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Title: Ars Amatoria, or The Art Of Love - Literally Translated into English Prose, with Copious Notes
Author: Ovid
Language: English
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By Ovid

Literally Translated into English Prose, with Copious Notes, by Henry T. Riley



|Should any one of the people not know the art of loving, let him read
me; and taught by me, on reading my lines, let him love. By art the
ships are onward sped by sails and oars; by art are the light chariots,
by art is Love, to be guided. In the chariot and in the flowing reins
was Automedon skilled: in the Hæmonian ship _of Jason_ Tiphys was the
pilot. Me, too, skilled in my craft, has Venus made the guardian of
Love. Of Cupid the Tiphys and the Automedon shall I be styled. Unruly
indeed he is, and one who oft rebels against me; but he is a child; his
age is tender and easy to be governed. The son of Phillyra made the boy
Achilles skilled at the lyre; and with his soothing art he subdued his
ferocious disposition. He who so oft alarmed his own companions, so
oft the foe, is believed to have stood in dread of an aged man full of
years. Those hands which Hector was doomed to feel, at the request of
his master he held out for stripes [701] as commanded. Chiron was the
preceptor of the grandson of Æacus, I of Love. Both of the boys were
wild; both of a Goddess born. But yet the neck of even the bull is laden
with the plough; and the reins are champed by the teeth of the spirited
steed. To me, too, will Love yield; though, with his bow, he should
wound my breast, and should brandish his torches hurled against me. The
more that Love has pierced me, the more has he relentlessly inflamed me;
so much the fitter avenger shall I be of the wounds so made.

Phoebus, I pretend not that these arts were bestowed on me by thee; nor
by the notes of the birds of the air am I inspired. Neither Clio nor the
sisters of Clio have been beheld by me, while watching, Ascra, in thy
vales, my flocks. To this work experience gives rise; listen to a Poet
well-versed. The truth will I sing; Mother of Love, favour my design.
Be ye afar, [702] ye with the thin fillets on your hair, the mark of
chastity; and thou, long flounce, which dost conceal the middle of the
foot. We will sing of guiltless delights, and of thefts allowed; and in
my song there shall be nought that is criminal.

In the first place, endeavour to find out an object which you may
desire to love, you who are now coming for the first time to engage as a
soldier in a new service. The next task after that, is to prevail on
the fair by pleasing her. The third is, for her love to prove of long
duration. This is my plan; this space shall be marked out by my chariot;
this the turning-place to be grazed by my wheels in their full career.

While you may, and while you are able to proceed with flowing reins;
choose one to whom you may say, "You alone are pleasing to me." She
will not come to you gliding through the yielding air; the fair one that
suits must be sought with your eyes. The hunter knows full well where
to extend the toils for the deer; full well he knows in what vale dwells
the boar gnashing with his teeth. The shrubberies are known to the
fowlers. He who holds out the hooks, knows what waters are swam in by
many a fish. You, too, who seek a subject for enduring love, first learn
in what spot the fair are to be met with. In your search, I will not
bid you give your sails to the wind, nor is a long path to be trodden by
you, that you may find her.

Let Perseus bear away his Andromeda from the tawny Indians, [703] and
let the Grecian fair be ravished by Paris, the Phrygian hero. Rome will
present you damsels as many, and full as fair; so that you will declare,
that whatever has been on the earth, she possesses. As many ears of
corn as Gargara has, as many clusters as Methymna; as many fishes as
are concealed in the seas, birds in the boughs; as many stars as [704]
heaven has, so many fair ones does your own Rome contain; and in her own
City does the mother of Æneas hold her reign. Are you charmed by early
and still dawning years, the maiden in all her genuineness will come
before your eyes; or do you wish a riper fair, [705] a thousand riper
will please you; you will be forced not to know which is your own
choice. Or does an age mature and more staid delight you; this throng
too, believe me, will be even greater.

Do you only saunter at your leisure in the shade of Pompey's Portico,
[706] when the sun approaches the back of the Lion of Hercules; [707] or
where the mother [708] has added her own gifts to those of her son, a
work rich in its foreign marble. And let not the Portico of Livia [709]
be shunned by you, which, here and there adorned with ancient paintings,
bears the name of its founder. Where, too, are the grand-daughters of
Be-lus, [710] who dared to plot death for their wretched cousins, and
where their enraged father stands with his drawn sword. Nor let Adonis,
bewailed by Venus, [711] escape you; and the seventh holy-day observed
by the Jew of Syria. [712] Nor fly from the Memphian temples of Isis the
linen-wearing heifer; she has made many a woman [713] that which she
was herself to Jove. Even the Courts, (who would have believed it?) are
favourable to Love; and oft in the noisy Forum has the flame been found.
Where the erection [714] of Appius, [715] adjoining the temple of Venus,
built of marble, beats the air with its shooting stream; [716] in that
spot full oft is the pleader seized by Love; and he that has defended
others, the same does not defend himself. Oft in that spot are their
words found wanting to the eloquent man; and new cares arise, and his
own cause has to be pleaded. From her temple, which is adjoining, [717]
Venus laughs at him. He who so lately was a patron, now wishes to become
a client.

But especially at the curving Theatres do you hunt for prey: these
places are even yet more fruitful for your desires. There you will find
what you may love, what you may trifle with, both what you may once
touch, and what you may wish to keep. As the numberless ants come and
go in lengthened train, when they are carrying their wonted food in the
mouth that bears the grains; or as the bees, when they have found both
their own pastures and the balmy meads, hover around the flowers and
the tops of the thyme; so rush the best-dressed women to the thronged
spectacles; a multitude that oft has kept my judgment in suspense.
They come to see, they come that they themselves may be seen; to modest
chastity these spots are detrimental.

Romulus, 'twas thou didst first institute the exciting games; at the
time when the ravished Sabine fair [718] came to the aid of the solitary
men. Then, neither did curtains [719] hang over the marble theatre,
[720] nor was the stage [721] blushing with liquid saffron. There, the
branches were simply arranged which the woody Palatium bore; the scene
was void of art. On the steps made of turf sit the people; the branches
promiscuously overshadowing their shaggy locks. They look about them,
and they mark with their eyes, each for himself, the damsel which to
choose; and in their silent minds they devise full many a plan. And
while, as the Etrurian piper sends forth his harsh notes, the actor with
his foot thrice beats the levelled ground; in the midst of the applause,
(in those days applause was void of guile,) the King gives to his people
the signal to be awaited for the spoil. At once, they start up, and,
disclosing their intentions with a shout, lay their greedy hands upon
the maidens. [722] As the doves, a startled throng, fly from the eagles,
and as the young Iamb flies from the wolves when seen; in such manner do
they dread the men indiscriminately rushing on; the complexion remains
in none, which existed there before. For their fear is the same; the
symptoms of their fear not the same. Some tear their hair; some sit
without consciousness; one is silent in her grief; another vainly calls
upon her mother; this one laments; this one is astounded; this one
tarries; that one takes to flight. The ravished fair ones are carried
off, a matrimonial spoil; and shame itself may have been becoming to
many a one. If one struggled excessively, and repelled her companion;
borne off, the man himself lifted her into his eager bosom. And thus
he spoke: "Why spoil your charming eyes with tears? What to your mother
your father was, the same will I be to you." Romulus, 'twas thou alone
didst understand how to give rewards to thy soldiers. Give such a reward
to me, and I will be a soldier. In good truth, from that transaction,
the festive Theatres, even to this day, continue to be treacherous to
the handsome.

And let not the contest of the noble steeds escape you; the roomy Circus
of the people has many advantages. There is no need there of fingers,
with which to talk over your secrets; nor must a hint be taken by you
through nods. Be seated next to your mistress, there being no one to
prevent it; press your side to her side as close as ever you can; and
conveniently enough, because the partition [723] compels you to sit
close, even if she be unwilling; and because, by the custom of the
place, the fair one must be touched by you. Here let the occasion be
sought by you for some friendly chat, and let the usual subjects [724]
lead to the first words. Take care, and enquire, with an air of Anxiety,
whose horses those are, coming; and without delay, whoever it is to whom
she wishes well, to him do you also wish well. But when the thronged
procession shall walk with the holy statues of ivory, [725] do you
applaud your mistress Venus with zealous hand. And, as often happens, if
perchance a little dust should fall on the bosom of the fair, it must
be brushed off with your fingers [726] and if there should be no
dust, still brush off that none; let any excuse be a prelude to your
attentions. If her mantle, hanging too low, shall be trailing on the
earth, gather it up, and carefully raise it from the dirty ground. [727]
At once, as the reward of your attention, the fair permitting it, her
ancles will chance to be seen by your eyes. Look, too, behind, who shall
be sitting behind you, that he may not press her tender back with his
knee against it. [728] Trifles attract trifling minds. It has proved
to the advantage of many a one, to make a cushion with his ready hand.
[729] It has been of use, too, to waft a breeze with the graceful fan,
and to place the hollow footstool beneath her delicate feet. Both the
Circus, and the sand spread for its sad duties [730] in the bustling
Forum, will afford these overtures to a dawning passion. On that sand,
oft has the son of Venus fought; and he who has come to be a spectator
of wounds, himself receives a wound. [731] While he is talking, and is
touching her hand, and is asking for the racing list; [732] and, having
deposited the stake, [733] is enquiring which has conquered, wounded, he
sighs, and feels the flying dart, and, himself, becomes a portion of the
spectacle so viewed.

Besides; when, of late, [734] Cæsar, on the representation of a rival
fight, introduced [735] the Persian and Athenian ships; in truth, from
both seas came youths, from both came the fair; and in the City was the
whole of the great world. Who, in that throng, did not find an object
for him to love? How many, alas! did a foreign flame torment? See! Cæsar
prepares [736] to add what was wanting to the world subdued; now, remote
East, our own shalt thou be! Parthian, thou shalt give satisfaction;
entombed Crassi, rejoice; [737] ye standards, too, that disgracefully
submitted to barbarian hands. Your avenger is at hand, and proves
himself a general in his earliest years; and, while a boy, is conducting
a war not fitted to be waged by a boy. Cease, in your fears, to count
the birth-days of the Gods: [738] valour is the lot of the Cæsars, in
advance of their years. The divine genius rises more rapidly than its
years, and brooks not the evils of slow delay. The Tirynthian hero was
a baby, and he crushed two serpents in his hands; even in his cradle he
was already worthy of Jove. Bacchus, who even now art a boy, how mighty
wast thou then, when conquered India dreaded thy thyrsi! With the
auspices and the courage of thy sire, thou, Youth, shalt wield arms; and
with the courage and the auspices of thy sire shalt thou conquer. Such
first lessons are thy due, under a name so great; now the first of the
youths, [739] at a future day to be the first of the men. Since thou
hast brothers, [740] avenge thy brethren slain; and since thou hast
a sire, [741] vindicate the rights of thy sire. He, the father of thy
country and thine own, hath put thee in arms; the enemy is tearing
realms away from thy reluctant sire. Thou wilt wield the weapons of
duty, the foe arrows accursed; before thy standard, Justice and Duty
will take their post. By the badness of their cause, the Parthians are
conquered; in arms, too, may they be overcome; may my hero add to Latium
the wealth of the East. Both thou, father Mars, and thou, father Cæsar,
grant your divine favour as he sets out; for the one of you is now a
Deity, thou, the other, wilt so be.

What, Parthian, dost thou leave to the conquered, who dost fly that thou
mayst overcome? Parthian, even now has thy mode of warfare an unhappy
omen. And will that day then come, on which thou, the most graceful
of all objects, glittering with gold, shalt go, drawn by the four
snow-white steeds? Before thee shall walk the chiefs, their necks laden
with chains; that they may no longer, as formerly, be secure in flight.
The joyous youths, and the mingled fair, shall be looking on; and that
day shall gladden the minds of all. And when some one of the fair shall
enquire the names of the Monarchs, what places, what mountains, or what
rivers are borne in the procession; answer to it all; and not only
if she shall make any inquiry; even what you know not, relate, as though
known perfectly well. *

This is the Euphrates, [742] with his forehead encircled with reeds; the
one whose [743] azure hair is streaming down, will be the Tigris. Make
these to be the Armenians; this is Persia, sprung from Danaë; [744]
that was a city in the vales of Achæ-menes. This one or that will be the
leaders; and there will be names for you to call them by; correctly, if
you can; if not, still by such as suggest themselves.

Banquets, too, with the tables arranged, afford an introduction; there
is something there besides wine for you to look for. Full oft does
blushing Cupid, with his delicate arms, press the soothed horns of
Bacchus there present. And when the wine has besprinkled the soaking
wings of Cupid, there he remains and stands overpowered on the spot of
his capture. He, indeed, quickly flaps his moistened wings; but still it
is fatal [745] for the breast to be sprinkled by Love. Wine composes to
choose an object for you to love, where to lay your nets. Now, I attempt
to teach you, by what arts she must be captured who has pleased you, a
work of especial skill. Ye men, whoever you are, and in every spot, give
attention eager to be informed; and give, all people, a favourable ear
to the realization of my promises. First of all, let a confidence enter
your mind, that all women may be won; you will win them; do you only lay
your toils. Sooner would the birds be silent in spring, the grasshoppers
in summer, sooner would the Mænalian dog turn its back upon the hare,
than the fair, attentively courted, would resist the youth. She,
however, will wish you to believe, so far as you can, that she is

Lo! I utter a prophecy; thou wilt conquer, and I shall offer the
lines which I have vowed; and with a loud voice wilt thou have to be
celebrated by me. Thou wilt there he taking thy stand, and in my
words thou wilt be animating thy troops. O that my words may not prove
unworthy of thy spirit! I will celebrate both the backs of the Parthians
as they fly, and the valour of the Romans, and the darts and the
feelings, and makes them ready to be inflamed; care flies, and is
drenched with plenteous wine. Then come smiles; then the poor man
resumes his confidence then grief and cares and the wrinkles of the
forehead depart. Then candour, most uncommon in our age, reveals the
feelings, the God expelling _all_ guile. On such occasions, full oft
have the fair captivated the hearts of the youths; and Venus amid
wine, has proved flames in flame. Here do not you trust too much to the
deceiving lamp; [746] both night and wine are unsuited to a judgment
upon beauty. In daylight, and under a clear sky, did Paris view the
Goddesses, when he said to Venus: "Thou, Venus, dost excel them both."
By night, blemishes are concealed, and pardon is granted to every
imperfection; and that hour renders every woman beauteous. Consult
the daylight about jewels, about wool steeped in purple; consult the
daylight about the figure and the proportion.

Why enumerate the resorts of fair ones suited for your search? The sands
would yield to my number. Why mention Baiæ, [747] and the shores covered
with sails, and the waters which send forth the smoke from the
warm sulphur? Many a one carrying thence a wound in his breast, has
exclaimed; "This water was not so wholesome as it was said to be." See,
too, the temple in the grove of suburban Diana, and the realms acquired
with the sword by hostile hand. [748] Because she is a virgin, because
she hates the darts of Cupid, she has given many a wound to the public,
_and_ will give many _still._

Thus far, Thalia borne upon unequal wheels, [749] teaches where the
foeman hurls from his flying steed.

As stealthy courtship is pleasing to the man, so, too, is it to the
fair. The man but unsuccessfully conceals his passion; with more
concealment does she desire. Were it agreed among the males not to be
the first to entreat any female, the conquered fair would soon act the
part of the suppliant. In the balmy meads, the female lows after the
bull; the female is always neighing after the horny-hoofed horse.
Passion in us is more enduring, and not so violent; among men the flame
has reasonable bounds. Why mention Byblis, who burned with a forbidden
passion for her brother, and who resolutely atoned with the halter for
her crimes? Myrrha loved her father, but not as a daughter ought; and
she now lies hid, overwhelmed by the bark [750] that grew over her.
With her tears too, which she distils from the odoriferous tree, are we
perfumed; and the drops still retain the name of their mistress.

By chance, in the shady vales of the woody Ida, there was a white hull,
the glory of the herd, marked with a little black in the middle between
his horns; there was but one spot; the rest was of the complexion of
milk. The heifers of Gnossus and of Cydon [751] sighed to mate with him.
Pasiphaë delighted to become the paramour of the bull; in her jealousy
she hated the beauteous cows. I sing of facts well known: Crete, which
contains its hundred cities, untruthful as it is, [752] cannot gainsay
them. She herself is said to have cut down fresh leaves and the
tenderest grass with hand unused to such employment.

She goes as the companion of the herds; so going, no regard for her
husband restrains her; and by a bull [753] is Minos conquered. "Of what
use, Pasiphaë, is it to put on those costly garments? This love of thine
understands nothing about wealth. What hast thou to do with a mirror,
when accompanying the herds of the mountain? Why, foolish one, art
thou so often arranging thy smoothed locks? Still, do thou believe that
mirror, that denies that thou art a heifer. How much couldst thou wish
for horns to spring up upon thy forehead! If Minos still pleases thee,
let no paramour be sought; but if thou wouldst rather deceive thy
husband, deceive him through a being that is human."

Her chamber abandoned, the queen is borne over the groves and the
forests, just as a Bacchanal impelled by the Aonian God. Alas! how oft
with jealous look does she eye a cow, and say, "Why is she thus pleasing
to my love? See how she skips before him on the tender grass! I make no
doubt that the fool thinks that it is becoming to her." Thus she spoke,
and at once ordered her to be withdrawn from the vast herd, and, in her
innocence, to be dragged beneath the bending yoke; or else she forced
her to fall before the altars, and rites feigned for the purpose; and,
with joyous hand, she held the entrails of her rival. How often did she
propitiate the Deities with her slain rivals, and say, as she held the
entrails, "Now go and charm my love!" And sometimes she begged that she
might become Europa, sometimes Io; because the one was a cow, the other
borne upon a bull. Still, deceived by a cow made of maple-wood, the
leader of the herd impregnated her; and by the offspring was the sire
[754] betrayed.

If the Cretan dame [755] had withheld from love for Thyestes (alas! how
hard it is for a woman possibly to be pleasing to one man only!) Phoebus
would not have interrupted his career in the midst, and, his chariot
turned back, retreated, with his returning steeds, to the morn. The
daughter, who spoiled [756] Nisus of his purple locks, presses beneath
her thigh and groin the raving dogs. The son of Atreus, who escaped from
Mars by land, and Neptune on the waves, was the mournful victim of his
wife. By whom have not been lamented the flames [757] of the Ephyrean
Creusa? Medea, the parent, too, stained with the blood of her children?
Phoenix, the son of Amyntor, [758] wept with his blinded eyes; you,
startled steeds, tore Hippolytus in pieces. Why, Phineus, dost thou tear
out the eyes of thy guiltless sons? [759] That punishment will revert to
thy own head.

All these things have been caused by the passion of females. It is more
violent than ours, and has more frenzy _in it_. Come then, and doubt not
that you can conquer all the fair: out of so many, there will be hardly
one to deny you. What they yield, and what they refuse, still are they
glad to be asked for. Even if you are deceived, your repulse is
without danger. But why should you be deceived, since new pleasures are
delightful, and since what is strange attracts the feelings more than
what is one's own? [760] The crop [761] of corn is always more fertile
in the fields of other people; and the herds of our neighbours have
their udders more distended.

But first, be it your care to make acquaintance with the handmaid of the
fair one to be courted; she can render your access easy. [762] Take
care that she is deep in the secrets of her mistress, and not too little
entrusted with her secret frolics. Her do you bribe with promises, her
with entreaties; you will obtain what you ask with little trouble, if
she shall be willing. Let her choose the time (physicians, even, watch
their time) when the feelings of her mistress are pliant, and easy to
be influenced. Then will her feelings be easily influenced, when, in the
best humour in the world, she shall be smiling, just as the corn on the
rich soil. While hearts are joyous, and not closed by sadness, _then_
are they assailable; then with soothing arts does Venus steal on apace.
At the time when Troy was in sorrow, she was defended by arms; when
joyous, she admitted the horse pregnant with its soldiers. Then, too,
must she be assailed, when she shall be fretting on being offended by a
rival; then effect it by your means that she go not unrevenged. Let her
handmaid, as she combs her hair in the morning, urge her on; and to the
sail let her add the resources of the oar. And, sighing to herself, let
her say, in gentle murmurs: "In my idea, you yourself cannot pay him in
return." [763] Then let her talk about you; then let her add persuasive
expressions; and let her swear that you are perishing with frantic
passion. But speed on, let not the sails fall, and the breezes lull:
like brittle ice, anger disappears in lapse of time.

You inquire if it is of use [764] to win the handmaid herself? In such
attempts there is a great risk. This one becomes _more_ zealous after
an intrigue; that one more tardy; the one procures you as a gift for her
mistress, the other for her own self. The result is doubtful; although
she should favour your advances, still it is my advice, to refrain from
so doing. I shall not go over headlong _tracks_, and over sharp crags;
and, under my guidance, no youth shall be deceived. Even if she pleases
you, while she gives and receives the letters, by her person, and not
only by her zealousness alone; take care and gain her mistress first;
let the other follow as her companion; your courtship must not be
commenced with a servant-maid. This one thing I advise you (if you only
put some trust in my skill, and if the boisterous wind does not bear my
words over the seas): either do not attempt, or else do you persist;
the informer is removed, when once she herself has shared in the
criminality. The bird does not easily escape when its wings are
bird-limed; the boar does not readily get away from the loose nets: the
wounded fish can be held by the hook it has seized. Once tried, press
her hard, and do not retreat, but as the conqueror. Then, guilty of
a fault that is common to you both, she will not betray you; and the
sayings and doings of her mistress will be well known to you. But let
this be well concealed; if your informant shall be well concealed, your
mistress will ever be under your eye.

He is mistaken who supposes that time is the object of those only who
till the fields, and is to be observed by mariners alone. Neither must
the corn be always trusted to the treacherous soil; nor the hollow ships
at all times to the green waves; nor is it safe to be ever angling
for the charming fair. The same thing may often be better done when
an opportunity offers. Whether it is her birthday [765] that comes, or
whether the Calends, [766] which Venus delights to have as the successor
of the month of Mars; or whether the Circus shall be adorned, not with
statues, as it was before, but shall be containing the wealth of kings
[767] exposed to view; delay your project; then the storm is boisterous,
then the Pleiades prevail; [768] then, the tender Kid is sinking in the
ocean wave. Then, 'tis well to desist; then, if one trusts the deep,
with difficulty he grasps the shipwrecked fragments of his dismantled
bark. You may make a beginning on the day on which tearful Allia [769]
was stained with the blood of the Latian wounds; on the day, too,
when the festival recurs, observed each seventh day by the Syrian of
Palestine, a day not suited for [770] the transaction of business.

Great must be [771] your dread of the birthday of your mistress, and
unlucky be that day on which any present must be made. Though you
should cleverly avoid her, still she will spoil you; a woman finds
contrivances, by means of which to plunder the riches of the eager
lover. The loosely-clad pedlar [772] will be coming to your mistress,
so fond of buying, and while you are by, will be exposing his wares. She
wills ask you to examine them, only that you may appear to be knowing;
then she will give you a kiss, and then entreat you to purchase. She
will swear that she will be content with this for many a year; she will
say that now she has need of it, now it may be bought a bargain. If you
shall make the excuse that you have not the money at home to give; a
promissory note [773] will be asked for; it would then profit you not to
have learned [774] to write. Besides, too; when she asks for a present,
as though for the birth-day cake, [775] and is born for her own pleasure
as often as she pleases. And further; when, full of tears, she laments
her pretended loss, and the jewel [776] is feigned to have fallen from
her pierced ear. They ask for many a sum to be lent them; so lent, they
have no inclination to return them. You lose the whole; and no thanks
are there for your loss. Had I ten mouths, with tongues as many, they
would not suffice for me to recount the abominable contrivances of

Let the wax that is poured upon the polished tablets first try the ford;
let the wax first go as the messenger of your feelings. Let it carry
your compliments; and whoever you are, add expressions that feign you
to be in love, and entreaties not a few. Achilles, moved with his
entreaties, granted Hector to Priam; an angered Divinity is moved by the
voice of entreaty. Take care to make promises: for what harm is there in
promising? Any person whatever can be rich in promises. Hope, if she
is only once cherished, holds out for a long time; she is, indeed, a
deceitful Goddess, but still a convenient one. Should you give her [777]
anything, you may for that reason be abandoned by her: she will bear off
the gift by-gone, and will have lost nothing in return. But that which
you have not given, you may always seem as though about to give; thus
has the sterile field full oft deceived its owner. So the gambler, in
order that he may not lose, does not cease to lose; and the alluring
dice ever recall the anxious hand. This is the task, this the labour;
to gain her without even the first present. What she has once given, she
will always give, that she may not have granted to no purpose. Let the
letter go then, and let it be couched in tender expressions; and let it
ascertain her feelings, and be the first to feel its way. A letter borne
upon an apple [778] deceived Cydippe; and by her own words the fair was
unconsciously caught.

Youths of Rome, learn, I recommend you, the liberal arts; and not only
that you may defend the trembling accused. Both the public, and the
grave judge, and the silent Senate, as well as the fair, conquered by
your eloquence, shall extend their hands. [779] But let your power lie
concealed: and do not be eloquent at the first. Let your letters avoid
difficult words. Who, but one bereft of sense, would declaim before a
charming mistress? Full oft has a letter proved a powerful cause for
hatred. Let your language be intelligible, and your words the usual
ones; but pleasing, so that you may seem to be speaking in person.
Should she not accept your letter, and send it back unread, hope that
she will read it, and persist in your design. In time the stubborn oxen
come beneath the ploughs: in time the steeds are taught to submit to the
flowing reins: by continued use the ring of iron [780] is consumed: by
being in the ground continually, the crooked plough is worn out. What is
there harder than stone? What more yielding than water? Yet hard stones
are hollowed out by yielding water. Only persist, and in time you will
overcome Penelope herself. You see that Pergamus was taken after a long
time; still, it was taken.

If she reads it, and will not write in answer, do not attempt to compel
her. Do you only make her to be continually reading your flattering
lines. What she has been pleased to read, she will be pleased to answer
when read. _All_ these things will come in their turn, and by degrees.
Perhaps even, at first, a discouraging letter will come to you; and one
that entreats you not to wish to molest her. What she entreats you
_to do_, she dreads; what she does not entreat you _to do, namely_,
to persist, she wishes you _to do_. Press on; and soon you will be the
gainer of your desires. In the meantime, if she shall be carried lying
along upon her couch, do you, as though quite by accident, approach the
litter of your mistress; and that no one may give a mischievous ear to
your words, cunningly conceal, them so far as you can in doubtful signs.
If, with sauntering foot, the spacious Portico is paced by her; here,
too, do you bestow your leisure in her attendance. And sometimes do you
take care to go before; sometimes follow behind; and sometimes be in a
hurry, and sometimes walk leisurely. And be not ashamed to pass from
the throng under some of the columns, [781] or to walk with her, side by
side. And let her not be seated long without you in the curving Theatre;
in her shoulders she will bring something for you to be spectator of.
Her you may gaze upon, her you may admire; much may you say by your
brows, much by your gestures. Clap too, when the actor is dancing [782]
in the part of some damsel; and whatever lover is represented, him
applaud. Rise when she rises; sit as long as she is seated; employ your
time at the caprice of your mistress.

But let it not please you to curl your hair with the irons: [783] and
rub not your legs with the rough pumice. [784] Bid those do this, [785] in
whose Phrygian notes the Cybeleian Mother is celebrated by their yells.
A neglect of beauty becomes men, Theseus bore off the daughter of
Minos, though his temples were bedecked by no crisping-pin. Phædra loved
Hippolytus, [786] and he was not finely trimmed. Adonis, habituated to
the woods, was the care of a Goddess. But let neatness please you;
let your body be bronzed on the Plain of Mars: [787] let your robe be
well-fitting, and without a spot. Let your tongue, too, not be clammy;
[788] your teeth free from yellowness; and let not your foot wallop
about, losing itself in the shoe down at heel. Let not the cutting
shockingly disfigure your hair bolt upright; let your locks, let your
beard be trimmed by a skilful hand. Let your nails, too, not be jagged,
and let them be without dirt; and let no hairs project from the cavities
of your nostrils. And let not the breath of your ill-smelling mouth be
offensive; and let not the husband and the father of the flock [789]
offend the nostrils. The rest, allow the luxurious fair to do; and any
man that perchance disgracefully seeks to attract another.

Lo! Bacchus calls his own Poet: he, too, aids those who love; and he
encourages the flame with which he burns himself. The Gnossian fair was
wandering distractedly on the unknown sands, where little Dia is beaten
by the ocean waves. And, just as she was _on awaking_ from her sleep,
[790] clothed in a loose tunic, with bare feet, and having her yellow
hair loose, she was exclaiming to the deaf waves that Theseus was cruel,
while the piteous shower of tears was moistening her tender cheeks. She
exclaimed, and at the same moment she wept; but both became her, nor
was she rendered unsightly by her tears. And now again beating her most
beauteous bosom with her hands, she cried--"That perfidious man has
gone; what will become of me?"

"What will become of me?" she said; when cymbals resounded over all the
shore, and tambourines were beaten with frantic hand. She dropped down
with alarm, and stopped short in her closing words; and no blood was
there in her lifeless body. See! the Mimallonian females, [791] with
their locks flowing on their backs; see! the nimble Satyrs, the throng
preceding the God; sec! Silenus, the drunken old man, [792] on his
bending ass, sits there with difficulty, and holds fast by the mane that
he presses. While he follows the Bacchanals, the Bacchanals both fly
and return: while the unskilful rider is goading on his animal with his
stick, slipping from the long-eared ass, he tumbles upon his head. The
Satyrs cry aloud, "Come, rise up; rise, father!" Now, the God, from
his chariot, the top of which he had wreathed with grapes, loosened
the golden reins for the tigers yoked to it. Both her complexion, and
Theseus, and her voice forsook the fair one; and thrice she attempted
flight, and thrice was she detained by fear. She shuddered, just as the
barren ears of corn, which the wind shakes; just as the slender reed
quivers in the swampy marsh.

To her the Divinity said, "Lo! I come to thee a more constant lover;
damsel of Gnossus, lay aside thy fear, the wife of Bacchus shalt thou
be. Receive heaven as my gift: a conspicuous Constellation in the
heavens, full oft, Cretan Diadem, [793] shalt thou direct the veering
bark." Thus he said; and he leapt from the chariot, that she might not
be in dread of the tigers; the sand yielded to his foot placed upon it.
And folding her in his bosom he bore her off; for to struggle she was
unable: how easy 'tis for a God to be able to do anything. Some sing
"Hymenæus," some cry "Evie, Evoë!" [794] Thus are the God and his bride
united in holy wedlock.

Therefore, when the gifts of Bacchus placed before you fall to your lot,
and the fair one shall be a sharer in the convivial couch; pray both to
father Nyctelius, and his nocturnal rites, that they will bid the wine
not to take effect on your head. Here, in secret discourse, you may say
to her many a free word, which she may understand is addressed to her;
and you may trace out short compliments with a little wine, so that she
may read on the table [795] that she is your favorite; and look on her
eyes with eyes that confess your flame; the silent features often have
both words and expression. Take care to be the next to seize the cup
that has been touched by her lips; and drink from the side [796] that
the fair drinks from. And whatever food she shall have touched with her
fingers, [797] do you reach for it; and while you are reaching, her hand
may be touched by you. Let it also be your object to please the husband
of the fair; _once_ made a friend, he will be more serviceable for your
designs. If you are drinking by lot, [798] grant him the first turn: let
the chaplet, taken from your own head, be presented to him. Whether he
is below you, or whether your neighbour, let him help Himself to every
thing first; and do not hesitate to speak only after he has spoken.
Secure and much frequented is the path, for deceiving through the name
of friendship. Secure and much frequented though that path be; _still_
it is to be condemned. For this cause 'tis that the agent attends even
too much [799] to his agency, and thinks that more things ought to be
looked after by him than those entrusted to him.

A sure rule for drinking shall be given you by me: let both your mind and
your feet ever observe their duty. Especially avoid quarrels stimulated
by wine, and hands too ready for savage warfare. Eurytion [801] met his
death from foolishly quaffing the wine set before him. Banquets and
wine are rather suited for pleasant mirth. If you have a voice, sing; if
pliant arms, dance; and by whatever talent you can amuse, amuse. As real
drunkenness offends, so feigned _inebriety_ will prove of service. Let
your deceiving tongue stutter with lisping accents; so that whatever you
shall do or say with more freedom than usual, it may be supposed that
excess of wine is the cause. And express all good wishes for your
mistress; all good wishes for him who shares her couch; but in your
silent thoughts pray for curses on her husband. But when, the tables
removed, the guests shall be going, (the very crowd will afford you
access and room) mix in the throng: and quietly stealing up [802] to her
as she walks, twitch her side with your fingers; and touch her foot with
your foot.

Now is the time come for some conversation: fly afar hence, coy
bashfulness, let Chance and Venus befriend the daring. Let your
eloquence not be subject to any laws of mine; only make a beginning,
of your own accord you will prove fluent. You must act the lover, and
wounds must be feigned in your words. Hence let confidence be sought by
you, by means of any contrivances whatever. And 'tis no hard matter to
be believed; each woman seems to herself worthy to be loved. Though she
be ugly in the extreme, to no one are her own looks displeasing. Yet
often, he that pretends to love, begins in reality: full oft he becomes
that which in the beginning he feigned to be. For this cause, the
rather, O ye fair, be propitious to those who pretend. That passion will
become real, which so lately was feigned.

Now be it your part stealthily to captivate her affection by attentions;
just as the shelving bank is encroached on by the flowing stream. Be not
tired of praising either her face or her hair; her taper fingers too,
and her small foot. The praise of their beauty pleases even the chaste;
their charms are the care and the pleasure of even maidens. For, why,
even now, are Juno and Pallas ashamed at not having gained the decision
in the Phrygian groves? The bird of Juno [803] exposes her feathers,
when praised; if you look at them in silence, she conceals her
treasures. Amid the contests of the rapid course, their trimmed manes,
and their patted necks, delight the steeds.

Promise, too, without hesitation: promises attract the fair: make any
Gods you please to be witnesses of what you promise. Jupiter, from on
high, smiles at the perjuries of lovers, and commands the Æolian South
winds to sweep them away as worthless, Jupiter was accustomed to swear
falsely to Juno by the Styx: now is he himself indulgent to his own
precedent. 'Tis expedient that there should be Gods; [804] and as it is
expedient, let us believe them to exist. Let frankincense and wine be
presented on their ancient altars. No repose, free from care and similar
to sleep, possesses them; live in innocence, for a Divinity is ever
present. Restore the pledge; let piety observe her duties; be there no
fraud; keep your hands free from bloodshed.

Deceive, if you are wise, the fair alone with Impunity; for this one
piece of deceit only is good faith to be disregarded. Deceive the
deceivers; in a great measure they are all a guilty race; let them
fall into the toils which they have spread. Egypt is said to have been
without showers that refresh the fields: and to have been parched during
nine years. When Thrasius went to Busiris, [805] and showed that Jupiter
could be propitiated by shedding the blood of strangers; to him Busiris
said, "Thou shalt become the first sacrifice to Jove, and, a stranger,
thou shalt produce rain for Egypt." Phalaris, too, burnt in the bull the
limbs of the cruel Perillus; the unhappy inventor was the first to make
proof of his work. Each of them was just; and, indeed, no law is there
more righteous, than that the contrivers of death should perish by their
own contrivances. Therefore, since perjuries with justice impose upon
the perjured, let woman grieve, deceived through a precedent her own.

Tears, too, are of utility: by tears you will move adamant. Make her,
if you can, to see your moistened cheeks. If tears shall fail you, for
indeed they do not always come in time, touch your eyes with your wet
hand. What discreet person would not mingle kisses with tender words?
Though she should not grant them; still take them ungranted. Perhaps she
will struggle at first, and will say, "You naughty man!" still, in her
struggling, she will wish to be overcome. Only, let them not, rudely
snatched, hurt her tender lips, and take care that she may not be able
to complain that they have proved a cause of pain. He who has gained
kisses, if he cannot gain the rest as well, will deserve to lose even
that which has been granted him. How much is there wanting for unlimited
enjoyment after a kiss! Oh shocking! 'twere _downright_ clownishness,
and not modesty. Call it violence, if you like; such violence is
pleasing to the fair; they often wish, through compulsion, to grant what
they are delighted _to grant_. Whatever fair one has been despoiled by
the sudden violence of passion, she is delighted at it; and the chief is
as good as a godsend. But she, who, when she might have been carried
by storm, has escaped untouched, though, in her features, she should
pretend gladness, will _really_ be sorry. Phoebe suffered [806]
violence; to her sister was violence offered; and pleasing was either
ravisher to the ravished. The damsel of Scyros being united to the
Hæmonian hero, is a well-known story indeed, but not unworthy to be

Now, the Goddess, worthy to conquer the other two at the foot of mount
Ida, had given her reward of the approval of her beauty. Now, from a
distant region, had a daughter-in-law come to Priam: and within Ilian
walls there was a Grecian wife. All swore in the words of the affronted
husband; for the grief of one was the common cause. A disgraceful thing,
had he not yielded in this to the entreaties of his mother, Achilles
had concealed his manhood by the long garments. What art thou doing,
descendant of Æacus? The wool is no task of thine. Do thou seek glory by
other arts of Pallas. What hast thou to do with work-baskets? [807] Thy
hand is fitted for holding the shield. Why hold the allotted flax in thy
right hand, by which Hector shall fall? Spurn those spindles enwrapped
in the laborious warp; the lance from Pelion is to be brandished by that
hand. By chance in the same chamber there was a royal maiden; in her
own undoing she found that he was a male. By force, indeed, was she
overcome, so we must believe: but still, by force was she willing to
be overcome. Many a time did she say, "Stay," when now Achilles was
hastening _to depart_; for, the distaff laid aside, he had assumed
valiant arms. Where now is this violence? Why, with gentle voice,
Deidamia, dost thou detain the perpetrator of thy disgrace? As,
forsooth, there is shame in first beginning at any time, so 'tis
pleasing _to the fair_ to submit, when the other takes the initiative.

Alas! too great is the confidence of any youth in his own good looks, if
he awaits for her to be the first to ask him. Let the man make the first
approaches; let the man use words of entreaty; she will kindly receive
his soft entreaties. To gain _your wish_, ask; _she only wishes to be
asked_. Tell her the cause and the origin of your desires. Jupiter came
as a suppliant to the Heroines of olden times; [808] no fair one found
fault with great Jove. But if you perceive puffed-up vanity to be the
result of your prayers, desist from your design, and withhold your
advances. Many desire that which flies from them, and hate that which
is close at hand. By pressing on less eagerly, remove all weariness of
yourself. Nor must your hope of enjoyment be always confessed by you as
you entreat; let Love make his entrance concealed beneath the name of
friendship. By this introduction, I have seen the prudish fair deceived;
he who was the friend, became the lover. A fair complexion is unbecoming
in a sailor; he ought to be swarthy, from the spray of the sea and the
rays of the sun. It is unbecoming, too, to the husbandman, who, with his
crooked plough and his heavy harrows, is always turning up the ground
in the open air. And if your body is fair, you, by whom the glory of the
chaplet of Pallas [809] is sought, you will be unsightly.

Let every one that is in love be pale; that is the proper complexion for
one in love. That is becoming; from your features, let the fair think
that you are not in good health. Pale with love for Lyrice, [810] did
Orion wander in the woods; pale for the Naiad, in her indifference,
was Daphnis. [811] Thinness, too, shows the feelings; and think it no
disgrace to put a hood over your shining looks. Let sleepless nights
attenuate the bodies of the youths; care, too, and the grief that
proceeds from violent love. That you may gain your desires, be wretched,
that he who sees you may be able to say, "You are in love."

Shall I complain, or _only_ remind you how all right and wrong is
confused? Friendship is but a name, constancy an empty title. Alas!
alas! it is not safe to praise the object that you love to your friend.
When he has credited your praises, he supplants you. But the descendant
of Actor did not defile the couch of Achilles; so far as Pirithous was
concerned, Phædra was chaste. Pylades [812] loved Hermione, with the
affection with which Phoebus loved Pallas; and he was such, daughter
of Tyndarus, as thy twin brother Castor was towards thee. If any one
expects the same, let him expect that the tamarisks will bear apples,
and let him look for honey in the middle of the stream. Nothing pleases
but what is base; his own gratification is the object of each. This,
too, becomes pleasant from the sorrow of another. Oh disgraceful
conduct! no enemy is to be dreaded by the lover. Shun those whom you
think trustworthy; then you will be safe. Shun your kinsman, and your
brother, and your dear friend; this class will cause you real alarm.

I was _here_ about to conclude; but there are various dispositions in
the fair; treat these thousand dispositions in a thousand _different_
ways. The same soil does not produce everything; one suits the vine,
another the olive; in this, corn springs up vigorously. There are as
many characters in these various dispositions, as there are forms in
the world; the man that is wise, will adapt himself to these innumerable
characters. And as at one moment Proteus will make himself flow in
running water; and now will be a lion, now a tree, now a shaggy goat.
These fish are taken with a dart, [813] those with hooks; these the
encircling nets draw up, the rope being extended. And let no one method
be adopted by you for all years. The aged hind will espy from a greater
distance your contrivances. Should you seem learned to the ignorant,
or forward to the bashful, she will at once distrust herself, now
apprehensive. Thence it happens, that she who has dreaded to trust
herself to the well-bred man, _often_ falls into the embrace of some
worthless inferior.

A part remains of the task which I have undertaken, a part is completed;
here let the anchor, thrown out, hold fast my bark.


|Sing, "Io Pæan" [901] and "Io Pæan" twice sing; the prey that was sought
has fallen into our toils. Let the joyous lover present my lines with
the verdant palm; to _Hesiod_ the Ascræan and to _Homer_ the Mæonian
old man shall I be preferred. Such did the stranger son of Priam set his
whitening sails from the armed Amyclæ, [902] together with the ravished
wife. Such was he who bore thee, Hippodamia, in his victorious chariot,
carried by the wheels of the stranger. Why hasten then, young man?
Thy ship is sailing in the midst of the waves; and far distant is the
harbour for which I make. It is not enough, me your Poet, for the fair
to be gained by you. Through my skill has she been acquired; through my
skill must she be retained. 'Tis no less merit to keep what is acquired,
than to gain it. In the former there is some chance; in the latter will
be a work of art.

Now, if ever, Boy _Cupid_ and Cytherea, be propitious _to me_: now,
Erato; [903] for thou hast a name from Love. Great attempts do I
contemplate; to tell by what means Love can be arrested, the Boy that
wanders over the world so wide. He is both inconstant, and he has two
wings with which to fly.'Tis an arduous task to impose laws on these.

Minos had obstructed all means of escape to the stranger. He discovered
a bold path [904] with his wings. When Dædalus had enclosed the man
half-bull, and the bull half-man, that was conceived in the criminality
of his mother; he said, "Most just Minos, let there be a termination of
my exile; and let my paternal land receive my ashes. And since, harassed
by the cruel Destinies, I cannot live in my country, let me be enabled
to die. If the merits of an old man are but small, grant a return to
this boy; if thou art unwilling to favour the boy, then favour the old
man." This he said: but both this and many more things he might have
said; the other did not permit a return to the hero. Soon as he saw
this, he said, "Now, O now, Dædalus, thou hast a subject, upon which
thou mayst prove ingenious. Lo! Minos possesses the land, and he
possesses the ocean; neither earth nor water is open for our escape;
there remains a path through the heavens; through the heavens will we
attempt to go. Jupiter on high, grant pardon to my design. I do not aim
to reach the starry abodes; there is no way but this one, by which I may
escape the tyrant. Should a road through Styx be granted; then we will
swim through the Stygian waves; let the laws of nature be changed
by me." _Misfortunes often sharpen the genius_; who could have ever
believed, that a mortal could attempt the paths of the air?

He arranges swift feathers in order, like oars, [905] and connects the
light work with fastenings of thread; the lower part, too, is bound
together with wax, melted by the fire; and now the work of the new
contrivance is finished. The smiling boy handles both the wax and the
feathers, not knowing that these instruments are prepared for his own
shoulders. To him his father says: "With these ships must we reach our
native land; by these means must we escape from Minos. The air Minos
could not, all else he has, shut against us. Cleave the air, which still
thou mayst, with these my inventions. But neither the virgin of Tegeæa,
nor the sword-bearing Orion, [906] the companion of Bootes, will have
to be beheld by thee. Follow me with the wings given to thee: I will go
before on the way. Be it thy care to follow; me thy leader, thou wilt he
safe. But if we shall go through the air of the heavens, the sun close
to us, the wax will not be able to endure the heat. If we shall wave
our wings below, the sea near to us, the fluttering feathers will be wet
with the ocean spray. Fly between them both; dread, too, the winds,
my son; and whichever way the breezes shall blow, set thy prospering

While he thus advises; he fits his work on to the boy, and shows how it
is to be moved; just as their mother teaches the helpless birds. Then he
places upon his shoulders the wings made for himself; and with timidity
he poises his body along this new track. And now about to fly, he gives
kisses to his little son; and the cheeks of the father do not withhold
their tears. There is a hill, less than a mountain, more lofty than
the level plain; hence are their two bodies entrusted to their mournful
flight. Dædalus both moves his own wings himself, and looks back on
those of his son; and he ever keeps on his own course. And now this
unusual path delights him, and, fear laid aside, Icarus flies more
courageously with emboldened skill. A person sees them, while he is
angling [907] for fish with his quivering rod, and his right hand
desists from the work he has commenced. Now Samos and Naxos had been
left behind, on the left hand, and Paros, and Delos beloved by the
Clarian God. [908] Lebynthos was to the right, and Calymne [909] shaded
with its woods, and Astypalæa, [910] surrounded with its fishy shallows;
when the boy, too venturesome in his inconsiderate daring, took a higher
flight, and forsook his guide.

The fastenings give way; and the wax melts, the Divinity being so near;
and his arms, when moved, no longer catch the light breeze. Alarmed, he
looks down upon the sea from the lofty heavens; darkness, arising from
trembling apprehension, comes over his eyes. The wax has now melted;
he waves his bare arms, and he trembles, and has no means whereby to
be supported. Downward he falls; and as he falls, he cries, "Father! O
father! I am undone!" As he spoke, the azure waves closed his mouth. But
the unhappy father, a father now no longer, cried aloud, "Icarus, where
art thou? Or under what part of the sky dost thou fly?"

"Icarus," again he cried aloud; his feathers he beheld in the waves. The
dry land covers his bones; the sea retains his name.

Minos could not restrain the wings of a mortal; I myself am attempting
to arrest a winged Divinity. If any one has recourse to the Hæmonian
arts, and gives that which he has torn from the forehead of the young
horse, [911] he is mistaken. The herbs of Medea will not cause love to
endure; nor yet the Marsian spells [912] mingled with the magic notes.
The Phasian damsel would have retained the son of Æson, Circe Ulysses,
if love could only have been preserved through incantations. Philtres,
too, causing paleness, [913] are of no use when administered to the
fair. Philtres injure the intellect, and have a maddening effect.
Afar be all criminal attempts; to be loved, be worthy to be loved; _a
property_ which comeliness, or beauty alone, will not confer upon you.
Though you should be Nireus, [914] be praised by ancient Homer, and the
charming Hylas, [915] carried off by the criminality of the Naiads;
that you may retain your mistress, and not have to wonder that you
are deserted, add the endowments of the mind to the advantages of the
person. Beauty is a fleeting advantage; and the more it increases in
years, the less it becomes, and, itself, is consumed by length of time.

Neither the violets nor the opening lilies bloom for ever; and, the roses
lost, the thorny bush is prickly left behind. And, handsome man, soon
shall come to you the hoary locks; soon shall come the wrinkles, to
furrow your body over. Now form a disposition which may be lasting, and
add it to your beauty; that alone endures to the closing pile. And be it
no light care to cultivate the mind with the liberal arts, and to learn
thoroughly the two languages, _the Latin and the Greek_. Ulysses was
not handsome, but he was fluent; and yet with love he racked the ocean
Goddesses. [916] Ah! how oft did Calypso grieve at his hastening to
depart, and declare that the waves were not favorable to his oars! Again
and again did she enquire into the catastrophe of Troy. Often in another
manner was he wont to repeat the same thing. On the shore they were
standing; even there did the beauteous Calypso enquire about the
blood-stained death of the Odrysian chief.

With a little stick, for by chance he was holding a stick, he depicted
on the firm shore the subject on which she was enquiring. "This is
Troy," said he; and the walls he drew on the shore; "This must be Simois
for thee, and suppose these to be my tents. There was a plain," and here
he drew the plain, "which we moistened with the blood of Dolon, [917]
while, as a spy, he was longing for the Hæmonian horses. [918] There
were the tents of the Sithonian Rhesus; in this direction was I borne
back again by the captured steeds." And many other things was he
depicting, when the waves suddenly carried off both Pergamus and the
tents of Rhesus together with their chief. Then the Goddess said, "Dost
thou behold how famous names these waves have swept away, which thou
dost trust will be favorable to thee about to depart?"

Come then, with hesitation, feel confidence in beauty so deceiving,
whoever you are; or else possess something of more value than
comeliness. A beseeming courtesy especially enlists the feelings;
rudeness and harsh language promote hatred. We dislike the hawk, because
it is always living in warfare; the wolves too, that are wont to rush
upon the startled flocks. But the swallow, because it is gentle, is
exempt from the snares of men; and the Chaonian bird [919] has the
turrets for it to inhabit.

Afar lie all strife and contentions of the abusive tongue; with sweet
words must gentle love be cherished. With strife let both wives
persecute their husbands, and husbands their wives; and, each in their
turn, let them ever be thinking that they must resort to law. [920] This
is the part of wives; strife is the dowry of the wife. Let the mistress
ever hear the accents that she longs for. At the bidding of no law have
you come to live together; in your case 'tis love that performs the
duties of the law. Bring soft caresses, and words that delight the ear,
that she may _ever_ be joyous at your approach.

I do not come as the instructor of the wealthy in Love; he who makes
presents has no need of my experience. He who says, whenever he pleases,
"Accept this," has a genius of his own. To him do I yield: he has
greater attractions than have any discoveries of mine. I am the
instructor of the poor, because, as a poor man, I have been in love.
When I could not give presents, I gave verses. [921] Let the poor man
love with caution, let the poor man stand in fear of bad language, and
let him _put up with many a thing, not to be endured by the rich_.

I remember that once, when in a rage, I disarranged the hair of my
mistress; of how many a day did that anger deprive me! I do not think I
did, and I did not see that I had, torn her tunic, but she said so, and
at my cost it was replaced. But you who are wise, avoid the errors
of your instructor; and stand in awe of the punishment of my

Let battles be with the Parthians, but be there peace with your refined
mistress; mirth too, and whatever besides contains a reason for love. If
she is not sufficiently kind or affable to you her lover; have patience,
and bear it; after a time she will be softened. By giving way the supple
branch is bent from the tree; if you make trial of your strength,
you break it. By giving way the waves are swam across; but you cannot
overcome the stream if you swim _against the flood_ which the tide
carries down. 'Tis yielding that subdues the tigers and the Numidian
lions. By degrees only does the bull submit to the rustic plough. What
was there more coy than Atalanta of Nonacris? [922] Yet, untamed as she
was, she yielded to the deserving qualities of a man. They say that many
a time, beneath the trees, Milanion wept at his mishaps, and the unkind
conduct of the fair one. Full oft on his neck, as ordered, did he bear
the treacherous toils; full oft with his cruel spear did he transfix the
savage boars. Wounded, too, he experienced the stretched bow of Hylæus;
[923] but yet there was another bow still more felt than this.

I do not bid you, in arms, to climb the woods of Mænalus, and I do
not bid you to carry the toils upon your neck. Nor yet do I bid you
to expose your breast to the discharged arrows. The requirements of my
skill will be but light to the careful man. Yield to her when opposing;
by yielding, you will come off victorious. Only take care to perform the
part which she shall bid you. What she blames, do you blame; whatever
she approves, do you approve; what she says, do you say; what she
denies, do you deny. Does she smile, do you smile; if she weeps, do you
remember to weep. Let her prescribe the law for the regulation of your
features. If she plays, and throws the ivory cubes [924] with her hand,
do you throw unsuccessfully, do you make bad moves [925] to the throws;
or if you are throwing [926] the dice, let not the penalty attend upon
her losing; take care that losing throws often befall yourself, if your
piece is moving at the game that imitates [927] the tactics of war, take
care that your man falls before his enemy of glass. Do you yourself
hold the screen [928] stretched out by its ribs; do you make room in the
crowd the way that she is going. And do not delay to place the footstool
before the tasteful, couch; [929] and take off or put on the sandals
for her delicate feet. Often, too, must the hand of your mistress, when
cold, be made warm in your bosom, though you yourself should shiver in
consequence. And think it no disgrace (although it should be a disgrace
to you, still it will give pleasure), to hold the looking-glass [930]
with the hand of a free-born man.

He who, by killing the monsters of his wearied step-mother, earned those
heavens which before he had supported, is believed, amid the Ionian
girls, to have held the work-basket, [931] and to have wrought the rough
wool. The Tirynthian hero was obedient to the commands of his mistress.
Go then, and hesitate to endure what he submitted to. When bidden to
come to the Forum, take care always to be there before the appointed
time; and do not go away until a late hour. Does she appoint to meet
you at any place; put off everything else: run quickly, and let not the
crowd stop your purposed route. Is she returning home at night, after
having been at a feast; then, too, if she calls, come to her as though
a servant. [932] If you are in the country and she says, "Come," (love
hates the tardy) if a vehicle [933] is not at hand, go your journey on
foot. Let neither bad weather nor the parching Dog-star detain you, nor
the road made white with the snow that lies there.

Love is a kind of warfare; cowards, avaunt! These are not the standards
to be defended by timid men. In this tender warfare, night, and wintry
storms, and long journies, and cruel pain, and every kind of toil, have
their part. Many a time will you have to endure the rain pouring from
the clouds of heaven; cold and on the bare ground full oft will you lie.
Cynthius [934] said to have fed the cows of Admetus of Pheræ, and to
have lived in an humble cottage. What was becoming to Phoebus, to whom
is it not becoming? Away with all conceit, whoever you are, who have a
care for a lasting passion. If access is denied you by a safe and smooth
path; and if her door shall be fastened by the bar put up; then, do
you slip straight down through the open roof [935] let the high window,
[936] too, present a secret passage. She will be pleased when she knows
that she has proved the cause of risk to you. This will be to your
mistress a pledge of your unvarying love. Full oft, Leander, couldst
thou have done without thy mistress; that she might know thy passion,
thou didst swim across.

And be not ashamed to make her handmaids, as each one is superior in
rank, nor yet her male servants, entirely your own. Salute them each by
name, there will be nothing thrown away: press their humble hands, proud
lover, with your own. Moreover, (the expense is but trifling) give
to the servant who asks, some little present from your means. Make a
present, too, to the handmaid, on the day on which [937] the Gallic
army, deceived by the garments of the matrons, received retribution.
Follow my advice, and make the lower classes [938] your own; in that
number let there always be the porter, and him who lies before the door
of her chamber. And I do not bid you present to your mistress any costly
gift; give her moderate ones, but, in your discrimination, well selected
from those that are moderate. While the country is abundantly rich in
produce, while the branches are bending beneath their load, let the boy
bring your gifts from the country in his basket. You may say that they
have been sent by you from your suburban retreat, although they may
have been bought even in the Sacred Street. [939] Let him carry either
grapes, or what Amaryllis was so fond of; [940] but, at the present day,
she is fond of chesnuts no longer. And, besides, both with a thrush and
a pigeon, [941] sent as a present, you may show how attentive you are to
your mistress. By these means [942] are the expectations of death, and
solitary old age, disgracefully made matter of purchase. Oh! may they
perish through whom gifts promote criminal objects!

Why should I recommend you to send tender lines as well? Alas! poetry
does not [943] gain much honour. Verses are praised: but 'tis costly
gifts that are sought. If he is only rich, [944] a very barbarian is
pleasing. Truly is this the golden age; the greatest honours accrue
through gold; love is purchased with gold. Though thou thyself, Homer,
shouldst come, attended by the Muses; if thou shouldst bring nothing
with thee, thou wouldst be turned out of doors.

And yet there are the learned fair, a very limited number; another set
are not learned, but they wish to be so. Both kinds may be praised
in verse; the reader may set off the lines of whatever quality by a
melodious voice. Indeed, a poem, carefully composed in their honour,
will be to these or to those, as good, perhaps, as a little present.
But take care that whatever you are about to do of your own accord and
consider convenient, your mistress shall always first ask that of you.
Has freedom been promised to any one of your slaves; still cause him to
make a request for it of your mistress. If you forgive punishment and
cruel fetters to your slave, let her be indebted to you for what you
were about to do. Let the advantage be your own; let the credit be given
to your mistress. Suffer no loss yourself, and let her act the part of
the person in power.

But whosoever you are who have a care to retain the fair, cause her
to believe that you are enchanted with her beauty. If she is in Tyrian
costume, praise the dress of Tyrian hue; [945] if she is in that of Cos,
[946] consider the Coan habit as becoming. Is she arrayed in gold, let
her be more precious in your eyes than gold itself: if she wears a dress
of felt, [947] praise the felt dress that she wears. Does she stand
before you in her tunic, exclaim, "You are setting me on fire;" [948]
but entreat her, with a voice of anxiety, to beware of the cold. Is the
parting of her hair nicely arranged; praise the parting of it; has
she curled her hair by aid of the fire: curled locks, do you prove the
attraction. As she dances, admire her arms, her voice as she sings;
and use the words of one complaining because she has left off. Her very
embraces [949] you may commend, on the points that please yourself; and
with murmuring accents you may signify your delight. Though she be more
fierce than the grim Medusa; to her lover she will become gentle and

Only, take you care that you be not discovered to be a deceiver in these
expressions; and by your looks do not contradict your words. If devices
are concealed, they are of use; when discovered, they cause shame, and
deservedly remove confidence for all future time. Often, at the approach
of autumn (when the year is most beauteous, and the filled grape is
growing red with its purple juice; at the time when at one moment we
are chilled with cold, at another we are melted with heat), through the
varying temperature a languor takes possession of the body. She, indeed,
may be in good health; but if, through illness she keeps her bed, and,
ailing, feels the bad effects of the weather, then let your love and
affection be proved to the fair; then sow, that hereafter with the
sickle of abundance you may reap. Let no disgust at her malady, that
renders her so cross, come upon you: by your hands too, let whatever she
will permit, be done. And let her see you as you weep; and be not tired
of giving her kisses; and with her parched lips let her dry up your
tears. Make many a vow for her cure, but all before her: and as often as
she will permit, be seeing pleasant visions to tell her of. Let the
old woman come, [950] too, to purify her couch and chamber; and in her
palsied hand let her carry before her the sulphur and the eggs. In all
these things there will be traces of a pleasing attention; for many a
one has this road proved a path to another man's will. But still,
let not loathing on the part of the sick fair be the result of your
officiousness; let there be certain limits shown in your careful
attentiveness. Do not you forbid her food, nor administer the cups with
the bitter draught; let your rival mingle those.

But when you have gained the open sea, you must not use the breeze to
which you set your sails from off the shore. While Love is wandering
in his youth, let him gain strength by habit; if you nurse him well, in
time he will be strong. Him that you fear as a bull, as a calf you were
wont to pat; the tree under which you are now reclining, was once a
twig. A river at its rise is small, but it acquires strength in its
course; and where it runs, it now receives many a stream. Make her
become used to you; there is nothing more powerful than habit. While you
are courting her, avoid no amount of trouble. Let her be always seeing
you; let her be always lending ear to you; let both night and day show
your countenance. When you have a greater confidence that you may
be missed; then, destined to be her care when absent, go away to a
distance. Give yourself some repose; the land that has lain fallow,
gives back in abundance what has been entrusted to it; and the dry
ground sucks up the water of the heavens. Demophoôn, when present,
inflamed Phyllis in a less degree; when he had set sail, more violently
did she burn. The crafty Ulysses, by his absence, tortured Penelope: far
away, tearful Laodamia, was thy hero of Phylace.

But a short respite alone is safe; in time, cares become modified, and
the absent love decays and a new one makes its entrance. While Menelaus
was absent, Helen, that she might not lie alone, was received at night
into the warm bosom of his guest. What meant, Menelaus, this stupidity
of thine? Thou didst go away alone; under the same roof were both the
stranger and thy wife. And dost thou entrust, madman, the timid doves to
the hawk? Dost thou entrust the well-filled sheep-fold to the mountain
wolf? Helen commits no sin; this paramour of hers does no wrong; he does
what thou, what any one, would do. Thou dost persuade them to adultery,
by giving both time and opportunity. What advice, but thine own,
has the fair made use of? What is she to do? Her husband is away, and a
guest, no repulsive person, is present, and she is afraid to sleep alone
in an empty couch. Let the son of Atreus think better of it: I acquit
Helen of criminality; she made use of the opportunity given by an easy

But neither is the tawny boar so fierce in the midst of his rage, when
he hurls the furious dogs with the lightning shock of his tusks; nor the
lioness, when she is giving the breast to her sucking whelps; nor the
little viper, when inhired by the heedless foot; as the woman, who is
furious on detecting the rival of her nuptial couch, and bears on her
features the proofs of her feelings. To the sword and to flames does she
resort; and, shame laid aside, onward she is impelled, as though struck
by the horns of the Aonian God. The barbarian fair one of Phasis avenged
the fault of her husband, and the violated rights of a wife, by the
death of her sons. See, how another cruel parent ('tis the swallow that
you behold) has her breast stained with blood. 'Tis this breaks those
attachments that are firmly united, this, those of long duration; these
faults must then be guarded against by cautious men.

But still, my judgment does not condemn you to one fair alone. The Gods
forbid! hardly can the married woman adhere to this. Disport yourself;
but let your faultiness be concealed by a decent stealthiness. No glory
must be sought in one's own delinquency. And do you give no present
of which the other may know; nor be there any stated times for your
intriguing. And, lest the fair one should catch you in the retreat so
well known to her, all must not be met in the same place of rendezvous.
And, as often as you shall be writing, do you first examine the whole
of the tablet; many a woman reads more than what has been sent to her. A
slighted passion brandishes the arms of retribution, and hurls back the
weapon, and causes yourself to complain of that of which it complained
so lately.

So long as the son of Atreus was content with one woman, she, too, was
chaste; through the fault of her husband did she become culpable. She
had heard how that Chryses, bearing in his hand the laurel and the
fillets, had not prevailed in behalf of his daughter. She had heard,
too, ravished one of Lyrnesus, of thy sorrows; and how the warfare had
been protracted through disgraceful delays. Still, these things she had
only heard of; the daughter of Priam, herself, she had seen. Thou, the
conqueror, wast the disgraced captive of thy own captive. Then did she
receive the son of Thyestes, both into her chamber and her affections;
and the daughter of Tyndarus avenged herself on a husband so deeply

Your actions, which you have studiously concealed, if perchance any of
them are discovered, although they should be notorious, still do you
always deny them. On such occasions, do you neither be subdued, nor
more kind than usual. That bears the marks of a mind that has too
deeply offended. Still, spare not any endearments on your side; peace is
entirely centred in caresses alone; by these must the former intrigue
be disavowed. There are some who would recommend you to use injurious
herbs, such as savory; in my opinion they are so many poisons. Or else,
they mingle pepper with the seed of the stinging nettle; [952] and the
yellow camomile pounded in old wine. But the Goddess, whom the lofty
Eryx receives beneath his shady hill, does not allow us to be impelled
in such manner to her delights. The white onion [953] which is sent from
the Pelasgian city of Alcathoiis, [954] and the salacious herbs which
come out of the gardens, and eggs may be eaten; the honey of Hymettus
may be eaten, and the nuts which the pine-tree with its sharp leaves

Why, learned Erato, art thou thus diverging into the medical art? The
inner side of the turning-place must be grazed by my chariot. You, who
just now were, by my recommendation, to conceal your delinquencies,
change your course, and, by my advice, disclose your intrigues. Nor yet
is any inconsistency of mine to be censured; the curving ship does not
always carry those on board with the same breezes. For sometimes we run
with the Thracian Boreas, sometimes with the East wind; full aft does
the canvass swell with the Zephyrs, with the South wind full aft. See
how, in the chariot, the driver, at one moment, gives the flowing rein,
at another, skilfully checks the horses in full career. There are some,
with whom an anxious obsequiousness is ruinous, and if there is no rival
existing, then their passion waxes faint. The feelings often run riot
amid prosperity; and to bear good fortune with equanimity is no easy
task. As the declining fire, its strength consuming by degrees, itself
lies concealed, and the ashes become white over the surface of the
fire; but still, when sulphur is applied, it finds the flames that were
extinguished, and the light returns which existed before; so, when the
feelings, sluggish through repose, and free from care, become torpid,
by sharp stimulants must love be aroused. Make her to be jealous on your
account, and rekindle her deadened feelings; let her turn pale at the
proof of your inconstancy.

Oh four times blest, and so oft, that it is not possible to limit it to
numbers, is that man, on whose account the slighted fair is in grief!
who, soon as the charge has reached her unwilling ears, faints away: and
both her voice and colour leave the sorrowing fair. Would that I were
he, whose locks she tears in her fury; would that I were he, whose
tender cheeks she tears with her nails; whom she looks upon bursting
into tears; whom she beholds with scowling eyes; without whom she cannot
exist; _but still_ wishes that she could. If you enquire as to its
duration: let the time be short for her to complain of her injuries,
lest her anger may acquire strength in the slowly passing lapse of time.

And now let her fair neck be encircled in your arms; and as she weeps,
she must be received in your bosom. Give her kisses as she weeps: bestow
her caresses as she weeps. Peace will ensue: by this method alone is
anger appeased. When she has been passionately raving, when she shall
seem to be an assured enemy; then seek your treaty of peace in caresses;
she will then be pacified. For 'tis there that Concord dwells,
all arms laid aside; 'tis in that spot, believe me, that the Graces were
born. The doves which fought the moment before, are now billing; their
cooing has the meaning of caresses, and of words.

At first [955] there was a confused mass of things without arrangement;
and the stars, the earth, and the ocean, were but of one appearance.
Afterwards, the heavens were placed above the earth; the land was
surrounded by the sea, and the confused Chaos was divided into its
elements. The woods received the beasts, the air the birds as its
possession; in the flowing waters, you, fishes were concealed. At that
time the human race wandered in the solitary woods: and it consisted
of nothing but brute force, and a mind quite uninformed. The woods were
their houses, grass their food, and leaves their beds; and for a long
time the one was unknown to the other. Voluptuous pleasure is said to
have been the first to soften their rude dispositions; afterwards, the
woman and the man settled in the same spot. What should they do?

They had been instructed by no preceptor: Venus completed this
delightful task without any art. The bird has an object to love: the
female fish finds in the midst of the waters an object with which to
share her joys. The hind follows her mate; the serpent couples with
the serpent; the bitch, too, consorts with the dog. The delighted sheep
unites with the ram; the heifer, also, is pleased with the bull; the
fiat-nosed she-goat, too, receives her unclean mate. [956] Mares are
driven to frenzy, and follow the horses, separated by streams, over
places far distant from each other in situation. Come, then, and give an
efficacious remedy to the angered fair; 'tis that alone that puts an end
to violent grief. 'Tis that remedy which excels the potions of Machaon;
[957] through that, when you have offended, you will have to be

While I was thus singing, Apollo, suddenly appearing, touched with his
thumb the strings of his lyre inlaid with gold. In his hands there was
a laurel, placed on his holy locks there was a laurel: visible as a Poet
he came. [958] "Thou instructor in wanton Love," says he, "come, lead
thy pupils to my temples. There is there a sentence celebrated in fame
over the universal world, which bids each one to know himself. [959] He
who shall be known to himself, will alone love with prudence, and will
proportion every task to his strength. He to whom nature has given
beauty, for that let him be admired; he who has a fair complexion,
let him often lie down with a shoulder exposed. He who charms with his
discourse, let him break the quietude of silence; he who sings with
skill, let him sing; he who drinks with elegance, [960] let him drink.
But in the middle of a conversation, neither let those who are eloquent
declaim, and let not the insane poet be reciting his own compositions."

Thus Phoebus recommended; observe this recommendation of Phoebus. There
is full confidence in the hallowed lips of this Divinity. I am now
called to my more immediate subject: whoever shall love with prudence,
he will prove successful, and will obtain from my skill what he shall
require. The furrows do not always return with interest that which
has been entrusted to them; nor does the breeze always aid the veering
barks. What pleases lovers, is but a little: 'tis much more that crosses
them; let them resolve to endure many things with their feelings. As
many as are the hares on Athos; [961] as the bees that feed on Hybla;
[962] as the berries which the azure-coloured tree of Pallas bears; as
the shells on the sea-shore; so many are the pangs of love; the shafts
which we endure are reeking with plenteous gall.

She, whom perchance you shall see, will be said to have gone out of
doors; believe that she is gone out of doors, and that you make a
mistake in your seeing. Is the door shut against you on the appointed
night; endure even to lay your body on the dirty ground. Perhaps, too,
the lying maid will say with a haughty air, "Why is that fellow blocking
up our door?" Suppliantly entreat even the door-posts of the obdurate
fair; and place at the door the roses that have been taken from off your
head. [963] Come when she desires it; when she shall shun you, you'll go
away. It is not becoming for men of good breeding to cause weariness of
their company. Why should your mistress be able to say of you, "There
is no getting rid of this man?" The senses [964] are not on the alert at
all hours. And deem it no disgrace to put up with the curses of the fair
one, or her blows, nor yet to give kisses to her delicate feet.

But why dwell upon trifles? Let my mind be occupied with greater
subjects. Of great matters will I sing; people, give all attention. I
attempt an arduous task, but merit there is none, but what is secured by
arduous means. By my undertaking are laborious attempts required. Endure
a rival with patience; the victory will rest with yourself; you will be
the conqueror on the heights of mighty Jove. [965] Believe that not a
mortal tells you this, but the Pelasgian oaks of Dodona: my skill has
nothing superior to this to teach you. Does she make a sign to him, do
you put up with it; does she write, don't you touch the tablets; let her
come from whatever place she likes; and wherever she chooses, let her
go. This do husbands allow to their lawful wives; even, too, when thou,
gentle sleep, [966] dost come to thy duty. I confess, that in this art I
myself am not yet perfect. What must I do? I am myself unequal to my
own precepts. And is any one in my presence to be making signs to my
mistress? And am I to endure it? And is not my anger to hurry me away to
any extreme? Her own husband [967] (I remember it well) gave her a kiss;
I complained of kisses being given; my love is brimful of fierceness.
Not once alone has this failing proved an injury to me; he is more
skilful, by whose encouragement other men visit [968] his mistress. But
'tis still better to know nothing of it. Allow stealthy intrigues to lie
concealed, lest the blush of confession should fly in future from her
countenance when detected.

With greater reason then, ye youths, forbear to detect your mistresses.
Let them be guilty; and guilty, let them suppose that they have deceived
you. When detected, the passion increases; when the fortune of the two
is the same, each persists in the cause of the disgrace. There is a
story told, very well known in all the heavens, how Mars and Venus [969]
were caught by the contrivance of Mulciber. Father Mars, distracted by
a frantic passion for Venus, from a terrible warrior, became a lover.
Neither did Venus (for, indeed, no Goddess is there more kind) proved
coy or stubborn to Gradivus. O how many a time is she said, in her
wantonness, to have laughed at the feet of her husband, and at his
hands, hardened with the fire or his handicraft. In the presence of
Mars, mocking him, she imitated her husband, and she was beauteous _even
while so doing_; and many a grace was there combined with her charms.
But they were in the habit of skilfully concealing their early
intercourse; and their frailty was replete with modest propriety.
Through the information of the Sun (who is there that can deceive the
Sun?), the actions of his wife became known to Vulcan. Thou Sun, what a
bad example thou art setting! Ask a bribe of her; and shouldst thou hold
thy tongue, she has a favour which she may grant to thee.

Around and above the bed, Muleiber disposes the hidden toils; the work,
by its fineness, escapes their eyes. He pretends a journey to Lemnos;
the lovers come, according to the appointment; entangled in the toils,
they both lie naked. He calls the Gods together; the captives afford a
spectacle. People believe that Venus could hardly restrain her tears.
They cannot conceal their faces; they cannot, in fact, veil their
modesty with their hands. Upon this, one says, laughing, [970] "Transfer
to me thy chains, most valiant Mavors, if they are a burden to thee."
With difficulty, Neptune, at thy entreaty, does he release their
captured bodies. Mars makes for Thrace, [971] and she for Paphos. [972]
This, Vulcan, was done by thee; what before they used to conceal, they
now do more openly, since all modesty is gone. Yet often, foolish one,
dost thou confess that thou didst act unwisely; and they say that thou
hast repented of thy wrath. This I have already forbidden: lo! Dione
forbids you to suffer that detection which she herself endured. And do
you arrange no toils for your rival; and intercept no words written by
the hand in secret. Let the men seek for those, (if, indeed, they think
they ought to be sought for) whom the fire and water render [973] lawful

Behold! again do I protest; no sportive subject is here treated of,
but what is permitted by the laws; there is no matron concerned with
my sallies. [974] Who would dare to publish to the profane the rites
of Ceres, [975] and the great mysteries that were established in the
Thracian Samos? 'Tis a small merit to hold one's silence upon matters;
but, on the other hand, 'tis a grievous fault to speak of things on
which we should be silent. O justly does it happen, that the blabbing
Tantalus is thirsting in the midst of the water, the apples on the tree
being caught at by him in vain! Cytherea especially bids her rites to be
concealed. I recommend no talkative person to approach them.

If the mysteries of Venus are not enclosed in chests, [976] and the
hollow cymbals do not resound with frantic blows; although among
ourselves they are celebrated by universal custom, yet it is in such a
manner that among us they demand concealment. Venus herself, as oft
as she lays her garments aside, conceals her groin with the left hand,
[977] a little bent back. The cattle couple in public and promiscuously;
even when this is seen, full oft the fair one turns away her face.
Chambers and doors are provided for our stealthy dalliance; and our
nakedness lies concealed by garments placed over it. And if we do
not require darkness, still we do something of a retired shade, and
something less exposed than open day. In those times, even, when
tiles did not as yet keep out the sun and the shower, but the oak was
affording both shelter and food; in the groves and caves, and not in the
open air, were shared the delights of love. So great was the regard for
modesty, even in a savage race. But now-a-days we give praises to the
exploits of the night; and nothing beyond the power of talking of it, is
purchased at a heavy price. [978] You will, for sooth, be discussing all
the damsels in every quarter, that you may say to every person, "She,
too, has been mine," that none may be wanting for you to point at with
your fingers; and as you touch upon each, there will be a scandalous
tale. But I am complaining of trifles; some pretend things, which, if
true, they would deny, and not declare that there is not a woman from
whom they have not received the last favour. If they cannot meddle with
their persons, so far as they can, they meddle with their names; and,
their persons untouched, their reputation bears the blame.

Go now, odious keeper, and shut the doors of the fair: and add to the
solid door-posts a hundred bars. What safety is there, while the defiler
of character exists, and desires to be thought that he is that which
it has not proved his lot to be? Even my real amours I confess but
with reserve, and my secret intrigues are concealed with sure fidelity.
Especially forbear to censure the blemishes of the fair; to many it
has proved of advantage to conceal them. Her complexion was not made an
objection against Andromeda by him, on whose two feet were the waving
wings. [979] To all others Andromache seemed of larger stature [980]
than was becoming; Hector was the only one who called her of moderate
size. What you endure with impatience, accustom yourself to; and
you will endure it with patience. Length of time makes many things
endurable; but a rising passion catches sight of everything. While the
young branch is uniting within the green bark, [981] whatever breeze
shakes it while now tender, it falls. Soon, hardened in time, the same
tree will stoutly resist the winds, and bear the adopted fruit.

Time itself removes all blemishes from the person; and what was a fault,
in lapse of time ceases so to be. The nostrils that are unaccustomed
to it, are not able to endure the hides of bulls; the odour is not
perceived by those that have been rendered used to it in length of time.
We may palliate faults by names; let her be called swarthy, whose blood
is blacker than the pitch of Illyria. If she has a cast in the eyes,
she is like Venus: if yellow haired, like Minerva. She that is only
half alive through her leanness, let her be grace ful. Whatever woman
is small, say that she is active; her that is gross, call plump; and let
each fault lie concealed in its proximity to some good quality.

And don't you enquire what year she is now passing, nor under what
Consulship [982] she was born; a privilege which the rigid Censor [983]
possesses. And this, especially, if she has passed the bloom of youth,
and her best years [984] are fled, and she now pulls out the whitening
hairs. This age, O youths, or even one more advanced, has its
advantages; this soil will produce its crops, this is worth the sowing.
While strength and years permit, endure labour; soon will bending old
age come with silent foot. Either cleave the ocean with the oars, or
the earth with the plough; or turn your warlike hands to cruel arms;
or devote your strength and your attention to the fair. This, too, is
a kind of warfare; [985] this, too, seeks its advantages. Besides, in
these [986] there is a greater acquaintance with their subject; and
there is long practice, which alone renders skilful. By attention to
dress they repair the ravages of years; and by carefulness they cause
themselves not to appear aged.=

```Utque velis, Venerem jungunt per mille figuras.

````Inveniat plures nulla tabella modos.

```Illis sentitur non irritata voluptas:

````Quod juvet, ex æquo fcemina virque ferant.

```Odi concubitus, qui non utrumque resolvunt;

````Hoc est, cur pueri tangar amore minus.

```Odi quæ præbet, quia sit præbere necesse;

````Siccaque de lanâ cogitât ipsa suâ.=

```Quæ datur officio, non est mihi grata voluptas,

````Officium faciat nulla puella mihi.

```Me voces audire juvat sua gaudia fassas:

````Utque morer memet, sustineamque roget.

```Aspiciam dominse victos amends ocellos.

````Langueat; et tangi se vetet ilia diu.=

Those advantages has nature given not to early youth, which are wont to
spring up soon after seven times five years [987] have passed. Those who
are in a hurry, let them drink of new wine; for me let the cask, stored
up in the times [988] of ancient Consuls, pour forth the wine of my
ancestors. No plane-tree but a mature one is able to withstand Phoebus;
the shooting grass, [989] too, hurts the tender feet. And could you,
forsooth, have preferred Hermione [990] to Helen? And was Gorge [991]
more attractive than her mother? Whoever you are that wish to enjoy
matured passion, if you only persevere, you will obtain a fitting

```Conscius ecce duos accepit lectus amantes:

````Ad thalami clausas, Musa, résisté fores.

```Sponte suâ, sine te, celoberrima verba loquentur:

````Nec manus in lecto læva jacebit iners.

```Invenient digiti, quod agant in partibus illis,

````In quibus occulte spicula figit Amor.

```Fecit in Andromache prius hoc fortissimus Hector;

````Nec solum bellis utüis file fuit.

```Fecit et in captâ Lyrneside magnus Achilles,

````Cum premeret mollem lassus ab hoste torum.=

```Illis, te tangi manibus, Brisei, sinebas,

````Imbutæ Phrygiâ quæ nece semper erant.

```An fuit hoc ipsum, quod te lasciva juvaret

````Ad tua victrices membra venire manus?

```Crede mihi, non est Yeneris properanda voluptas:

````Sed sensim tarda prolicienda morâ.

```Cum loca repereris, quæ tangi fcemina gaudet;

````Non obstet, tangas quo minus ilia, pudor.

```Adspicics oculos tremulo fulgore micantes,

```Ut sol a liquida sæpe refulget aquâ.

```Accèdent questus, accedet amabile murmur,

````Et dulces gemitus, aptaque verba loco.

```Sed neque tu dominam velis majoribus usus

````Desine; nec cursus anteat ilia tuos.

```Ad metam properate simul; turn plena voluptas,

````Cum pariter victi foemina virque jacent.

```Hi tibi servandus tenor est, cum libera dantur

````Otia; furtivum nec timor urget opus.

```Cum mora non tuta est, totis incumbere remis

````Utile, et admisso subdere calcar equo.=

There is an end now of my task; grant me the palm, ye grateful youths,
and present the myrtle garlands to my perfumed locks. As great as
was Podalirius [992] among the Greeks in the art of healing, as the
descendant of Æacus with his right hand, as Nestor with his eloquence;
as great as Calchas [993] was in soothsaying, as the son of Telamon was
in arms, as Automedon [994] was in guiding the chariot, so great a Lover
am I. Celebrate me as your bard, ye men, to me repeat my praises; let
my name be sung throughout all the earth. Arms have I given to you;
to Achilles Vulcan gave arms. With the gifts presented to you, prove
victorious, as he proved victorious. But whoever subdues the Amazon
with my weapons, let him inscribe upon his spoil [995] --"Naso was my

And lo! the charming fair are asking me to give them my precepts. You
then shall be the next care of my song.----


|With arms against the Amazons I have furnished the Greeks. Arms remain
for me to present, Penthesilea, [1001] to thee and to thy squadrons. Go
to the combat equally prepared; and may those prove the victors, whom
genial Dione [1002] favours, and the Boy who flies over the whole world.
It was not fair for the females unprotected to engage with the men in
arms, and so it would have been disgraceful for you to conquer, ye men.

One of the multitude may say, "Why add venom to the serpent? And
why deliver the sheep-fold to the ravening wolf? Forbear to lay
the culpability of the few upon the many; and let each fair one be
considered according to her own deserts. If the younger son of Atreus
has Helen, and the elder son of Atreus [1003] has the sister of Helen,
to charge with criminality, if the son of Oclus, [1004] through the
wickedness of Eriphyle, daughter of Talaion, alive, and with living
steeds, descended to Styx; there is Penelope constant, while her husband
was wandering for twice five years, and for as many years engaged in
war. Witness the hero from Phylace, [1005] and her who is said to have
descended as the companion of her husband, and to have died before her
destined years. The wife from Pagasæ redeemed the son of Pheres [1006]
from death, and in place of [1007] the funeral of her husband, the wife was
carried out. "Receive me, Capaneus; we will mingle our ashes," said the
daughter of Iphis, and she leapt on the midst of the pile. Virtue,
herself, too, is a female, both in dress and name. 'Tis not to be
wondered at, if she favours her own sex.

But still, 'tis not such dispositions as these that are required by my
art. Sails of less magnitude are befitting my skiff. [1008] Nothing but
wanton dalliance is taught by me; in what manner a woman is to be loved,
I purpose to teach. The woman repels neither the flames, nor the cruel
bow; those weapons, I see, make less havoc among the men. Many a time
do the men prove false; not often the charming fair; and, if you make
inquiry, they have but few charges of fraud against them. Jason, the
deceiver, repudiated the Phasian, when now a mother; and into the bosom
of the son of Æson there came another bride. [1009] Ariadne, left alone
in an unknown spot, had fed the sea-birds, so far, Theseus, as thou wast
concerned. Enquire why she is said to have gone on her nine journies,
[1010] and hear how the woods lamented Phyllis, their foliage laid
aside. And Elissa, she has the credit of affection; and still, that
guest of thine, Elissa, afforded both the sword and the cause for thy
destruction. Shall I tell what it was that ruined thee? Thou didst
not know how to love; thou wast wanting in skill; through skill, love
flourishes for ever.

Even still would they have been ignorant, but Cytherea commanded me to
instruct them, and stood, herself, before my eyes. Then to me she said,
"Why have the unfortunate fair deserved this? An unarmed multitude
is handed over to the men in arms. Two treatises [1011] have
rendered them skilful; this side, as well, must be instructed by thy
advice. He who before had uttered [1012] reproaches against the wife
from Therapnæ, soon sang her praises to a more fortunate lyre. If well
I know thee, injure not the fair whom thou dost adore; their favour must
be sought by thee so long as thou shalt live."

Thus she said; and from the myrtle (for she was standing with her locks
wreathed with myrtle) she gave me a leaf and a few berries. Receiving
them, I was sensible of the divine influence as well; the sky shone
with greater brightness, and all care departed from my breast. While
she inspires my genius; hence receive the precepts, ye fair, which
propriety, and the laws, and your own privileges, [1013] allow you. Even
now, be mindful of old age, that one day will come; then will no time
be passed by you in idleness. Disport yourselves, while yet you may, and
while even now you confess to your true years; after the manner of the
flowing stream, do the years pass by. Neither shall the water which has
past by, be ever recalled; nor can the hour which has past, ever return.
You must employ your youthful age; with swift step age is gliding on;
and that which follows, is not so pleasing as that which having passed
was charming. Those brakes, which are withering, I have beheld as beds
of violets; from amid those brambles, has a beauteous chaplet been
gathered for myself.

The time will be, when you, who are now shutting out a lover, will be
lying, an old woman, chilled in the lonely night. No door [1014] of
yours will be broken open in the broils of the night; nor will you find
in the morning your threshold bestrewed with roses. [1015] How soon, ah
me! are our bodies pursed with wrinkles, and that colour which existed
in the beauteous face, fades away! The grey hairs, too, which you might
have sworn that you had had from childhood, will suddenly be sprinkled
over all your head. Old age is thrown off by serpents, together with the
light slough; and the shedding of their horns makes the stags not to be
old. Our advantages fly irretrievably; pluck the flowers then; if they
be not plucked, they will lamentably fade themselves to your sorrow.
Besides, child-bearing makes the hours of youth more short-lived; with
continual crops the soil waxes old.

Endymion of Latmus, O Moon, causes not thee to blush; nor was Cephalus a
prey for the rosy Goddess to be ashamed of. Though Adonis be allowed to
Venus, whom she yet laments; whence had she Æneas and Hermione [1016]
for her children? Follow, O race of mortals, the example of the
Goddesses; and refuse not your endearments to the eager men. Even
should they deceive you, what do you lose? All remains the same. Were
a thousand to partake thereof, nothing is wasted thereby. Iron is worn
away, stones are consumed by use; your persons are proof against all
apprehension of detriment. Who would forbid light to be taken from
another light presented? Or who, on the deep sea, would hoard up the
expanse of waters? "But 'tis not right," you say, "for any woman to
grant favours to a man." Tell me, what are you losing but the water,
which you may take up again? [1017] Nor are my words urging you to
prostitution; but they are forbidding you to fear evils that do not
exist: your favours are exempt from loss to yourselves.

But while I am in harbour, let a gentle breeze impel me, destined to
sail with the blasts of a stronger gale. I begin with dress: [1018] from
the well-dressed vine Bacchus has birth; and in the well-dressed field
the high corn springs up. Beauty is the gift of the Divinity; how many
a one prides herself on her beauty? Still, a great part [1019] of you
is wanting in such endowments. Care will confer charms; charms neglected
will perish, even though she be like the Idalian Goddess. If the fair of
olden times did not pay such attention to their persons; neither had the
ancients men so well-dressed. If Andromache was clad in a coarse tunic,
what wonder is it? She was the wife of a hardy soldier. And would his
companion, forsooth, come bedecked to Ajax, him whose covering was seven
hides of oxen. Formerly a rustic simplicity existed: now gorgeous Rome
possesses the wealth of the subdued earth. See the Capitol, what it now
is and what it was, you would declare that they belonged to different
Jupiters. The Senate-house, which is now right worthy of an assemblage
so august, when Tatius held the sway, was made of straw. The fields of
the Palatine hill, which are now resplendent in honour of Phoebus [1020]
and our rulers, what were they but pastures for the oxen that ploughed?

Let old times delight others: I congratulate myself that I am born
thus late; this is the age that is suited to my tastes. Not because the
pliable gold is now dug out of the earth, and choice shells [1021] come
here from foreign shores; nor yet because, the marble cut out, mountains
diminish; nor yet because the azure waves are kept out by the moles.
[1022] But because civilization prevails; and because the rude manners
that flourished with our ancient forefathers have not come down to our

But do not you as well load your ears with precious stones, which the
tawny Indian seeks in the green waves. And do not go forth heavily
loaded with clothes embroidered with gold: by the wealth through which
you seek to attract us, you often drive us away. By neatness we are
captivated; let not your hair be without arrangement; the hands applied
to it both give beauty and deny it. The method, too, of adorning is not
a single one; let each choose the one that is becoming it to her, and
let her first consult her mirror. An oval face becomes a parting upon
the unadorned head: Laodamia had her hair thus arranged. Round features
[1023] require a little knot to be left for them on the top of the head,
so that the ears may be exposed. Let the hair of another he thrown over
either shoulder. In such guise art thou, tuneful Phoebus, thy lyre
being assumed. Let another Lave her hair tied behind after the manner of
well-girt Diana, as she is wont when she hunts the scared wild beasts.
It becomes another to have her floating locks to flow loosely: another
must be bound by fillets over her fastened tresses. Another it delights
to be adorned with the figure of the tortoise [1024] of the Cyllenian
God: let another keep up her curls that resemble the waves. [1025]

But neither will you count the acorns on the branching native oak, nor
how many bees there are in Hybla, nor how many wild beasts on the Alps:
nor am I able to comprehend in numbers so many modes; _each successive
day brings a new fashion_. Even neglected locks are becoming to many;
often would you suppose that they are lying neglected since yesterday;
the very moment before they have been combed afresh. Let art imitate
chance. 'Twas thus that, in the captured city, when Hercules beheld
Iole; "Her," said he, "do I love." In such guise, deserted fair one of
Gnossus, did Bacchus bear thee away in his chariot, while the Satyrs
shouted Evôe! O how indulgent is nature to your beauty, whose blemishes
can be atoned for in fashions so numerous! We men, to our misfortune,
become bald; and our hair, carried away by time, falls off, like Boreas
shaking down the leaves.

The female stains her grey hair with the herbs from Germany; [1026] and
by art a colour is sought superior to the genuine one. The female walks
along, thickly covered with purchased hair; and for money [1027] she
makes that of others--here comes those of fair complexion: black became
the laughter of Brises.

Nor is she ashamed to buy it openly: we see it being sold
before the eyes of Hercules [1028] and the Virgin throng.

What am I to say on clothing? Gold flounces, [1029] I have no need of
you; nor you, the wool which dost blush twice dipt in Tyrian purple.
Since so many colours can be procured at a lower price, what folly it is
to be carrying a fortune on one's person. [1030] Lo! there is the colour
of the sky, at the time when the sky is without clouds, and the warm
South wind is not summoning the showers of rain. Lo! there is the colour
like to thee, that art said [1031] once to have borne away Phryxus and
Helle from the treachery of Ino. That which resembles the waves, [1032]
has its name, too, from the waves; I could imagine that the Nymphs
are clad in vestments of this colour. Another resembles saffron; in
saffron-coloured garments is the dewy Goddess dressed,when she yokes
her steeds that bear the light of day. Another resembles the Paphian
myrtles; another the purple amethysts, or the white roses, or the
Thracian crane. Neither are there wanting, Amaryllis, [1033] thy
chesnuts, nor yet almonds; and wax [1034] has given its own name to
woollen textures.

As many as the flowers which the renewed earth produces, when in warm
spring the vine puts forth its buds, and sluggish winter retreats; so
many, or still more, shades of dye does the wool imbibe. Choose them by
rule; for every colour will not be suitable to every complexion.

When she was carried off, then, too, was she clothed in a dark garment.
White befits the swarthy; in white, daughter of Cepheus, thou wast
charming; by thee, thus clothed, was Seriphos [1035] trodden.

How nearly was I recommending you that there should be no shocking goat
[1036] in the armpits, and that your legs should not be rough with harsh
hair. But I am not instructing fair ones from the crags of Caucasus,
and who are drinking, Mysian Caïcus, of thy waves. Besides; need I to
recommend that idleness should not blacken your teeth, and that your
mouth ought to be washed each morning with water used for the purpose.
You know, too, how to find whiteness in an application of wax; [1037]
she who is blushing with no real blood, is blushing by the aid of art.
With skill do you fill up the bared edges of the eye-brows, [1038] and
the little patch [1039] covers your cheeks in all their genuineness.
'Tis no harm, too, to mark the eyes [1040] slightly with ashes; or
with saffron, produced, beauteous Cydnus, near to thee. I have a little
treatise, [1041] but through the care bestowed, a great work, in which
I have mentioned the various recipes for your beauty. From that as well,
do you seek aid for your diminished charms: my skill is not idle in
behalf of your interests.

But let not your lover discover the boxes exposed upon the table; art,
by its concealment only, gives aid to beauty. Whom would not the paint
disgust, besmeared all over your face, when, through its own weight, it
flows and falls upon your heated bosom? Why is the smell of the oesypum
[1042] so powerful, sent from Athens though it be, an extract drawn
from the filthy fleece of the sheep? Nor would I recommend you in his
presence to apply the mixture of the marrow of the deer, [1043] nor
before him to clean your teeth. These things will give you good looks,
but they will be unbecoming to be seen; there are many things, too,
which, disgusting while being done, add charms when done. The statues
which now bear the name of the laborious Myron, [1044] were once a
sluggish weight and a solid mass. That the ring may be made, the gold is
first beaten; the clothes, that you are wearing, were once dirty wool.
While it was being wrought, it was hard stone; now, as a beautiful
statue, [1045] naked Venus is wringing the moisture from her dripping

You, too, while you are dressing, let us suppose to be asleep; after the
finishing hand, you will be seen much more àpropos. Why is the cause
of the fairness of your complexion known to me? Shut the door of your
chamber, why expose the work half done? It is proper for the men to be
in ignorance of many a thing. The greatest part of things would cause
disgust, if you were not to conceal what is within. Examine the gilded
statues which hang in the decorated theatre; how thin the tinsel that
covers the wood. But it is not permitted the public to approach them
unless completed; neither ought your charms to be heightened unless the
men are at a distance. But I would not forbid you to allow your hair to
be combed in their presence, so that it may be flowing along your back.
Only take care especially on such occasions not to be cross; and do
not many times undo your hair, pulled down, when fastened up. Let your
coiffeuse be with a whole skin. I detest her who tears the face of her
attendant with her nails, and who, seizing the hair-pin, pierces her
arms. [1046] As she touches the head of her mistress, she curses it; and
at the same time, streaming with blood, she is crying over the odious

The fair one that has but little hair, let her set a watch on her
threshold; or let her always make her toilet in the temple [1047] of the
Good Goddess. I was unexpectedly announced as having paid a visit to
a certain lady; in her confusion, she put on her locks the wrong side
before. May a cause of shame so disgraceful fall to the lot of my foes,
and may that dishonour happen to the Parthian dames. A mutilated animal
is repulsive, the fields without grass are repulsive; and so is a
shrub without foliage, and a head without hair. You have not come to be
instructed by me, Semele, or Leda, thou, too, Sidonian fair, [1048]
who wast borne across the sea upon the fictitious bull; or Helen, whom,
Menelaus, not without reason, thou didst demand to be restored to thee,
and whom, not without reason, thou Trojan ravisher, didst retain. A
multitude comes to be instructed, both pretty and ugly damsels; and the
unsightly are ever more in number than the good-looking. The beauteous
care less for the resources and the precepts of art; they have their own
endowments, charms that are powerful without art. When the sea is calm,
the sailor rests free from care; when it becomes boisterous, he appeals
to his own resources.

Few, however, are the forms free from defect. Conceal your blemishes;
and, so far as you can, hide the imperfections of your person. If you
are short, sit down; that, while standing, you may not appear to be
sitting; and if of a diminutive size, throw yourself upon your couch.
Here, too, that your measure may not be able to be taken as you lie,
take care that your feet are concealed with the clothes [1049] thrown
over them. She who is too thin, let her wear clothes of thick texture;
and let her vestments hang loosely from her shoulders. Let her who is
pale, tint her complexion with purple stripes; [1050] do you that are more
swarthy, have recourse to the aid of the Pharian fish. [1051] Let an
ill-shaped foot be always concealed in a boot of snow-white leather
steeped in alum; and do not unloose their laced sandals from the spindly
legs. For high shoulders, small pads are suitable; [1052] and let the
girth [1053] encircle the bosom that is too prominent. She whose fingers
are dumpy, and whose nails are rough, should mark with but little
gesture whatever is said. She, whose breath is strong smelling, should
never talk with an empty stomach; and she should always stand at a
distance [1054] from her lover's face.

If your teeth are black, or large, or not, growing straight, you will
suffer very great inconvenience from laughing. Who could have supposed
it? The fair take lessons even in laughing; and even in that respect is
gracefulness studied by them. Let your mouth be but moderately open; let
the dimples on either side he but small; and let the extremity of the
lips cover the upper part of the teeth. And do not let your sides be
shaking with prolonged laughter; but let them utter sounds gentle and
feminine, to I know not what degree. Some there are, who distort
their face with an unsightly grin; another, when she is joyous in her
laughter, you would take to be crying. Another makes a harsh noise, and
screams in a disagreeable manner; just as the unsightly she-ass brays by
the rough mill-stone.

To what point does not art proceed? Some study how to weep with grace,
and cry at what time and in what manner they please. Nay, further; when
the letters are deprived of their full sound, and the lisping tongue
becomes contracted with an affected pronunciation; then is grace sought
in an imperfection; to pronounce certain words badly, they learn to be
less able to speak than they really are. To all these points, since they
are of consequence, give attention. Learn how to walk with steps suited
to a female. Even in the gait, there are certain points of gracefulness
not to be disregarded; this both attracts and repels men who are strange
to you. This fair one moves her sides with skill, and with her flowing
tunics catches the breeze, and haughtily moves her extended feet.
Another walks just like the redfaced spouse of some Umbrian [1055]
husband, and, straddling, takes huge strides. But, as in many other
things, let there be a medium here as well; one movement is clownish;
another movement will be too mincing in its gait. But let the lower part
of your shoulders, and the upper part of your arm be bare, to be beheld
from your left hand upwards. This is especially becoming to you, ye of
fair complexion; when I see this, I have always a longing to give a kiss
to the shoulder, where it is exposed.

The Sirens were monsters of the deep, which with their tuneful voices
detained the ships, even though in full career. On hearing them, the son
of Sisyphus [1056] almost released his body from the mast; for the
wax [1057] was melted in the ears of his companions. The voice is an
insinuating quality; let the fair learn how to sing. In place of beauty,
her voice has proved the recommendation of many a woman. And sometimes
let them repeat what they have heard in the marble theatres; and
sometimes the songs attuned to the measures of the Nile. [1058] Neither,
in my way of thinking, ought a clever woman to be ignorant how to hold
the plectrum [1059] in her right hand, the lyre in her left. Orpheus
of Rhodope with his lyre moved rocks, and wild beasts, and the lakes of
Tartarus, and Cerberus the triple dog. At thy singing, most righteous
avenger of thy mother, [1060] the attentive stones built up the walls.
The fish, (the well-known story of the lyre of Arion, [1061] although he
was dumb, is supposed to have been moved by his voice. Learn, too, to
sweep the chords of the festive psaltery [1062] with your two hands;
'tis an instrument suited to amorous lays.

Let the songs of Callimachus [1063] be known to you, let those of the
poet of Cos, [1064] let the Teian Muse too, of the drunken old bard. Let
Sappho, too, be well known; for what is there more exciting than she?
Or than him, through whom [1065] the father is deceived by the tricks
of the crafty Geta? You may, too, have read the poems of the tender
Propertius, [1066] or something of Gallus, or thy works, Tibullus.
[1067] The fleece, too, so bewailed, O Phryxus, of thy sister, shining
with its yellow hair, celebrated by Varro. [1068] The exiled Æneas, as
well, the first origin of lofty Rome, [1069] than which no work exists
in Latium of greater fame.

Perhaps, too, my name will be mingled among these, and my writings will
not be consigned to the waters of Lethe. And people will one day say,
"Read the elegant lines of our master, in which he instructs the two
sides. [1070] Or of his three books, which the title designates as, 'The
Amours,' choose a portion to read with skilful lips, in a languishing
way. Or let his Epistles be repeated by you with well-modulated voice;
this kind of composition, [1071] unknown to others, did he invent." O
Phoebus, mayst thou so will it; so too, ye benignant Divinities of the
Poets, Bacchus, graceful with thy horns, and you, ye nine Goddesses!

Who can doubt that I should wish the falr one to know how to dance,
that, the wine placed on table, she may move her arms in cadence, when
requested. Masters of posture, [1072] the representations on the stage, are
much valued; so much gracefulness does that pliant art possess. I am
ashamed to advise on trifling points, to understand how to throw a cast
of dice, and, thy value, the cube when thrown. And now let her throw the
three numbers; now let her consider, at which number she can cleverly
enter most conveniently, and which one she must call for. [1073] And,
with her skill, let her play not amiss at the hostilities of the pieces;
[1074] when the single man perishes between his two enemies. How the
warrior, too, [1075] wages the war when caught without his companion;
and how the enemy full oft retreats on the path on which he has begun.
Let the smooth balls, [1076] too, be poured into the open net; and not a
ball must be moved but the one which you shall be lifting up. There is a
kind of game, [1077] distributed into as many lines on a small scale, as
the fleeting year contains months. A little table receives [1078] three
pebbles on each side, on which to bring one's own into a straight line,
is to gain the victory.

Devise a thousand amusements. 'Tis shocking for the fair one not to
know how to play; many a time, while playing, is love commenced. But
the least matter is how to use the throws to advantage; 'tis a task of
greater consequence to lay a restraint on one's manners. While we are
not thinking, and are revealed by our very intentness, and, through the
game, our feelings, laid bare, are exposed; anger arises, a disgraceful
failing, and the greed for gain; quarrels, too, and strife, and, then,
bitter regrets. Recriminations are uttered; the air resounds with the
brawl, and every one for himself invokes the angry Divinities. There
is no trusting [1079] the tables, and, amid vows, new tables are called
for; full oft, too, have I seen cheeks wet with tears. May Jupiter
avert from you indiscretions so unbecoming, you, who have a care to be
pleasing to any lover.

To the fair, has nature, in softer mood, assigned these amusements; with
materials more abundant do the men disport. They have both the flying
ball, [1080] and the javelin, and the hoop, and arms, and the horse
trained to go round the ring. No plain of Mars receives you, nor
does the spring of the Virgin, [1081] so intensely cold; nor does the
Etrurian [1082] river carry you along with its smooth stream. But you
are allowed, and it is to your advantage, to go in the shade of Pompey's
Portico, at the time when the head is heated by the steeds of the
Constellation of the Virgin. [1083] Frequent the Palatium, consecrated
to the laurel-bearing Phoebus;'twas he that overwhelmed in the deep the
ships of Parsetonium. [1084] The memorials, also, which the Bister and
the wife [1085] of our Ruler have erected; his son-in-law [1086]
too, his head encircled with naval honors. Frequent the altars of the
Memphian heifer, [1087] that smoke with frankincense; frequent the three
Theatres, [1088] in conspicuous positions. Let the sand, stained with
the warm blood, have you for spectators; the goal, also, to be passed
with the glowing wheels. [1089]

That which lies hid is unknown; for what is not known there is no
desire. All advantage is lost, when a pretty face is without one to see
it. Were you to excel even Thamyras [1090] and Amcebeus in your singing,
there would be no great regard for your lyre, while unknown. If Apelles
of Cos [1091] had never painted Venus, she would have lain concealed
beneath the ocean waves. What but fame alone is sought by the hallowed
Poets? The sum of all my labours has that crowning object. In former
days, Poets were [1092] the care of rulers and of kings; and the choirs
of old received great rewards. Hallowed was the dignity, and venerable
the name of the Poets; and upon them great riches were often bestowed.
Ennius, born in the mountains of Calabria, was deemed worthy, great
Scipio, to be placed near to thee. [1093] At the present day, the ivy
lies abandoned, without any honor; and the laborious anxiety that toils
for the learned Muses, receives the appellation of idleness.

But be it our study to lie on the watch for fame; who would have known
of Homer, if the Iliad, a never-dying work, had lain concealed? Who
would have known of Danâe, if she had been for ever shut up, and if,
till an old woman, she had continued concealed in her tower? The throng,
ye beauteous fair, is advantageous to you; turn your wandering steps
full oft beyond your thresholds. The she-wolf goes on her way to the
many sheep, that she may carry off but one; and the bird of Jove pounces
down upon the many birds. Let the handsome woman, too, present herself
to be seen by the public; out of so many, perhaps there will be one for
her to attract. In all places, let her ever be desirous to please;
and, with all attention, let her have a care for her charms. Chance is
powerful everywhere; let your hook be always hanging ready. In waters
where you least think it, there will be a fish. Many a time do the
hounds wander in vain over the woody mountains; and sometimes the
stag falls in the toils, with no one to pursue him. What was there
for Andromeda, when bound, less to hope for, than that her tears could
possibly charm any one? Many a time, at the funeral of a husband, is
another husband found. To go with the tresses dishevelled, and not to
withhold your lamentations, is becoming.

But avoid those men who make dress and good looks their study; and who
arrange their locks, each in its own position. What they say to you,
they have repeated to a thousand damsels. Their love is roving, and
remains firm in no one spot. What is the woman to do, when the man,
himself, is still more effeminate, and himself perchance may have still
more male admirers?

You will hardly believe me, but still, do believe me; Troy would have
been still remaining, if it had followed the advice of its own Priam.
[1094] There are some men who range about, under a fictitious appearance
of love, and, by means of such introductions, seek disgraceful lucre.
And do not let the locks deceive you, shining much with the liquid nard;
[1095] nor yet the narrow belt, [1096] pressed upon the folds of their
dress. Nor let the robe of finest texture beguile you; nor yet if there
shall be many and many a ring [1097] on their fingers. Perhaps the best
dressed of the number of these may be some thief, [1098] and may be
attracted by a desire for your clothes. "Give me back my property!"
full oft do the plundered fair ones cry; "Give me back my property!" the
whole Forum resounding with their cries. Thou, Venus, [1099] unmoved,
and you, ye Goddesses, [1101] Hear the Appian way, from your temples
blazing with plenteous gold, behold these disputes. There are even
certain names notorious by a reputation that admits of no doubt; those
females who have been deceived by many, share the criminality of
their favorites. Learn, then, from the complaints of others, to have
apprehensions for yourselves; and do not let your door be open to the
knavish man.

Refrain, Cecropian fair, from believing Theseus, [1102] when he swears;
the Gods whom he will make his witnesses, he has made so before. And
no trust is there left for thee, Demophoôn, heir to the criminality of
Theseus, since Phyllis has been deceived. If they are lavish of their
promises, in just as many words do you promise them; if they give, do
you, too, give the promised favours. That woman could extinguish the
watchful flames of Vesta, and could bear off the sacred things, daughter
of Inachus, [1103] from thy temples, and could administer to her husband
the aconite, mixed with the pounded hemlock, if on receiving a present
she could deny a favour.

My feelings are prompting me to go too close; check the rein, my Muse:
and be not hurled headlong by the wheels in their full career. Should
lines, written on the tablets made of fir, try the soundings; let a maid
suited for the duty take in the billets that are sent. Examine them; and
collect from the words themselves, whether he only pretends what you are
reading, or whether he entreats anxiously, and with sincerity. And after
a short delay, write an answer: delay ever stimulates those in love, if
it lasts only for a short time.

But neither do you make yourself too cheap to the youth who entreats,
nor yet refuse, with disdainful lips, what he is pressing for. Cause him
both to fear and to hope at the same moment; and oft as you refuse him,
let hopes more assured, and diminished apprehensions arise.

Write your words, ye fair, in a legible hand, but of common parlance,
and such as are usual; the recognized forms of language are most
pleasing.--Ah! how oft has the wavering lover been inflamed by a letter,
and how oft has uncouth language proved detrimental to, a graceful
form! But since, although you are without the honors of the fillet of
chastity, it is still your care to deceive your husbands; [1104] let
the skilled hand of a maid, or of a boy, carry the tablets, and don't
entrust your pledges to some unknown youth. I myself have seen the fair
pale with terror on that account, enduring, in their misery, servitude
to all future time. Perfidious, indeed, is he who retains such pledges:
but still in them he has power equal to the lightnings of Ætna.

In my opinion deceit is allowable, for the purpose of repelling deceit;
and the laws permit us to take up arms against the armed. One hand
should be accustomed to write in numerous styles. Perdition to those,
through whom this advice must be given by me! Nor is it safe to write,
except when the wax is quite smoothed over; so that the same tablet may
not contain two hands. [1105] Let your lover be always styled a female
when you write; in your billets let that be "she," which really is "he."

But I wish to turn my attention from trifles to things of more
consequence, and with swelling canvass to expand my filling sails. It
conduces to good looks to restrain habits of anger. Fair peace becomes
human beings, savage fury wild beasts. With fury the features swell;
with blood the veins grow black; the eyes flash more wildly than the
Gorgonian fires. "Pipe, hence avaunt, [1106] thou art not of so much
worth to me," said Pallas, when she saw her features in the stream.
You, too, if you were to look at your mirror in the midst of your anger,
hardly could any one distinctly recognize her own countenance. And, in
no less degree, let not a repulsive haughtiness sit upon your features;
by alluring eyes love must be enticed. Believe me, ye fair who know it
by experience, I hate immoderate conceit. Full oft do the features in
silence contain the germs of hatred. Look at him who looks on you; smile
sweetly in return to him who smiles. Does he nod at you; do you, too,
return the sign well understood. When the Boy Cupid has made these
preludes, laying aside his foils, he takes his sharp arrows from
his quiver.

I hate the melancholy damsels too. Let Ajax be charmed with Tecmessa;
[1107] us, a joyous throng, the cheerful woman captivates. Never should
I have asked thee, Andromache, nor thee, Tecmessa, that one of you
would be my mistress. I seem hardly ably to believe it, though by your
fruitfulness I am obliged to believe it, that you could have granted
your favours to your husbands. And could, forsooth, that most melancholy
woman say to Ajax, "My life!" and words which are wont to please the

What forbids me to apply illustrations from great matters to small ones,
and not to be standing in awe of the name of a general? To this person
the skilful general has entrusted a hundred to be ruled with the twig of
vine; [1108] to this one so many cavalry; to that one he has given the
standard to defend. Do you, too, consider, to what use each of us is
suited, and class each one in his assigned position. Let the rich man
give his presents; let him that professes the law, defend; the eloquent
man may often plead the cause of his client. We who compose verse,
verses alone let us contribute. This throng, before all others, is
susceptible of love. Far and wide do we herald the praises of the beauty
that pleases us. Nemesis [1109] has fame; Cynthia, too, has fame.
The West and the lands of the East know of Lycoris: and many a one
is enquiring who my Corinna is. Besides, all deceit is wanting in the
hallowed. Poets, and even our art contributes to forming our manners. No
ambition influences us, no love of gain; despising the Courts, the couch
and the shade are the objects of our commendation. But we are easily
attracted, and are consumed by a lasting heat; and we know how to love
with a constancy most enduring. Indeed, we have our feelngs softened by
the gentle art; and our manners are in conformity with our pursuits.

Be kind, ye fair, to the Aonian bards. In them there is inspiration, and
the Pierian maids show favour unto them. In us a Divinity exists: and
we have intercourse with the heavens. From the realms of the skies does
that inspiration proceed. 'Tis a crime to look for a present from the
learned Poets. Ah wretched me! of this crime no fair one stands in
dread. Still, do act the dissemblers, and at the very first sight, do
not be ravenous. On seeing your nets, a new lover will stop short. But
neither can the rider manage with the same reins the horse which has but
lately felt the bridle, and that which is well-trained; nor yet must
the same path be trod by you in order to captivate the feelings that are
steadied by years, and inexperienced youth.

The latter is raw, and now for the first time known in the camp of
Love, who, a tender prey, has reached your chamber; with you alone is he
acquainted; to you alone would he ever prove constant. Shun a rival;
so long as you alone shall possess him, you will be the conqueror. Both
sovereignties and love do not last long with one to share in them.
The other, the veteran soldier, will love you gradually, and with
moderation; and he will put up with much that will not be endured by the
novice. He will neither break down your door-posts, nor burn them with
raging flames; nor will he fly at the tender cheek of his mistress with
his nails. He will neither tear his own clothes, nor yet the clothes of
the fair; nor will her torn locks be a cause for grieving. These things
befit boys, who are heated with youthful years and with passion: the
other, with tranquil feelings, will put up with cruel wounds. With
slowly consuming fires will he smoulder, just like a damp torch; or like
the wood that has been cut down upon the mountain ridge. This passion
is more sure; the former is short-lived and more bounteous. With speedy
hand do you pluck the fruit that passes away.

Let all points be surrendered; the gates we have opened to the enemy,
and let confidence be placed in this perfidious betrayal. That which is
easily conceded, but badly supports a lasting passion. A repulse must
now and then be mingled with your joyous dalliance. Let him lie down
before your doors: "Cruel door!" let him exclaim; and let him do many a
thing in humble, many in threatening mood. The sweet we cannot endure;
with bitter potions we may be refreshed. Full oft does the bark perish,
overwhelmed by favouring gales. This it is that does not permit wives to
be loved; husbands have access to them, whenever they please. Shut your
door, [1110] and let your porter say to you with surly lips, "You cannot
come in, desire will seize you as well, thus shut out."

Now lay aside the blunted swords; let the battle be fought with
sharpened ones. And I doubt not but that I myself shall be aimed at with
weapons of my own furnishing. While the lover that has been captured
only of late is falling into your toils, let him hope that he alone has
admission to your chamber. But soon let him be aware of a rival, and a
division of the privileges of your favours. Remove these contrivances;
and his passion will grow effete. Then does the high-mettled courser run
well, the starting-place being opened, when he has both competitors to
pass by, and those for him to follow. Harshness rekindles the flame,
even if gone out. Myself to wit, I confess it, I do not love unless I am

Still, the cause for grief should not be too manifest: and in his
anxiety he ought to suspect that there is more than what he actually
knows. The harsh supervision, too, of some feigned servant should excite
him, and the irksome watchfulness of a husband too severe. The pleasure
that is enjoyed in safety, is the least valued of all. Though you are
more at liberty than even Thais, [1111] still feign apprehensions.
Whereas you could do it far better by the door, admit him through the
window; and on your countenance show the signs of fear. Let the cunning
maid rush in, and exclaim, "We are undone!" and then do you hide the
youth in his fright in any spot. Still, an enjoyment without anxiety
must be interspersed with his alarms; lest he should not think your
favours to be worth so much trouble.

But I was about to omit by what methods the cunning husband may be
eluded, and how the watchful keeper. Let the wife stand in awe of her
husband; let the safe keeping of a wife be allowed. That is proper; that
the laws, and justice, and decency ordain. But for you as well to be
watched, whom the Lictor's rod [1112] has but just set at liberty,
who can endure it? Come to my sacred rites, that you may learn how to
deceive. Even if as many eyes shall be watching you, as Argus had, if
there is only a fixed determination, you will deceive them all. And
shall a keeper, forsooth, hinder you from being able to write, when an
opportunity is given you for taking the bath? When a female confidant
can carry the note you have penned, which her broad girth [1113] can
conceal in her warm bosom? When she can conceal the paper fastened to
her calf, and carry the tender note beneath her sandalled foot.

Should the keeper be proof against these _contrivances_; in place of
paper, let your confidant afford her shoulders; and upon her own person
let her carry your words. Letters, too, written in new milk, are safe
and escape the eye; touch them with powdered coals, and you will read
them. The writing, too, which is made with the stalk of wetted flax,
[1114] will deceive, and the clean surface will bear the secret marks.
The care of watching a fair one fell to Acrisius; still, through his own
fault, did she make him a grandsire. What can a keeper do, when there
are so many Theatres in the City? When, eagerly she is a spectator of
the harnessed steeds? When she is sitting in attendance upon the sistra
of the Pharian heifer, and at the place where her male friends are
forbidden to go? While, too, the Good Goddess [1115] expels the gaze of
males from her temples, except any that, perchance, she bids to come:
while, as the keeper watches outside the clothes of the fair, the baths
may in safety conceal the lovers who are hiding there; while, so often
as is requisite, some pretended she-friend may be sick, and, ill as she
is, may give place for her in her couch. While the false key, too, tells
[1116] by its name what we are to do, and it is not the door alone that
gives the access you require.

The watchfulness of the keeper is eluded by plenty of wine; even though
[1117] the grapes be gathered on the hills of Spain. There are drugs,
too, which create deep sleep; and let them close the eyes overpowered by
Lethæan night. And not amiss does the confidant occupy the troublesome
fellow with dalliance to create delay, and in his company spins out the

What need is there to be teaching stratagems and trifling precepts,
when the keeper may be purchased by the smallest present? Believe me,
presents influence both men and Gods: on gifts being presented, Jupiter
himself is appeased. What is the wise man to do, when even the fool is
gratified with a present? The husband himself, on receiving a present,
will be silent. But once only throughout the long year must the
keeper be bought; full oft will he hold out the hand which he has once

I complained, I recollect, that new-made friends are to be dreaded; that
complaint does not extend to men alone. If you are too trusting, other
women will interrupt your pleasures; and this hare of yours will be
destined to be hunted down by other persons. Even she, [1118] who so
obligingly lends her couch and her room, believe me, has not once only
been in my company. And do not let too pretty a maid wait upon you; many
a time has she filled [1119] her mistress's place for me. Whither, in my
folly, am I led on? Why with bared breast do I strive against the foe,
and why, myself, am I betrayed through information that is my own? The
bird does not instruct the fowler in which direction he may be taken:
the hind does not teach the hostile hounds how to run. Still, let
interest see to itself; my precepts, with fidelity will I give. To the
Lemnian dames, [1120] for my own destruction, will I present the sword.

Give reason (and 'tis easy to do so) for us to believe ourselves to be
loved. Belief arises readily in those who are anxious for the fulfilment
of their desires. Let the fair one eye the youth in a kindly manner; let
her heave sighs from her very heart, and let her enquire, why it is he
comes so late? Let tears be added, too, and feigned apprehensions about
a rival, and with her fingers let her tear her face. Soon will he be
thoroughly persuaded, one? he will pity you of his own accord; and will
say to himself "This woman is consumed by affection for me."
Especially, if he shall be well drest, and shall please himself at the
looking-glass, he will believe that the Goddesses might be touched with
love for him. But, whoever you are, let an injury disturb you only in a
moderate degree; and don't, on hearing of a rival, go out of your mind.
And don't at once believe it; how injurious it is at once to believe
things, Procris will be no slight proof to you.

There is near the empurpled hills of blooming Hymettus a sacred spring,
and the ground is soft with the verdant turf. The wood, of no great
height, there forms a grove; the strawberry tree overshadows the grass;
rosemary, and laurels, and swarthy myrtles give their perfume. Neither
the box-trees with their thick foliage and the slender tamarisks, nor
yet the tiny trefoil and the garden pine, are wanting there. Moved by
the gentle Zephyrs and the balmy air, the leaves of these many kinds,
and the tops of the grass quiver. Pleasant was this retreat to Cephalus;
[1121] his servants and his hounds left behind, the youth, when weary,
often sat down in this spot. And here he was in the habit of repeating,
"Come, gentle Aura [breeze], to be received in my bosom, that thou mayst
moderate my heat."

Some person, maliciously officious, with retentive lips carried the
words he had heard to the timid ears of his wife. Procris, when she
heard the name of Aura [breeze], as though of a rival, fainted away, and
with this sudden apprehension she was mute. She turned pale, just as the
late leaves become wan, which the coming winter has nipped, the clusters
now gathered from the vine; and as the quinces [1122] which in their
ripeness are bending their boughs; and as the cornels not yet quite
fit for food for man. When her senses had returned, she tore her thin
garments from off her body with her nails, and wounded her guiltless
cheeks. And no delay was there; raving, with dishevelled locks, she flew
amid the tracks, like a Bacchanal aroused by the thyrsus. When she had
come near the spot, she left her attendants in the valley; and with
silent footsteps, in her boldness, she herself stealthily entered the
grove. What, Procris, were thy feelings, when thus, in thy frenzy, thou
didst he concealed? What the impulse of thy disquieted breast? Each
moment, forsooth, wast thou expecting that she would come, whoever Aura
might be, and that their criminality would be witnessed with thine eyes.

Now dost thou repent of having come, for indeed thou wouldst not wish to
detect him; and now thou art glad; fluctuating affection is tormenting
thy breast. There is the spot, and the name, and the informant to bid
thee give credence; and the fact that the lover always apprehends that
to exist which he dreads. When she beheld the grass beaten down,
the impress of his body, her trembling bosom was throbbing with her
palpitating heart. And now midday had made the unsubstantial shadows
small, and at an equal distance were the evening and the morn. Behold!
Cephalus, the offspring of the Cyilenian God, [1123] returns from the
woods, and sprinkles his glowing face with water of the fountain. In thy
anxiety, Procris, art thou lying concealed. Along the grass he lies
as wont, and says, "Ye gentle Zephyrs, and thou Aura [breeze], come
hither." When the welcome mistake of the name was thus revealed to
the sorrowing fair, both her senses and the real colour of her face

She arose; and the wife, about to rush into the embrace of her husband,
by the moving of her body, shook the leaves that were in her way. He,
thinking that a wild beast had made the noise, with alacrity snatched up
his bow; his arrows were in his right hand. What, wretched man, art thou
about? 'Tis no wild beast; keep still thy weapons. Ah wretched me! by
thy dart has the fair been pierced. "Ah me!" she cries aloud, "a loving
heart hast thou pierced. That spot has ever retained the wound inflicted
by Cephalus. Before my time I die, but injured by no rival; this,
O Earth, will make thee light when I am entombed. Now is my breath
departing in the breeze that I had thus suspected; I sink, alas! close
my eyes with those dear hands."

In his sorrowing bosom he supports the dying body of his spouse, and
with his tears he bathes her cruel wounds. Her breath departs; and
gradually fleeting from her senseless breast, her breath [1124] is
received into the mouth of her wretched husband.

But let us return to our path; I must deal with my subject undisguised,
that my wearied bark may reach its port. You may be waiting, in fact,
for me to escort you to the banquet, and may be requesting my advice in
this respect as well. Come late, and enter when the lights are brought
in; delay is a friend to passion; a very great stimulant is delay. Even
should you be ugly, to the tipsy you will appear charming: and night
itself will afford a concealment for your imperfections. Take up your
food with your fingers; [1125] the method of eating is something; and do
not besmear all your face with your dirty hand. And do not first [1126]
take food at home; but cease to eat a little sooner than you could
wish, and could have eaten. Had the son of Priam seen Helen greedily
devouring, he would have detested her; and he would have said, "That
prize of mine is an oaf."

It is more proper and is more becoming for the fair to drink to excess.
Thou dost not, Bacchus, consort amiss with the son of Venus. This too,
only so far as the head will bear it, and the senses and the feet will
be able to perform their duty; [1127] and do not see each object that
is single, as double. A woman sprawling along, and drenched in plenteous
wine, is a disgusting object; she is worthy to endure the embraces of
any kind of fellows. And it is no safe thing when the tables are removed
to fall asleep; in sleep many a shocking thing is wont to happen. I feel
ashamed to instruct you any further, but genial Dione says, "That which
shames you is especially my own province." Let each particular then be
known unto you:=

`````----modos a corpore certos

````Sumite; non omnes una figura decet.

```Quse facie prsesignis eris, resupina jaceto:

````Spectentur tergo, quîs sua terga placent.

```Milanion humeris Atalantes crura ferebat:

````Si bona sunt, hoc sunt accipienda modo.

```Parva vehatur equo: quod erat longissima, nunquarc

````Thebais Hectoreo nupta resedit equo.

```Strata premat genibus, paulum cervice reflexâ,

````Foemina, per longum conspicienda latus.

```Cui femur est juvenile, carent cui pectora mendâ,

````Stet vir, in obliquo fusa sit ipsa toro.

```Nec tibi turpe puta crinem, ut Phylleia mater,

````Solvere: et effusis colla reflecte comis.

```Tu quoque, cui rugis uterum Lucina notavit,

````Ut celer aversis utere Parthus equis.

```Mille modi Veneris. Simplex minimique laboris,

````Cum jacet in dextrum semisupina latus,

```Sed neque Phoebei tripodes, nec comiger Ammon,

````Vera raagis vobis, quam mea Musa, canent.

```Si qua fides arti, "quam longo fecimus usu,

````Crédité: præstabunt carmiua nostra fidem.

```Sentiat ex imis Yenerem resoluta medullis

````Foemina: et ex æquo res juvet ilia duos.

```Nec blandæ voces, jucundaque murmura cessent;

````Nec taceant medus improba verba jocis.

```Tu quoque, cui Yeneris sensum natura negavit,

````Dulcia mendaci gaudia finge sono.

```Infelix, cui torpet hebes locus ille, puella es;

````Quo pariter debent foemina virque frui.

```Tantum, cum linges, ne sis manifesta caveto:

````Effice per motum luminaque ipsa fidem.

```Quod juvet: et voces et anhelitus arguat oris.

````Ah pudet! arcanas pars habet ista notas.

```Gaudia post Yeneris quæ poscet munus amantem,

````Ipsa suas nolet pondus habere preces.=

And admit not the light in your chamber with the windows wide open; many
blemishes of your person more becomingly lie concealed.

My pastime draws to a close; 'tis time to descend from the swans, [1128]
that have borne my yoke upon their necks. As once the youths did, so now
the fair, as my audience, may inscribe, "Naso was our preceptor," upon
their spoils.


[Footnote 701: For stripes.--Ver. 16. Statius, in the Thebaid, mentions
the strictness of the discipline of Chiron. See the Amores, i. El. xiii.
1. 18.]

[Footnote 702: Be ye afar.--Ver. 31. He quotes this and the following
line in the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 248, to show that it was not his
intention, by his precepts, to inculcate breaches of chastity among the
Roman matrons. See the Note to the passage, and to the Fasti, Book
ii. 1. 30. The 'vitta,' or 'fillet,' was worn solely by women of pure

[Footnote 703: The tawny Indians.--Ver. 53. Herodotus considers the
Æthiopians to be Indians. According to some, the father of Andromeda was
king of Ethiopia; but she is more frequently represented as a native of
Joppa, on the coast of Syria.]

[Footnote 704: As many stars as.--Ver. 59. Heinsius considers this and
the next line to be spurious.]

[Footnote 705: Wish a riper fair.--Ver. 63. 'Juvenis,' applied to a
female, would mean something more than a mere girl. 'Juventus' was
that age in which a person was in his best years, from about twenty to

[Footnote 706: Pompey's Portico.--Ver. 67. He alludes to the Portico
which had been erected by Pompey at Rome, and was shaded by plane trees
and refreshed by fountains. The Porticos were walks covered with roofs,
supported by columns. They were sometimes attached to other buildings,
and sometimes were independent of any other edifice. They were much
resorted to by those who wished to take exercise without exposure to the
heat of the sun. The Porticos of the temples were originally intended
for the resort of persons who took part in the rites performed there.
Lawsuits were sometimes conducted in the Porticos of Rome, and goods
were sold there.]

[Footnote 707: The lion of Hercules.il--Ver. 68. The Nemean lion; which
formed the Constellation Leo in the Zodiac.]

[Footnote 708: Where the mother.--Ver. 69. He alludes to the Theatre and
Portico which Augustus built; the former of which received the name of
his nephew Marcellus, the latter of his sister Octavia, the mother of
Marcellus. After the death of Marcellus, Octavia added a public library
to this Portico at her own expense. Here there were valuable paintings
of Minerva, Philip and Alexander, and Hercules on Mount Aeta. Some
suppose that the temple of Concord, built by Livia, and mentioned in the
Fasti, is here referred to.]

[Footnote 709: The Portico of Livia.--Ver. 72. The Portico of Livia was
near the street called Suburra. This Portico is also mentioned in the
Fasti. We learn from Strabo that it was near the Via Sacra, or Sacred

[Footnote 710: Granddaughters of Belus.--Ver. 73. This was the Portico
of the Danaides, in the temple of Apollo. It is referred to in the
Second Elegy of the Second Book of the Amores.]

[Footnote 711: Bewailed by Venus.--Ver. 75. He alludes to the temple of
Venus, at Rome, which, according to Juvenal, was notorious as the scene
of intrigues and disgraceful irregularities. It was a custom of the
Romans, borrowed from the Assyrians, to lament Adonis in the temple
of Venus. See the Tenth Book of the Metamorphoses. This worship of the
Assyrians is mentioned by the Prophet Ezekiel, chap. viii. ver. 13,
'women weeping for Thatnmuz.']

[Footnote 712: The Jew of Syria.--Ver. 76. He alludes to the rites
performed in the Synagogues of the Jews of Rome, on the Sabbath, to
which numbers or females were attracted, probably by the music. There
were great numbers of Jews at Rome in the reign of Augustus, who were
allowed to follow their own worship, according to the law of Moses.
The Roman females visiting the Synagogues, assignations and gross
irregularities became the consequence. Tiberius withdrew this privilege
from the Jews, and ordered the priests' vestments and ornaments to be
burnt. This line is thus rendered in Dryden's version:]

'Nor shun the Jewish walk, where the foul drove,]

On Sabbaths rest from everything but love.']

This wretched paraphrase is excused by the following very illiberal

'If this version seems to bear a little hard on the ancient Jews, it
does not at all wrong the modern.']

[Footnote 713: Many a woman.--Ver. 78. Io, or Isis, was debauched by
Jupiter. Martial and Juvenal speak of the irregularities practised on
these occasions.]

[Footnote 714: Where the erection.--Ver. 81. He refers to the Forum of
Cæsar and the temple of Venus, which was built by Julius Cæsar after the
battle of Pharsalia.]

[Footnote 715: Of Appius.--Ver. 82. He alludes to the aqueduct which
had been constructed by the Censor Appius. This passed into the City,
through the Latin gate, and discharged itself near the spot where the
temple of Venus was built.]

[Footnote 716: Shooting stream.--Ver. 82; He alludes to the violence
with which the water was discharged by the pipes of the aqueduct into
the reservoir.]

[Footnote 717: Which is adjoining.--Ver. 87. The temple of Venus was
near the Forum.]

[Footnote 718: Ravished Sabine fair.--Ver. 102. See the Fasti, Book iii.
1. 199.]

[Footnote 719: Neither did curtains.--Ver. 103. The 'vela,' here
referred to, may mean either the 'siparia,' or curtains of the theatres,
or the awnings which were hung over them. See the Note on the 'siparia'
of the theatres, referred to in the Third Book of the Metamorphoses, L
111. The 'velaria,' or 'awnings,' were stretched over the whole space of
the theatres, to protect the spectators from the sun and rain.]

[Footnote 720: Marble theatre.--Ver. 103. The Theatres of Pompey and
Scaurus were of marble.]

[Footnote 721: Nor was the stage.--Ver. 104. The 'pulpita' was that part
of the stage where the actors stood who spoke. It was elevated above the
orchestra, where the Chorus, and dancers and musicians were placed.]

[Footnote 722: Upon the maidens.--Ver. 116. Some writers say that only
thirty women were carried off. Valerius Antius made the number 427, and
Plutarch mentions a statement that it was 600]

[Footnote 723: The partition.--Ver. 141. See the Amores, Book iii. El.
ii. 1. 19.]

[Footnote 724: Let the usual subjects.--Ver. 144. 'Publica verba' means
the compliments of the day,' and the 'topics suited to the occasion.']

[Footnote 725: Statues of ivory.--Ver. 149. For an account of this
procession, see the Amores, Book iii. El. ii. 1. 43.]

[Footnote 726: Your fingers.--Ver. 150. See 1. 42, of the same Elegy.]

[Footnote 727: Dirty ground.--Ver. 154. See 1. 26, of the same Elegy.]

[Footnote 728: Knee against it.--Ver. 158. See 1. 24, of the same

[Footnote 729: With his ready hand.--Ver. 160. As the seats of the
Circus were hard, the women often made use of a cushion to sit upon.
Those who were not so fortunate as to get a front seat, and so rest
their feet in the railings opposite (see the Second Elegy of the Third
Book of the Amores, 1. 64, and the Note), used a footstool, 'scamnum,'
(which is mentioned here in the 162nd line,) on which they rested their

[Footnote 730: Its sad duties.--Ver. 164. Juvenal tells us that
gladiatorial spectacles were sometimes exhibited in the Forum.]

[Footnote 731: Himself receives a wound.--Ver. 166. The word 'habet,'
here used, is borrowed from the usage at the gladiatorial games. When
a gladiator was wounded, the people called aloud 'habet,' or 'hoc habet
and the one who was vanquished lowered his arms, in token of submission.
If the people chose that he should be saved, they pressed down their
thumbs; but they turned them up, if they desired that he should be

[Footnote 732: Asking for the racing list.--Ver. 167. The 'libellus,'
here mentioned, was the list of the horses, with their names and
colours, and those of the drivers. It served the same purpose as the
race-cards on our courses.]

[Footnote 733: Having deposited the stake.--Ver. 168. When a bet was
made, the parties betting gave to each other a pledge, 'pignus,' in the
shape of some trinket, such as a ring. When the bet was completed, they
touched hands.]

[Footnote 734: When of late.--Ver. 171. He speaks of a 'Naumachia,' or
mimic sea-fight, which had been lately exhibited at Rome by Augustus,
in commemoration of the battle of Actium. As Antony had collected his
forces from the East and all parts of Greece, his ships are alluded to
as the Persian and Cecropian, or Athenian ships. The term, 'Naumachia,'
was applied both to the representation of a sea-fight, and to the place
where it was given. They were sometimes exhibited in the Circus
or Amphitheatre, the water being introduced under-ground, but more
generally in spots constructed for the purpose. The first was shown by
Julius Cæsar, who caused a lake to be dug for the purpose in a part of
the Campus Martius, which Suetonius calls 'the lesser Codeta.' This
was filled up by Augustus, who dug a lake near the Tiber for the same
purpose; to which, probably, reference is here made.]

[Footnote 735: Introduced.--Ver. 172. 'Induxit.' By the use of this
word, it would seem that Augustus Cæsar introduced the ships, probably,
from the river Tiber into the lake.]

[Footnote 736: See! Cæsar prepares.--Ver. 177. Augustus sent his
grandson, Caius, the son of his daughter Julia and Agrippa, to head an
expedition against Phraates, the king of the Parthians, the conquerors
of Crassus; from this expedition he did not live to return, but perished
in battle.]

[Footnote 737: Crassi, rejoice.--Ver. 180. See the Fasti, Book v. 1.
583-8, with the Note. Also Book vi. 1. 465]

[Footnote 738: Of the Gods.--Ver. 183. In a spirit of adulation, he
deifies Caius Cæsar, and his brother Lucius.]

[Footnote 739: First of the youths.--Ver. 194. The 'princeps juvenum'
had the honour of riding first, in the review of the Equestrian ranks
by the Emperor. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 90. Caius did not live
to fulfil this prophecy, as he was slain through the perfidy of the
Parthian general.]

[Footnote 740: Since thou hast brothers.--Ver. 195. He alludes,
probably, to Lucius Cæsar, the other grandson of Augustus, and Marcus
Agrippa, the husband of Julia, the daughter of Augustus.]

[Footnote 741: Hast a sire.--Ver. 196. He had been adopted by Augustus.
*What rivers are borne.--Ver. 220. See the twentieth line of the Second
Elegy, Book iv. of the Tristia. * Perfectly well.--Ver. 222. See a
similar passage in the Tristia' Book iv. EL ii. 1. 24.]

[Footnote 742: The Euphrates.--Ver. 223. The rivers were generally
personified by the ancients as being crowned with reeds.]

[Footnote 743: The one whose.--Ver. 224. The young man is supposed to be
addressing the damsel in these words.]

[Footnote 744: From Danaë.--Ver. 225. He means, that Persia was so
called from Perses, the son of Andromeda, by Perseus, the son of
Danaë. It is more generally thought to have been so called from a word
signifying; a horse.' Achæmenes was one of the ancient kings of Persia.]

[Footnote 745: Still it is fatal.--Ver. 236. 'Solet,' 'is wont,' is
certainly a pre-narrative reading here to 'nocet.']

[Footnote 746: Deceiving lamp.--Ver. 245. This is as much as to remind
him of the adage that women and linen look best by candle-light.]

[Footnote 747: Why mention Baiæ.--Ver. 255. Baiæ was a town on the
sea-shore, near Naples, famous for its hot baths. It was delightfully
situate, and here Pompey, Caesar, and many of the wealthy Romans, had
country seats: Seneca and Propertius refer to it as famous for its
debaucheries, and it was much frequented by persons of loose character.
It was the custom at Baiæ, in the summer-time, for both sexes to cruise
about the shore in boats of various colours, both in the day-time and at
night, with sumptuous feasts and bands of music on board.]

[Footnote 748: Hostile hand.--Ver. 260. See the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 263.
He means that the Arician grove was much resorted to by those engaged in
courtship tad intrigues.]

[Footnote 749: Borne upon unequal wheels.--Ver. 264. He alludes to
Thalia, the Muse who inspires him, preferring the unequal or Hexameter
and Pentameter measure of Elegiac verse.]

[Footnote 750: By the lark.--Ver. 286. See the Metamorphoses, Book x.]

[Footnote 751: Of Cydon.'--Ver. 293. This was a city of Crete.]

[Footnote 752: Untruthful as it is.--Ver. 298. The Cretans were
universally noted in ancient times for their disregard for truth. St.
Paul, in his Epistle to Titus, ch. i. ver, 12, says, quoting from the
Cretan poet Epimenides "One of themselves, even a prophet of their own,
said, 'The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.' This
witness is true."]

[Footnote 753: By a bull!--Ver. 302. See this story explained in the
Translation of the Metamorphoses, p. 70.]

[Footnote 754: The sire.--Ver. 326. This was the Minotaur. See the
Metamorphoses, Book viii]

[Footnote 755: If the Cretan dame.--Ver. 327. This was Ærope, the wife
of Atreus, who slew the children of his brother Thyestes, and set them
on table before their father.]

[Footnote 756: Who spoiled.---Ver. 331. He falls into his usual mistake
of confounding Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, with the daughter of

[Footnote 757: The flames.--Ver. 335. See the Metamorphoses, Book vii.
1. 391, and the Epistle of Medea to Jason.]

[Footnote 758: The son of Amyntor.--Ver. 337. Phoenix, the son of
Amyntor, according to Homer, became blind in his latter years. See the
Note to the 307th line of the Eighth Book of the Metamorphoses.]

[Footnote 759: Of thy guiltless sons.--Ver. 339. Phineus was a king
of Arcadia, or, according to some, of Thrace or Paphlagonia. His
wife, Cleopatra, being dead or divorced, he married a Scythian, named
Harpalice, at whose suggestion he put out the eyes of his sons by
Cleopatra. He was persecuted by the Harpies, as a punishment.]

[Footnote 760: What is one's own.--Ver. 348. 'Suis' seems preferable
here to suos.']

[Footnote 761: The crop.--Ver. 349. These lines are referred to by
Juvenal in the Fourteenth Satire, 1.143.]

[Footnote 762: Your access easy.--Ver. 352. See his address to Nape,
in the Amores, Book i. El. ii. Cypassis seems to have been a choice
specimen of this class. See the Amores, Book ii. El. viii.]

[Footnote 763: Pay him in return.'--Ver. 370. This seems to mean, 'I
do not think you can make sufficient return for his ardent affection,'
referring to the lover. Some of the Commentators think that it signifies
a hint from the servant, that as her mistress's husband has offended her
by his infidelities, she ought to repay him in his own coin.]

[Footnote 764: Is of use.--Ver. 375. This abominable notion seems to
have been acted upon by the Poet himself. See the Amores, Book ii. El.

[Footnote 765: Her birthday.--Ver. 405. See the Amores, Book i. El.
viii. 1. 94.]

[Footnote 766: Whether the Calends.--Ver. 405. The Matronalia were
celebrated on the first day of the Calends of March. It was usual on
that day, for husbands to make presents to their wives, and lovers to
the objects of their affection. The Calends of March preceded April,
which month was sacred to Venus. See the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 170.]

[Footnote 767: The wealth of kings.--Ver. 408. It was the custom to
bring the spoils of the enemy, or the most curious portions of it, to
Rome, where it was exposed to view in the Circus and the Theatres. Ovid
tells his readers that they must not think that the ladies can give them
any of their leisure on such occasions, as, being so much engaged with
the sights, they will have no time for love-making.]

[Footnote 768: Pleiades prevail.--Ver. 409. This is said figuratively.]

[Footnote 769: Tearful Allia.--Ver. 413. The 16th of July, the day on
which the Romans were defeated by the Gauls at the Allia, was deemed
unlucky, and no business was transacted on it.]

[Footnote 770: A day not suited for.--Ver. 415. The Jews are here
alluded to. and he refers to their Sabbath. How some Commentators can
have dreamed that the feast of the Saturnalia is referred to, it is hard
to say.]

[Footnote 771: Great must be.--Ver. 417. The meaning is, 'Be careful not
to make your first advances on the birthday of your mistress, as that is
the time for making presents, and you will certainly be out of pocket.'
See the Amores, Book i. El. viii. 1. 94, and the Note.]

[Footnote 772: The loosely-clad pedlar.--Ver. 421. Institor' was
properly a person who sold wares, and kept a 'taberna' or 'shop' on
account of another. Sometimes free persons, but more frequently slaves,
were 'institores.']

[Footnote 773: A promissory note.--Ver. 428. 'Syngraphus/ or
'syngrapha,' was a 'bill' 'bond,' or 'promissory note,' which was most
probably the kind of writing that the pedlar would here require. It may
possibly mean a cheque upon his bankers, the 'argentarii' of Rome.]

[Footnote 774: Not to have learned.--Ver. 428. The reading here seems
to be non didicisse juvat.' 4 It is not to your advantage that you have
learned (to write).' The other reading, 'ne didicisse juvet,' may be
rendered, '(perhaps) it may be no advantage that you have learned (to

[Footnote 775: Birth day cake.--Ver. 429. See the Amores, Book i. El.
viii. 1. 94.]

[Footnote 776: The jewel.--Ver. 432. For an account of the earrings of
the ancients, see the Notes to the Metamorphoses, Book x. 1. 116.]

[Footnote 777: Should you give her.--Ver. 447. The meaning of this and
the following line is very obscure; so much so that Burmann is in doubt
on the subject. It, however, seems to be, that it is not discreet, on
first acquaintance, to give presents, as the damsel may then have a
reason for peremptoily giving you up; she carries off your gift, and
gives no favour in return.]

[Footnote 778: Upon an apple.--Ver. 457: See the twentieth and
twenty-first Epistles in the present volume.]

[Footnote 779: Extend their hands.--Ver. 462. This figure is taken from
the gladiatorial games, where the conquered extended their hands in
token of submission.]

[Footnote 780: Ring of iron.--Ver. 473. The rings worn by the lower
classes were of iron.]

[Footnote 781: Under some of the columns.1--Ver. 490. The learned
Heinsius absolutely thinks that 'columnas' here means 'mile-stones'! It
is pretty clear that Ovid alludes to the columns of the Portico; and he
seems to say, that the attentive lover, when he sees the damsel at some
distance before him, is not to hesitate to escape the crowd by going
into the open space outside of the columns, and then running on, for the
purpose of overtaking her. See the Tristia, Book iii. El. iii, where he
makes mention of the columns in the Portico of the Danaides.]

[Footnote 782: Actor is dancing.--Ver. 501. See the Tristia, Book ii. i.

[Footnote 783: With the irons.'--Ver. 505. See the Amores, Book i. El.
xiv 1 25, and the Note. The effeminate among the Romans were very fond
of having their hair in curls.]

[Footnote 784: With the rough pumice.--Ver. 506. Pliny the Elder
mentions pumice stone as 'a substance used by women in washing their
bodies, and now by men as well.' Persius, in his Fourth Satire, inveighs
against this effeminate practice.]

[Footnote 785: Bid those do this.--Ver. 507'. He alludes to the Galli,
the eunuch priests of Cybele.]

[Footnote 786: Hippolytus.--Ver. 511. Phædra, in her Epistle, alludes to
his neglect of dress, as one of the merits of Hippolytus.]

[Footnote 787: Plain of Mars.--Ver. 513. The Roman youth practised
wrestling, and other athletic exercises, on the Campus Martius Being
often stripped naked, or nearly so, the oil, combined with t he heat,
would tend to bronze the skin.]

[Footnote 788: Not be clammy.--Ver. 515. Probably this is the meaning
of 'lingua ne rigeat,' although Nisard's French translation has it, 'let
your tongue have no roughness.' Dryden's translation is, of course, of
no assistance, as it carefully avoids all the difficult passages.]

[Footnote 789: The father of the flock.--Ver. 522. He alludes to
the rank smell to the arm-pits, which the Romans called by the name
'hircus,' 'a goat,' from a supposed similarity to the strong smell of
that animal.]

[Footnote 790: Awaking from her sleep.--Ver. 529. See the Epistle of
Ariadne to Theseus.]

[Footnote 791: Mimallonian females.--Ver. 541. It is a matter of doubt
why the Bacchanalian women were called Mimallonides. According to some,
they are so called from Mimas, a mountain of Asia Minor, where the rites
of Bacchus were celebrated. Suidas says that they are so called, from
'imitation,' because they imitated the actions of men. Bochart thinks
that the word is of Hebrew origin, and that they receive their name
from 'memelleran,' 'garrulous' or 'noisy'; or else from mamal,' a 'wine-

[Footnote 792: Drunken old man.--Ver. 543. See the adventure of Silenus,
in the beginning of Book xi. of the Metamorphoses; and in the Fasti,
Book iii. 1. 742. He seems to have been always getting into trouble.]

[Footnote 793: Cretan Diadem.--Ver. 558. See the Fasti. Book iii. 1.

[Footnote 794: Evie, Evoë!--Ver. 563. In the combat with the Giants,
Jupiter is said, when one of them was slain by Bacchus, to have
exclaimed 'Well done, son:' whence the exclamation 'Evie!' was said to
have originated. See the Metamorchoses, Book iv. 1. 11 and 15, and the

[Footnote 795: On the table.'--Ver. 572. See the Epistle of Paris to
Helen; and the Amores, Book i. El. iv. 1. 20, and Book ii. El. v. 1. 17,
and the Notes.]

[Footnote 796: From the side.--Ver. 576. See the Amores, Book i. EL iv.
1. 32.]

[Footnote 797: Touched with her fingers.--Ver. 577. The ancients are
supposed not to have used at meals any implement such as a knife or
fork, but merely to have used the fingers only, except in eating soups
or other liquids, or jellies, when they employed spoons, which were
denoted by the names 'cochlear' and 'ligula.' At meals the Greeks wiped
their fingers on pieces of bread; the Romans washed them with water, and
dried them on napkins handed round by the slaves.]

[Footnote 798: Are drinking by lot.--Ver. 581. The 'modimperator,' or
'master of the banquet,' was often chosen by lot by the guests, and it
was his province to prescribe how much each person should drink. Lots
were also thrown, by means of the dice, to show in what order each
person was to drink. This passage will show the falsity of his plea in
the Second Book of the Tristia, addressed to Augustus, where he says
that it was not his intention to address the married women of Rome, but
only those who did not wear the 'vittæ' and the 'instita,' the badges of

[Footnote 799: Agent attends even too much.--Ver. 587. His meaning seems
to be, that in the same way as the agent does more than attend to the
injunctions of his principal, and puts himself in a position to profit
by his office, so is the inamorato, through the confidence of
the husband reposed in him, to make a profit that has never been

[Footnote 801: Eurytion.--Ver. 593. At the nuptials of Pirithous and
Hippoda-mia. See the Metamorphoses, Book xii. 1. 220, where he is called

[Footnote 802: Stealing up.--Ver. 605. This piece of impudence he
professes to practise in the Amores, Book i. El iv. l. 56.]

[Footnote 803: Bird of Juno.--Ver. 627. This fact, in natural history,
was probably known only to Ovid, or the peacocks of the present day
may be less vain than the Roman ones. See the Metamorphoses, Book i. 1.

[Footnote 804: That there should be Gods.--Ver. 637. This was the avowed
opinion of some of the philosophers and atheists of antiquity. We learn
from Tertullian that Diogenes, being asked if the Gods exist, answered
that he did not know anything about it, but that they ought to exist.
The doctrine of the Epicureans was, that the Gods lived a happy and
easy life, were not susceptible of anger, and did not trouble themselves
about men.]

[Footnote 805: Went to Busiris.--Ver. 649. See the Tristia, Book iii.
El. xi. 1. 39, where the story of Phalaris is also referred to. Thrasius
was the brother of Pygmalion, and was justly punished by Busiris for his
cruel suggestion.]

[Footnote 806: Phoebe suffered--Ver. 679. See the story of the rape of
Phoebe, by Castor and Pollux, in the Fasti, Book v. 1. 699.]

[Footnote 807: Work-baskets.--Ver. 693. See the Note to the
seventy-third line of the Ninth Epistle.]

[Footnote 808: Heroines of olden times.--Ver. 713. Such as Danaë, Europa
Seraele, Alcmena, Io, Calisto, Antiope, Maia, Electra, and others.]

[Footnote 809: Chaplet of Pallas.--Ver. 727. A crown of olive was
presented to the victors in the athletic exercises at the Olympic

[Footnote 810: Love for Lyrice.--Ver. 731. If Lyrice here is a female
name, it is not known who she was.]

[Footnote 811: Daphnis.--Ver. 732. He was a Sicilian, the son of
Mercury; and the inventor of Bucolic poetry.]

[Footnote 812: Pylades.--Ver. 745: Hermione was the wife of Orestes,
the friend of Pylades.]

[Footnote 813: With a dart.--Ver. 763. It appears by this, that it
was the custom to take fish by striking them with a javelin Salmon ere
foretimes caught in a similar manner at the present day.]


[Footnote 901: Sing, 'Io Pean.'--Ver. 1. This was the usual cry of the
hunters, who thus addressed Apollo, the God of the chase, when the prey
had been captured iu the toils. See the Metamorphoses, Book iv. 1. 513.]

[Footnote 902: Amyclæ.--Ver. 5. A town of Laconia. See the
Metamorphoses, Book x. 1. 219, and the Note.]

[Footnote 903: Erato.--Ver. 16. He addresses himself to this Muse, as
her name was derived from the Greek 'love.' It has been suggested that
he had another reason for addressing her, as she was thought to take
pleasure in warfare, a state which sometimes, by way of variety, exists
between lovers.]

[Footnote 904: A bold path.--Ver. 22. This story is again related in the
Eighth Book of the Metamorphoses.]

[Footnote 905: Like oars.--Ver. 45. He aptly compares the arrangement of
the main feathers of a wing to a row of oars.]

[Footnote 906: Orion.'--Ver. 56. So in the Metamorphoses, Book v.
1. 206, he says to his son Icarus, 'Fly between both: and I bid thee
neither to look at Bootes, nor Helice, nor the drawn sword of Orion.']

[Footnote 907: Is angling.--Ver. 77. There is a similar passage in the
Metamorphoses, 1. 216.]

[Footnote 908: The Clarian God.--Ver. 80. See the Fasti, Book i. 1. 20,
and the Note.]

[Footnote 909: And Calymne.--Ver. 81. These peaces are mentioned in the
corresponding passages in the Metamorphoses, Book viii. 1. 222.]

[Footnote 910: Astypalæa..--Ver. 82. This was an isle in the group of
the Sporades, between Crete and the Cyclades. It contained but one city,
and was long and narrow, and of rugged appearance.]

[Footnote 911: The young horse.--Ver. 100. See the Amoves. Book i. El.
viii 1. 8, and the Note.]

[Footnote 912: The Marsian spells.--Ver. 102. The 'naenia' was a
mournful dirge or chaunt uttered by the sorcerer in his incantations. On
the Marsi, see the Sixth Book of the Fasti, 1. 142, and the Note to the

[Footnote 913: Causing paleness.--Ver. 105. Philtres were noxious
potions, made of venomous or stimulating ingredients, prescribed as
a means of gaining the affections of the person to whom they were

[Footnote 914: Nireus.--Ver. 109. See the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep.
xiii. 1. 16, and the Note to the passage.]

[Footnote 915: Charming Hylas.--Ver. 110. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1.]

[Footnote 916: Ocean Goddesses.--Ver. 124. Calypso was really the only
sea Goddess that was enamoured of Ulysses. Circe was not a sea Goddess.]

[Footnote 917: Blood of Dolon.'--Ver. 135. See the Metamorphoses, Book
xiii. line 244.]

[Footnote 918: Hjemontan horses--Ver. 136. The steeds of Achilles.]

[Footnote 919: The Chaonian bird.--Ver. 150. Chaonia was a district of
Epirus, said to have been so called from Chaon, a Trojan. Dodona was in
Epirus, and in its forests were said to be doves that had the gift of
prophecy. See the Translation of the Metamorphoses pp. 467-8.]

[Footnote 920: Resort to law.--Ver. 151. He means to say 'let man and
wife be always thinking about resorting to law to procure a divorce.']

[Footnote 921: 1 gave verses.--Ver. 166. He intends a pun here. 'Verba
dare' is 'to deceive,' but literally it means 'to give words.' See the
Amores, book i. El. viii. 1. 57.]

[Footnote 922: Atalanta of Nonacris.--Ver. 185. See the Amores, Book
iii. El. ii. 29, and the Note.]

[Footnote 923: Bow of Hylceus.--Ver. 191. Hylæus and Rhæcus were
Centaurs, who were pierced by Atalanta with her arrows, for making an
attempt on her chastity. He alludes to the bow of Cupid in the next

[Footnote 924: The ivory cubes.'--Ver. 203. He alludes to throws of the
'tali' and 'tessera,' which were different kinds of dice. See the Note
to 1. Footnote 471: of the Second Book of the Tristia. In this line he
seems to mean the 'tessera,' which were similar to our dice, while the
'tali,' which he next mentions, had only four flat surfaces, being
made in imitation of the knuckle-bones of animals, and having two
sides uneven and rounded. The dice were thrown on a table, made for
the purpose, with an elevated rim. Some throws, like our doublets, are
supposed to have counted for more than the number turned up. The most
fortunate throw was called 'Venus.' or 'Venereus jactus'; it is thought
to have consisted of a combination, making fourteen, the dice presenting
different numbers. Games with dice were only sanctioned by law as a
pastime during meals.]

[Footnote 925: Make bad moves.--Ver. 204. 'Dare jacta' means 'to move
the throws,' in allusion to the game of 'duodecim scripta,' or 'twelve
points,' which was played with counters moved according to the throws
of the dice, probably in a manner not unlike our game of backgammon. The
hoard was marked with twelve lines, on which the pieces moved.]

[Footnote 926: Or if you are throwing.--Ver. 205. By the use of the word
'seu, or,' we must suppose that he has, under the word 'numeri,' alluded
to the game with the 'tesseræ,' or six-sided dice.]

[Footnote 927: The game that imitates.--Ver. 207. He here alludes to the
'ludus latrunculorum,' literally 'the game of theft,' which is supposed
to have been somewhat similar to our chess. He refers to its name in the
words, 'latrocinii sub imagine.' The game was supposed to imitate the
furtive stratagems of warfare: hence the men, which were usually styled
'calculi,' were also called by the name of 'latrones,' 'latrunculi,'
'milites,' 'bella-tores,' 'thieves,' 'little thieves,' 'soldiers,'
'warriors.' As we see by the next line, they were usually made of glass,
though sometimes more costly materials were employed. The skill of
this game consisted either in taking the pieces of the adversary, or
rendering them unable to move. The first was done when the adversary's
piece was brought by the other between two of his own. See the Tristia,
Book ii. 1.477. The second took place when the pieces were 'ligati,'
or 'ad incitas redacti,' brought upon the last line and unable to move.
White and red are supposed to have been the colour of the men. This game
was much played by the Roman ladies and nobles.]

[Footnote 928: Hold the screen.--Ver. 209. The ancients used
'umbracula,' or screens against the weather (resembling our umbrellas),
which the Greeks called --------. They were used generally for the
same purposes as our parasols, a protection against the heat of the sun.
They seem not to have been in general carried by the ladies themselves,
but by female slaves, who held them over their mistresses. See the
Fasti, Book ii. 1. 209. These screens, or umbrellas, were much used by
the Roman ladies in the amphitheatre, to protect them from sun and rain,
when the 'velarium,' or awning, was not extended.]

[Footnote 929: Tasteful couch.'--Ver. 211. This was probably the
'triclinium' on which they reposed at meals. The shoes were taken off
before reclining on it. Female slaves did this office for the ladies,
and males for the men.]

[Footnote 930: Looking-glass.--Ver. 216. These were generally held by
female slaves, when used by their mistresses. See the Metamorphoses,
Book iv. 1. 349. and the Note.]

[Footnote 931: Held the work-basket.--Ver. 219. Hercules, who Wiled the
serpents sent by Juno, is reproached for doing this, by Deianira in her

[Footnote 932: As though a servant.--Ver. 228. He is to be ready, if his
mistress goes to a party, to act the part of the slave, who was called
'adversitor,' whose duty it was to escort his master home in the
evening, if it was dark, with a lighted torch.]

[Footnote 933: A vehicle.--Ver. 230. 'Rota,' a wheel, is, by Synecdoche,
used to signify 'a vehicle.']

[Footnote 934: Cynthius.--Ver. 240. See the Note to line 51, of the
Epistle from Aenone to Paris.]

[Footnote 935: Through the open roof.--Ver. 245. He gives a somewhat
hazardous piece of advice here; as he instructs him to obtain admission
by climbing up the wall, and getting in at the skylight, which extended
over the 'atrium,' or 'court,' a room which occupied the middle of
the house. The Roman houses had, in general, but one story over the

[Footnote 936: The high window.--Ver. 246. This passage may be
illustrated by the Note to 1. 752: of Book xiv. of the Metamorphoses.]

[Footnote 937: Day on which.--Ver. 257. He alluded to a festival
celebrated by the servants, on the Caprotine Nones, the seventh of
July, when they sacrificed to 'Juno Caprotina.' Macrobius says that the
servants sacrificed to Juno under a wild fig-tree (called 'caprificus'),
in memory of the service done by the female slaves, in exposing
themselves to the lust ot the enemy, for the public welfare. The Gauls
being driven from the city, the neighbouring nations chose the Dictator
of the Fidenates for their chief, and, marching to Rome, demanded of the
Senate, that if they would save their city, they should send out to them
their wives and daughters The Senate, knowing their own weakness, were
much perplexed, when a handmaid, named 'Tutela,' or 'Philotis,'
offered, with some others, to go out to the enemy in disguise. Being,
accordingly, dressed like free women, they repaired in tears to the camp
of the enemy. They soon induced their new acquaintances to drink, on
the pretence that they were bound to consider the day as a festival;
and when intoxicated, a signal was giver, from a fig tree near, that the
Romans should fall on them. The camp of the enemy was assailed, and most
of them were slain. In return for their service, the female, slaves were
made free, and received marriage portion? at the public expense. Another
account, agreeing with the present passage, says, that the Gauls were
the enemy who made the demand, and that Retana was the name of the
female slave.]

[Footnote 938: The lower classes.--Ver. 259. Witness his own appeals in
the Amores to Napè, Cypassis. Bagous, and the porter.]

[Footnote 939: In the Sacred Street.'--Ver. 266. Presents of game and
trout very often follow a similar devolution at the present day.]

[Footnote 940: Amaryllis was so fond of.--Ver. 267. He alludes to a
line of Virgil, which, doubtless, was then well known to all persons
of education. It occurs in the Eclogues: 'Castaneasque nuces, mea quas
Amaryllis amabat.' 'Chesnuts, too, which my Amaryllis was so fond of.'
In the next line, he hints that the damsels of his day were too greedy
to be satisfied with chesnuts only.]

[Footnote 941: Thrush and a pigeon.--Ver. 269. Probably live birds of
the kind are here alluded to; Pliny tells us that they were trained to
imitate the human voice. Thrushes were much esteemed as a delicacy for
the table. They were sold tied up in clusters, in the shape of a crown.]

[Footnote 942: By these means.--Ver. 271. He alludes to those who
continued to slip into dead men's shoes, by making trifling presents of
niceties. Juvenal inveighs against this practice.]

[Footnote 943: Poetry does not.--Ver. 274. See the remarks of Dipsas in
the Amores, Book i. El. viii. 1. 57.]

[Footnote 944: Only rich.--Ver. 276. See the Amores, Book iii. El. ii.]

[Footnote 945: Tyrian hue.--Ver. 297. See the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 107,
and the Note.]

[Footnote 946: Of Cos--Ver. 298. See the Epistles of Sabinus, Ep. iii.
1. 45, and the Note.]

[Footnote 947: A dress of felt.--Ver. 300. 'Gausape,' 'gausapa,' or
'gausapum,' was a kind of thick woolly cloth, which had a long nap on
one side. It was used to cover tables and beds, and as a protection
against wind and rain. It was worn both by males and females, and came
into use among the Romans about the time of Augustus.]

[Footnote 948: You are setting me on fire.--Ver. 301. Burmanu deservedly
censures the explanation of 'moves incendia,' given by Crispinus,
the Delphin Editor, 'Vous mourrez de chaud,' 'You will die of heat,'
applying the observation to the lady, and not, figuratively, to the
feelings of her lover.]

[Footnote 949: Her very embraces.--Ver. 308. The common reading of this
line is clearly corrupt; probably the reading is the one here adopted,
'Et un dat, gaudia, voce proba.']

[Footnote 950: What advice--Ver. 368. These attempts at argument are
exhausted by Paris, in his Epistle to Helen.]

[Footnote 952: Stinging-nettle.--Ver. 417. Pliny prescribes nettle-seed
as a stimulating medicine, mixed with linseed, hyssop, and pepper.]

[Footnote 953: White onion.--Ver. 421. The onions of Megara are praised
by Cato, the agricultural writer.]

[Footnote 954: Alcathous.--Ver. 421. See the Metamorphoses, Book vii. 1.]

[Footnote 955: At first.--Ver. 467. See the beginning of the First Book
of the Metamorphoses.]

[Footnote 956: Unclean mate.--Ver. 486. He alludes to the strong smell
of the he-goat.]

[Footnote 957: Machaon.--Ver. 491. He was a famous physician, son of
Æsculapius, and was slain in the Trojan war. See the Tristia, Book v.
El. vi. 1. 11.]

[Footnote 958: He came.--Ver. 496. 'Adest' seems a preferable reading to

[Footnote 959: To know himself.--Ver. 600. 'Know thyself,' was a saying
of Chilo, the Lacedaemonian, one of the wise men of Greece. This maxim
was also inscribed in gold letters in the temple of Apollo at Delphi.
'Too much of nothing' was a second maxim there inscribed; and a third
was, 'Misery is the consequence of debt and discord.']

[Footnote 960: Drinks with elegance.--Ver. 506. It is hard to say what
art in drinking is here alluded to; whether a graceful air in holding
the cup, or the ability of drinking much without shewing any signs of

Let the old woman come.--Ver. 329. In sickness it was the
custom to purify the bed and chamber of the patient, with sulphur
and eggs. It seems also to have been done when the patient was pining
through unrequited love. Apulius mentions a purification by the priest
of Isis, who uses eggs and sulphur while holding a torch and repeating
a prayer. The nurse of the patient seems here to be directed to perform
the ceremony.]

[Footnote 961: The Fasti, Book ii. 1. 19, and Book iv. 1. 728. From a
passage of Juvenal, we find that it was a common practice to purify with
eggs and sulphur, in the month of September, * On Athos.--Ver. 517. See
the Metamorphoses, Book ii. 1. 217, and the Note.]

[Footnote 962: On Hybla.--Ver. 517. See the Tristia, Book v. El. xiii.
1. 22.]

[Footnote 963: Off your head.--Ver. 528. Iphis, in the fourteenth Book
of the Metamorphoses, 1. 732, raises his eyes to the door-posts of his
mistress, 'so often adorned by him with wreaths.']

[Footnote 964: The senses.--Ver. 532. He seems to believe, with Nixon
d'Enelos, in the existence of a sixth sense.]

[Footnote 965: Of mighty Jove.--Ver. 540. He alludes to the triumphal
procession to the Capitol.]

[Footnote 966: Gentle sleep.--Ver. 546. See the Amores, Book iii. El.
i. 1. 51. He means to say that husbands give a certain latitude to their
wives, who do not fail to improve upon it.]

[Footnote 967: Own husband.--Ver. 551. See the Amores, Book i. El. iv.
1. 38.]

[Footnote 968: Other men visit.--Ver. 554. 'Viri' seems to be a better
reading than 'viro.']

[Footnote 969: Mars and Venus.--Ver. 562. See the Metamorphoses, Book
iv. 1. 173.]

[Footnote 970: Says, laughing.--Ver. 585. See a similar passage in the
Metamorphoses, Book iv. 1. 187.]

[Footnote 971: For Thrace.--Ver. 588. He was much venerated by the
warlike Thracians.]

[Footnote 972: Paphos.--Ver. 588. See the Metamorphoses, Book x. 1.

[Footnote 973: Fire and water render.--Ver. 598. Among the Romans, when
the bride reached her husband's house, he received her with fire and
water, which it was the custom for her to touch. This is, by some,
supposed to have been symbolical of purification; or it was an
expression of welcome, as the interdiction of fire and water was the
formula for banishment.]

[Footnote 974: My sallies.--Ver. 600. See Book L 1. 31, and the Note.
See also the Fasti, Book iv. 1. 866, and the Note.]

[Footnote 975: The rites of Ceres.--Ver. 601. He alludes to the
mysterious rites of Ceres, in the island of Samothrace.]

[Footnote 976: Not enclosed in chests.--Ver. 609. Certain chests were
carried in the procession at the festival of Ceres, the contents of
which, if there were any, was a mystery to the uninitiated.]

[Footnote 977: The left hand.--Ver. 614. This is the attitude of the
Venus de Medicis.]

[Footnote 978: At a heavy price.--Ver. 626. Men spend their money on
debauchery, only for the pleasure of talking of it.]

[Footnote 979: Waving wings.--Ver. 644. He refers to Perseus admiring
the swarthy Andromeda.]

[Footnote 980: Of larger stature.--Ver. 645. She was remarkable for her

[Footnote 981: Green bark.--Ver. 639. He speaks of the slip engrafted in
the stock.]

[Footnote 982: What Consulship.--Ver. 663. The age of persons was
reckoned by naming the Consulship in which they were born; the period
of which was Known by reference to the 'Fasti Consulares.' See the
Introduction to the Fasti.]

[Footnote 983: Rigid Censor.--Ver. 664. It was the duty of the Censor to
make enquiries into the age of all individuals.]

[Footnote 984: Best years.--Ver. 666. Even in those days, it was
considered ungallant to make too scrutinizing enquiries into the years
of ladies of 'a certain age.']

[Footnote 985: Kind of warfare.--Ver. 674. See the Amores, Book i. El.
ix. 1. 1.]

[Footnote 986: Besides in these.--Ver. 675. In reference to females of a
more advanced age.]

[Footnote 987: Seven times five years.--Ver. 694. He probably means,
in this passage, a lustrum of five years. Burmann justly observes, that
'cito,' 'quickly,' or 'soon,' can hardly be the proper reading, as it
seems to contradict the meaning of the context. He suggests 'nisi,'
meaning 'but,' or 'only.' See the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 166, and the Note.
Also the Tristia, Book iv. El. xvi. 1. 78.]

[Footnote 988: Stored up in the times.--Ver. 696. He uses this
metaphorical expression to signify that he admires females when of
a ripe and mature age See the Amores, Book ii. El. v. 1. 54, and the

[Footnote 989: The shooting grass.--Ver. 698. In Nisard's translation,
the words 'prata novella' are rendered 'l'herbe nouvellement coupée,'
'the grass newly cut.' This is not the meaning of the passage. He
intends to say that the grass just shooting up is apt to cut or prick
the naked foot.]

[Footnote 990: Hermione.--Ver. 699. She was the daughter of Helen and

[Footnote 991: Gorge.--Ver. 700. She was the daughter of Altnea, and
sister of Meleager. She married Andræmon.]

[Footnote 992: Podalirius.--Ver. 735. The brother of Machaon. See the
Tristia Book v. El. xiii. 1. 32.]

[Footnote 993: Calchas.--Ver. 737. See the Metamorphoses.]

[Footnote 994: Automeden.--Ver. 738. The son of Diores. He was the
charioted of Achilles.]

[Footnote 995: Upon his spoil--Ver. 744. It was the custom to write
inscriptions on the spoil. See the Notes to the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 663.]


[Footnote 1001: Penthesilea.'--Ver. 2. See the 21st Epistle, 1.118, and
the Note.]

[Footnote 1002: Dione.--Ver. 3. See the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 461, and the

[Footnote 1003: Son of Atreus.--Ver. 11. 'Helen was unfaithful to
Menelaus, while Clytemnestra killed Agamemnon.]

[Footnote 1004: Son of Oeclus.--Ver. 13. See the Metamorphoses, Book
viii. 1. 317, ind the Note.]

[Footnote 1005: From Phylace.--Ver. 17. See the Epistle of Laodamia to

[Footnote 1006: Son of Pheres.--Ver. 19. See the Pontic Epistles, Book
iii. El. i. L 106, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1007: And in place of--Ver. 20. See the 111th line of the same
Elegy, and the Note. Also the Tristia, Book v. El. xiv. 1. 38.]

[Footnote 1008: My skiff.--Ver. 26. 'Cymba.' See the Amores, Book iii.
El. vi. 1. 4, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1009: Another bride.--Ver. 34. Jason deserted Medea for

[Footnote 1010: Nine journies.--Ver. 37. See the Epistle of Phyllis to

[Footnote 1011: Two treatises.--Ver. 47. His former books on the Art of

[Footnote 1012: Who before had uttered.--Ver. 49. He alludes to the Poet
Stesichorus, on whose lips a nightingale was said to have perched
and sung, when he was a child. Pliny relates that he wrote a poem,
inveighing bitterly against Helen, in which he called her the firebrand
of Troy, on which he was visited with blindness by her brothers, Castor
and Pollux, and did not recover his sight till he had recanted in
his Palinodia, which he composed in her praise. Suidas says, that
Stesichorus composed thirty, six books of Poems. Helen was born at
Therapnæ, a town of Laconia.]

[Footnote 1013: Your own privileges.--Ver. 58. 'Sua' seems to mean the
privileges sanctioned and conceded by the law, probably to those females
who were in the number of the 'professae.']

[Footnote 1014: No door.--Ver. 71. So Horace says, in his address to
Lydia, Book i. Ode i. 25; 'Less frequently do the wanton youths shake
your joined windows with many a blow, and no longer deprive thee of
sleep, and the door adheres to its threshold.']

[Footnote 1015: Bestrewed with roses.--Ver. 72. See line 528: in the
last Book Lucretius speaks of the admirers of damsels anointing their
doors with M ointment made of sweet marjoram.]

[Footnote 1016: Hermione.--Ver. 86. According to Hesiod, Venus was the
mother of three children by Mars, of whom Hermione was one.]

[Footnote 1017: May take up again.--Ver. 96. This is not the proper
translation, of the passage; but the real meaning cannot be presented
with a due regard to decorum.]

[Footnote 1018: I begin with dress.--Ver. 101. He plays upon the
different meanings of the word 'cultus'; which means either 'dress,' or
'cultivation,' according as it is applied, to persons or land.]

[Footnote 1019: A great part.--Ver. 104. This is a more ungallant remark
than we should have expected Ovid to make.]

[Footnote 1020: Of Phoebus.--Ver. 119. He alludes to the temple of
Apollo, on the Palatine Hill, where Augustus and Tiberius resided.]

[Footnote 1021: And choice shells.--Ver. 124. He alludes to pearls which
grow in the shell of the pearl oyster, and are found in the Persian Gulf
and the Indian Ocean.]

[Footnote 1022: By the moles.--Ver. 126. He alludes to the stupendous
moles which the Romans fabricated, as breakwaters, at their various
bathing-places on the coast of Italy. See the Odes of Horace, Book iii.
ode 1.]

[Footnote 1023: Round features.--Ver. 139. See the Pontic Epistles, Book
iii Ep. iii. 1. 15, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1024: Figure of the tortoise.--Ver. 147. Salmasius thinks that
the 'galerus,' or 'wig of false hair,' is alluded to in this passage.
Others think that a coif or fillet of net-work is alluded to. He
probably means a mode of dressing the hair in the shape of a lyre, with
horns on each side projecting outwards. Mercury, the inventor of the
lyre, was born on Mount Cyllene, in Arcadia.]

[Footnote 1025: The waves.--Ver. 148. Juvenal mentions a mode of
dressing the hair to a great height by rows of false curls.]

[Footnote 1026: The herbs from Germany.--Ver. 163. He alludes, probably,
to herbs brought from Germany, which were burnt for the purpose of
making a soap used in turning the hair of a blonde colour. See the
Amores, Book i. El. xiv. 1. 1, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1027: For money--Ver. 166. See 1. 45 of the above Elegy.]

[Footnote 1028: The eyes of Hercules.--Ver. 168. He means that the

shops were in the neighbourhood of the Temple of Hercules Musagetes, in
the Flaminian Circus. See the Sixth Book of the Fasti, 1. 801.]

[Footnote 1029: Gold flounces.--Ver. 169. 'Segmenta' are probably broad
flounces to the dresses inlaid with plates of gold, or gold threads
embroidered on them.]

[Footnote 1030: On one's person.--Ver. 127. Like our expression, 'To
carry a fortune on one's back.']

[Footnote 1031: That art said.--Ver. 175. He refers to the colour of
the Ram with the Golden Fleece, that bore Helle and Phryxus over the

[Footnote 1032: Resembles the waves.--Ver. 177. He evidently alluded
to dresses which resemble the surface of the waves, and which we term
'watered'; and which the Romans called 'undulatae,' from 'unda,' a
'wave.' Varro makes mention of 'undulatæ togæ.' Some Commentators,
however, fancy that he alludes here to colour, meaning 'glaucus,' or
'sea-green,' which Lucretius also calls ' thalassinus.']

[Footnote 1033: Amaryllis.--Ver. 183. See the last Book, 1. 267, and the

[Footnote 1034: And wax.--Ver. 184. Plautus mentions the 'Carinarii,'
who dyed garments of a waxen, or yellow colour]

[Footnote 1035: Seriphos.--Ver. 192. See the Metamorphoses, Book v. 1.
242, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1036: Shocking goat.--Ver. 193. See the Note to 1. 522: of
the First Book.]

[Footnote 1037: Application of wax.--Ver. 199. Wax is certainly used as
a cosmetic, but 'creta' seems to be a preferable reading, as chalk in
a powdered state was much used for adding to the fairness of the
complexion. Ovid would hardly recommend a cosmetic of so highly
injurious a tendency as melted wax.]

[Footnote 1038: The eye-brows.--Ver. 201. We learn from Juvenal, that
the colour of them was heightened by punctures with a needle being
filled with soot.]

[Footnote 1039: And the little patch.--Ver. 202. 'Aluta' means 'skin
made soft by means of alum.' It is difficult to discover what it means
here, whether 'a patch' made of a substance like gold-beater's skin,
somewhat similar to those used in the days of the Spectator; or a
liquid cosmetic, such as Pliny calls 'calliblepharum,' 'an aid to the
eye-brows.' He seems to use the word 'sinceras' in its primitive sense,
'without wax'; which recommendation certainly would contradict the
common reading, 'cera,' in the 199th line.]

[Footnote 1040: To mark the eyes.--Ver. 203. To heighten the colour
of the eyelashes, ashes (and probably charcoal) were u»ed by the
Roman women. Saffron also was used. A black paint, made of pulverized
antimony, is used by the women in the East, at the present day, to paint
their eyebrows black. It is called 'surme,' and was also used at ancient
Rome. Cydnus was a river of Cilicia.]

[Footnote 1041: A little treatise.--Ver. 205. He alludes to his book,
'On the care of the Complexion,' of which a fragment remains.]

[Footnote 1042: Of the cesypum.--Ver. 213. The filthy cosmetic called

was prepared from the wool of those parts of the body where the sheep
perspired most; it was much used for embellishing the complexion. Pliny
mentions the sheep of Athens as producing the best. It had a strong rank
smell. The red colour, which was used by the Roman ladies for giving a
bloom to the skin, was prepared from a moss called 'fucus'; from which,
in time, all kinds of paint received the name of 'fucus.']

[Footnote 1043: Of the deer.--Ver. 215. Pliny speaks highly of the
virtues of stag's marrow. It probably occupied much the same position in
estimation, that bear's grease does at the present day.]

[Footnote 1044: Myron.--Ver. 219. There were two sculptors of this name:
one a native of Lycia, the other of Eleuthera.]

[Footnote 1045: Beautiful statue.--Ver. 223. He alludes to that of Venus
Anadyomene, or rising from the sea, which was made by Praxiteles, and
was often copied by the sculptors of Greece and Rome.]

[Footnote 1046: Pierces her arms.--Ver. 240. See a similar passage in
the Amores. Book i. El. xiv. 1. 16.]

[Footnote 1047: Toilet in the temple.--Ver. 244. He tells those who have
not fine heads of hair, to be as careful in admitting any men to see
their toilet, as the devotees of Bona Dea were to keep away all males
from her solemnities.]

[Footnote 1048: Sidonian fair.--Ver. 252. Europa was a Phoenician by

[Footnote 1049: With the clothes.--Ver. 226. See the Amores, Book i. El.
iv. 1.48, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1050: With purple stripes.'--Ver. 269. Commentators are at
a loss to know what 'tingere virgis' means; some suggest, 'to wear
garments with red 'virgæ,' or 'stripes,'while others think that it means
'to tint the skin with fine lines of a purple colour.' It is thought by
some that vermilion is here alluded to, while others suppose that the
juice of the red flowers, or berries of the 'vaccinium,' is meant.]

[Footnote 1051: The Pharian fish.--Ver. 270. The intestines and dung of
the crocodile, 'the Pharian' or 'Egyptian fish,' are here referred to.
We learn from Pliny that these substances were used by the females at
Rome as a cosmetic, to add to the fairness of the complexion, and to
take away freckles from the skin.]

[Footnote 1052: Small pads are suitable.--Ver. 273 'Analectides,'
or 'Analectrides,' (the correct reading is doubtful) were pads, or
stuffings, of flock, used in cases of high shoulders or prominent

[Footnote 1053: And let the girth.--Ver. 274. He alludes to the
'strophium,' which distantly resembled the stays of the present day,
and was a girdle, or belt, worn by women round the breast and over the
interior tunic or chemise. From an Epigram of Martial, it seems to have
been usually made of leather. Becker thinks that there was a difference
between the 'fascia' and the 'strophium.']

[Footnote 1054: At a distance.--Ver. 278. One of the very wisest of his

[Footnote 1055: Umbrian.--Ver. 303. The Umbrians were a people of the
Marsi, in the north of Italy. They were noted for their courage, and the
rusticity of their manners.]

[Footnote 1056: The son of Sisyphus.--Ver. 313. He here alludes to
a scandalous story among the ancients, that Ulysses was the son of
Anticlea, by Sisyphus the robber, who had carried her off, and not by
Laertes, her husband.]

[Footnote 1057: The wax.--Ver. 314. By the advice of Circe, Ulysses
filled the ears of his companions with melted wax, that they might not
hear the songs of the Sirens.]

[Footnote 1058: The measures of the Nile.--Ver. 318. These airs were
sung by Egyptian girls, with voluptuous attitudes, and were much
esteemed by the dissolute Romans. These Egyptian singers were, no doubt,
the forerunners of the 'Alme' of Egypt at the present day. The Nautch
girls and Bayaderes of the East Indies are a kindred race.]

[Footnote 1059: Plectrum.--Ver. 319. See the Metamorphoses, Book ii. 1.
601, and the Note; also the Epistle of Briseïs, 1. 118, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1060: Thy mother.--Ver. 323. Amphion and Zethuswere the sons
of Jupiter and Antiope. Being carried off by her uncle Lycus, Antiope
was entrusted to his wife Dirce. When her sons grew up, they fastened
Dirce to wild oxen, by which she was tom to pieces. Amphion was said to
have built the walls of Thebes by the sound of his lyre.]

[Footnote 1061: Arion.--Ver. 326. See the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 79.]

[Footnote 1062: The festive psaltery.--Ver. 327. Suidas tells us that
'naulium,' or 'nablium,' was a name of the psaltery. Josephus says
that it had twelve strings. Strabo remarks that the name was of foreign

[Footnote 1063: Callimachus.--Ver. 329. See the Amores, Book ii. El. iv.
1. 19: and the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep. xvi. 1. 32, and the Notes
of the passages.]

[Footnote 1064: Poet of Cos.--Ver. 330. The poet Philetas. He flourished
in the time of Philip and Alexander the Great. Anacreon was a lyric poet
of Teios, and a great admirer of the juice of the grape.]

[Footnote 1065: Or him, through whom.--Ver. 332. Some think that he
means Menander, from whom Terence borrowed many of his scenes; he
probably alludes to the Phormio of Terence, where the old men, Chremes
and Demipho, are deceived by Geta, the cunning slave. See the Tristia,
Book ii. 1. 359: and 69.]

[Footnote 1066: Propertius.'--Ver. 333. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1.
465, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1067: Tibullus.--Ver. 334. See the Amores, Book iii. EL ix.]

[Footnote 1068: Varro.--Ver. 335. See the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep.
xvi. 1. 21; and the Amores, Book i. El. xv. 1. 21, and the Notes to the

[Footnote 1069: Lofty Rome.--Ver. 338. He refers here to the Æneid of

[Footnote 1070: Two sides.--Ver. 342. Both the males and the females.]

[Footnote 1071: Composition.--Ver. 346. He takes to himself the credit
of being the inventor of Epistolary composition.]

[Footnote 1072: Masters of posture.--Ver. 351. These persons, who were
also called 'ludii,' or 'histrlones,' required great suppleness of the
sides, for the purpose of aptly assuming expressive attitudes; for which
reason he calls them 'artifices lateris.' See the First Book, 1. 112;
and the Tristia, Book ii, 1. 497, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1073: Which she must call for.--Ver. 356. Probably at the game
of 'duodecim seripta,' or 'twelve points,' like our backgammon; sets of
three 'tesseræ,' or dice, were used for throwing; he recommends her to
learn the game, and to know on what points to enter when taken up, and
what throws to call for. See the last Book, 1. 203; and the Tristia,
Book ii. 1. 473, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1074: The pieces.--Ver. 357. See the Note to 1. 207, in the
last Book.]

[Footnote 1075: The warrior, too.--Ver. 359. He alludes to one of the
principal pieces, whose fate depends upon another.]

[Footnote 1076: Let the smooth balls.--Ver. 361. He seems to allude here
to a game played by putting marbles (which seems to be the meaning of
'pilæ leves,' 'smooth balls,') into a net with the month open, and then
taking them out one by one without moving any of the others.]

[Footnote 1077: Kind of game.--Ver. 363. These two lines do not seem to
be connected with the game mentioned in 1. 365, but rather to refer to
that mentioned in 1. 355.]

[Footnote 1078: A little table receives.}--Ver. 365. This game is
mentioned in the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 481. It seems to resemble the
simple game played by schoolboys on the slate, and known among them as

[Footnote 1079: No trusting.--Ver. 377. On account of the continued run
of bad luck.]

[Footnote 1080: Flying ball.'--Ver. 380. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1.
485-6, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1081: The Virgin.--Ver. 385. This was near the Campus Martius.
See the Fasti, Book i. 1. 464; and the Pontic Epistles, Book i. Ep.
viii. 1. 38, and the Note.]

[Footnote 1082: Etrurian.--Ver. 386. The Tiber flowed through ancient

[Footnote 1083: The Virgin.--Ver. 388. He alludes to the heat while the
sun is passing through the Constellation Virgo.]

[Footnote 1084: Parætonium.--Ver. 390. See the Amores, Book ii. El.
xiii. 1. 7, and the Note. He alludes to the victory of Augustus over
Antony and Cleopatra, at Actium; on which the conqueror built the temple
of Apollo on the Palatine hill.]

[Footnote 1085: The suter and the wife.--Ver. 391. Livia, the wife, and
Octavia, the sister of Augustus, are referred to.]

[Footnote 1086: His son-in-law.--Ver. 392. The allusion is to M.
Agrippa, the husband of Julia, the daughter of Augustus; after the
defeat of the younger Pompey, Augustus presented him with a naval crown.
A Portico built by Augustus was called by his name.]

[Footnote 1087: Memphian heifer.--Ver. 393. See the Amores, Book i. El.
viii. 1. 74.]

[Footnote 1088: Frequent the three Theatres.--Ver. 394. He probably
alludes to the theatres of Pompey, Balbus, and Marcellus, as they are
mentioned by Suetonius as the 'trina theatra.']

[Footnote 1089: Glowing wheels.--Ver. 396. See the Amores, Book iii. El.

[Footnote 1090: Thamyras.--Ver. 399. He was a Thracian poet, who
challenged the Muses to sing, and, according to Homer, was punished with
madness. Diodorus Siculus says that he lost his voice, while the Roman
poets state that he lost his sight. Amoebeus was a famous lute-player of

[Footnote 1091: Of Cos.--Ver. 401. See the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep.
i. 1. 29.]

[Footnote 1092: Poets were.--Ver. 405. Euripides was the guest of
Archelaüs king of Macedonia, Anacreon of Polycrates king of Samos, and
Pindar and Bacchilides of Hiero king of Sicily.]

[Footnote 1093: Placed near to thee.--Ver. 410. According to some
accounts, the ashes of Ennius were deposited in the tomb of the Scipios,
by the older of his friend Scipio Africanus.]

[Footnote 1094: Its own Priam.--Ver. 440. Priam and Antenor advised that
Helen should be restored to Menelaus.]

[Footnote 1095: Liquid nard.--Ver. 443. There were two kinds of nard,
the 'foliated,' and the 'spike' nard. It was much esteemed as a perfume
by the Romans.]

[Footnote 1096: Narrow belt.--Ver. 444. He probably means a girdle that
fitted tightly, and caused the 'toga' to set in many creases. See the
Notes to the Fasti, Book v. 1. 675.]

[Footnote 1097: And many a ring.--Ver. 446. 'alter et alter.' Literally,
one and another.]

[Footnote 1098: Some thief.--Ver. 447. Among its other refinements, Rome
seems to have had its swell mob.]

[Footnote 1099: Thou, Venus--Ver. 451. This temple is referred to in the
First Book, 1. 81--87. Its vicinity was much frequented by courtesans.]

[Footnote 1101: You, ye Goddesses.--Ver. 452. He probably alludes to
the Nymphs whose statues were near the Appian aqueduct, mentioned in the
81st Une of the First Book. The Delphin Editor absolutely thinks
that the 'pro-fessæ,' or courtesans, are themselves alluded to as the
'Appiades Deæ.']

[Footnote 1102: Theseus.--Ver. 457. Who deserted Ariadne.]

[Footnote 1103: Of Inachus.--Ver. 464. Isis, or To. Seo the
Metamorphoses, Bk. i.]

[Footnote 1104: To deceive your husbands.--Ver. 484. It is not
improbable that 'viros' here means merely 'keepers,' and not 'husbands,'
especially as he alludes to their being without the privilege of the
'vitta,' which the matrons wore.]

[Footnote 1105: Two hands.--Ver. 496. He means, that the writing of
the lover must be quite erased before she pens her answer on the same

[Footnote 1106: Hence, avaunt.--Ver. 505. See the Fasti, Book vi. 1.
696. * Laying aside his foils.--Ver. 515. The 'rudis' was a stick, which
soldiers and persons exercising used in mimic combat, probably like our
foil or singlestick.]

[Footnote 1107: With Tecmessa.--Ver. 517. She was taken captive by Ajax,
and probably had good reason to be sorrowful.]

[Footnote 1108: The twig of vine.--Ver. 527. He alludes to the
Centurions, who had the power of inflicting corporal punishment, from
which circumstance their badge of office was a vine sapling.]

[Footnote 1109: Nemesis.--Ver. 536. Nemesis was the mistress of
Tibullus. See the Amores, Book iii. El. ix. Cynthia was the mistress of
Propertius and Lycoris of Gallus.]

[Footnote 1110: Shut your door.--Ver. 587. He addresses the husband,
whom he supposes to be wearied with satiety.]

[Footnote 1111: Than even Thais.--Ver. 604. Thais seems to have been
a common name with the courtesans of ancient times. Terence, in his
Eunuchus, introduces one of that name, who is pretty much of the free
and unrestrained character here depicted.]

[Footnote 1112: Lictor's rod.--Ver. 615. This conferred freedom on the
slave who was touched with it. See the Fasti, Book vi. 1. 676, and the
Note, lie means, that free-born women are worthy to become wives; but
'libertinæ,' or 'freed-women,' are only fit to become 'professæ,' or
'courtesans,' when they may sin with impunity, so far as the laws are

[Footnote 1113: Broad girth.--Ver. 622. This seems to be the kind of
belt mentioned in line 274.]

[Footnote 1114: Stalk of wetted flax.--Ver. 629. According to the common
reading, this will mean that the letter is to be written on blank paper,
with a stalk of wetted flax; which writing will afterwards appear, when
a black substance is thrown upon it. Heinsius insists that the passage
is corrupt, and suggests that 'alumine nitri' is the correct reading; in
which case it would mean that alum water is to be used instead of ink.
Vessius tells us that alum water, mixed with the juice of the plant
'tithymalum,' was used for the purposes of secret correspondence.]

[Footnote 1115: Good Goddess.--Ver. 637. The debauched Clodius was
detected as being present at these rites, in a female dress.]

[Footnote 1116: The false key, too, tells.--Ver. 643. He plays upon the
double meaning of the words, 'adultéra clavis,' which properly signifies
'a false key.']

[Footnote 1117: Even though.--Ver. 646. 'Even though you should have
to go to the expense of providing the rich wines of Spain for the

[Footnote 1118: Even she.--Ver. 663. He alludes to the accommodating
lady mentioned in line 641.]

[Footnote 1119: Has she filled.--Ver. 666. See his address to Cypassis,
in the Amores, Book ii. El. viii.]

[Footnote 1120: Lemnian dames.--Ver. 672. See the introduction to the
Epistle from Hypsipyle to Jason.]

[Footnote 1121: Cephaltis.--Ver. 695. This story is also related in the
Seventh Book of the Metamorphoses.]

[Footnote 1122: The quinces.--Ver. 705. These are called 'cydonia,' from
Cydon, city of Crete.]

[Footnote 1123: Cyllenian God.--Ver. 725. Cephalus was said to be the
son of Mercury; but, according to one account, which is followed by Ovid
in the Metamorphoses, Deioneus was his father.]

[Footnote 1124: Her breath.--Ver. 746. See the corresponding passage in
the Metamorphoses, Book vii. 1. 861. It was the custom for the nearest
relative to catch the breath of the dying person in the mouth.]

[Footnote 1125: With your fingers.--Ver. 755.. Perhaps he means in
moderato quantities at a time, and not in whole handfuls. See the Note
to the First Book, 1. 577.]

[Footnote 1126: And do not first.--Ver. 757. He seems to irs two
precepts here; first, they are not to eat so much at home as to take
away all appetite at the banquet, as that would savour of affectation,
and be an act of rudeness to the host. On the other hand, he warns them
not to stuff as long as they are able, but rather to leave off with an
appetite. The passage, however, is hopelessly corrupt, and is capable of
other interpretations.]

[Footnote 1127: Perform their duty.--Ver. 764. 'Constent,' literally.
'Will stand together.']

[Footnote 1128: The swans.--Ver. 899. He also alludes to them in the
Metamorphoses, as drawing the car of Venus, though that office was more
generally assigned by the Poets to doves.]


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