of the tribe of Ishmael; for their hand is against every body, and
every body's hand against them. By their bristles (they suffered
their hair to flourish luxuriantly) one would take them to be a
herd of the Gaderines swine into which the Devil has newly entered,
from whom at latter Lammas we shall have great cry and little wool.
They are compounded of Philadelphians, Sweet-singers, Seekers, and
Muggletonians. Their system of Divinity is a hodge-podge of Jacobs'
putting together, and their philosophy is that of Jacob Behmen's.
If their women do not backslide from the truth, it is their native
virtue keeps them steadfast; for their Pastor by trade is authorised to
examine their clouts. He that has the longest whiskers amongst them is
by so much the better member; but Jacobs measures their profession by
the Mustachio, and not by the ell and yard, as he used to do his linen.
By their look you would take them to be of the Society of Bedlam;
madmen we found them, and so we leave them."

This eccentric preacher died in June 1722. He retained the name of
Whisker Jacobs to the day of his death. As he was singular in his life,
so was he at his departure, having given orders that no mourning should
be used at his interment in Bunhill-fields. Accordingly his executors
gave the company white gloves and rings, but no scarfs or hatbands.

It would be extremely wrong not to include Dr. Sacheverell in the list.
This gentleman contrived to turn his talents in eccentricity to some
account, and was the cause of a wonderful acquisition of members to
the class of oddities. I shall leave the Doctor's "birth, parentage,
and education," to the biographers who have treated of the subject;
and introduce him as a _singular_ character, and a willing instrument
in the hands of faction, and as one that contrived to confound the
State, rouse the passions, and raise a mob wherever he chose to
exhibit himself; nay, even to animate the Rev. Mr. Palmer, preacher
at Whitehall, at the risk of suspension, to pray for him by name as
a patient sufferer under the persecution of the House of Lords, who
brought him to trial, Feb. 27, 1709-10, on charges of having maintained
that the necessary means used to bring about the Revolution were odious
and unjustifiable; that resistance to the Supreme Power was illegal
under any pretence whatever; that it was the duty of superior pastors
to thunder out their ecclesiastical anathema's against persons entitled
to the benefit of the toleration, &c. &c.; which they decreed the
Commons had substantiated, contents 69, non-contents 52. After this
event he became the idol of the mob, and of several well-meaning but
weak people. His vanity led him to make a kind of triumphal journey
through the country, where he was generally received as a conqueror,
and in some instances by Corporations and the Clergy with flags
displayed, ringing of bells, and bonfires. However disgraceful such
conduct, he furnished the industrious of many classes with the means
of enriching themselves: the Printers and Publishers fattened on his
Sermons and his Trial; the Engraver on his physiognomy; and even the
Fan-maker sold his "Emblematical fans with the true effigies of the
Rev. Dr. Henry Sacheverell done to the life, and several curious
hieroglyphicks in honour of the Church of England finely painted and
mounted on extraordinary genteel sticks." After this summary of the
Doctor's exploits, who will deny his claim to eccentricity, or that he
was a most unworthy son of the Church, a teacher of bigotry, not of
peace? But he is forgotten; and but one small marble lozenge shews his
present resting-place.

In 1711 Gustavus Parker entertained the publick with a specimen of his
eccentricity, exhibited in a "Monthly Weather-paper," or baroscopical
prognosticks of the description of Weather to happen a month _after_
his publication. He even pronounced whether there would be warm or cold
rain, or be clear, for the day and night, and from which point the wind
would blow. Though Mr. Parker entered into a laboured explanation of
the principles on which he founded his infallible judgment, they were
confuted most completely by the observations of an individual, who
placed the real state of the weather opposite the anticipated; from
which I pronounce him no conjurer.

Politicks had arrived to a dreadful state of effervescence in 1713.
Many authors exerted themselves to fan the flames, and but few
endeavoured to extinguish them. One eccentric person ("which lived
at the sign of the Queen's-arms _and Corn-cutter_ in King-street,
Westminster, where a blue sign-board is fixed to _the other_ that
shews what cures I perform, _viz._ the scurvy in the gums, or
tooth-ache, likewise the piles and all casual sores, and fasteneth
loose teeth, and causeth decayed gums to grow firm and well again")
with more zeal than ability collected a _farrago_ of scraps of religion
and moral sayings, and connected them in a way peculiar to himself by
fervent wishes and pious ejaculations; which he published twice a-week
under the title of the "Balm of Gilead, or the Healer of Divisions,
by Thomas Smith, Operator."--I consider this Thomas Smith a worthy
predecessor of many an Itinerant Methodist.

The public-house is a hot-bed for vulgar eccentricity; and without
doubt the following mad exploit of four men in January 1715-16
originated in one of them, which is thus described in the London Post
of the 21st. They solemnly bound themselves to support each other in
every difficulty and danger that might occur during an excursion up
the Thames on the ice for four days, in which they determined to avoid
every track made by man, and to explore a way for themselves. They set
out provided with poles from the Old Swan near London-bridge; and two
of them were seen to fall through air-holes opposite Somerset-house and
Lambeth, but the others were never heard of.

I am rather at a loss under what title to place the ignorance and
absurdity displayed in the ensuing paragraph, copied from the News
Letter of Feb. 25, 1716; but, as superstition is closely allied to
folly, and eccentricity is a species of folly, I believe this to
be the proper one. "The Flying Horse, a noted victualling-house in
Moor-fields, _next to that of the late Astrologer Trotter_, has
been molested for several nights past in an _unaccountable manner_;
abundance of stones, glass bottles, clay, &c. being thrown into the
back side of the house, to the great _amazement and terror_ of the
family and guests. It is altogether unknown how it happened, though all
the neighbouring houses were diligently searched, and men appointed in
proper places to find the occasion."

The unknown author of the Advertisement which follows appears to have
been nearly related to Thomas Smith the Corn-cutter, but far more
enlightened. The motives that dictated it must be approved, however
extraordinary such a production may appear in the Postman of July 31,
1716. "Whoever you are to whose hands this comes, let the truth it
contains abide upon your mind, as what is intended for your greatest
benefit. The method taken I know is uncommon; yet, if there is the
least probability of success, though it be only with a few, the design
will be justified, as intending the glory of God in your salvation.
Remember then that you were once told in this manner, that being
zealous for names and parties is what will stand you in no stead at
death, except you have the life in you that shall never die. Are you
a Christian? or, have you only the name from education, as it is the
professed Religion of your Country? If you can say on your conscience
you have endeavoured to lay aside prejudice wherein you might have
reason to suspect yourself of it, and, apprehending your lost condition
without a Saviour as revealed in the Gospel, you have devoted yourself
to God in him, and therefore hope you are a true Christian, it is
well--give God the praise; but, if in your conscience you must say you
have no more than the name, stay Man, Woman, whoever you be, consider,
think before this go out of your mind or hand how you shall escape, if
you neglect so great salvation."

The nobility and young men of fashion of most countries are rather
eccentric in their amusements; and surely this observation may safely
be applied to those of England in 1717, when a set of _escape graces_
subscribed for a piece of plate, which was run for in Tyburn-road by
six Asses rode by Chimney-sweepers; and two boys rode two Asses at
Hampstead-heath for a _wooden spoon_ attended by above 500 persons on
horseback. Women running for Holland smocks was not uncommon; nay,
a match was talked of for a race of women in hooped petticoats; and
another actually took place in consequence of a wager of 1000_l._
between the Earl of Lichfield and Esquire Gage, that Gage's Chaise and
pair would outrun the Earl's Chariot and four. The ground was from
Tyburn to Hayes; and Gage lost through some accident. Vast sums were
betted on all these eccentric operations.

In the month of February 1717-18, James Austin, inventor of the Persian
Ink-powder, most extravagantly grateful to his customers, determined to
do an act which renders him a fit subject for my groupe of oddities.
He selected the Boar's-head in East-cheap for the reception of those
persons, and provided for them a Pudding, to be boiled fourteen days,
for which he allowed a chaldron of coals; and another baked, a cube of
one foot; and nearly a whole Ox roasted. Such was the fare. The musick
was commensurate with the vastness of the entertainment, at least in
one particular; which was a drum, that had served as an alarm in some
Turkish army, eighteen feet in length, and near four feet in diameter.
Swift might have made good use of Austin in the travels of Lemuel

Mist's Journal notices the Austin feast a second time, and asserts that
the copper for boiling the great pudding was then, April 19, erected at
the Red-lion in Southwark Park, where crowds of people went to see it.
Mist adds that the pudding would weigh 900lb.; and when boiled was to
be conveyed to the _Swan Tavern_, Fish-street-hill, Monday, May 26, to
the tune of "What lumps of pudding my mother gave me!"

Poor Austin boiled his pudding, and advertised that the company
expected was so numerous, he should be under the necessity of
carrying it to the Restoration-gardens in St. George's-fields,
where he _attempted_ to convey it, as appears from a second notice;
but the rabble, attracted by the ridiculous cavalcade, broke
through every restraint, and carried off banners, streamers, &c.
&c. which he demanded should be restored by the 6th of June under
pain of prosecution for robbery. He says nothing of the fate of his
Pudding; I must therefore leave him, in order to pay attention to a
fellow-labourer in the works of singularity--a poor Benedict, who
declared in the Flying Post of July 8, 1718, "About two years ago I
intermarried with the daughter of Ben Bound of Foster-lane, ironmonger,
who agreed to give me 600_l._ Soon after he furnished me three rooms
to the value of 50_l._, for which he pretended he gave 300_l._; upon
which I asked him for the remainder of the 600_l._; but he answered,
if I insisted upon any money, he would sue me for the goods. Whereupon
I filed a bill in Chancery against him, and he owned in his answer he
had given me the goods; but, being resolved to have them again at any
rate, upon the 11th of June last he persuaded my wife to carry them
away; and upon the 12th I was arrested in a sham action for 200_l._
at the suit of one Jeffery Sharpe (whom I never heard of before), and
by 14 officers carried to prison; and in the mean time my house was
ransacked; and, had it not been for an Attorney, I had not saved the
value of one penny, most of my goods being carried away, and the rest
packed up. And after they had kept my wife a fortnight, they were
so barbarous to let her lie two nights upon chairs; so that she is
returned to me again: and I hope if her father desist from giving her
ill advice, and coveting the rest of my goods, she will still prove a
good wife.

                                                    JOHN NEWALL."

A woman who lived in great apparent poverty died in March 1718 within
the parish of St. Dunstan in the East. Those who prepared her for
burial are said to have found 8000_l._ concealed in her bed.

The malicious Miser deserves a niche in this temple of worthies.
Such was Mr. Elderton, a farmer of Bow, who went by the name of the
old Farmer of Newgate; where he was confined, and even died, because
he had determined not to pay the assessments in common with his

Another worthy was Mr. Dyche, whose singularity is thus mentioned in
the Whitehall Evening-Post for August 1619: "Yesterday died Mr. Dyche,
late School-master to the Charity Children of St. Andrew Holborn. He
was a strict Nonjuror, and formerly _amanuensis_ to the famous Sir
Roger L'Estrange. It is said he wore a piece of the halter in which
parson Paul was executed (in the rebellion of 1715, for carrying arms
against the King) in his bosom; and some time before his death had made
a solemn vow _not to shift his linen_ till the Pretender was seated on
the Throne of these Realms."

In the month of March 1720 an unknown lady died at her lodgings
in James-street, Covent-garden. She is represented to have been a
middle-sized person, with dark-brown hair and very beautiful features,
and mistress of every accomplishment peculiar to ladies of the first
fashion and respectability. Her age appeared to be between thirty and
forty. Her circumstances were affluent, and she possessed the richest
trinkets of her sex generally set with diamonds. A John Ward, Esq. of
Hackney, published many particulars relating to her in the papers; and,
amongst others, that a servant had been directed by her to deliver him
a letter after her death; but as no servant appeared, he felt himself
required to notice those circumstances, in order to acquaint her
relations of her decease, which occurred suddenly after a masquerade,
where she declared she had conversed with the King, and it was
remembered that she had been seen in the private apartments of Queen
Anne; though after the Queen's demise she had lived in obscurity. This
unknown arrived in London from Mansfield in 1714, drawn by six horses.
She frequently said that her father was a nobleman, but that her elder
brother dying unmarried the title was extinct; adding that she had an
uncle then living, whose title was his least recommendation.

It was conjectured that she might be the daughter of a Roman Catholick
who had consigned her to a Convent, whence a brother had released
her, and supported her in privacy. She was buried at St. Paul's,

When some decay in the draw-bridge on London-bridge had rendered it
necessary to prevent the passage of persons and vehicles, in order to
its repair in April 1722; the silence and desolate appearance of a
place so much frequented at all other times attracted the attention of
some wealthy tradesmen, who entered into the whimsical resolution to
have a table set in the midst of the street, where they sat drinking
for an afternoon, that they might be enabled to say at a future period,
"however crowded the bridge is at present, I have drank punch on it for
great part of a day."

An extraordinary method was adopted by a Brewer's servant in February
1723 to prevent his liability for the payment of the debts of a Mrs.
Brittain whom he intended to marry. The lady made her appearance at
the door of St. Clement Danes habited in her shift; hence her enamorato
conveyed the modest fair to a neighbouring Apothecary's, where she was
completely equipped with clothing purchased by him; and in these Mrs.
Brittain changed her name at the church.

Eccentricity is generally a source of ridicule, but rarely one of
profit. An instance of the latter is recorded in the London Journal:
a Mr. Morrisco, an eminent Weaver, and a man of vast possessions,
resident in Spital-fields, had a bill drawn on him from abroad of
80,000_l._ which was held by an Ambassador at our Court, and sent for
acceptance. When the old gentleman made his appearance, the messenger
was appalled at his figure, which exhibited penury personified; he
therefore hurried back to the Ambassador, full of doubts and fears
whether it could be possible such a man should be capable of raising
even 800_l._ The representative of Sovereignty, terrified at the
idea of his probable loss, resolved to satisfy himself by personal
inspection; which he had no sooner done than Morrisco divined his
thoughts, and to ease them, and turn his doubts to present profit, he
offered to pay the bill immediately for a valuable consideration; the
offer was gladly accepted, and Morrisco fairly pocketed 4000_l._ the
_produce of his shabby habiliments_.

The name of Don Saltero, the odd collector and exhibitor of natural and
artificial curiosities at Chelsea, made its first appearance in the
newspapers June 22, 1723, whence the following whimsical account of
himself and his rarities are extracted:

     Sir, Fifty years since to Chelsea great
       From Rodnam on the Irish main
     I stroll'd, with maggots in my pate,
       Where much improv'd they still remain.
     Through various employs I've past:
       A scraper, vertuos', projector,
     Tooth-drawer, trimmer, and at last
       I'm now a gimcrack whim collector.
     Monsters of all sorts here are seen,
       Strange things in nature as they grew so;
     Some relicks of the Sheba Queen,
       And fragments of the fam'd Bob Cruso.
     Knick-knacks too dangle round the wall,
       Some in glass cases, some on shelf;
     But what's the rarest sight of all,
       Your humble servant shows himself.
     On this my chiefest hope depends.
       Now, if you will the cause espouse,
     In Journals pray direct your friends
       To my Museum Coffee-house;
     And in requital for the timely favour,
       I'll _gratis_ bleed, draw teeth, and be your shaver;
     Nay, that your pate may with my noddle tally,  }
     And you shine bright as I do--marry, shall ye  }
     Freely consult my revelation Molly;            }
     Nor shall one jealous thought create a huff,
     For she has taught me manners long enough.

                                                     DON SALTERO.

_Chelsea Knackatory._

Several frolicsome gentlemen hired a hackney-coach in 1724, to which
they affixed six horses; the coachman and postillion they habited as
kennel-sweepers or scavengers; and they placed as many shoe-boys as
could cling to the vehicle behind as footmen, with their stools on
their heads and baskets of implements by their sides. Thus equipped
they drove to the Ring in Hyde-park, and there entertained the company
with this species of eccentricity.

There is a certain degree of whim in some of the wagers we find
recorded in the newspapers, that, however absurd the bettors may
appear, a smile is excited perforce.

In the above year two gentlemen, full of money and destitute of wit,
had a dispute respecting the quantity that might be eaten at one meal.
This ended in a bet of 5_l._ proposed by one of them, that himself
and _another_ would eat a bushel of tripe, and drink four bottles of
wine, within an hour. The parties met at Islington, where the tripe was
produced and the wine displayed; nothing remained but the introduction
of the _another_; that _another_, gentle reader, proved a sharp-set
Bear, who fully justified his friend's prognostick with the tripe
diluted by three bottles of wine poured into it.

Applebee's Original Weekly Journal for November 19, 1726, has the
following curious article, which fills another niche in our Pantheon
of Eccentrics: "For the entertainment of our brother _dumplineers_,
we shall inform them of a curiosity contrived for their accommodation
at the Sun Tavern in St. Paul's Church-yard; which is the invention
of Mr. Johnston, the master of the house; being a larder erected in
the middle of his yard, which stands upon four pedestals, in a perfect
round twelve feet in circumference, in the lower part whereof is three
round shelves with cylindrical doors to open and shut; the same is
covered with a curious slab of black and white marble three feet in
diameter, and a direct circular figure, from whence the four pedestals
are carried up, between each of which are two sliding sashes with
convex glasses: the four pillars are adorned with curious iron-work
and other ornaments, as well for beauty as use, and a shelf runs round
the inside for containing proper provent for the stomach. In the midst
hangs a crown of iron painted and gilt, and the top rises into a dome
twelve feet in height, in the same manner as that of St. Paul's, which
is leaded over with four round or port holes covered with wire for the
conveniency of admitting the air and keeping out the flies. On the top
of the dome is a globe, upon which sits Bacchus astride upon a tun,
to signify his Godship is willing to lay a good foundation, that he
may be the better able to contain his liquor; on his head is the Sun
dispersing his rays; from the four sides are four sliding shelves which
draw out for the accommodation of such dumplineers as desire to drink
their wine at the fountain-head, or next the cellar door. The whole is
neatly painted and gilt."

There is sometimes a degree of eccentricity blended with revenge; an
instance of which occurred in 1727. The pastor of the parish of St.
Andrew Undershaft had differed with a female of his flock to a very
violent degree; in consequence, the lady renounced his spiritual
governance while living, and solemnly declared her corpse should not
receive the rites of burial from his lips when dead. This resolution
was communicated by the executors to the undertaker, who provided a
Clergyman to officiate at the funeral. As the Priest of the parish
had notice of this strange proceeding, he determined to prevent the
intruded Priest from performing the ceremony; but the latter, equally
tenacious, insisted on his right, in compliance with the lady's will. A
violent dispute succeeded, which terminated by both parties reading the
burial service.

After this shameful scene of impiety, the Parish Priest retired to the
Vestry-room, and enquired of the Clerk whether he had provided him
a ticket for hat-bands and gloves, as usual. The Clerk replying in a
surly manner that he had not, the Priest wreaked dire vengeance on his
body by a thorough beating[414:A]. In short the offending Clerk by his

     Was beat with fist instead of a stick.

The St. James's Evening Post of January 1728 mentions a nameless
oddity, who kept open house in his _own way_ during the holidays at a
Tavern near St. James's-market: "He treats all the company that comes,
provided they appear fit for a gentleman to keep company with; pays
his reckoning twice a day, and thinks no expence too great that their
eating and drinking can put him to. He never quits his room, or changes
his linen. The house has already received some hundreds of pounds from
him, and is likely to receive many more, if his constitution can but do
its duty. He proposes to hold it for three months; and it is said, this
is not the first time he has done so."

Abraham Simmonds, a tobacconist, who retired to enjoy a handsome
independence at Lewisham, died in 1728. His widow and executrix found,
to her utter dismay, upon opening his will, that he had directed his
body to be buried in his own orchard, wrapped in a blanket, without
any of the usual religious ceremonies; and that his favourite dog after
his natural decease should be deposited in the same grave. The lady
seems to have been a sagacious wife, and a good hand at a quibble.
She strictly complied with the eccentric wishes of Mr. Simmonds; but,
as that gentleman neglected to say his body must _remain_ in the
Orchard, she had it conveyed into a handsome coffin, and thence to the
church-yard, where the Parish Priest performed the burial rites.

Orator Henley, who is said to have restored the antient eloquence of
the pulpit, was frequently mentioned in the Newspapers _circa_ 1724 as
appointed to preach Charity Sermons. He appears however in 1726 to have
entered into the true spirit of eccentricity, and frequently advertised
in the following style:

"On Sunday July 31 the Theological Lectures of the Oratory begin in
the French Chapel in Newport-market, on the most curious subjects
in Divinity. They will be after the manner and of the extent of the
Academical Lectures. The first will be on the Liturgy of the Oratory,
without derogating from any other, at half an hour after three in the
afternoon. Service and Sermon in the morning will be at half an hour
after ten. The subjects will be always new, and treated in the most
natural manner. On Wednesday next, at five in the evening, will be an
Academical Lecture on Education antient and modern. The chairs that
were forced back last Sunday by the crowd, if they would be pleased to
come a very little sooner, would find the passage easy. As the town is
pleased to approve of this undertaking, and the institutor neither does
nor will act nor say any thing in it that is contrary to the laws of
God and his country; he depends on the protection of both, and despises
malice and calumny." One of the writers of the Weekly Journal says, the
fame of Henley led him to visit the Oratory, and adds, "About the usual
hour of the Orator's entering the public scene of action, a trap-door
gave way behind the pulpit, as if forced open by some invisible hand;
and at one large leap the Orator jumped to the desk, where he at once
fell to work. I eyed the person of the Orator thoroughly, and could
point out in every lineament of his face the features and muscles
of a Jew, with a strong tincture of the Turk. But, to come to his
oration, which turned on the important subject of Education antient and
modern--I had entertained hopes of meeting with something curious at
least, if not just, on the great theme he had made choice of; though,
instead of it, I heard nothing but a few common sentiments, phrases,
and notions, beat into the audience with hands, arms, legs, and head,
as if people's understandings were to be courted and knocked down with
blows, and gesture and grimace were to plead and atone for all other
deficiencies." The price of admission was one shilling.

Mr. Henley issued his notice of intended lectures in November 1728
in the ensuing strange manner: "At the Oratory in Newport-market,
to-morrow, at half an hour after ten, the Sermon will be on the Witch
of Endor. At half an hour after five the Theological lecture will be on
the Conversion and Original of the Scottish Nation, and of the Picts
and Caledonians; St. Andrew's relicks and panegyrick, and the character
and mission of the Apostles.

"On Wednesday at six, or near the matter, take your chance, will be a
medley Oration on the History, Merits, and Praise of Confusion, and of
Confounders in the road and out of the way.

"On Friday will be that on Dr. Faustus and Fortunatus and conjuration;
after each the Chimes of the Times, No. 23 and 24. N. B. Whenever the
prices of the seats are occasionally raised in the week-days, notice
will be given of it in the prints. An account of the performances
of the Oratory from the first to August last is published, with the
discourse on Nonsense; and if any Bishop, Clergyman, or other subject
of His Majesty, or the subject of any foreign Prince or state, can at
my years, and in my circumstances and opportunities, without the least
assistance or any patron in the world, parallel the study, choice,
variety, and discharge, of the said performances of the Oratory by his
own or any others, I will engage forthwith to quit the said Oratory.

                                                      J. HENLEY."

This eccentric gentleman, full of conceit and self-sufficiency,
attracted the notice of the Grand Jury for the City and Liberty of
Westminster January 9, 1725-9, who presented him thus:

"Whereas the Act, made in the first year of the reign of King William
and Queen Mary, for exempting their Majesties' Protestant subjects
dissenting from the Church of England from the penalties of certain
laws, was wisely designed as an indulgence for the tender and
scrupulous consciences of such Dissenters, and as a means to unite
all the Protestant subjects in interest and affection: And whereas it
is notorious, that John Henley, Clerk in Priest's orders according to
the form of the Church of England, did about three years since hire a
large room over the market-house in Newport-market within this City and
Liberty of Westminster, and cause the said room to be registered in
the court of the Archdeacon of Middlesex (pursuant to the said Act of
Toleration) as a place for religious worship, to be performed therein
by him the said John Henley, who pretended to dissent from the Church
of England on account of Infant Baptism (although that has been the
least of his exercises, nor are his audiences of that persuasion), and
by his advertisements in the public newspapers invited all persons to
come thither, and take seats for twelve-pence a-piece, promising them
diversion under the titles of _Voluntaries_, _Chimes of the Times_,
_Roundelays_, _College-bobs_, _Madrigals_, and _Operas_, &c.: And
whereas it appears to us, by information upon oath, that the said
John Henley, notwithstanding his professed dissention and separation
from the Church of England, has usually appeared in the habit worn by
Priests of the Church of England; and in that habit has for several
months past upon one or more days in the week made use of the said room
for purposes very different from those of religious worship; and that
he has there discoursed on several subjects of burlesque and ridicule,
and therein and in his comments upon the public newspapers, and in his
weekly advertisements, has uttered several indecent, libertine, and
obscene expressions, and made many base and malicious reflections upon
the established Churches of England and Scotland, upon the Convocation,
and almost all orders and degrees of men, and upon particular persons
by name, and even those of the highest rank: And whereas it appears to
us more particularly, by information upon oath, that he the said John
Henley did, on the 12th day of December last, cause to be published in
the Daily Post an advertisement, giving notice that on the evening of
the next day he would pronounce King Lear's oration in an apology for
madness, on which evening he did in the said room (called by him the
Oratory) in the habit of a Clergyman of the Church of England repeat a
speech out of the tragedy of King Lear, acting in such manner and with
such gestures as are practised in the theatres; and that the said John
Henley did, on the 17th day of the same month, cause to be published in
the said Daily Post another advertisement, inviting such as went the
following evening to the ball in the Haymarket to come first to his
said room in their habits and masks for twelve-pence a-piece; and that
according to such invitation several persons so dressed and masked did
then and there appear, and were admitted upon paying the said moneys,
for their seats:

"We the grand Jury for, &c. conceiving that this behaviour of the said
John Henley is contrary to the intention of the said Act of Toleration,
and tends to bring a disrepute upon the indulgence so charitably
granted to truly scrupulous Dissenters, that it gives great offence
to all serious Christians, is an outrage upon civil society, and of
dangerous consequence to the State, and particularly that the said
assemblies by him held as aforesaid are unlawful ones, his said room
not being licensed for plays, interludes, or masquerades, do present
the said John Henley, and his accomplices and assistants to us unknown,
as guilty of unlawful assemblies, routs, and riots, &c. &c. &c."

Henley, actuated by the genuine spirit of perseverance and opposition,
proceeded with his lectures. If _any effect_ was observable from the
presentment, it was that of threefold eccentricity and impropriety of
subjects for his Orations. The bill of fare issued for Sunday September
28, 1729, contains a list of the fashions in dress of the time, and is
therefore curious:

"At the Oratory, the corner of Lincoln's-Inn-fields near Clare-market,
to-morrow, at half an hour after ten: 1, The postil will be on the
turning of Lot's wife into a pillar of salt; 2, The Sermon will be
on the necessary power and attractive force which Religion gives the
spirit of man with God and good Spirits.

"II. At five: 1, The postill will be on this point, _In what language
our Saviour will speak the last sentence on mankind_; 2, The lecture
will be on Jesus Christ's sitting at the right-hand of God, _where
that is_; the honours and lustre of his inauguration; the learning,
criticism, and piety of that glorious article.

"The Monday's orations will shortly be resumed. On Wednesday the
oration will be on the Skits of the Fashions, or a _live_ gallery of
family pictures in all ages; ruffs, muffs, puffs manifold; shoes,
wedding-shoes, two-shoes, slip-shoes, peels, clocks, pantofles,
buskins, pantaloons, garters, shoulder-knots, perriwigs, head-dresses,
modesties, tuckers, farthingales, corkins, minikins, slammakins,
ruffles, round-robbins, toilets, fans, patches; Dame, forsooth, Madam,
My lady, the wit and beauty of my Grannum; Winifred, Joan, Bridget,
compared with our Winny, Jenny, and Biddy; fine ladies and pretty
gentlewomen; being a general view of the _beau monde_ from before
Noah's flood to the year 29. On Friday will be something better than
last Tuesday. After each a bob at the times."

I believe the following curious advertisement to have been the
production of the Lady Hamilton, widow of the Duke killed by Lord
Mohun: "I Elizabeth duchess dowager of Hamilton acknowledge I have
for several months been ill in my health, but was never speechless,
as certain penny authors have printed; and so, to confute these said
authors and their intelligence, it is thought by my most intimate
friends, _it is the very last thing that will happen to me_. I am so
good an Englishwoman that I would not have my countrymen imposed on by
purchasing false authors; therefore, have ordered this to be printed,
that they may know what papers to buy and believe, that are not to be
bribed by those who may have private ends for false reports. The copy
of this is left in the hands of Mr. Berington, to be shewn to any body
who has a curiosity to see it signed by my own hand.

                                             E. HAMILTON[423:A]."

Another, published in September 1732, was inclosed by a deep border of
black, and is strongly demonstrative of religious eccentricity, or, if
you please, religious frenzy.

"Just published, Divine Inspiration; or a Collection of Manifestations
to make known the Visitation of the Lord, and the Coming of his Kingdom
in great power and glory, according to the Scripture promise, by the
preaching of the everlasting Gospel, as Rev. xix. &c.

"Also, that the righteousness of God in his express sovereign power,
wisdom, and love, may be known in the Divine word, the Sent of God to
manifest and execute Divine will both in mercy and judgment, the two
great witnesses, the messengers of God in this approaching day of the
Lord upon us.

"Lastly, this is the earnest prayer of them that have known and tasted
the power of the Divine word, and who, as a testimony of their knowing
God, in his out-speaking word immediately revealing, and from universal
love and charity wishing true knowledge may descend, and increase and
multiply in and upon man of every order and every degree, and to be the
voice and word of God, do here give and set their hands, believing
he that now speaks will come, and that suddenly, according as hath
been the voice of the Spirit of the Holy Ghost, the Comforter in the
Anointed, saying, So come, O Lord."

This strange effusion is signed by twelve persons, four of whom were

"By the mouth of Hannah Wharton at Birmingham and Worcester."

Master Henley thus informed the publick in October 1732: "Before any
person casts an imputation on me, in reference to the Oratory, wherein
I know no fault but one, that it is a pattern of the truest principles
of Religion, with the most various and assiduous endeavour to merit,
in the capacity of a scholar and a clergyman, that is, or ever was in
this island, or in the world; before I am reflected upon for this, I
would desire every man who educates a son to orders, and him who is so
educated, to consider this case, and to make it his own.

"I waited some years ago on a certain Prelate with a solicitation of
a pulpit in town, signifying my resolution to cultivate and exert the
talent of preaching which God had given me, in the most complete and
public manner. His answer was, that I might be of use; but, before
he could do for me, he must have a _pledge_ of my attachment to the
government. I was an entire stranger to politicks; but gave him that

"A pledge demanded, given, and accepted for a consideration, is a
contract for that consideration; the hinge of my interest and fortune
very much turned upon it. It was the year 1721-2, a tender crisis;
and, doubtless, he made a job of it to the Government. When I applied
for the consideration, he shifted off. Had he any possible exception
to my intellectual or moral qualifications (though nothing can be more
immoral, or sooner make the world Atheists than a perfidious prelate),
he should, before he drew me in, have told me, that if he met with
any such exception, he would not do what I solicited; and that he
would take time to examine. This would have been fair. He assigned no
exception at all during a whole year, till I had sacrificed my interest
to him on his own demand; and it is easy to frame exceptions, if a
person be inclined to break his word. My judgment is, he and his clergy
even envied me in the pulpit, and were jealous of my advancement,
timorous that at Court there might be a patron, or a patroness of
learning, and apprehensive that I might outstrip them there. Was I on
my death-bed, I would take the Sacrament, that I know the former part,
and believe the latter part (without the least vanity for so poor a
triumph as excelling them would be) of this advertisement to be a
matter of fact.

                                                      J. HENLEY."

A _Miss_ Jennings, or rather perhaps _Mrs._ Jennings, died in November
1736, who is said to have laid strong claims to eccentricity. This
lady breathed her last at the _Oxford-arms Inn_, Warwick-lane; and was
buried at Christ-church, Newgate-street; but the singularity of her
conduct consisted in a predilection for _Inns_; she made them in short
her constant residence, whether in the country or in London, where she
had her steward, two female servants, a coachman and footman; and,
though she sometimes remained several months stationary, her bills were
regularly paid every night. At the same time her host was kept in utter
ignorance of her name. Mrs. Jennings left a fortune of 80,000_l._ to
five children, her first cousins; and appointed ---- Jennings, Esq. of
Northaw, her executor.

A Chair-woman, named Frances White, was interred at St. Margaret's,
Westminster, in 1736; but the _singularity_ of the circumstance is,
that she should have been deposited before the Altar of the Church,
which she thus accomplished: In the course of her pursuits she was
observed to be remarkably assiduous and industrious, and often asked
charitable assistance: this she frequently received, and so carefully
preserved that her sister gained a bequest of 1150_l._ on the easy
condition of procuring a grave for her body _within_ the church, and
affording it a handsome funeral. The above sum had been concealed in
various _hiding-places_ contrived in her chamber.

A writer in the Weekly Miscellany for August 7, 1736, pertinently
observed, that "the attention of the good people of England is very
frequently ingrossed by the bold pretensions of persons starting up
from time to time in several sciences, but more particularly in those
of Divinity and Physick; and with the more reason of hoping to succeed
in their views, as the soul, in which the one is concerned, and the
body, in which the other, are the two grand subjects which engage
the human mind; and each of these pretenders respectively becomes in
vogue for a certain period, and then generally dies away in a silence
proportioned to the noise they once made. The Stroking Doctor in the
reign of Charles II.; the French Prophets in the reign of Queen Anne;
the Quicksilver lunacy lately; the itinerant preaching Quakeress
since; and Mr. Ward's pill and drop, not yet quite gone off from its
vogue--are signal instances of the truth of our observation. So it may
be observed, that the Quicksilver fashion seems to have been beat out
of doors by the pill and drop; and now the vogue of the pill and drop,
which seem to owe their success to their violent operation in desperate
cases, appears in a fair way of subsiding to a new object of the
public attention, which really seems (beyond all that we have named)
to deserve it, as it is attended with plain and unartificial fact, as
it is neither violent or dangerous in the operation, and carries in
every act the clearest demonstration along with it.--What we mean is
the famous female Bone-setter of Epsom, who must be allowed as much
to excel the others, as certainty does imagination, as simplicity does
artifice, and as seeing and feeling do the other senses.

"This person, we are told, is daughter of one Wallin, a bone-setter
of Hindon, Wilts, and sister of that Polly Peachem whom a gentleman
of fortune married. Upon some family quarrel she left her father, and
wandered up and down the country in a very miserable manner, calling
herself _Crazy Sally_; and often, as it is presumed for grief, giving
way to a practice that made her appear to have too good a title to
the name. Arriving at last at Epsom, she has performed such wonderful
cures, that we are told the people thereabout intend a subscription for
300_l._ a year to keep her among them."

Many of those cures are then described, which seem well attested, and
are really surprising. "In fine, the concourse of people to Epsom
on this occasion is incredible; and it is supposed she gets near 20
guineas a day, as she executes what she does in a very quick manner.
She has strength enough to put in any mans shoulder without assistance;
and this her strength makes the following story, which may be depended
upon, the more credible.

"An impostor came to her, sent, as it is supposed, by some Surgeons, on
purpose to try her skill, with his head bound up; and pretended that
his wrist was put out; which, upon examination, she found to be false;
but, to be even with him, she gave it a wrench, and really put it out,
and bade him go to the fools who sent him, and get it _sett again_; or,
if he would come to her that day month, she would do it herself."

This strange woman utterly ruined herself by giving way to that
eccentricity, which too frequently in one way or other marks all our
characters. The object of it was a Mr. Hill Mapp, on whom she fixed
her affections, and to whom she was determined at all events to be
married, though every effort was made by her friends to prevent the
match. On the day appointed for the ceremony, Sir James Edwards, of
Walton-upon-Thames, waited on her with the daughter of Mr. Glass,
an Attorney, a poor afflicted child whose neck was dislocated and
supported by steel instruments. Miss Wallin saw the girl, and said she
could restore the parts, but would do nothing till she became Mrs.
Mapp. A gentleman present, finding her resolute, lent her his chariot
to convey her to Ewell, where she expected to obtain a conveyance to
London with her intended husband, though in that expectation she was
disappointed. "As she was going to Ewell, Mr. Walker, brazier, of
Cheapside, met her, and returned with her to the Inn. He was carrying
down his daughter to her, a girl about 12 years of age, whose case
was as follows: the vertebræ, instead of descending regularly from
the neck, deviated to the right scapula, whence it returned towards
the left side, till it came within a little of the hip-bone, thence
returning to the locus, it descended regularly upon the whole, forming
a serpentine figure. Miss Wallin set her strait, made the back perfect,
and raised the girl two inches. While this was doing, Sir James
Edwards's chariot with two gentlemen in it, came to beg her to come
back to Epsom, suspecting she might not return again; but all their
persuasions availed nothing, and the best terms they could make with
her were, that she should not go to London to be married, but have
the chariot and go to Headley, about three miles from Epsom. As the
coachman was driving her by Epsom, she was told that the Minister
of Headley was suspended for marrying Mr. C. whereupon the coachman
said he would carry her no further, unless it was to Epsom. She then
alighted, and went into a cottage on the side of the town; presently
after which, information being given that she was there, Mrs. Shaw and
several other ladies of that place went to her on foot to importune
her to return; but, to avoid any farther solicitation, she protested
she would never come nigh the town, if they opposed her marriage any
longer; and then walked on towards Banstead. Sir James Edwards, being
informed how much she was affronted by his coachman, immediately
ordered a pair of his horses to be put to a four-wheeled chaise, and
sent them with another driver to offer their service to convey her
where she pleased. Mr. Bridgwater in his chaise, and several other
people on horseback, followed her also, and overtook her when she had
walked about a mile over the Downs towards Banstead, where she had
determined to be married. When she came there, the Minister having no
licences, she returned to her first resolution of going to London;
but, the horses having travelled that morning from Walton, and being
harassed about without any refreshment, the coachman was afraid to
venture so far as London with them, and desired to be excused; upon
which Mr. Bridgwater, in regard to the child Sir James Edwards had
brought, and other unhappy creatures who were in Epsom waiting for
their cure, brought her in his chariot to London, saw her married, and
conveyed her back again immediately after, being fully resolved to see
her perform her promise." Mrs. Mapp was buried at the expence of the
parish of St. Giles in 1737!!

The methods adopted by Lord and Lady Vane to render themselves
conspicuous in the annals of their Country were so extremely eccentric,
and are so well known, that their shades would feel indignant should I
refuse the Viscount's advertisement a niche in this odd catalogue of
worthies. His Lordship thus introduced himself to public notice January
24, 1737:

"Whereas Frances, wife of the right honourable the Lord Viscount Vane,
has for some months past absented herself from her husband, and the
rest of her friends, I do hereby promise to any person or persons
who shall discover where the said lady Vane is concealed, to me or
to Francis Hawes, Esq. her father, so that either of us may come to
the speech of her, the sum of 100_l._ as a reward to be paid by me on
demand at my lodgings in Piccadilly. I do also promise the name of the
person, who shall make such discovery, shall be concealed, if desired.
Any person concealing or lodging her after this advertisement, will be
prosecuted with the utmost rigour. Or, if her Ladyship will return to
me, she may depend upon being kindly received. She is about 22 years
of age, tall, well-shaped, has light brown hair, is fair-complexioned,
and has her upper teeth placed in an irregular manner. She had on when
she absented a red damask French sacque, and was attended by a French
woman, who speaks very bad English.


The variety produced under this head is already so great that I shall
desist, lest I tire my readers: besides, it will be difficult to select
instances nearer our present time without offending individuals or
their relatives.


[406:A] Original Weekly Journal, Dec. 6, 1718.

[414:A] This affair is mentioned in all the Newspapers of the day.

[423:A] Evening Post, May 23, 1730.



  Abel, Mr. concert by, ii. 123.

  Accession of George III. celebrated, i. 339.

  Accident, dreadful, at Covent Garden Theatre, ii. 190.

  ---- fatal, in Westminster, i. 253.

  Actors, scale of merit of various, ii. 254.

  Advertisement by Lord Vane, i. 431.

  Ætna, mount, eruption of, represented, ii. 275.

  Allen, W. jun. shot, ii. 74.

  ---- description of his tomb, ii. 81.

  ---- W. sen. his petition to the King, ii. 82.

  Almanac John, and his sigils, i. 97.

  Ambassador, riot at the house of the Morocco, ii. 66.

  Anne, Queen, communication of, to the Lord Mayor, ii. 13.

  Apollo Gardens, account of, i. 332.

  Apprentices, turbulence of, ii. 88.

  Archers, entertainment for, i. 302.

  Architecture, domestic, notices of, ii. 358.

  Ass race, account of one, ii. 194.

  Asylum, the, account of, i. 48.

  Atalanta, acted on the marriage of the Prince of Wales, ii. 191.

  Attalo, opera of, account of, ii. 220.

  Austin, J. account of his enormous pudding, i. 404.


  Bancroft's Hospital, i. 47.

  Barker, gladiator, fights Stokes, ii. 170.

  Barley-corn, Sir John, burnt, i. 314.

  Battles at Covent garden Theatre, ii. 202.

  Beadles, number and salaries of, i. 165.

  Beard, Mr. his address to the public, ii 238.

  Bear-garden, amusements of the, described, ii. 109, 134, 137, 147,
      155, 164, 170.

  ---- attempt to suppress, ii. 111, 163.

  Beau of 1734, described, i. 301.

  ---- 1727, ii. 324.

  ---- portrait of, in verse, i. 319.

  Bed, one described, ii. 320.

  Beer given to the mob by the Prince of Wales, i. 314.

  Beggars, trick of R. Alegil, i. 98.

  ---- tricks of, i. 99, 287.

  Benefit, Farinelli's, ii. 188.

  Benefits, theatrical, confusion at, ii. 226.

  Betting, specimens of, i. 373.

  Billiard tables, burnt, i. 173.

  Bills, seditious, explosion of, ii. 51.

  Boxing, patronised by the rich, i. 335.

  Bread, adulteration of, bad effects of, i. 174.

  Bricks, first used, ii. 362.

  ---- badly made, ii. 390.

  Bristol, Bishop of, letter to his parishioners, i. 362.

  Buck, gladiator, fights Miller, ii. 135.

  Buckingham, Duchess of, adopts an infant, i. 43.

  Bucks, bold, account of a club so named, i. 264.

  Burges, Dr. burnt in effigy, i. 242.

  ---- ---- meeting burnt, ii. 12.

  Butchers, battles between, ii. 28.

  Butterfield, Lady, advertisement by, ii. 144.


  Cæsar in Egypt, epigram on the tragedy of, ii. 164.

  Cards, i. 325.

  Centinel, anecdote of one, ii. 246.

  Chairmen, Irish, fight with sailors, ii. 56.

  ---- scheme of one, to obtain a debt, ii. 66.

  Charitable acts of George I. i. 20, 23.

  ---- ---- of C. Weedon, Esq. i. 17.

  ---- ---- of Mr. Feast, brewer, i. 20.

  ---- ---- of the Prince Regent, i. 22.

  ---- ---- of unknown persons, i. 23.

  ---- ---- of the Earl of Thanet, i. 24.

  ---- ---- of Mrs. Turner, i. 24.

  ---- ---- of Roman Catholics, i. 24.

  ---- ---- of Lady Holford, i. 24.

  ---- ---- of Thomas Guy, i. 25.

  ---- ---- of the Citizens, to the haymakers, i. 27, 53.

  ---- ---- of Mahomet, a Turk, i. 27.

  ---- ---- of Mrs. Palmer, i. 27.

  ---- ---- of a committee of the Commons, i. 28.

  ---- ---- of the Duke of Bedford, i. 28.

  ---- ---- of the public to the inhabitants of Saltzburg, i. 29.

  ---- ---- of the managers of Drury-lane and Covent-garden Theatres, i.

  ---- ---- of the Dutchess of Buckingham, i. 43.

  ---- ---- of Eliz. Pattent, i. 60.

  ---- ---- of the public to C. Shaw, i. 64.

  ---- ---- of the Marine Society, i. 64.

  ---- ---- of an unknown baker to starving German emigrants, i. 65.

  ---- ---- of Mr. Wachsel, the public, and government, to the same, i.
                70, &c.

  ---- ---- of the public to Spital-fields weavers, i. 72.

  ---- ---- to the poor, i. 74.

  China jars, fashionable articles, i. 242.

  Christmas, customs at, described, i. 288.

  ---- boxes noticed, i. 289.

  Cities, models of exhibited, ii. 115.

  Clergy, sons of the, i. 267.

  Clinch, exhibition by, ii. 136.

  Clive, Mrs. Actress, letter from, ii. 228.

  Club, Calves-head, riot occasioned by, ii. 47.

  Clubs, spouting, account of, poetic and prosaic, ii. 202.

  Coaches, hackney, i. 277.

  ---- ---- useless, by street robberies, i. 145.

  ---- ---- job, &c. ill conduct of their drivers, i. 153.

  Coal-heavers, riots by, ii. 70.

  ---- trial of seven for shooting at J. Green, ii. 91.

  Cobler of Cripplegate, hints by, i. 336.

  Cock-fighting, i. 335. ii. 114, 127.

  Coffee-houses, particulars of, i. 277, 282.

  Colman, Mr. his retort on Mr. Harris, ii. 266.

  Comedians, French, discouraged, ii. 151.

  ---- ---- riot concerning, ii. 200.

  Concerts, illegal, i. 331.

  Conduit-house, White, described in blank verse, ii. 224.

  Convents, French, female youth sent to, i. 359.

  Cornely, Mrs. account of, ii. 255.

  Cups and balls, cheats with, i. 100.

  Curiosity, prevalence of, i. 318, 372.

  Cuthbeartson, hair-dresser, challenge from, i. 97.

  Cuzzoni, singer, particulars of, ii. 156.


  Dancing, by footmen, &c. i. 291.

  ---- on the rope, ii. 113.

  Davenant, Sir W. picture of London by, ii. 366.

  Defence, science of, ii. 108.

  Denmark, King of, incommoded by the public, i. 372.

  Dent, John, constable, murdered, i. 234.

  Depredators, an antient fraternity, i. 87.

  Dice, formerly used by barrow women, i. 255.

  Dissenters, vindicated, ii. 48.

  Dodd, Dr. on his unhappy fate, i. 84.

  Dog, speaking, ii. 150.

  Doggett's coat and badge first rowed for, i. 256.

  Doggrel lines on the South Sea scheme, i. 125.

  Drams, drank in high life, i. 170, 234.

  Dress, anecdotes of, ii. 312.

  ---- of a youth described, ii. 316.

  ---- of ladies described, ii. 317, 319, 325, 333.

  ---- of the Queen described, ii. 333, 337.

  ---- strange, of gentlemen, ii. 322.

  ---- in antient times, ii. 337.

  Drumming a new married pair, i. 241.

  Duelling, prevalence of, i. 261.

  Dutch prophet, extract from the, i. 229.

  ---- Stiptick, i. 222.


  Eccentricity of an old gentleman, i. 396.

  ---- of Joseph Jacobs, i. 397.

  ---- of Dr. Sacheverell, i. 398.

  ---- of Gustavus Parker, i. 400.

  ---- of T. Smith, operator, i. 400.

  ---- of four men, i. 401.

  ---- of men of rank and fashion, i. 403.

  ---- of James Austin, i. 404.

  ---- of Mr. Elderton, i. 406.

  ---- of Mr. Dyche, i. 407.

  ---- of an unknown lady, i. 407.

  ---- of certain tiplers, i. 408.

  ---- of a brewer's servant, i. 408.

  ---- of Mr. Morrisco, i. 409.

  ---- of Don Saltero, i. 410.

  ---- of several gentlemen, i. 411.

  ---- of Mr. Johnston, i. 412.

  ---- of a Priest of St. Andrew Undershaft, i. 413.

  ---- of A. Simmonds, i. 414.

  ---- of orator Henley, i. 415.

  ---- of the Duchess of Hamilton, i. 422.

  ---- of Mrs. Jennings, i. 425.

  ---- of a chare-woman, i. 426.

  ---- of Mrs. Mapp, the bone-setter, i. 427.

  ---- of Viscount Vane, i. 431.

  Eclogue, Covent-garden, i. 302.

  Education, particulars of, i. 326.

  Effingham, Countess of, robes of, described, ii. 347.

  Erasmus, letter of, on the state of London, ii. 376.

  Exchange-alley, account of, i. 279.

  Expences at Guildhall 1761, i. 347.

  Explosion, popular, ii. 51.


  Fair, at Mile-end, presented, i. 303.

  ---- Horn, noticed, i. 360.

  ---- Edmonton, censured, i. 361.

  ---- May, ii. 108.

  ---- ---- constable killed at, ii. 118.

  ---- ---- presented, ii. 125.

  ---- Bartholomew, ii. 110, 113.

  ---- ---- interlude at, described, ii. 119.

  ---- ---- further noticed, ii. 139, 182.

  ---- ---- described in verse, ii. 234.

  ---- ---- presented by the grand jury, ii. 113.

  Families, antient, customs, &c. of, ii. 419.

  Fare, bill of, at Guildhall, i. 344.

  Farinelli, benefit of, ii. 188.

  Fashion, verses on, i. 316.

  Fashions, general review of female, ii. 326.

  ---- history of, ii. 338.

  ---- ---- of male, ii. 340.

  ---- gradual changes in, ii. 354.

  Faustus, Dr. story of a pantomime so called, ii. 159.

  Felons, number tried in Beckford's mayoralty, &c. i. 186.

  Fête champêtre at Mary-bon Gardens, ii. 289.

  Fielding, Sir John, address from, to the public, for establishing a
      dispensary for infants, i. 74.

  ---- address of, to the public concerning a coalheaver's funeral, i. 177.

  ---- address to the grand jury, 1773, i. 210.

  ---- ---- to a similar body, i. 352.

  Figg, gladiator, fights Holmes, ii. 173.

  ---- ---- lines on, ii. 174.

  ---- battle at his room, ii. 175.

  ---- fights before the Duke of Lorrain, ii. 176.

  Fire, false alarm at Drury-lane Theatre, ii. 171.

  Fire-eater, extraordinary, ii. 149.

  Fitzgerald, Capt. murder of a watchman by, i. 266.

  Fleet Marriages, i. 272.

  Florists' feast, i. 258.

  Foote, letter to Lord Chamberlain, ii. 300.

  Fund, Mr. Patterson's account of a charitable, i. 50.

  ---- Theatrical, ii. 256.


  Gaming, extent of, i. 105, 217, 263, 295.

  Garret, Mayor of, election of, i. 394.

  Garrick, Mr. his dispute with the public, ii. 236.

  ---- retires from the stage, ii. 303.

  Garth, Dr. extract from a prologue by him, ii. 125.

  George I. honours paid him on his arrival, i. 243.

  ---- ---- aquatic excursion by, i. 257. ii. 139.

  ---- II. account of his dining at Guildhall, i. 283.

  ---- III. benevolence of, i. 57.

  ---- ---- celebration of his accession, marriage, &c. i. 339.

  ---- ---- entertained at Guildhall, i. 340.

  Ghost, the Cock-lane, narrative of, i. 179.

  Gibson, a Quaker, turbulence of, ii. 45.

  Gifts, by the society for the relief of widows and children of
      clergymen, i. 24.

  ---- of the trustees for the sons of, i. 25.

  ---- to British seamen who had been in slavery, i. 26, 42.

  Gin, destructive effects of, i. 133, 168, 316.

  ---- riots occasioned by, ii. 49.

  ---- ludicrous description of its virtues, ii. 50.

  Gladiators, female, notices of, ii. 165.

  Glasses, musical, account of, ii. 226.

  Goodman, a highwayman, escape of, &c. i. 103.

  Gordon, Lord George, riots occasioned by, ii. 102.

  Goulding, Mrs. story of supernatural acts in her house, i. 376.

  Green, J. house of, besieged, ii. 91.

  Grosley, M. extract from his tour to London, i. 382.

  Guinea dropping, i. 91.


  Halls, public, how used formerly, i. 230.

  Handel, anecdotes of, ii. 213.

  Harlequinades introduced, ii. 158.

  Harley, Lord Mayor, notice from respecting wheat, ii. 89.

  Harper, comedian, hard case of, ii. 186.

  Harris, Mr. account of his dispute with Mr. Colman, ii. 257.

  ---- Mr. his dispute decided in Chancery, ii. 257.

  Hartley, Mr. death of, ii. 54.

  Hawes, Mr. meeting-house of, stormed, ii. 29.

  Hell-fire club, account of the, i. 264, 268.

  Hearses, stormed, ii. 45.

  Highgate, cave at, suppressed, i. 100.

  Hill, Ludgate, brutal acts on, ii. 55.

  Hoaxing, specimens of, i. 316, 375.

  Hockley-in-the-hole, account of, ii. 109.

  ---- presented, ii. 111.

  Hospitals, observations on, i. 45, 54.

  ---- Foundling, i. 14.

  ---- Small-pox, i. 76.

  ---- at Hyde-park corner, instituted, i. 44.

  ---- Lying-in, i. 77.

  Houses, dreadful state of empty, i. 58.

  ---- disorderly, suppressed, i. 147.

  ---- Gaming, particulars of, i. 295.

  ---- Mug, riots at, ii. 26.

  ---- necessary for man, ii. 358.

  ---- antient, in London, ii. 366.

  ---- fall of old, ii. 389.

  ---- public, too numerous, ii. 412.

  Howard, John, Esq. letters from, i. 79.

  Humane Society, origin of, i. 83.

  Hyp Doctor, extract from, ii. 48.


  Incendiaries, letters of, i. 145. ii. 195.

  Infant actors censured, ii. 203.

  Infirmary, established 1719, i. 25.

  Impostors, singular, i. 99, 100, 132, 146, 170.

  Insurance upon lives, i. 109.

  ---- policies of, risked on all subjects, i. 109.

  ---- abuse of, i. 111.

  ---- of lottery tickets, ii. 9.

  Islington Spa, amusements at, ii. 108.


  Jacobites, proceedings of, ii. 25.

  Jewish marriage, splendid one, ii. 152.

  Joke, practical, instance of a, i. 316.

  Jones, footman, escape from justice, i. 102.

  Journeymen, general manners of, ii. 409.

  Justice, courts of, turbulence in, i. 330.


  Kemble, Mr. first appearance of, ii. 304.

  Kenrick, Dr. his school of Shakspeare, ii. 289.

  Knocking at doors illustrated, i. 238.


  Lambeth Wells, ii. 115, 129.

  Lamps, coloured, first used, i. 255.

  ---- globular, patent for, ii. 380.

  ---- particulars concerning, ii. 381.

  Law, the projector, i. 105.

  ---- anecdotes of, i. 106.

  Lepines, de, pantomimic opera, ii. 151.

  Letter from A, B, &c. to the Bishop of Bristol, i. 368.

  ---- incendiary, to Mr. Fleetwood, ii. 194.

  Liquors, spirituous, convictions for selling of, ii. 53.

  London, city of, Lying-in hospital, i. 57.

  Lord Mayor, soliciting charity in the markets, i. 26.

  Lotteries, tricks of proprietors of, i. 89. ii. 2.

  ---- State, account of, ii. 4.

  ---- of Deer, i. 254.

  Ludgate, illumination of described, i. 297.


  Macky, his summary of the customs of London, i. 272.

  Maclane, Donald, trial of, for the murder of W. Allen, jun. ii. 74.

  Macklin, account of his conduct in his dispute with Reddish, ii. 278.

  ---- his letter to Dr. Kenrick, ii. 287.

  ---- his attempt to perform at the age of 90, ii. 305.

  Mad-houses, private, abuses in, i. 186.

  Magdalen hospital, i. 56.

  Managers, theatrical, parsimony of, ii. 156.

  Manners, society for reformation of; effects of their labours, i. 105,
      140, 152, 329.

  ---- anecdotes of, from M. Grosley's tour, i. 382.

  Mapp, Mrs. bone-setter, account of, i. 427.

  Mary, Lady, catastrophe of, ii. 122.

  Mary-le-bon garden, ii. 198, 276, 289.

  Masks, instance of their abuse, i. 280.

  Masquerade, room used for, ii. 128.

  ---- given to the King of Denmark, ii. 272.

  ---- Mrs. Cornely's, ii. 255.

  Masters of defence, presented, ii. 112.

  Mead, Dr. a cheat performed on, i. 104.

  Mercers, folly of, i. 235.

  Milliners, Men, supersede Women, i. 359.

  Milton's daughter, &c. i. 281.

  Mist, his advice to the public, i. 259.

  Mob, brutality of, i. 271, 385.

  ---- infatuation of, i. 315. ii. 55.

  ---- fashionable, exertions of, ii. 246.

  Mohawks, account of the, ii. 20.

  Money-lenders, schemes of, exposed, i. 91.

  Montague, Duke of, and the bottle conjuror, ii. 201.

  Moorfields, resort of Merry Andrews, ii. 146.

  Mourning, court order concerning, ii. 353.

  Mug-houses, ii. 27.

  Music-room, Soho, opened, ii. 224.


  Narrative of distress and death by famine in Stonecutter's street, i. 60.

  Necromancy, by John Bonnor, i. 99.

  Nectar and Ambrosia, i. 234.

  Nicolini, the singer, good fortune of, ii. 138.


  Oades, dreadful riot between persons of that name, i. 100.

  Opera, tradesmen of the, unpaid, ii. 131.

  ---- notice concerning, by Mr. Clayton, &c. ii. 132.

  ---- house, presented by a grand jury, ii. 157.

  ---- ---- disputes at, ii. 170.

  ---- merits of the Italians, in the, ii. 173.

  ---- The Beggars, performed by infants, ii. 172.

  ---- ---- ---- condemned by Sir J. Fielding, ii. 278.

  ---- that of Attalo described, ii. 220.

  Orange, Prince of, married, i. 297.

  Oratorios, Handel's, ii. 218.

  Organ, curious, ii. 199.

  Owl, singular exhibition of one, ii. 194.


  Palmer, Mr. comedian, considered a _Rogue_, &c. ii. 304.

  Pantheon, described, and opened, ii. 276.

  Parish poor, facts relative to, i. 4-9.

  Patents, theatrical, particulars of, ii. 131, 148, 169, 178, 187, 188,

  Parties, family, customs of, i. 324.

  Paul's, St. how used formerly, i. 281.

  Paving, notices relating to, ii. 395.

  _Peace_ pudding, account of one, i. 242.

  Penkethman, account of his Pantheon, ii. 128.

  ---- booth of, suppressed, ii. 148.

  Perfuming the person, illustrated, i. 240.

  Peruke-makers, petition of, ii. 349.

  Petticoat, the hooped, troublesome, ii. 321.

  ---- ---- ---- fair game for wits, ii. 323.

  Philips, Mr. invocation by, i. 130.

  Picture, moving, exhibited, ii. 126.

  Pipes of the new river, tapped, i. 89.

  Plate, stole at a coronation dinner, i. 92.

  Plays performed at the Temple, ii. 143, 187.

  Police, report of a committee on, i. 189.

  Poor laws, defective, i. 45.

  ---- wretched lodgings of, i. 271.

  Pope, burning of, in effigy, prevented, ii. 14.

  ---- burnt in effigy, ii. 15.

  Posture master, extraordinary, ii. 129.

  Press, degraded state of, i. 262.

  Preston, C. killed by a bear, ii. 126.

  Proclamation for suppressing vice, seconded by the public, i. 93.

  ---- against riots, ii. 87.

  ---- against improprieties on the stage, ii. 130.

  ---- by the Lord Mayor, ii. 87.

  Prologue, spoken at Drury-lane Theatre, i. 52.

  Promenade, Sunday, in Hyde-park, i. 239.

  Prostitutes, whipped, i. 350.

  Punch, liquid, epitaph on, ii. 50.

  ---- opera, by Powell, ii. 127.


  Quacks, specimens of their advertisements, i. 218, 228.

  Quakers, perverseness of, i. 318.

  ---- grand wedding of one, i. 255.

  ---- instance of humility in one, i. 254.

  Queen Charlotte, splendid surprize of his Majesty, ii. 244.

  Queensberry, Duchess of, epigram on, ii. 173.


  Ranelagh, fight of _peace_ officers at, ii. 69.

  ---- house sold, ii. 188.

  ---- benefit given by proprietors of, ii. 233.

  ---- defects in the rotunda at, ii. 245.

  Regatta, on the Thames, described, ii. 293.

  Register offices, tricks at, i. 171.

  Review of various charities, i. 85.

  Rice, David, strange notice by, i. 338.

  Rich, C. Esq. death of, ii. 137.

  Riots, public, i. 266. ii. 24, 46, 54.

  ---- dreadful, in the Haymarket, i. 265.

  ---- amongst footmen, ii. 22.

  ---- in Craven-street, ii. 53.

  ---- at an undertaker's funeral, ii. 55.

  ---- concerning Wilkes and liberty, ii. 74.

  ---- of 1780, ii. 102.

  Robberies, letter from Lord Townshend concerning, i. 142.

  Robinson, Mrs. cheated by a pretended quack, i. 102.

  Roebuck Tavern, proceedings at, ii. 23, 28.

  Rogues and vagabonds, theatrically defined, ii. 183.

  Royal aquatic excursion, i. 257.

  Ruptured poor, hospital for, i. 49.


  Sabbath, breach of, condemned, i. 353.

  Sacheverell, Dr. riots during his trial, ii. 11.

  Sailors, battle of, with Irish chairmen, ii. 56.

  ---- further violence of, ii. 70.

  Schools, charity, particulars of, i. 16, 19, 29.

  ---- boarding, pernicious, i. 328.

  Sermon Tasters, i. 235.

  Sheppard, the robber, anecdotes of, ii. 31, 32.

  Shopmen described, i. 235.

  Signs, dangerous, ii. 392.

  Sion chapel, Hampstead, weddings advertised at, i. 256.

  Smock races, ii. 124, 183.

  Society for relief of debtors, origin of, i. 77.

  ---- Loyal, proceedings of, ii. 24.

  ---- Benefit, origin of, ii. 5.

  ---- sketches of the present state of, ii. 406.

  Steele, Sir R. his patent invaded, ii. 151.

  Stepney feast, account of, i. 43.

  Stock, South Sea, distress occasioned by the fall of, i. 118, 131.

  Stone, exclusively used for palaces, ii. 361.

  Streets, various obstructions in, noticed, ii. 395.

  ---- improved, ii. 384.

  ---- cleanliness of, ii. 400.

  ---- St. James's, humorous description of, ii. 398.

  Subscription for clothing soldiers, i. 52.

  Suicide, horrid narrative of, i. 149.

  Sutton, poetical description of his battle with Stokes, ii. 165.

  Swearing, attempt to suppress, i. 352.

  Swindlers, counsellor _Tom_ and _Sir John_, i. 164.

  Swords, footmen forbid to wear them, ii. 314.


  Tailors, journeymen, turbulence of, ii. 90.

  Term-time described in verse, i. 321.

  Thames, diversions on the ice of the, ii. 140.

  Theatres, particulars relating to the, i. 274. ii. 110, 186, 254.

  ---- presented, ii. 110.

  ---- impiety of, suppressed, ii. 116.

  ---- ragged regiments of, ii. 157.

  ---- Lincoln's-inn opened, ii. 138.

  ---- Haymarket opened, ii. 125.

  ---- ---- re-erected, ii. 153.

  ---- ---- opened, ii. 162, 172.

  ---- Goodman's-fields, ii. 124, 177, 179.

  ---- Covent-garden built, ii. 177.

  ---- ---- decorations of, ii. 179.

  ---- ---- lines to the proprietors of, ii. 180.

  ---- ---- riots at, ii. 196, 202, 243, 285.

  ---- ---- dispute concerning, ii. 257.

  ---- ---- improved, ii. 304.

  ---- Drury-lane improved, ii. 235, 292.

  ---- ---- alarm of fire at, ii. 171.

  ---- ---- admission raised, ii. 235, 306.

  ---- ---- riot at, ii. 236.

  ---- ---- rebuilt, ii. 305.

  ---- ---- described, ii. 309.

  ---- dissertation on the, ii. 247.

  Theatrical trial, ii. 186.

  ---- consequences, ii. 189.

  Tottenham-court-road, interlude there, ii. 179.

  Tradesmen, fancied improvements of, i. 356.

  ---- manner of living in 1700, i. 230. ii. 418.

  Trumpet, the use of, licensed, ii. 109.

  Trunk-maker, account of the, ii. 130.

  Twelfth-day, how celebrated, i. 292.


  Vacation, the Lawyers, described in verse, i. 321.

  Vales, custom of giving, opposed, i. 334.

  Vauxhall, first notice of, ii. 178.

  ---- statement of the proprietors, ii. 191.

  ---- proposal of the proprietors, ii. 198.

  ---- improper conduct at, ii. 213, 246.

  Vice, Society for suppression of, i. 93, 214.

  Vigo, trick relating to the treasure taken there, i. 99.

  Vintners, hardships of, i. 161.


  Wachsel, Mr. letters of, relating to German emigrants, i. 65.

  Wager, pedestrian, i. 235, 287. ii. 133.

  Wales, Prince of, marriage described, i. 303.

  ---- ---- ---- attempt to assassinate, ii. 144.

  ---- Frederick, Prince of, a corporal, ii. 178.

  Walpole, Sir R. beats a comedian, ii. 180.

  Watchmen. See Beadle.

  Watermen, vulgar jests and abuse by, i. 158, 258, 384.

  Water Theatre, ii. 127.

  Weavers, Spitalfields, violence of, ii. 30, 51, 59, 69, 101.

  Welsh charity school, i. 15.

  Wells, of the Bear-garden, epitaph on, ii. 154.

  ---- New Tunbridge, ii. 181.

  ---- Sadler's, ii. 150.

  ---- ---- dreadful accident at, ii. 227.

  Welton, Dr. his religious assembly dispersed, ii. 29.

  West, Matthew, first who divided lottery tickets, ii. 3.

  Whale, skeleton of one exhibited, ii. 117.

  Wife, advertising for, i. 239.

  Wigs, strange method of stealing them, i. 104.

  ---- high price and importance of, ii. 313, 315, 318.

  Wild, Jonathan, account of his villanies, ii. 41.

  Wilkes, John, Esq. burning of North Briton, ii. 65.

  ---- ---- address of, to the freeholders of Middlesex, ii. 72.

  Williams, Renwick, the _Monster_, i. 217.

  Wool-combers, procession of, i. 288.

  Work-house, London, statement concerning, i. 25.

  ---- Quaker, an example for others, i. 286.

  Wren, Sir C. author of the present style of building, ii. 365.


  Youth, manner of educating, i. 326.


  Zeal, religious, instances of, i. 402, 423.



  Abel, ii. 123.

  Abington, ii. 254.

  Ackman, ii. 238.

  Addison, i. 243.

  Albemarle, i. 310.

  Aldrich, i. 183.

  Alegil, i. 99.

  Allen, ii. 74, 82.

  Amiconi, ii. 179.

  Anderson, ii. 364.

  Armstrong, i. 75.

  Arne, ii. 199.

  Attilia, ii. 169.

  Aumont, i. 19.

  Austin, i. 404.


  Bancroft, i. 47.

  Barclay, i. 341.

  Barker, ii. 170.

  Barnes, ii. 122.

  Barry, ii. 202.

  Bartlett, i. 221.

  Bartoldi, ii. 173.

  Beard, ii. 238.

  Becher, i. 283.

  Beckford, i. 186. ii. 91.

  Bedford, i. 28, 44.

  Bellpine, i. 328.

  Bennet, ii. 176.

  Bernachi, ii. 173.

  Betterton, ii. 247.

  Bonnor, i. 99.

  Bononcini, ii. 169.

  Bononi, ii. 222.

  Booth, ii. 151, 163.

  Bowler, ii. 109.

  Bray, i. 234.

  Brittain, i. 408.

  Buck, ii. 134.

  Buckingham, i. 43.

  Bull, i. 83.

  Burges, i. 242. ii. 12.

  Burlington, ii. 215.

  Burton, i. 254.

  Butterfield, ii. 144.


  Carey, i. 27.

  Carlini, ii. 223.

  Carlisle, ii. 314.

  Carlton, i. 217.

  Case, i. 220.

  Chamberlain, i. 256.

  Chandos, i. 27. ii. 215.

  Child, i. 89.

  Chetwynd, ii. 198.

  Cholmondeley, ii. 133.

  Cibber, ii. 151, 186.

  Clarges, ii. 184.

  Clark, i. 281.

  Clayton, ii. 127, 132.

  Clive, ii. 228.

  Cogan, i. 83.

  Cole, ii. 21.

  Collingwood, i. 13.

  Colman, ii. 257.

  Condamine, i. 385.

  Coram, i. 10, 11, 12.

  Cornele, ii. 152.

  Cornely, ii. 255.

  Cotesworth, i. 140.

  Cowper, i. 130. ii. 118.

  Crackenthorp, i. 235.

  Cunningham, i. 263.

  Cuthbeartson, i. 97.

  Cuzzoni, ii. 156, 170.


  Davenant, ii. 366.

  Dent, i. 234.

  Dimsdale, i. 395.

  Dingley, i. 84. ii. 71.

  Dodd, i. 84.

  Doggett, i. 256. ii. 151.

  Dormer, i. 102.

  Dyche, i. 406.


  Eddowes, i. 164.

  Effingham, ii. 347.

  Elderton, i. 406.

  Ellis, i. 140. ii. 185.

  Erasmus, ii. 375.

  Esch, i. 297.

  Everard, ii. 70.


  Fabri, ii. 173.

  Farinelli, ii. 188, 189.

  Farquhar, ii. 251.

  Faustina, ii. 170.

  Feast, i. 20.

  Fielding, i. 74, 173, 177, 189, 209, 352.

  Figg, ii. 164.

  Fitzgerald, i. 266.

  Fleetwood, ii. 187.

  Foote, ii. 300.

  Fothergill, i. 82.

  Francis, ii. 375.

  Freeman, ii. 144.

  Fuller, ii. 146.


  Gage, i. 404.

  Gallini, ii. 222.

  Garrick, ii. 236.

  Garth, ii. 125.

  Gibson, ii. 45.

  Giffard, ii. 177.

  Giles, i. 74.

  Godfrey, ii. 17.

  Godolphin, i. 257.

  Goodman, i. 103.

  Gordon, ii. 103.

  Gough, ii. 198.

  Goulding, i. 376.

  Grafton, i. 310. ii. 133.

  Grainger, ii. 91.

  Green, i. 44. ii. 91.

  Grosley, i. 382.

  Guy, i. 25.


  Haddock, i. 44.

  Hamilton, i. 423.

  Handel, i. 13. ii. 151, 169, 188, 213.

  Harley, ii. 88.

  Harper, ii. 179, 187.

  Harris, ii. 257, 306.

  Harvey, ii. 179.

  Hawes, i. 83, 432. ii. 29.

  Hawley, i. 186.

  Heath, i. 207.

  Heidegger, ii. 217.

  Henley, i. 415-25.

  Hertford, ii. 353.

  Herwig, i. 221.

  Hewit, ii. 200.

  Higginson, i. 335.

  Hightrehight, ii. 149.

  Hill, i. 74. ii. 101, 154.

  Holford, i. 24.

  Holland, ii. 308.

  Holmes, ii. 173.

  Howard, i. 79, 82.

  Hyfield, ii. 155.


  Inchinbroke, ii. 21.


  Jackson, ii. 54.

  Jacobs, i. 397.

  Jacobson, i. 12.

  Jennings, i. 426.

  Johnston, i. 412.

  Jones, i. 102, 257. ii. 108.


  Kemble, ii. 304.

  Kenrick, ii. 287.

  Kilmanseck, i. 257. ii. 215.

  King, i. 187. ii. 236.

  Kingston, ii. 301.


  Lambert, ii. 179.

  Law, i. 105, 106.

  Lee, i. 49. ii. 179.

  Lewis, i. 16.

  Lillie, i. 240.

  Litchfield, i. 44, 404.


  Macdonald, i. 188.

  Macklin, ii. 254, 278, 305.

  Macky, i. 272.

  Maclane, ii. 74.

  Mahomet, i. 26.

  Mapp, i. 431.

  Marlborough, i. 310.

  Martin, i. 223.

  Masterson, ii. 175.

  Mead, i. 104, 261.

  Meadows, ii. 59.

  Mercer, i. 140.

  Merighi, ii. 173.

  Miller, ii. 134.

  Mills, ii. 184.

  Milner, i. 11, 140.

  Milton, i. 281.

  Mist, i. 259.

  Montague, ii. 201.

  Moody, ii. 238.

  Morrisco, i. 409.

  Mossop, ii. 254.


  Neale, i. 36.

  Neild, i. 77.

  Nelson, i. 74.

  Newall, i. 406.

  Newcastle, i. 257, 310. ii. 24.

  Nicolini, ii. 138.


  Oades, i. 100.

  Odell, ii. 177, 198.

  Orkney, i. 257.


  Palmer, i. 27. ii. 304.

  Park, ii. 359.

  Parker, i. 400.

  Parsons, i. 179.

  Paterson, i. 50.

  Pattent, i. 60.

  Pechy, i. 218.

  Pelham, i. 310.

  Penkethman, ii. 128, 148.

  Percy, i. 74.

  Pigeon, i. 97.

  Philips, i. 130.

  Pinder, i. 140.

  Pingo, i. 83.

  Porter, i. 218.

  Potter, ii. 153.

  Powel, ii. 127, 261.

  Preston, ii. 126.

  Puckeridge, ii. 226.


  Quare, i. 255.

  Queensberry, ii. 173.


  Railton, i. 147.

  Rainsforth, i. 195.

  Reddish, ii. 278.

  Rice, i. 339.

  Rich, ii. 131, 137, 177, 185.

  Riddle, i. 186.

  Robinson, i. 102.

  Rutherford, ii. 257, 268.


  Sacheverell, i. 398. ii. 11, 23.

  Saltero, i. 410.

  Salvandoni, ii. 223.

  Sayer, i. 192.

  Saxe, i. 384.

  Selby, ii. 321.

  Senesino, ii. 183.

  Sheppard, ii. 32, 177.

  Sheridan, ii. 306.

  Shower, ii. 26.

  Simmonds, i. 414.

  Smith, i. 149, 152, 401.

  Southwell, i. 269.

  Sparks, ii. 281.

  Spencer, i. 271.

  Stanton, i. 59.

  Steele, i. 119. ii. 138, 151.

  Stephens, i. 59. ii. 233.

  Stokes, ii. 164, 170.

  Strada, ii. 173.

  Stringer, i. 219.

  Surman, i. 61.

  Sutton, i. 76. ii. 164.

  Switterda, i. 327.

  Sydenham, i. 90.


  Talbot, ii. 323.

  Taylor, i. 254.

  Thanet, i. 24.

  Thomas, ii. 21, 108.

  Thornhill, i. 140, 225.

  Thurmond, ii. 159.

  Tillard, i. 140.

  Townshend, i. 145.

  Tutchin, ii. 124.

  Turlington, i. 186.

  Turner, i. 24.


  Vane, i. 432.

  Vaneschi, ii. 220.

  Veil, de, i. 164. ii. 196.


  Wachsel, i. 65, 68, 70.

  Wale, ii. 245.

  Wallin, i. 428.

  Walpole, ii. 180.

  War, de la, i. 142.

  Ward, i. 407, 427.

  Watkinson, i. 83.

  Waugh, i. 21.

  Weedon, i. 17.

  Welch, i. 6. ii. 170.

  Wells, ii. 154.

  Welton, ii. 29.

  West, ii. 3.

  Wharton, i. 424.

  White, i. 426.

  Whitrow, ii. 59.

  Whitworth, i. 4.

  Wild, ii. 41.

  Wilkes, i. 374. ii. 65, 71.

  Wilkinson, ii. 155, 228.

  Wilks, ii. 151, 185.

  Williams, i. 217. ii. 107.

  Wilson, ii. 55.

  Winstanley, i. 242. ii. 127.

  Wolsey, ii. 377.

  Woodward, i. 261.

  Wren, ii. 365.


  Young, ii. 163.

                       END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

                    John Nichols and Son, Printers,
                Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London.


The Index was originally printed at the end of Volume II. It has been
included in this volume for completeness.

Variations in spelling and hyphenation have been left as in the

The use of apostrophes to indicate possessive case is not consistent
in the original. The placement of quotation marks is not consistent in
the original. Apostrophes and quotation marks have been left as in the
original except where noted below.

The following corrections have been made to the original text:

     Page xiii: vary with the internal feelings,'[quotation mark
     missing in original]

     Page xv: exhibiting any proofs on this occasion[original has

     Page xx: requires notice as much as their
     peculiarities[original has "pecularities"]

     Page 12: collection for the Chapel amounted to 596_l._[period
     missing in original]

     Page 37: and advantageous to the publick[original has "pub"
     and "lick" on separate lines without a hyphen]

     Page 39: as to their improvements of[original has "of of"]
     every sort

     Page 60: at the same time[original has "time time"] crying out

     Page 77: [quotation mark missing in original]"535 persons
     discharged, together with 245 wives

     Page 164: disgraced the annals of turpitude.[original has

     Page 189: [original has extraneous quotation mark]Sir John
     Fielding, being asked what number

     Page 199: rather by sufferance than[original has "that"] by

     Page 246: Lord Steward of the King's Household[original has

     Page 252: acknowledged to have been a superb
     spectacle[original has "spectable"]

     Page 260: advice to parents and masters previous[original has
     "previ" and "ous" on separate lines without a hyphen] to the

     Page 274: we sit till six, then[original has "that"] we go to
     the play

     Page 332: women with inflaming liquids:[original has a period]

     Page 344: _John Paterson_."[quotation mark missing in

     Page 346: 10 Ditto[original has heading "Dishes" carried over
     from previous page] fine green peas

     Page 358: our drinking-houses are refined:[original has a
     period] they no longer

     Page 358: 'This is not the Punch-bowl Inn.'"[double quote
     missing in original]

     Page 364: neglect of other duties,[original has a period] and
     it behoves

     Page 379: eight feet, but[original has "hut"] did not break

     Page 385: crowd having soon surrounded[original has
     "surrouded"] him

     Page 397: Eccentricity may[original has "my"] exist in the

On page 368, the original has "with _paternal candour_ every plea
[large white space] we have to offer". The transcriber has been unable
to locate a copy of the book that has a word or words in the space.

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