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Title: The Library of Work and Play: Needlecraft
Author: Archer, Effie Archer
Language: English
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THE LIBRARY
OF WORK AND PLAY

    CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK
               By Edwin W. Foster

    ELECTRICITY AND ITS EVERYDAY USES
               By John F. Woodhull, Ph.D.

    GARDENING AND FARMING
               By Ellen Eddy Shaw

    HOME DECORATION
               By Charles Franklin Warner, Sc.D.

    HOUSEKEEPING
               By Elizabeth Hale Gilman

    MECHANICS, INDOORS AND OUT
               By Fred T. Hodgson

    NEEDLECRAFT
               By Effie Archer Archer

    OUTDOOR SPORTS, AND GAMES
               By Claude H. Miller, Ph.B.

    OUTDOOR WORK
               By Mary Rogers Miller

    WORKING IN METALS
               By Charles Conrad Sleffel



[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. The Last Step is Making
the Buttonholes]



                              NEEDLECRAFT

                        BY EFFIE ARCHER ARCHER

      _Needlework Editor of well-known magazines. Connected with
                 New York Public Schools, Y. W. C. A.,
                       and Arts and Crafts Club_

[Illustration: Title Page]

                       GARDEN CITY      NEW YORK
                       DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
                                 1916



    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN
                 LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN

             COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY



                               CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                                  PAGE

  I. What You Should Have in Your Work Box--Sewing
  on Buttons--Basting--Darning                               3

  II. Back-stitching--Over-casting--Creasing a
  Hem and Hemming--Rolling a Hem--French
  Hemming--Sewing on Tapes and
  Hooks and Eyes                                            12

  III. Gathering--Sewing on Bands--A Practical
  Sewing Apron--Hemmed Patches--Gussets
  and Tucks                                                 26

  IV. A Doll's Skirt--Sewing Case--Bindings--Doll's
  Bed Linen--Pin Case                                       41

  V. Making Buttonholes--Cutting from a Pattern--A
  Doll's Dress                                              58

  VI. A Lesson in Stencilling                               74

  VII. What Can Be Done with One Skin--Cut
  Leather Bags, Belts, Book Covers, etc.                    83

  VIII. Tooled Leather and Tools Necessary                  91

  IX. The Simplest Stitches in Embroidery--Chain-stitching,
  Outlining, Herring-boning, Cross-stitching,
  Soutache, Coronation Braiding                             98

  X. Smocking--Feather-stitching--Lazy-daisy
  Stitch                                                   112

  XI. Couching--Shadow-work--Turkish Stitch--How
  to Stamp Designs                                         121

  XII. Buttonholing and Wallachian Embroidery              130

  XIII. Roman Cut-Work--Fancy Buttonholing for
  Borders--Bermuda Fagotting                               138

  XIV. Satin-Stitch and Marking                            147

  XV. Eyelets and French Knots--Bullion Stitch,
  and Other Fancy Stitches                                 160

  XVI. Long and Short--Kensington Embroidery--Ribbon
  Work for Simple Flowers                                  176

  XVII. Hardanger Embroidery for Squares, Pin
  Cushions, and Spreads                                    190

  XVIII. Appliqué on Linen and Other Materials--Hedebo
  Embroidery                                               198

  XIX. Hemstitching for Handkerchiefs and Collar
  and Cuff Sets--Simple Drawn Work
  Stitches                                                 207

  XX. Easy Lace Stitches--Fagotting, Single Mesh,
  Double Mesh, Spiders, Fan, Maltese Cross,
  Twisted and Buttonhole Bars, Picots for
  Simple Edge                                              227

  XXI. Simple Baskets                                      242

  XXII. Raffia Baskets and Napkin Rings                    250

  XXIII. Raffia Hats                                       262

  XXIV. Knotting for Dolls' Hammocks, Shopping Bags
  and Other Purposes                                       271

  XXV. Simple Bead Chains on Single Strings--A
  Homemade Loom--Woven Chains--Belts
  and Purses                                               278

  XXVI. Braiding and Weaving Four and Six Strands--Weaving
  on Looms                                                 295

  XXVII. Simple Crocheting--Stitchery for Edges and
  Shawls                                                   306

  XXVIII. Pattern Directions for Making Doll Caps
  and Capes, Jackets, and Child's Bedroom
  Slippers                                                 320

  XXIX. Irish Crochet Lace                                 333

  XXX. Knitting, Plain and Purling--Wash Rags--Fancy
  Stitches for Shawls                                      351

  XXXI. Doll's Cap, Hood, Leggings, and Jackets            360

  XXXII. Embroidery Suggestions for Boarding School
  Girl                                                     372



                             ILLUSTRATIONS


  The Last Step is Making the Buttonholes             _Frontispiece_

                                                       FACING PAGE

  The Right Way to Darn                                     10

  A Single Motif Being Used on a Stencilled Scarf           76

  Many a Happy Hour is Spent Embroidering                  164

  It is Jolly to Make a Raffia Work Bag                    250

  Sewed Raffia Baskets Make Attractive Gifts               258

  The Fascinating Task of Making Bead Chains               284

  A Cushion Top Can be Woven on a Simple Hand Loom         296

  Her First Knitted Shawl                                  356



                              NEEDLECRAFT



I

WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE IN YOUR WORK BOX, SEWING ON BUTTONS, BASTING,
DARNING


You will find that you are happiest when doing things for those you
love; and what greater help can you give than by learning to do things
for yourself that now those who love you best do for you? The little
everyday things that appear to be so simple, yet take so much of the
mother's time should be the things first to learn. There are so many
things that one could do if one only knew how, that it seems a shame to
waste time. Dolly needs new clothes, mother always needs help with her
sewing; and then, too, the numerous birthdays and Christmases follow so
quickly one on top of another, that there is hardly a chance to save
up for one before the next is here. Many a hard problem for the little
mother will be solved in this book.

It is lovely to have a little work-box fixed up with thread, needles,
and scissors, all of your own, and if you ask mother, I am sure she
will give some of her threads to help you start one. If you take a
card and shape it like a Maltese cross you will have space for four
colours of threads. You will need a card for the white alone because
you will find you use so much more of it. You must have a little
thimble and always use it or your finger will look cramped when
working. Have you noticed how pretty ladies look when sewing? Well, you
must do as they do, tap your needle with the thimble to send it through
the material (Figure 1).

[Illustration: Fig. 1. The way to use your thimble]

Have you ever wondered and wondered why it is that buttons have the
horrid habit of dropping off just when you wanted to dress quickly or
take Sally Ann walking? Well, I will whisper the reasons for this:
the first is, that the thread might have been worn out from active
service; or the thread used might have been weak; or lastly, which is
probably the true cause, the button might have been sewn too close to
the material and came off the first time it was used. Mother may not be
around to help you when the accident happens, and would you not feel
proud to sew it on for yourself?

To sew a button on securely you should make a pin-hole where the
button is to be placed. A four-hole white button is the easiest to work
on. Thread a No. 7 needle with a length of No. 40 white sewing cotton,
bring the ends together and make a knot. The right length thread is
measured from the tip of the thimble finger to the elbow. When a thread
is used double it should be twice the length of this. A neat knot is
made by holding the threaded needle in the right hand and by taking the
end or ends, as the case may be, between the thumb and first finger of
the left hand. Keep the thread tightly stretched, wind it around the
top of the first finger, then move the finger down the thumb, carrying
the thread with it about half an inch. Now with the nail of the second
finger bring the knot thus formed to the end of the thread.

A large ungainly knot is a disfigurement to a piece of sewing. You are
now ready to adjust the button; place the knot on the upper or right
side so that it will be concealed; after adjusting the button put a
pin across the top and sew securely through the holes, crossing the
threads. Sew not less than three times through each hole. Remove the
pin. Insert the needle from underneath, then bring it out between the
button and cloth close to the centre of the button. Wind the thread
tightly around the neck of the button three or four times. (The neck
is the threads between the button and material.) Wrapping the threads
around protects the stitches and allows room for the buttonhole to lie
under the button. Take the thread through to the wrong side and take up
three stitches, make a short stitch on the material and cut the thread
close (Figures 2 and 3).

[Illustration: Figs. 2 and 3]

When a three-hole button is used the stitches form a triangle on the
top of the button. A shoe-button should be sewed with a No. 2 needle
and coarse black thread. The stitches are taken through the shank of
the button. Fasten off the thread after sewing on two buttons, for if
they are all on one continuous string or thread and that breaks, all
the buttons are apt to come off. If each button is securely fastened
the thread may be passed, however, from one to the other.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Even basting]

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Uneven basting]

Now I know you want to do some real sewing; it must not be big or
you will get very tired and think sewing is not as pleasant as you
fancied. The simplest stitch in sewing is basting. This is used to
hold materials together until you are ready to make firmer stitches.
In the following illustration the even and uneven basting stitches are
shown (Figures 4 and 5). They must be straight. Even basting stitches
should be taken about a quarter of an inch apart and in the running
stitch which is fine basting about an eighth or a sixteenth of an inch.
Pretty huck pillows can be made of even and uneven basting or running
stitches. A leaf, star or a figure cut out and traced on a piece of
muslin will make a nice design for running stitches (Figure 6).

[Illustration: Fig. 6. A simple design in running stitch]

If you will examine different kinds of materials before they are cut,
you will note that the threads run in two directions. The threads
running lengthwise must be the stronger, as they have more strain on
them. They are called the warp. The warp is set up first before the
weaving begins. The threads running crosswise are called the woof. It
is the weaker thread and forms the edge or selvage.

If you will take a card three inches square and prick a line of dots
half an inch from the top and bottom edges and prick a line a quarter
of an inch apart you will have a little loom. The dots must be directly
under each other. A piece of coloured worsted and a large-eyed crewel
needle No. 2 will be required. Make a knot at the end of your thread
and start from the upper right hand hole on the wrong side. Bring your
thread up through the hole and down through the lower right-hand dot.
The needle must now come up through the next hole at the bottom and the
thread be again stretched across the card.

When every hole has been filled and you have several rows of straight
lines, fasten off the worsted in the back. Another shade of wool should
be selected so that you can distinguish the warp from the woof. The
thread you are now going to use is the woof; commence at the top and go
straight across to the left line, up over and down under each thread
and so on till the row is completed. In weaving the next row, pick up
the threads of the warp that you went over last time. Alternate rows
agree (Figure 7). When finished, the little piece can be used as a
doll's mat.

To darn your stockings is almost as simple a matter as this weaving.
Instead, however, of starting the thread of the warp on an even line,
as on the card, start some higher than the others. The reason for this
is that an even line will be apt to make an uncomfortable seam in
your stocking. The woof threads are always connected to the stocking.
A darning ball should be used under the hole. In darning cashmere or
woollen stockings it is best to allow the warp to be very slack as
wool shrinks considerably in washing. Wool should be used for darning
woollen stockings.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Weaving with worsted]

[Illustration: Fig. 8A. The first step in darning]

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. The Right Way to Darn]

Have you ever belonged to a sewing club? If not, try to start one
and see how much fun there is in it. The club should meet either on
Friday or Saturday afternoon, after the school work is finished. Every
girl should bring her stockings to darn and another piece of work, so
that when the darning is over she will have something to work on. If
there are more than four in the club it is a very hard thing to keep
up. Three is the ideal number for it. It is better to have a small
number--three, for instance. A large club is apt to be distracting, but
three or four little girls, with the right helpful spirit, will find
such meetings very instructive and entertaining.

[Illustration: Fig. 8B. The second and last step in darning]



II

BACK-STITCHING, OVER-CASTING, CREASING A HEM AND HEMMING, ROLLING A
HEM, FRENCH HEMMING, SEWING ON TAPES AND HOOKS AND EYES


[Illustration: Fig. 9. The right way to hold your scissors]

"Stitching is witching," the song book says, and it is true, for after
we know that stitch there are a hundred and one things we can do. Some
people call it back-stitching and we must try to remember that, so that
we shall understand of what they are talking. Get mother to give you a
piece of material to practise on that has a stripe in it. Now take your
scissors (Figure 9) and cut out two three-inch squares. Baste the two
squares together a quarter of an inch from the edge. Hold the square
over the first finger of the left hand ready for the back-stitching.
Let the basting run up and down over your finger. Start from the top
and make a small stitch backward, on the right side of the material,
instead of forward as you did in running (Figure 10). Pass the needle
under until you have a stitch twice as long on the wrong side as that
on the right. Take the next stitch backward close to the end of the
last one on the right.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Back-stitching]

Remember that the stitch you take backward is only half as long as
the one you take forward. Stitching always looks very different on
the wrong side, but on the right side it ought to look like machine
stitching. This stitch might be called the lion stitch, because it is
so strong. It is used to join two edges together, as for the seams in
bean-bags or cushion covers.

In places where there will not be much strain we use a quicker stitch,
which is called the half-back stitch (Figure 11). This is very much
like the stitching of which I have been telling you. The wrong side
will look about the same, but on the right side instead of the
stitches touching there will be a space, then a stitch of equal length.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. The half-back stitch]

The next stitch to learn is the combination-stitch, which is made up of
both the running and the back-stitch (Figure 12). It is a stitch that
is greatly used for sewing long seams, as on underwear. By this stitch
we can cover the distance in about half the time that back-stitching
would take.

[Illustration: Fig. 12. The combination running and back-stitch]

Whenever you can avoid making a knot, do so, because it spoils the
look of your work on the wrong side. You can start your work, if it
is a seam, for example, by making two or three stitches on top of
each other. Follow the thread of the warp or woof of the material as
much as possible. After fastening your thread, make two fine running
stitches forward and one back. Keep the stitches the same length.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. Over-casting]

Over-casting is used on unfinished or cut edges to keep them from
fraying (Figure 13). The stitches all slant from right to left. Take
the stitches one eighth of an inch deep and one quarter of an inch
apart.

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Over-handing]

Over-handing is fine over-casting and used to connect two finished
edges together (Figure 14), as when sewing lace on ruffles, or joining
selvages. What is the selvage? It is the edge of the warp. The next
time mother goes shopping ask her to take you with her. When she tells
the salesman she wants so many yards of goods, whether it is for
kitchen towels or a dress for herself or for you, notice how the goods
is measured. The salesman will measure along one of the finished sides
of the goods. These finished edges are called selvages.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. The seam opened]

Make the stitches in over-handing as small as possible, keeping the
stitches even. Sew through both pieces of the material. Hold your work
between your thumb and first finger. Here again it is not necessary to
make a knot. Let a half-inch of the end of your thread lie on top of
the material toward the left side; the over-handing stitches will cover
this end. When the over-handing is finished run your thumb-nail along
the stitches on the right side. If your stitches are too deep there
will be a seam on the wrong side, whereas if the instructions have
been followed carefully the material will lie perfectly flat (Figure
15).

Now we are ready to help mother hem the new kitchen towels. First see
that the edge you are to hem is straight. If it is not, pull out a
thread so as to mark a line to cut by. You must take a thread that runs
the entire way across the end of the towel. Cut carefully along the
space out of which the thread came. Get a piece of card that has two
smooth or straight edges and make a notch one-half inch from the corner
(Figure 16). A half-inch hem is the one commonly used on a towel.

[Illustration: Fig. 16. A notched card]

If mother likes to have her towels with a wider or narrower hem, notch
the card the size she wishes. Turn the material back one-quarter inch
and crease it down with your thumb-nail. A second fold is made the
width of the hem. Take your measuring card and, placing the end of it
on the double edge, see if your hem is exactly the width desired. Baste
along the first folded edge to hold the material together for hemming
(Figures 17 and 18). Hold the edge to be hemmed toward you. Do not knot
your thread. Insert the needle at the extreme right of the hem. Pull
the needle through, leaving a little end, as in over-handing, to be
fastened down with the hemming itself.

[Illustration: Fig. 17. The first step]

[Illustration: Fig. 18. The second step]

Your needle should slant as shown in the diagram (Figure 19). Take a
stitch right through all the thicknesses of the material. Be sure that
it goes through to the other side. The fewer the threads taken on the
needle at the same time, the neater the result will be. The stitches
should slant from right to left. The stitches must be close together if
we want fine hemming. Let each stitch be the same size as the other and
slant in the same direction. The right side of the hem looks like a row
of short dashes.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. The way the needle should slant]

If your needle gets "sticky" when you are sewing, you should pass it
through your emery-bag till it is shiny and sharp again. The needle is
apt to get that way if your hands perspire. Ladies who like to keep
their sewing looking fresh and white, as if hands had never touched it,
find it a good plan to wash their hands in a little vinegar, or lemon
and water.

It is very necessary to sit so that the light falls over your left
shoulder. A little straight-back chair is another good help in sewing.
Do you know that many of our English great-grandmothers had very
straight backs? When they were little girls they had to sit on a very
straight, tall chair, an hour or two every day. A foot-stool was placed
under their feet, and their shoulders strapped against the chair. Of
course they did not sit there idle, but a piece of fine sewing was
given them to work. You see they did not have the opportunity to run
around and play as you have. Their chief recreation was their dancing
lesson.

[Illustration: Fig. 20. A corner basted ready for hemming]

The towel finished, the next thing to learn is how to turn a corner and
hem it. Shall we make a cover for Sally Ann's bed or a dust-cloth for
mother? In either case cut a piece of material eighteen inches square
and turn a hem and baste it as you did for the towel. The next side is
folded the same as the first. The corner should form a perfect square
(Figure 20). Sometimes the material is very thick and the hem wide; in
that case it is wise to cut a little oblong piece out of the corner as
shown in the illustration (Figure 21).

[Illustration: Fig. 21. The material cut from a corner]

Napkins and table-covers should be sewed with a French hem. Make a turn
about a sixteenth of an inch deep. The second turn should be about
three sixteenths of an inch wide. Fold the hem back so that it touches
the right side of the material. The hem is connected to the material
with tiny over-hand stitches. Open the hem, when finished crease with
the thumb-nail till it lies perfectly flat.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Whipping]

A pretty new way of finishing a handkerchief is to roll the material
for the edge instead of folding it. Over-cast or, as we sometimes say,
whip it with delicate-coloured cotton, (Figure 22). The nicest material
for handkerchiefs is fine linen, but lawn is cheaper for practice
work. Hold the wrong side of the material to you. Then roll about one
eighth of an inch between the thumb and first finger of your left hand.
Do not roll more than an inch of the hem at a time. Take a needle
and thread it with a piece of coloured cotton. In this case it is
permissible to make a knot. Insert the needle at the beginning of the
roll. Over-cast or whip the rolled edge. The stitches should encircle
the roll and not go through it. When the rolled inch is over-casted,
roll another inch and repeat in this manner till the whole handkerchief
is worked. If you desire, when you have finished one side, you can whip
in an opposite direction toward the point at which you started, thus
forming a cross with each return stitch (Figure 23).

[Illustration: Fig. 23. A pretty finish for handkerchiefs]

Lace is sewed to raw edges by rolling and whipping the material and
connecting the lace at the same time.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. A rolled hem]

[Illustration: Fig. 25. One end creased one quarter of an inch]

[Illustration: Fig. 26. The tape open flat on material]

Tapes should be on all towels and on all your skirts and dresses that
are to hang on nails or pegs. Take a piece of fine tape about five
inches long. Crease one end down one quarter of an inch (Figure 25). If
the tape-loop is to be sewed on a towel find the direct centre of the
top edge of the towel. Lay the tape with the creased end open flat on
the towel (Figure 26). Sew along the creased line with back-stitching.
Fold the other end of the tape over, baste it down so that it entirely
covers the stitches already made and with small hemming stitches
connect the tape to the material (Figure 27). There should be two
tape-loops on your dress or separate skirt. There is usually too much
weight for only one loop. Place a loop in each armhole of the waist or
dress. For the skirt, measure the waist-band and place the loops so
that the band is divided in thirds.

[Illustration: Fig. 27. The tape finished]

Do you know that very few people sew on hooks and eyes properly? Yet
there is no difficulty in sewing them correctly and they look much
nicer. Take the eye, connect it to the material with two stitches that
make a cross. With the same thread pass the needle to the left-hand
loop. Insert the needle in the material so that the eye of the needle
is within the loop and the point of the needle comes just outside. See
that the thread passes from left to right _under_ the point of the
needle. Draw the needle through and repeat in this manner until the two
loops of the eye are firmly connected to the material. Sometimes it is
necessary to cover the upper part of the eye. In that case cover the
metal with fine over-and-over stitches as shown in (Figure 28B).

[Illustration: Fig. 28A. The eye firmly sewed]

[Illustration: Fig. 28B. A covered eye]

The loop of the hook is sewed on in a very similar manner at the
base, while the top of the hook is caught with eight or nine
over-and-over-stitches (Figure 29). These stitches are taken under the
hook portion and connect the under side only. Measure accurately just
where every eye goes and place the hook so that when it meets the eye
it will be straight. A sixteenth of an inch out of the way spoils the
appearance and is apt to pull the material crooked. Another point to
remember is that it is not a good plan to place the eyes on the extreme
edge. A margin of some size is most necessary to extend beyond the
eyes. Sometimes it is necessary to sew a piece of material so that it
extends one inch beyond the eyes if the eyes are sewed on the extreme
edge of the finished garment. This piece is called the fly piece.

[Illustration: Fig. 29. The hook]



III

GATHERING, SEWING ON BANDS, A PRACTICAL SEWING APRON, HEMMED PATCHES,
GUSSETS AND TUCKS


Though I know you don't like making samples, I am going to ask you to
make a little apron for a doll, as a model, before we make a real big
one.

Get a piece of muslin five by nine inches and a No. 9 sewing needle.
Thread it with a piece of No. 70 cotton. Baste an eighth of an inch hem
on both of the five-inch sides, and a three-quarter of an inch hem on
one of the nine-inch sides.

The basting of the three sides being finished we will now start to
gather the fourth side. Thread a No. 8 needle with No. 50 thread. Use a
thread a trifle longer than nine inches. Make a good-sized knot in the
thread so that the end cannot slip through the material. Start from the
right-hand side of the piece and insert the needle on the under side.
Let the knot come on top of the narrow hem about one quarter of an inch
from the raw edge.

The needle is now in position on the right side of the material. Take
up several stitches on the needle before pulling it through (Figure
30). The stitches are nothing more than running stitches. When the
running has been worked across the nine inches of the material, take
the needle out and make a knot in the thread.

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Gathering the apron]

Put a pin, vertically, close to the last stitch. Take up only a few
threads of the material on the pin. Draw up the running thread so that
you have about three and a half inches of gathering. Wind the thread
that extends beyond the gathering over the top and under the point of
the pin a number of times, crossing the thread at the middle of the pin
so that it forms an eight (Figure 31).

To allow the gathering to fall evenly, it will be necessary to stroke
it. Use a No. 2 needle for this purpose. With the right side of the
work toward you begin at the left-hand edge. Hold the work between
the left thumb and forefinger, keeping the thumb below the gathering
thread. Put the point of the No. 2 needle under the gathering thread,
holding it obliquely. Press the needle toward the thumb, bringing the
little plait under the thumb and drawing the needle downward. Pinch
the little plait down lightly with your thumb. Continue in this way,
putting the needle under each stitch (Figure 32).

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Gathers ready for stroking]

Let us now put a band and strings on our apron. Cut two strips of
material ten inches long by two inches wide. These are for the strings.
Baste an eighth of an inch hem on the two long sides of each strip.
Make a three-quarter of an inch hem on each string.

Over-hand the ends of the broad hem. All the hems that are basted on
the strings and the material itself should be hemmed with fine stitches.

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Gathering Strokes]

Cut another strip two and a half inches wide by five inches long. This
is the band. Turn down one eighth of an inch of the material all around
the band. Crease the band in half, lengthwise, so that the edges, just
folded, are inside.

Find the centre of the gathered material and the centre of the opened
band. Holding the wrong side of the apron toward you, pin the middle of
the apron to the middle of the band. Pin the gathered side of the apron
to the band, three quarters of an inch from each end of it.

Wind the gathering thread around the left-hand pin, drawing the thread
up to fit the band. With the point of the needle adjust the gathers
so that the fullness is evenly distributed along the band. Holding
the gathers toward you, baste with small stitches a little above the
gathering thread.

Turn up the band and on the right side of the apron hem the band in it,
catching up a gather with each stitch. Some people prefer to stitch
along the basting line instead of hemming (Figure 33).

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Taking up a gather with every stitch]

Baste the other side of the band down, and hem as on the right side.
Insert the strings in the band. Hem in the same way as on the band,
first the right side and then the left side, and now your little apron
is completed (Figure 34).

Would you not like to have a sewing apron that you can use as a bag
when you are not wearing it? It is such an easy thing to make that
after you have one for yourself you will be making them for your
friends for Christmas.

[Illustration: Fig. 34. The apron completed]

Get mother to measure you from the waist to the knees. The material for
the apron should be one and a half this measurement. Turn one third of
the material back. Baste the double edges together and sew with fine
combination stitches.

Turn this piece inside out. Crease back one eighth of an inch edge of
this pocket, as it were. Baste a piece of beading over this raw edge
right around the back of the apron. Be careful not to sew up the pocket.

The beading on the back must be the same distance from the bottom as
the beading in front; that is, we must keep a straight line. Sew on the
extreme edges of the beading with fine running stitches, to connect it
to the material. Now as the ribbon we are to run in the beading must
serve as a draw string, as well as for decoration, it will be necessary
to put two pieces in. So get a narrow ribbon about one half the width
of the openings in the beading. Each piece of ribbon must be long
enough to go once around the apron and enough of the ends left to tie
double bows--one for each side. Start one piece of the ribbon at the
right-hand side of the apron and the other at the left.

The top of the apron or single piece is finished with a piece of
beading which is sewed on, as on the pocket. A ribbon long enough to
go around your waist and to tie a bow in the back is run through the
beading (Figure 35).

[Illustration: Fig. 35. The apron]

When the apron is not being worn your work can be placed in the large
pocket and the single section folded within the pocket. The ribbons
are then drawn up tight and "bravo!" you have a work bag fit for a
queen (Figure 36).

[Illustration: Fig. 36. The work bag]

There are so many kinds of rents or holes that may happen to your
clothes that it is worth the while to know how to mend the various
kinds. There is an old adage that says, "Waste makes want," and we
would spend a small fortune in clothes if every time a wee hole made
its appearance we discarded the garment.

If it is a circular hole in a dress or underbody, as often happens,
under the arms, we will use the square patch. Cut a piece of the same
kind of material, three inches square, or larger if necessary. Turn a
fold of one eighth of an inch on the four edges of this square. Crease
it lengthwise and crosswise.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. The patch hemmed to the material]

Crease the material on which the patch is to be laid lengthwise and
crosswise through the tear. Pin the small piece or patch on the wrong
side of the large piece, or garment, so that the creases run in the
same direction. The warp must run the same way in both pieces. One
sixteenth of an inch from the edges run a basting thread. Hem the four
sides on the patch to the material (Figure 37).

[Illustration: Fig. 38. The pin in each corner of the patch]

On the garment side make a crease half an inch wide, from the hemming,
on the four sides. Four little squares will be formed in the corners.
Crease along the diagonal of each square. Place a pin one eighth of an
inch from each corner, within the patch (Figure 38). Cut the garment
from the centre of the tear to the pins. Repeat this on each side,
cutting along the crease which you made, one half inch from the hemming.

Turn in one eighth of an inch and baste. Hem all around (Figure 39).

[Illustration: Fig. 39. The garment side of the patch]

In patching material such as checked or striped ginghams, percales, or
other materials, the stripes or the checks must match so that the patch
is not too apparent (Figure 40).

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Matching the stripes]

Have you ever noticed how the slit or placket of a petticoat or side
opening of drawers is finished? A piece of material is put in of an
odd shape to strengthen the openings. This is called a gusset. Suppose
that you were making a petticoat. Join the skirt up the back from the
bottom, but leave eight inches open at the top. This top opening is the
placket. But let us take a small piece of material and practise making
the back of a skirt. We will put a hem and a few tucks at the bottom of
the material first.

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Basting the tuck]

Make a measuring card of a straight strip with an eighth, three
eighths, and three quarters of an inch notches.

Crease and fold a wide hem (three quarters of an inch), using the
measuring card as a guide.

Over-hand each end of the hem. Now baste along the hem. The
over-handing must be done before the basting. Now hem this wide hem.

Again, using the cardboard measure, on the right side of the model
fold a crease three quarters of an inch above the hem. Begin at the
right-hand side to crease and baste (Figure 41).

With a fine, even, running stitch, an eighth of an inch below the
crease, make the tuck (Figure 42). Measure every few stitches to keep
the seam straight.

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Making the tuck]

If a second tuck is desired, measure from the tuck instead of the hem.

Now we are ready for the slit which is in the centre top. On the wrong
side start at the top with an eighth of an inch hem, but decrease it to
almost nothing right to the bottom (Figure 43). Fold the other side in
the same manner. In hemming the two sides, start at the top.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. The placket hemmed]

Now let us practise making gussets on a piece of paper. Cut a piece
of paper three inches square. Fold it from corner to corner and cut
(Figure 44). Turn the straight or short edges of the paper one eighth
of an inch and fold along the two shorter edges (Figure 45).

[Illustration: Fig. 44. The triangle]

Hold the paper with the straight edge down, measure it from the two
points one quarter of an inch. Now cut a piece of material the size of
the paper and fold like model.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. The short edges folded]

Cut off the two points one quarter inch from each corner on the thread
of the goods (Figure 46). Turn these two straight ends and the bias
edge of paper one eighth of an inch (Figure 47). Turn point of paper
down one eighth of an inch from bias hem and crease (Figure 48).

[Illustration: Fig. 46. With points cut off]

Now cut the muslin gusset and fold just like the paper one.

[Illustration: Fig. 47. All sides are now creased.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48. The point folded over]

Hold the model or skirt with right side toward you, and turn up point
of gusset. Holding the wrong side of the skirt toward you, twist left
side of gusset to left side of placket and over-hand to creased line,
half way up the gusset (Figure 49).

[Illustration: Fig. 49. The gusset over-handed half way]

Over-hand right side. Turn bias edge of gusset over to right side, pin,
having straight edges parallel to warp and woof threads and then hem
(Figure 50).

Gather the top of the skirt and put on a band on each side of opening
about the same width as the one used on the apron (Figure 51).

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Gusset hemmed]

[Illustration: Fig. 51. The gusset model completed]



IV

A DOLL'S SKIRT AND SEWING CASE, BINDINGS, DOLL'S BED LINEN AND A PIN
CASE


Let us suppose that Sally Ann measures twelve inches from the crown of
her head to the soles of her feet and that you would like to make her a
gored skirt like mother's. Would you not feel happier if you made the
pattern and then cut the skirt yourself?

Take a piece of paper twelve by nine inches wide, mark every inch on
both the long sides of the paper. Lay a ruler so that it touches the
centre of the space between the first and second dots on the upper
edge, and between the second and third dots on the lower edge. This
will form the half of the front gore of the skirt. Mark it, "half of
front."

Now draw a line from the second dot on the upper edge to the centre of
the space between the fourth and fifth dots of the lower edge. Connect
the sixth dot on the upper and lower edges, mark this section "side
gore." Connect the eleventh dot on lower and upper edges and mark this
section "back." The remaining inch mark "belt." (Figure 52).

[Illustration: Fig. 52. The pattern drawn]

Cut the pattern apart along the lines drawn.

Take a piece of muslin twenty-four by nine inches. Tear off two inches
of the muslin on the length for the band and then ten inches for the
back of the skirt.

Fold the remaining piece of muslin with the two short edges together so
that the doubled piece measures six inches by nine. Place the straight
edge of front of skirt pattern on the fold of the material and the edge
of the side gore on the other edge. Pin the pattern down securely and
cut through both thicknesses of the material (Figure 53).

Pin the skirt together, placing a straight edge of a gore to a bias.
Baste a quarter-inch seam along the finished edges of each gore,
holding the bias edge toward you. Sew the seams up with combination
stitches. Press open the seams and over-cast each one to keep it from
fraying.

[Illustration: Fig. 53. The back, side gore and front]

Fold a hem at the bottom of the skirt an inch and a quarter wide. Baste
the hem so that seam comes to seam. On the front gore there will be a
fullness. Gather this fullness in with fine running stitches and baste.
Use a separate thread for the gathering. Now hem around the whole skirt.

Cut the placket two inches down through the centre back. Turn a hem on
the right side one half inch wide and on the left one eighth inch. Sew
the hem.

Lap the wide hem over the narrow at the bottom of the placket and
stitch across the wide hem two rows of stitching one eighth of an inch
apart.

Turn in the strip you cut off at first for the band one quarter of an
inch on the two short sides and on one of the long sides.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. The skirt]

Fold lengthwise, find centre of band and crease; one inch from this,
crease again.

Place and pin band in the same way as for the gusset described in the
last chapter, placing the middle crease at the middle of front of
skirt. Then pin the band also at the creases on either side of centre.
Gather each side of the skirt that is left. Draw in the thread to fit
belt. Spread the gathers so that most of the fullness is in the back.

Over-hand the ends and hem second side of the placket. This finishes
the skirt (Figure 54).

A basket or box of some sort is very nice to have, as we have said
above, for your sewing, but suppose you were going to sew with another
friend and you wanted a handy case in which to carry your sewing
implements? A cloth case that can be folded or rolled is very much more
convenient and may be carried in the large pocket of your apron. One
made of denim is inexpensive, wears well, and is highly practicable.
One yard will make you a case.

Cut a piece of green denim sixteen by fifteen inches long. Turn up four
inches of the material, baste down both sides. Baste a four-inch pocket
on the left-hand corner of your case. The rest of the case divide in
two. This will hold your darning cotton that comes on cards.

We have a pretty way of finishing this case, which is not only
ornamental but strong, and that is to bind it. Get a piece of tape long
enough to go around the whole case. Crease it lengthwise so that one
edge comes slightly below the other. Open it and lay it on denim and
then neatly back-stitch the right side and hem the wrong. The hemming
should be just below the back-stitching, and must not be seen on the
right side. Allow enough tape at the corners to make a good angle. Both
sides of the corner must be treated alike.

[Illustration: Fig. 55. The material caught from side to side]

It will be well to have a needle case to match the sewing case. Cut
a strip of material thirteen inches long by three and a half inches
wide. Cut this strip in four parts. Get a piece of cardboard that is
not too thick or of such kind that will break easily, as some of the
cheaper grades of brown cardboard are apt to do. Cut four pieces, three
inches wide by three and a half inches long. Thread your needle with a
piece of No. 40 cotton and put a big knot at the end. Take one of the
pieces of denim and a piece of the cardboard. Catch the material from
side to side with stitches about one quarter of an inch apart (Figure
55). After sewing these two sides sew the third and fourth in the same
manner. Cover each piece of the cardboard in this way (Figure 56). Take
two of the covered pieces and over-cast them carefully together.

[Illustration: Fig. 56. The four sides of material caught together]

You should have leaves of flannel to stick your needles in. Pink the
edges of the flannel. Pinking is snipping out the edge in little points
and can be done with scissors. Connect the two pieces of the needle
case with two tiny bows, or a heavy thread can be made to answer the
purpose. The flannel sheets are tacked through the centre like the
pages in a book (Figure 57).

The third or middle compartment between the spool case and darning
thread can be used for a miscellaneous pocket to hold the tape-measure,
emery-bag, small scissors and other necessary articles.

[Illustration: Fig. 57. The flannel sheets tacked through the centre]

A piece of tape stretched down on the denim with just enough spring for
the package of needles to pass through is a handy way to carry them
(Figure 58).

It is rather dangerous to travel with a pair of scissors with the
points unprotected. In Canada and the states that border it the
Indians sell the little sweet grass protectors. A cork, however, that
comes in small bottles such as you get from drug stores will protect
the points of the scissors as well as the sweet grass protectors, if
not as elegantly. If the scissors are too large to put in the pocket a
piece of tape could be stitched down to slip them in lengthwise. The
case should be folded in three parts when it is not in use and a piece
of tape the same colour as the binding tied around it (Figure 59).

[Illustration: Fig. 56. The four sides of material caught together]

Now that you have your sewing apron and a work box, you will love to
be sewing every chance you get. Suppose we plan a set of bed things
for Sally Ann. First let us make a mattress. The mattress on your bed
is covered, probably, with ticking, but this is too harsh for your
fingers to sew, so let us select percale or zephyr, and half-inch tape
for the binding; the filling can be cotton, hair, or feathers. If it is
impossible to get any of these three, newspapers chipped up very fine
will make an excellent padding. Many people use newspaper chippings to
fill pillows for summer use.

[Illustration: Fig. 59. The case folded]

Measure the bedstead and cut two pieces of percale or zephyr exactly
the same size. Now cut a stripe of the material, one inch wide, long
enough to go around the four sides of one of the pieces of the material
that you have just cut.

[Illustration: Fig. 60. The narrow strip to the large strip]

Baste the long narrow strip around one large piece. Lay the wrong side
of the strip to the wrong side of the material (Figure 60). The edges
must be even. Use the combination stitch of one running stitch and one
back-stitch just below the basting. When the strip has been securely
sewed to the four sides of the material, join the two ends together on
the wrong side.

Now take your tape, which may be white or the colour of the figure in
your material, and bind the edges by first running one side down and
then the other (Figure 61).

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Binding the mattress]

The other piece of material is sewed in the same manner--the wrong
side of the strip to the wrong side of the material. Do not sew,
however, around the entire four sides but leave about six inches open
through which the filling may be passed. After basting the strip with
combination stitching fill with cotton or whatever material you have on
hand. Do not fill the mattress so that it will be bumpy. Put a little
stick in and flatten the filling at the top. Now sew the opening up
and we are ready to quilt the mattress.

Thread a large needle with two pieces of heavy cotton floss or wool.
Push your needle through to the other side, letting a short end extend
above the mattress. Bring your needle back again close to where it came
out (Figure 62). Unthread the needle and tie the ends tightly. Cut off
what is left and repeat again two and a half inches over. It is best to
quilt in rows; that is, to start two inches in from the long side and
make a row parallel with the tape. The next row is made two and a half
inches farther over and the next row of knots should come in between
the first row of dots.

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Quilting]

This mattress is made just like yours and the pillow is the next
article we will make. The pillow should be half the width of your
mattress, as we will use two on the bed. Take a piece of material
twice the length desired for the pillow. Use the same kind of material
as that used for the mattress. Fold the piece in two with the wrong
side out. Join the two long edges and one of the short sides with the
combination stitch (Figure 63). Make the stitches one quarter inch from
the edge. Now turn the case inside out and fill with cotton. Turn in
the edges of the open end and over-cast them together (Figure 64). As I
have said before, it will be necessary to make two pillows.

[Illustration: Fig. 63. The pillowcase]

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Overcasting the open end]

The pillowcases can be made of lawn, cambric or muslin. Cut the
material a little larger both in length and width than the pieces used
for the pillow. The seams of the pillowcases will have to be felled.
Along the one short side and the long side make fine running stitches,
one quarter of an inch from the edge. Cut the raw edge from one side so
that the other is about an eighth of an inch wider. Now fold the wider
edge over like a hem so that it completely covers the cut edge and
hem neatly to the material. The open end has a wide hem of say three
quarters of an inch. When the hem is finished turn the case with the
work inside.

For the sheets cut two pieces of muslin or lawn large enough to cover
the mattress and to turn under. The selvage edge of the material should
run the length of the sheet. Turn in a quarter-inch hem on the two long
sides of each sheet and hem. Now turn a one-inch hem at the top and
bottom of each sheet. This completes the sheet (Figure 65).

[Illustration: Fig. 65. The sheet]

A blanket is of course very necessary to have and it can be made of
a piece of an old blanket or of canton flannel, cashmere, or plain
flannel. If a piece of blanket is used, finish the edges with the
blanket stitch which is described in Chapter twelve of the book.

The flannel, cashmere, or canton flannel is finished by turning the
edges over a quarter of an inch and herring boning or cat-stitching
them to the material (Figure 66). For cat-stitching see diagram in
Chapter nine.

[Illustration: Fig. 66. The blanket]

No bed is complete without a counterpane of some sort and this can
be made as fancy as you desire. A pretty one is made of strips of
insertion joined together by fine over-casting or fagotting. Fagotting
is explained in Chapter twenty. A row of edging will have to be sewed
like a ruffle around the two long and one short sides to complete the
counterpane.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. The crow's foot and spider on checked gingham]

If a very fancy counterpane is desired get a piece of checked gingham
of some light colour. The check should be a quarter of an inch square.
With your needle threaded with white or a shade deeper than the
darkest check make spiders on the dark squares and crow's feet on the
light. Directions for making a spider are given in the chapter on "Lace
Stitches."

A crow's foot is made by taking one stitch on the diagonal of the
square and two on each side of it, the stitches on each side of the
first one being a trifle shorter than the previous ones (Figure 67). A
counterpane like this is very attractive and does not require a great
deal of time to make.

[Illustration: Fig. 68. The envelope opened]

A dainty little pin case that will make an acceptable little gift for a
friend that is going to travel is the envelope pin case. Take a piece
of material such as linen, cretonne, or silk and another piece of
different coloured material for lining and shape one end as shown like
the flap of an envelope (Figure 68). A good size is nine inches long by
four inches wide.

Cut a piece of stiff paper a half inch smaller than the pieces of
material. Baste the material which will be outside over the paper so
that the edges are folded back one quarter on the paper. Turn a similar
fold on the lining and hem it to the material as shown on the flap of
the envelope opened.

[Illustration: Fig. 69. The envelope case closed]

Now take two papers of pins and place them in the case so that they
look like leaves of a book. Be careful to see that the heads of the
pins are on top. Now catch the pins to the case with several long
stitches which are taken below the points of the pins. Stitch a ribbon
to flap of envelope and one at the bottom. Close the case and tie the
ribbons and you have a handy pin case (Figure 69).



V

MAKING BUTTONHOLES, CUTTING FROM A PATTERN, A DOLL DRESS


To make a good buttonhole is an accomplishment that any girl can be
proud of, as it is the hardest thing in sewing. The thread should be
almost double in length to that you usually take, as a joining is very
clumsy in a buttonhole.

A buttonhole is a worked opening in a piece of material or garment
through which a button is to be slipped. The friction caused by
buttoning and unbuttoning necessitates that the worked edges should be
firmly and well sewed.

[Illustration: Fig. 70. The first step in buttonholing]

Before we make a real buttonhole, let us see how the stitch is worked.
Draw a line one inch in length with the straight of the material. Take
two stitches one inch long over this line. At the extreme right of the
stitches insert your needle, threaded with No. 40 cotton. Take a stitch
about a sixteenth of an inch below the line. While the needle is still
in the material--you are working from left to right--(Figure 70), carry
the thread under its point from the left, to the right side of the
needle. The enlarged cut showing this stitch is very plain. The needle
is then drawn through the material toward the chest and then straight
from it. The next stitch and every other stitch must be identical with
the first, the difference being that each stitch is then a little
farther to the left. Every stitch must be the same length.

Now let us prepare to make the stitch on a fold. Fold a band in three
equal parts. Pass the needle between the folds and bring it out on the
edge. Hold the end of the thread with the left thumb. Carry the needle
to the back of the fold and insert the point through the fifth thread
of the material from the edge. The double thread at the edge of the
needle is brought around the point of the needle from left to right and
drawn out. (Figure 71).

A tailor's buttonhole is made slightly different. The needle is placed
in the same position as in the ordinary buttonhole. The thread is
brought from the top of the stitch and the doubled thread is brought
around under the point of the needle from right to left (Figure 72).

[Illustration: Fig. 71. The position of the needle in buttonholing]

[Illustration: Fig. 72. A tailor's buttonhole]

The corners of the buttonhole are worked in two ways, either barred or
rounded. The round corners are worked in the same buttonhole stitch,
only it is twice the depth of the buttonholing along the two edges.
Five or seven stitches will be sufficient for a corner or the ridge of
the buttonholing will be too crowded.

The bar or braced end of the buttonhole is a little more difficult. It
is necessary to bar a buttonhole for heavy woollen materials such as
men's coats, or your own cloak, or outer wraps (Figure 72). Generally
the first end of the buttonhole is rounded and the last end barred
(Figure 73).

[Illustration: Fig. 73. The buttonhole with one end rounded and the
other barred]

Work around the buttonhole end when the last stitch has been made,
turn the material so that the work lies across your forefinger. Pass
the needle over the extreme left of the stitch, (Figure 74). Work four
stitches the same length as those of the two sides of the buttonhole,
and then insert the needle through the ridge of the first buttonhole
stitch. The ridge of the bar faces the buttonhole. This bar should be
just the width of the buttonhole. Nine stitches are usually sufficient
for it.

[Illustration: Fig. 74. Barring the buttonhole]

Tailors run two or three strands at the base of the buttonhole before
working the nine stitches. The stitches are not taken through the
material but only over the threads.

A buttonhole is fastened off on the wrong side at the base of the
stitch.

The most important step is to cut the buttonhole straight. The
buttonhole should be a trifle longer than the button. It should be cut
in the opposite direction to which the strain will be. For instance on
the back of the waist the buttonholes should run crosswise, for the
movement of the shoulders spreads the buttonhole lengthwise. On the
bands around the waist buttonholes are made lengthwise.

A sharp pair of scissors or a penknife should be used for cutting the
holes. Insert the point of the scissors or knife through the centre of
the buttonhole. Cut one side, then the other, along a thread of the
material.

The thread is fastened securely on the wrong side of the left-hand
corner. Use No. 40 sewing cotton for buttonholes, unless on very fine
material, when No. 60 should be used. Sometimes it is well to over-cast
the raw edges before working the buttonhole. A thread should always
start at the extreme lower left-hand corner.

The backs of yokes should be fastened with loops and fine buttons. To
make a loop, span the thread across the edge of the material in a loop
large enough to slip the button through. Let the last stitch be on the
right-hand side. Now place the threaded needle under the strands of
thread letting the thread fall under the point of the needle. Repeat in
this manner till the strands are entirely covered. The ridge or purled
edge of this stitch will be on the outside of the loop.

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Loops made of threads]

Hooks are sometimes caught into loops, but they are made directly on
the material instead of sewed on the edge. The strands of thread,
however, are not as loose as the buttonloops. The diagram (Figure
75) of the two loops will convey a clear idea of how the threads are
spanned and covered.

The last step in sewing is cutting from a given pattern. An old garment
that fits well, ripped apart makes an excellent pattern and requires
very little fitting. Press the pieces before using them as a pattern.
Lay the material so that the selvage runs lengthwise, that is, from
head to foot. Only one half of the garment is necessary for a pattern,
as the material is doubled or folded lengthwise (Figure 76). The
centre front of the skirt or waist is always placed on the fold of the
material and either basted or pinned down before cutting.

[Illustration: Fig. 76. The centre front on fold]

Collars, cuffs, bands, and sleeves are cut with the selvage running
their length. Cut any part of a garment such as sleeves, waist, or
skirt through two thicknesses of material so that both sides will be
exactly alike. This does not refer to the front gore of a skirt. When
the material has a right and wrong side the right sides should face
each other before cutting the pattern.

Handkerchiefs or frills should be cut along a thread so that the edges
may be perfectly straight.

Be sure that the material lies perfectly flat under the pattern. Pin
the centre first to keep it from slipping before pinning the edges.
Pin the entire garment before cutting anything, so that you can be
sure that your material will be sufficient. This also gives you an
opportunity to see where to put the smaller pieces and economize with
the material.

A large pair of scissors should be used in cutting. The blunt-pointed
blade is next to the board or table. It is well to practise on paper
and plan the pattern before using the pattern on the cloth.

Bias bands should be cut on the bias of the material. Cut a square
piece of material and fold it cat-a-corner. Cut along the fold and you
will get a true bias.

Bands to finish the necks of undergarments or around armholes should be
cut on the bias. In fact, any curved edge that has to be faced should
be faced with a bias instead of a straight band.

Now suppose we make a real dress for Sally Ann that will be put
together and finished just like one of your own dresses. The style we
will select will be on the order of a French dress, that is, a long
waist and short skirt. The pattern for the waist is in seven parts:
they are the front, side front, back, side back, sleeve, collar, and
cuff. The skirt is only one piece.

Three quarters of a yard of material will be sufficient to make a dress
for a doll from eighteen to twenty inches in height.

In all patterns that are bought only one half is given; sometimes
all the seams--which are a very important part of a dress--are given
and sometimes they are omitted. Any pattern that is published by a
reliable firm tells on the envelope whether you should allow for the
seams or not.

The pattern is usually of tissue paper and each piece has perforations
or holes of different shapes. One shape means this side must be
placed on the fold of the material, another shape or perforation the
same shape only grouped differently, means that the pattern should
be placed on a straight thread of the material. Still another means
"gather here." If there are tucks in the pattern they are usually
indicated. Where the seams join each other, little notches are made and
corresponding notches are placed together and pinned after the pattern
is cut.

Let us suppose the material is forty-five inches wide. Place the centre
of the skirt on the fold of the material and pin in place. Your pattern
should be planned and pinned on a flat surface such as a sewing table.
Place the pins through the tissue pattern and both thicknesses of the
material, letting the head and the point of the pin be visible to the
eye. Do not cut any piece of your pattern until you have planned and
pinned every piece, as that is the only way you can economize on your
material (Figure 77). Often a pattern cut before each piece is planned
comes to grief if an over-supply of material has not been provided.

The centre front is also placed on the fold of the material as well as
the centre, back and collar. The sleeves are now fitted in, so that
the perforations rest on the straight thread of the material. The side
front and back and cuffs are also pinned to the material. The pattern
now pinned, take a large pair of cutting scissors and holding the blunt
part toward the table, cut close to the tissue pattern, or if no seams
are allowed, the width stated in directions should be allowed for the
seams.

[Illustration: Fig. 77. The waist pattern pinned to the material]

Let us make the sleeve first. Take one sleeve and holding with the
right side join notches together (Figure 78). Baste the sleeves up on
the seams one eighth of an inch from the edge. When the basting is
finished make a row of fine running stitches. Turn the sleeves on the
wrong side and baste them before working the combination stitches. The
sleeves are now ready to be banded. The band is taken and sewed on the
short side. The seaming is taken on the wrong side of the material. A
little seam is taken on each of the long sides of the cuff. Fold the
cuff in half. The turns or folds are opened out and now turn the cuff
inside out. Run a gathering thread at the lower edge of the main part
of the sleeves starting the thread one half inch from each side of the
seam. Place the cuff around the sleeve so that cuff seam rests on the
seam of the sleeve. Pin into position. It will probably be necessary
to pull or adjust the gathering thread so that the lower part of the
sleeve be just the size of the cuff. Baste the band on after it has
been pinned satisfactorily before working the combination stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 78. Notches of sleeve put together]

Turn the sleeve inside out and fold the cuff in the creases. Hem the
inner side of the cuff to the wrong side of the sleeve. On the upper
side of the sleeves run another gathering thread about one inch and a
half from the seam (Figure 79). We have now finished with the sleeve
until the waist proper is ready.

[Illustration: Fig. 79. Gathering the top of the sleeve]

Now take the centre back and side back and baste them together. Join
the pieces so that the notches correspond. Work the combination stitch
three eighths of an inch from the edge. The side fronts are joined
to the backs under the arm and on the shoulders. The front is then
sewed to the right side of the waist only. It will be necessary to
face the centre front piece and the left side front. Take a bias strip
of material not more than three quarters of an inch wide and fold an
eighth of an inch on each side of this strip. Join the shoulder seams
together, one side of the back to the right side of the front and
the other side to back. Sew with combination stitches, then make a
felled seam as explained for the sleeve. Baste the turned fold to the
right-hand side of the waist by opening out creased side and placing
the two right sides together and stitching one eighth of an inch from
the edge. Turn the bias over to the wrong side of the waist and slip
stitch. Slip stitching, as I have explained before, is somewhat like
hemming; only the stitches are taken back of the folded edge and catch
one thread only of the material.

The other bias band is basted in like manner to the left-hand side of
the waist.

[Illustration: Fig. 80. The gathers on the upper part of the sleeve]

The sleeves are ready to be put in. Measure one and one quarter inches
from the under arm seam on the waist, which is the short seam near the
front of the waist. Pin the seam of the sleeve to this point. Pin the
rest of the sleeve so that the gathers are evenly distributed. Pin
the right side of the sleeve to the right side of the waist. Baste
securely. Remember that the gathers should be thickest on the upper
part of the sleeve (Figure 80). Stitch with fine back-stitching and
then overcast. The neck may be bound or may have the collar attached.

Turn and hem the outer edge of the collar; a ruffle of lace may be
added if desired. Baste the collar to the waist, and try the waist on
Sally Ann. If it is a satisfactory fit, stitch in place. It is well to
cover the raw edges with a little bias fold. Hem the fold down on both
sides.

The long strip is not joined, but a half-inch hem folded on one side
and then stitched. The skirt is plaited or kilted, as it is often
called. A hem is made on each of the short sides of the strips. Now
crease the material as if you were going to make a tuck three quarters
of an inch deep. A box plait will next have to be planned; again crease
your material as if you were going to make a tuck three quarters of an
inch deep. These creases must be exactly three quarters of an inch from
the double fold of each piece. Measure an inch and a half, then turn
the material under so that a three-quarter inch piece is under the left
side of the waist line. This completes the box plait.

The plaits from there on are folded toward the left, while the first
two were toward the right. Baste each plait down securely. When working
on cotton materials that have a lot of dressing, the creases are likely
to stay in without basting, but while working on it the edges are apt
to get turned up. Basting (Figure 81) is therefore the surer and safer
way to keep the plaits in position, while for woollen or soft, sleazy
materials it is the only way.

When every plait has been basted lengthwise, take another thread and
baste them crosswise three or four times.

[Illustration: Fig. 81. Section of plaited skirt showing how it should
be basted crosswise]

Join the waist to the skirt, taking care that the centre of the
box-plait is under the direct centre of the front of the waist.

A sash will be needed to finish this dress. It can be tacked in place
or little straps of ribbon may be stitched at intervals and the ribbon
run through the straps (Figure No. 81A).

If this dress had been stitched on the machine it would have been
better to make tailored seams on the waist; that is, a narrow seam is
taken on the wrong side. The material is then turned back so that on
one side of the seam it slightly overlaps the other. Baste in place and
stitch on the edge. Tailored seams do not require any extra allowance
of material. They should slant toward the right on the right side
of the garment and toward the left on the left side. If the seams
were stitched to run in one direction the garment would have a very
one-sided appearance.

[Illustration: Fig. 81A. Sally Ann's new dress]

Press all the wrinkles caused by handling the dress in sewing. It is
best to lay a damp cloth over the material rather than place the iron
directly on the material. You will need a small iron for this dress.
Press each plait down carefully. Take out the basting threads before
trying on the dress.

There are good, bad and indifferent dressmakers, and I know you wish
to be one of the former. Sew a row of buttons on the left front of the
dress and make little buttonholes to correspond on the right side.



VI

A LESSON IN STENCILLING


What is stencilling? Let us see. Stencilling is a branch of painting.
Have you heard the story of the Baltimore belle in the time of the
Revolution who was most anxious to go to the first big ball that was to
be given after the war? The town had been divested of all the beautiful
silks and satins that the great ladies were accustomed to wear. Our
country had stopped importing these costly materials because there was
no occasion to use them and no money to pay for them.

An invitation had been sent to one of Baltimore's fairest daughters
who was intending to go with her cousin. What were they to wear? Both
needed the festive garments. At last, after a careful canvass of the
town, the young man managed to borrow a pair of satin breeches and a
flowered coat and all the other articles necessary to make a fine dandy
of those days, except the silk stockings.

The girl succeeded in finding a piece of white lawn of the coarsest
kind that was sufficient to make a frock. In no way discouraged this
clever young lady, who luckily could paint beautifully, started and
painted little sprays of rose buds on the fifteen or twenty yards
required for the gown. This made a very dainty and pretty frock.

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Stencilled curtains]

Poor George, her cousin, was in despair in not being able to borrow or
buy a pair of silk stockings, but clever Miss Betty hit on the plan of
painting his legs with a thick coat of white and then decorating them
with clocks on each side, so that no one at the dance even suspected
that he didn't have on silk stockings.

Miss Betty's dress was voted to be the most charming dress of the
evening.

Ever since I have heard this story I have wished that Miss Betty had
known how to stencil. What a lot of time she would have saved! I am
sure you will agree with me when you know how to stencil.

Have you noticed the flat gay decorations above the moulding in some
houses? Well those are stencilled. A painter will cut out a design from
a thin steel background; he lays this on the wall and paints over the
open spaces in the design. It is the only true way in which he can keep
his pattern. All free-hand designs are bound to show a difference in
outline.

Stencilling for home decoration is used on curtains (Figure 82),
portières, rugs, couch covers, table covers, lunch sets, pillow tops,
(Figure 83), bags, counterpanes, as well as for dresses, parasols,
wraps, scarfs, and in fact almost every conceivable object that allows
the use of decoration.

You can get a stencil board from any artist supply shop, but the one
you can make at home is cheaper even if it is not quite as durable.

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. A Single Motif Being
Used On a Stencilled Scarf]

In many of the schools, stencilling in its simplest form is taught in
the kindergarten. The children are taught to fold a heavy piece of
drawing paper lengthwise and draw half a design so that the centre
of it is on the fold of the paper. The design is then cut away, leaving
the background intact. This method is good for very simple motives.
Sometimes when we do not wish our design to be so set, we will draw it
without creasing the paper.

[Illustration: Fig. 83. A simple stencilled pillow]

The stencil board that you can buy is very hard for little fingers to
cut, besides being expensive.

To make a stencil pattern, draw a design such as a bunch of violets.
Let every petal be separated from the other and where the stems should
intersect leave a little space between. These little spaces or bridges
are what keep the background together. Of course, as a usual thing,
if you buy a stencil outfit, one pattern or more already cut comes
with it. In many of the large shops stencil patterns can be bought
separately, but if one has any idea of drawing it is an easy matter to
make a pattern.

[Illustration: Fig. 84. The cut stencil]

The design can be traced and cut on a piece of heavy manilla paper: a
coat or two of shellac makes the paper stiffer and somewhat waterproof.
The advantage of using drawing paper is this, that it may be cut with a
pair of scissors, while a stencil board requires a sharp penknife and
lots of finger strength to cut the pattern. White shellac is the best
to use, as it dries quickly. It can be bought from any paint store.

The pattern now cut (Figure 84), you are ready to do a piece of real
stencilling. Let us choose the cheapest thing we can get for our first
attempt. A piece of cheese cloth for a sash-curtain appeals to me.
Put in the hem so that the stencil will be sure to be straight. Lay a
large piece of blotting paper over the board or table on which you are
going to work. Place the cheese cloth on top of that. Try your stencil
pattern and measure how many times you can repeat it. It is better to
plan a pattern with a small space between each motif so that you will
not have half or part of the design left over. Stick a pin where the
centre of each motif should be.

Lay the stencil pattern in position and thumbtack it down to the cheese
cloth and blotting paper. Turpentine and oil are the most satisfactory
for stencilling, though there are several patent mixtures sold that
are good. The paint can be mixed with the turpentine till it is the
consistency of a thick cream or the brush can be dipped into the
turpentine and then into the paint. In either case the brush must be
wiped quite dry, as the process is more of a rubbing in one than
painting. Bristle brushes of four different sizes should be in your
stencil outfit. They come round and flat, (Figure 85). The frontispiece
shows a child stencilling with the round brush.

[Illustration: Fig. 85. The brushes]

Dip the brush into the mixture and be sure you wipe it off on a soft
rag before painting in the design. If the brush is too wet the result
is a blurred stencil.

Use a different brush for every colour. When the first motif is
stencilled, move the pattern and place it over the next pin. If you
want to reverse the pattern, clean it thoroughly with naptha on both
sides and let it dry for a couple of minutes before using again.

To make a stencilled piece washable it has to be steamed like printed
dress goods. This can be accomplished in two ways: that is, by
holding it over a steaming kettle, or by laying a wet cloth over the
stencilling and pressing with a hot iron.

Needless to say, a piece stencilled in water colours should not be
treated like this.

[Illustration: Fig. 86. A stencilled bag]

Water colours or crayons can be used when a piece is not desired to be
washed. The latter works in as smoothly as paints.

Scrim, cheese cloth, linen, crash, burlap, monk's cloth, and Arras
cloth can be used for curtains or portières. The cost of them varies
from seven cents to one dollar a yard.

Sometimes a small motif is taken and stencilled all over the material.
This gives the effect of a printed pattern.

Five tubes of paint will produce almost any shade under the sun. They
should be blue, yellow, red, black, and white. Blue and yellow make
green; blue and red, purple; lavender, yellow and red make orange. A
little black will soften the colours while white lightens the shade.
Other combinations can be made by mixing three colours together. Enough
of the paint should be mixed at one time to stencil the entire piece,
as it is extremely difficult to mix a new batch of colour that will
be the exact shade as the first. Ultramarine blue is the shade of the
deep sea. Crimson lake is a bright red. Venetian red is a terra cotta.
Emerald green is a blue green. Sap green is yellow green. Ivory or lamp
black are the two blacks to be had in oil paints; the former is shiny
while the latter is dull. Flake white is the term for white in oil
paints.

Of course, you can buy ready mixed in tubes almost any shade you
desire, but it is lots more fun to make your own colour combinations,
as well as very much cheaper. Diamond dyes can be used for stencilling
by letting one package of dye serve for one pint. The dyes will have to
be boiled in the manner stated in their directions.

You will find that stencilling is the most delightful of the home
crafts. Those who are not fond of needlework will find this a real
wholesome pleasure.



VII

WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH ONE SKIN; CUT LEATHER BAGS, BELTS, BOOK COVERS.
ETC.


There is nothing so handsome for a library table or cushion in a
room of dark rich colouring as leather work. These articles are very
expensive to buy and are sold in arts and crafts shops or women's
exchanges and some of the department stores. You have doubtless seen
the dyed whole skin used on a library table, but have you ever seen
leather appliqué? That is the design cut out of a leather background
and lined, or pieces of leather applied to a background.

Different kinds of leather may be used for this work. The cheapest and
thinnest kind is sheepskin. Leather is usually sold by the square foot
and one has to buy the entire skin. Sheepskin costs about sixteen cents
a square foot; some stores charge more for it, while it is possible at
a wholesale and retail shop to get it for less. The skins come dyed in
all shades. Golden brown, dull gray or moss green are the most artistic
for general use. Many tailors like to trim ladies' suits with leather
and for this purpose many beautiful odd shades are dyed. Goatskin ranks
next to sheepskin and is a trifle dearer. Chamois is good for belts or
dainty opera bags. It comes in white or cream only. Calf is a beautiful
substantial skin, as is also Russia calf. Pebble calf is what its name
implies, very rough with a glazed finish. The other side presents an
undyed appearance.

[Illustration: Fig. 87. A well-planned skin]

If you get a skin you should not expect to get a sofa cushion as well
as a large table mat out of it. A skin carefully cut will give you one
large piece and the rest of it can be planned for smaller objects,
such as card cases, pen wipers, blotter corners, belts, picture frames,
possibly a magazine cover or a bag. The diagram of the skin shows how
carefully to cut out and plan every part of it (Figure 87).

Let us take the sofa cushion first. A bold conventional design can be
used in each corner. One that has each part separate like a stencil
design is one that I have in mind.

Cut each part out carefully so as not to impair the background. A
cheaper grade of leather of a tone deeper or lighter can be laid under
the design, though velvet is also in excellent taste for this work.
Broadcloth, satin, and sometimes taffeta are also used. If a shaded
effect is wanted a different coloured background can be pasted under
each different section of the design. It is a better plan, however,
for the amateur to restrict herself to one colour for the background
as the finishing of different pieces is no easy problem (Figure 88).
Library paste is the best means of making the leather and background
adhere, also it does not spot as mucilage does. The majority of leather
workers consider that the pasting completes the piece, while others
feel that it is necessary to machine stitch along the extreme edge of
the cutting. Yet again others prefer to work embroidery stitches such
as open buttonhole or couching stitches. Both of these are explained
at length in later chapters. A pen wiper can be made from a piece cut
in circular, diamond, or triangular shapes. Cut two pieces of chamois
leather the same shape. A plain piece of the leather also is needed to
back the pen wiper. The chamois pieces serve as leaves on which the pen
is wiped.

[Illustration: Fig. 88. Leather appliqué bag]

A card punch will be needed to make a hole through the four pieces for
the ribbon or cord which holds them together.

It is most necessary to plan the design so that it will be appropriate
to the object it is to be applied to. The leather should also harmonize
with the colour of the room or gown with which it is used or worn.

For those who are anxious to learn how to design, books on this subject
can be obtained from the public libraries. You should bear in mind,
however, that practice makes all things perfect.

The different methods of applying the design had better be gone into
before we proceed any further. Thick manilla paper or artist linen may
be used on which to draw the design. The pattern is then thumb-tacked
or pinned on a flat wooden surface, on the upper edge only, as it will
be necessary to raise the paper off and on during the tracing.

An orange stick such as used for manicuring or hard pencil will be
needed for the tracing. Trace along the pencilled design with a very
heavy pressure so that there will be an indented line on the leather. A
line once impressed is almost impossible to remove, so great care must
be taken to keep the design true.

Every time you stop tracing there will be a deeper indentation; for
that reason in tracing a curved line try to draw a full sweep without
stopping. A ruler will be an aid in tracing straight lines.

It may be found necessary to dampen the leather so that the tracing
will be distinct. In that case dampen the entire piece of leather with
a wet cloth. Dampening in sections only causes water rings. Once the
whole leather is dampened, however, it can be redampened in sections
without fear of marking.

Designs for leather may also be applied by means of a perforated
pattern and a stamping powder or paste or a transfer pattern may be
also used.

The leather for cut-work may be cut with sharp scissors and manicuring
scissors for round or curved places or two sharp knives of different
sizes. A board of soft wood is the best on which to work.

[Illustration: Fig. 89. A belt of leather of appliqué underlaid]

The best kind of paste is one that has been recommended by a successful
leather teacher and proves satisfactory to all who have tried it.
"Bring to a slow boil a half-pound of flour in two quarts of water. Add
to this mixture when cool, an ounce of nitric acid and a dram of boric
acid and a few drops of clove oil." The nitric and boric acid, as well
as the clove oil, can be obtained from the drug store.

If knives are used to cut out the design, thumbtack the leather before
commencing.

The paste is applied lightly on the wrong side of the leather, then the
lining placed over it. Lay the article with the right side up and put
it under weights until it dries. Any surplus paste that may happen to
ooze through can readily be scraped off.

A wide range of articles can be made from leather appliqué, whether
underlaid or overlaid, such as table covers, bags, belts (Figure 89),
medicine cases, card cases, mirror frames, book or magazine covers,
portfolios, memorandum pads, waste baskets, pocket books, bill folders,
chair covers, besides numerous other articles.

Sometimes it will be necessary to have two tracings of the design,
one on the leather and one on the other background. Leather is often
applied to heavy crashes for portières, or pillow tops. A bold
conventionalized poppy is an excellent design for portières.

Paper is often used to line centerpieces or mats.

Rough tinted cartridge paper can be treated the same as cut leather
and the daintiest of candle or lamp shades can be made of them. The
design is cut out as in leather and a thin China silk lines the whole.
Each section of the design may then be coloured the right shade of the
silk. For instance, a design of cherries can be painted with orange
and red for the cherries and the leaves green, while the paper is of
tobacco brown; a narrow gold braid finishes the shade at the top and
bottom, while the shade is held together with four tiny gold rivets.



VIII

TOOLED LEATHER AND TOOLS NECESSARY


Tooled leather is one of the oldest and most beautiful of crafts.
Instead of weakening the leather it simply makes it more beautiful. A
handsome box is made of soft wood or cardboard and covered with tooled
or embossed leather and is a possession that a queen might envy.

Boxes containing tools for leather work can be had for from five to
twenty-two dollars for the outfit. Twelve tools are in the box. Two
modelling tools, a steel hammer, two embossing tools, a punch, an
embossing ball tool, one cutting or trimming knife, and four chasing
and pearling knives (Figure 90). Now I know that there are not many
of you who would care to buy an outfit for five dollars, but for home
use there is a simple little article that can be substituted and yet
you can obtain very satisfactory results. A steel nut pick will work
wonders and then, when you feel that you can do very much better work
with other tools, invest in a case of them.

All leathers are not satisfactory for tooling. The best and most used
is Russia calf in a heavy quality. One skin is usually the least a
dealer will sell.

Let us suppose we are working on a card case. The design is traced in
the manner described in the last chapter, that is, by tracing over the
dampened leather.

[Illustration: Fig. 90. A case of tools]

After the design has been traced remove the paper and holding the nut
pick firmly in your right hand as you would a pencil, proceed to deepen
the lines. The leather must be kept moist or the tool is apt to scratch
and break the outer skin. It is a work over which you may become
fatigued, but you can just lay it aside till the next day and then
proceed again. The deeper the tooled line the handsomer the piece. It
will take several hours to tool a card case.

Another form of decorating leather is with the little geometrical die
that was used so much in past winters for decorating the background of
etched copper articles (Figure 91). The little die is placed on the
leather with its raised or embossed side downward and one knock from
a steel hammer is sufficient to make an imprint on the leather. The
entire background is filled out in this manner. Hammer with an even
pressure otherwise the background will be bumpy.

[Illustration: Fig. 91. The dies for backgrounds]

Sometimes you may prefer to have your background pressed or modelled
and the design to stand out in relief. In that case take the bowl or
thick part of the nut pick or modeller and press the background in
flat. If the leather wrinkles when rubbing it change the direction
of working. When the work is completed it will be noticed that the
modelled part of the leather is darker and quite shiny.

Designs such as cherries, cat-tails, and most floral forms give a
greater opportunity for elaborate working. They can be carried out in
relief. This relief is a much more difficult work. In the first place
the design is drawn on the finished surface of the leather and then,
after another sponging with water, hold the leather up from the table.
Holding the section to be modelled between the first finger and thumb,
work the tool backward and forward under the section.

Some workers prefer to hold the working side toward them, contending
that a greater pressure can be brought to bear on a downward stroke
than an upward one. In that case the design is stamped or traced on the
wrong side of the leather.

The oftener the rubbing is done and the leather is dampened the higher
the design will stand forth. The parts to be worked in relief may be
done before the background (Figure 92).

[Illustration: Fig. 92. A magazine cover]

To keep the leather from falling back to its natural shape some workers
paste the relief parts. My teacher used a paste that we found quite
stiff enough except for large heavy objects.

To make this paste an ounce of dextrin is left soaking in water for
about sixteen hours. Dextrin, by the way, is the only paste which will
not stain silk. It is a white powder, and when used as a paste can be
dissolved in boiling water till it is the consistency of a thick cream.
When used as a modelling wax, however, it requires to be thicker than
a cream. After the dextrin is dissolved mix in a pint of scrap leather
that has been grated to shreds, and a few drops of turpentine. The
scrap leather thickens the paste while water thins it.

Before applying the paste to the leather the raised side is placed face
downward upon the marble. Take some of the paste and press it into the
hollow places until they are entirely filled. After every space has
been filled lay a piece of paper over them and then a cardboard or a
piece of board large enough to cover all the design.

Turn the leather, paper, and board right side up on the working table.
While the places are being filled in the design is apt to be pushed a
little out of shape. With the finer modelling tool or your nut pick go
over the flattened places again. Let the work remain on the table for
four days without touching it so that it may be thoroughly dried.

Sometimes you will see a beautiful tinted leather. This is usually
done by the means of dyes, or chemicals. For the amateur the former is
recommended. The dye is applied to the leather with soft cotton or a
sponge. To deepen the shade wet the places desired to be darker two or
three times with the dye.

To obtain the brightly polished appearance so often seen in a handsome
piece of leather rub the piece with your bare palms. A little wax
rubbed on your hand greatly aids the work.

In all leather work it is necessary to leave a margin about a half inch
at least.

Another paste which may be substituted for the formula given in this
chapter is one made of equal parts of sawdust and rye flour with water.

The cutting or shaving knife that comes with the outfit is good for
cutting the leather. If a deeper indentation is desired than is
obtained by tracing the pattern, a slight slit may be made with the
shaving knife. Of course cutting the leather weakens it and it should
only be done on a very heavy piece of skin.

The hammer is indispensable for stamping in the little dies. These dies
are not usually included in the outfit.

The difference between the modelling (Figures 93 and 94) and embossing
tools is that the embossing tools are a greater aid in achieving fine
bas-relief work. The embossing ball tool is used to make the deep
indentations.

[Illustration: Fig. 93. A modelling tool]

[Illustration: Fig. 94. A modelling tool]

The punch is to make holes for rivets or through which cords or ribbons
may be passed to connect two or more pieces of leather together as on
a pad or book. The punch and pearling knives are used in fine carved
leather. As one becomes proficient in the art of simple leather work
she is tempted to branch out and try more elaborate work. A great many
books have been written on this subject which, though perhaps puzzling
to a beginner, will be interesting and invaluable if the work is taken
up as a serious occupation. The best specimens of this work can be seen
at the different arts and crafts exhibitions.



IX

THE SIMPLEST STITCHES IN EMBROIDERY--CHAIN STITCHING, OUTLINING,
HERRING-BONING, CROSS-STITCHING, SOUTACHE, CORONATION BRAIDING


It would be hard indeed to say just how many stitches there are in
embroidery, as so many are combinations of the others. The ones you
will hear about are the simplest ones.

Some years ago I had a large class in embroidery in a mission school.
Every seat was taken and many applicants were refused admittance. The
supervisor came in one day and said that there was a little girl who
was very anxious to join the class and that she knew how to sew. I
did not have the heart to refuse her, so in marched little Nellie.
She was just seven years old and said that she attended sewing school
every Saturday at her church and that her teacher had taught her _all_
about embroidery. I gave her a little stamped design and told her to
chain-stitch it and let me see how well she could do it. About five
minutes later I happened to turn around and there was little Nellie
frantically waving her hand. "Teacher, teacher," she said, "that is
the only stitch the Lady didn't show me."

Now, as I am most anxious that nothing like that will happen to you,
I will start with chain-stitching as the simplest stitch (Figure 95).
It is also one of the oldest stitches in embroidery. Every museum that
exhibits embroidered articles will have some elaborate designs carried
out in fine chain-stitching. If the stitches are worked in filo silk or
spool silk the effect is like machine work.

[Illustration: Fig. 95. Chain-stitching, showing how to turn a corner]

Draw a straight line on a piece of muslin and thread your needle with
a piece of red cotton. No knots should be used in embroidery. Fasten
the thread by taking three fine running stitches and one back stitch to
insure firmness at the end of the line. Now with the needle in position
at the beginning of the line, start by taking a straight stitch on the
line. Bring the thread under and pull the needle through the material.
You have made the first loop. Put your needle back into the last hole
or as near as possible to it, take another stitch on the line, repeat
until you come to the end of the design.

Take the same length stitch every time or you will not have a
good-looking chain. If you will look at the links in your chain
bracelet, you will see that every link is the same size as the others.
Suppose you wanted to chain-stitch a square or a triangle: when you
come to the corner do not try to make one continuous line, but carry
the needle down through the material at the end of the loop to fasten
the link and start the next row at right angles to it. Chain-stitching
can be put to many uses. It is a pretty stitch to cover a single line
in a conventional design. It is also the quickest kind of padding
for large designs. When it is used as a padding, the rows are worked
close to each other. If the work is to be raised very high, the
chain-stitching may be placed in rows one on top of the other. You
will, however, hear more about padding in a later chapter.

[Illustration: Fig. 96. Smooth outlining]

The next stitch we will talk about is the outlining, (Figure 96).
Some people think it is simpler than chain-stitching. It was the
first stitch I learned in embroidery, but it is not as pretty as
chain-stitching. The first thing I did in fancy work when I was nine
years old was a wonderful face cloth with a wild rose on the top, and
under it my name and the motto, "_Cleanliness is Next to Godliness_,"
worked in red cotton. After that I made face cloths for every member of
the family.

Outlining makes one think of plain sewing. There are two kinds of
outlining, rough (Figure 97) and smooth, the difference being in how
the thread is thrown. To make the rough outline, fasten the thread as
directed in chain-stitching and on the line take a stitch about an
eighth of an inch. Then work from left to right. Let the thread fall
under the needle and be sure to keep it this way. A smooth outline is
made by throwing the thread over the needle instead of under it; this
outline can be used as stems for flowers unless a more elaborate kind
is desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 97. Rough outlining]

Either chain-stitching or outlining is an excellent way to decorate
bureau scarfs, pillow tops, or table covers.

Herring-boning is used for finishing seams on a flannel skirt, or
it may be used above hems. The little flannel skirt you intend to
make for Sally Ann this winter should be finished in this way. Here
is a stitch for which we do not need guide lines, though while you
are learning, the lines might be helpful. Draw two parallel lines a
quarter of an inch apart. Take a stitch on the upper line, about an
eighth of an inch long. Then make one on the lower line, letting the
thread fall always to the right. When you have made a row between with
the lines, try to work one without lines and see if you can keep the
herring-boning straight (Figure 98).

[Illustration: Fig. 98. Herring-boning or cat-stitching]

A plain quilt or cover for the baby can be made very attractive, by
working herring-boning around the edge. If the cover is woollen, use
worsted or heavy silk for the stitchery, but if it is cotton material,
a heavy lustre is recommended. The needle to use depends on the thread.
A sewing needle will carry a round cotton thread such as D. M. C.,
Madonna, Utopia, Royal Society, or Peri lustre. A crewel needle, which
is a needle with a long eye, will be required for silk or worsted. An
easy way to thread a No. 2 or No. 4 crewel needle with worsted is to
hold the needle in the left hand and double the thread at one end and
run the needle through it. Hold the thread between the thumb and first
finger of the right hand so that the thread is just visible. Gently
pull the needle out with the left hand and run the doubled thread
through the eye. It sounds a great deal harder than it actually is, but
it will require very little practice.

[Illustration: Fig. 99. The first step in cross-stitching]

When you went to kindergarten did you have little pierced cards on
which you made designs in coloured silks or cottons? Well they had
these at my school and we made book-marks, needle-books and all sorts
of funny little things. If you remember the cross-stitching of the
kindergarten days, regular cross-stitching will be a simple matter.
The nicest material for this work is Java canvas, which is very coarse
and stiff. It is ideal for book covers or napkin rings. The holes in
the canvas are so large that working on it is almost like play. As
Java canvas is rather expensive you will find a coarse scrim a good
substitute. A lot of boys that I once knew took up this work very
enthusiastically, so simple is it.

[Illustration: Fig. 100. The second step in cross-stitch]

Do you know that you can make a gingham apron for mother and decorate
it with cross-stitching that will last ever so long? Get a piece of
gingham with squares about an eighth of an inch. Cross-stitch it in a
shade darker than the gingham or in white or red. The stitches are
taken on the diagonal as shown in the diagram (Figures 99 and 100).
If there is a great deal of cross-stitching to be done, the quickest
way is to make all the stitches that run in one direction first, and
then come back and cross them. Perhaps mother has a small piece of
cross-stitching that you can use as a model. Simple triangles are
easy to make. Begin the lower row with an uneven number, such as
seven, nine, eleven, or thirteen. The next row make two stitches less,
dropping one from each end, and so on till you have one at the top.

[Illustration: Fig. 101. A good hand design in cross-stitching]

Now suppose that you had a little linen or silk bag on which you would
like to have a cross-stitch design, yet this material is not coarse
enough for you to use as a guide for the cross-stitching. Do not think
you cannot do it, for I will show you a way. Get a piece of scrim just
as coarse as you can find, and baste it over the place you would like
to cross-stitch. Work the design on it and when the cross-stitching is
all finished pull out the scrim thread by thread. Sometimes you will
have to snip the thread of the scrim if your needle accidentally gets
caught in them. (Figures 101, 102, and 103.)

[Illustration: Fig. 102. A cross-stitch design]

[Illustration: Fig. 103. Another cross-stitch design]

A very simple thing to do is to braid a dress for yourself. Now that
all the large pattern houses are carrying transfer patterns you can get
a design for braiding very cheap. A little girl I know braided a dress
for herself and one for her mother last summer. She used light blue
chambray and braided it with white. There are several kinds of braid,
but the easiest to use is soutache, whether it is cotton or silk. It is
a flat braid and varies in width from one to three eighths of an inch.
First stamp your design on the material, or if you have not a transfer
pattern you can draw a design on tissue paper, making it as long as
required and then baste the paper in right position on your dress. Take
a stiletto, which is a little tool somewhat like a nail that is used in
embroidery for piercing holes, and punch a hole on the line. Push one
end of your braid through this and fasten the end of it on the wrong
side of your material. Thread your needle with sewing cotton or silk
the colour of the braid and sew it down with little running stitches
and an occasional back-stitch to fasten it firmly. When you come to
the end of the line or of the braid, carry the end through as at the
beginning and fasten.

[Illustration: Fig. 103A. A fourth design in cross-stitch]

Coronation braid is beautiful, but oh, so very much harder to sew
on than flat braid. There are two ways that coronation braid may be
sewed on. The one that I give preference to is stamping the design
on the wrong side of the material and holding the braid on the
right. A stiletto hole is made on the line and the end of the braid
brought through to the back and fastened securely so there will be
no likelihood of its slipping. Then, holding the braid with the left
hand, connect it to the material from the wrong side with fine running
stitches. The stamped line on the wrong side will serve as a guide for
the stitches. You can feel every time the needle touches the braid.
Now perhaps many of you are wondering what coronation braid is. It is
a braid that looks like fat grains of rice all strung together. There
are different sizes of the braid, varying from the quarter inch to the
three quarters of an inch size.

[Illustration: Fig. 104. Coronation braid]

The second way to sew it on is from the right side with little slip
stitches. At the small end it would be wise to take a stitch over the
braid to hold it firmly. Centre pieces, bureau-scarfs or even towel
ends are handsome when decorated with coronation braid, and do you know
it is a very easy matter to make designs for yourself, as there is
nothing prettier than daisies or wild roses for coronation braid. If
the petals are too fine to allow you to use the coronation braid, then
you must use one grain for each petal, cutting off the grains as you
require them.

Coronation braid comes in white, Delft blue, bright green, or red. The
braid is supple enough to turn sharp corners.

The daisy, as I have stated before, is one of the principal designs
used for coronation braid. Braid the flower with one piece of the
braid. It is not necessary to cut the braid but at the beginning and
the ending of the daisy. The very largest width of coronation braid
will be required for the daisy. Two grains will be sufficient for a
petal. Bring the narrow ends to the centre and connect them to the
material. In the centre make a cluster of French knots. The effect
produced is a daisy embroidered heavily and yet quite different from
satin stitch. (Figure 105.)

A belt decoration with five or six coronation daisies is very
attractive when used on a light summer dress. Sometimes the owner
prefers to couch the braid down with blue cotton and to work the centre
of the daisy in the same colour.

[Illustration: Fig. 105. A daisy in coronation braid]

A row of daisies is improved by working a fagotting stitch which is
explained in "Simple Lace Stitches," between the petals. See that the
braid is sewed on far enough apart that the lace stitches will not be
crowded.

Coronation braid is also used with crochet stitches for the borders of
centre pieces and towels.



X

SMOCKING, FEATHER-STITCHING AND LAZY-DAISY STITCH


Smocking is such a fashionable trimming this year that I am sure you
will not be contented till Sally Ann has a smocked dress. Why, one
cannot take a walk in the park without seeing several little children
and some grown-ups, too, wearing smocked dresses. Sometimes they are
made of fine lawn or pique and then again they are China silk, crêpe de
chine, or cashmere.

Stamped patterns can be had for smocking but they are not at all
necessary. Nearly every little English girl knows how to smock without
buying a pattern and why should not you?

The simplest form of smocking is the honeycomb or diamond (Figure
106). It can be any size you wish. A good size for Sally Ann's dress
is the half-inch diamond smocking. The beauty of the work lies in its
regularity. To keep it so, the dots must be spaced evenly. A good
way is to have a marking card. Take a piece of heavy paper or thin
cardboard about six inches long by an inch and a half wide. With a
ruler draw a faint line one half inch down parallel with the long
edge of the card. Draw four other lines below this at quarter-inch
intervals. Be sure that the space between each two lines is a quarter
inch, no more or no less. Along the top line measure in one half inch.
From this point make dots at quarter-inch intervals all the way across.
Each line is dotted in like manner, letting each dot come directly
under the upper one in straight rows. If mother has a card punch ask
her to lend it to you and where the dots are make holes. A stiletto
will answer the same purpose as the punch; or an orange stick may be
pressed into service. Your marking card is now ready.

[Illustration: Fig. 106. Diamond smocking]

Measure the length you wish to make Sally Ann's skirt. Select a piece
of material that will show pencil marks, such as lawn, pique, China
silk, or crêpe de chine. It will not be necessary to gore the skirt,
as the smocking will form a sort of yoke for the dress. A little frock
smocked in blue or red will be nice enough for all occasions. Take
the material and smooth all the creases out after it is cut the right
length. You must allow about the same amount of material for the width
of the hem as you do for ordinary skirts. Place the smocking card so
that the edge of it is on a line with the top edge of the goods. The
smocking must be done before the belt is put on. Through each of the
perforated holes make a dot in lead pencil. After every hole has been
dotted, move the card so that there is only one quarter of an inch
space before commencing to dot again. In other words, place the card so
the dots have the appearance of being one continuous design.

Thread a No. 6 sewing needle with a piece of red or blue cotton. Make
a tiny knot at the end. Start from the topmost left-hand dot from the
under side of the material. Draw the first and second dots together.
Three stitches on the right side will suffice to hold them together.
Between the second and third dots let the thread span the material on
the wrong side without pulling it. The third and fourth dots are drawn
together and then the thread spans the space between the fourth and
fifth. Do you see how we are working? First a dot, then a space, a dot,
then a space, until the entire line is finished.

The second row is worked exactly the same only instead of starting on
the first dot of the second row, start with the second. The third row
corresponds with the first and now at last we have formed a diamond.

[Illustration: Fig. 107. Smocking in points]

If a little more colour is wanted than just the dot alone, pass a
thread along the edge of each diamond under the dots. A suggestion
which may prove helpful to you if the material has starch in it is that
it is easy to crease each line of dots before starting to smock. If the
material is soft the smocking should be stroked or gauged. There is a
new term to learn, "gauge." It is the same as stroking in sewing. The
English women have all sorts of complicated patterns in smocking, but
the one that is most popular is the diamond smocking I have told you
about. After you know the principle you can make the smocking as deep
as you wish and then try and smock in points. (See Figure 107.)

Feather-stitching is almost as simple as smocking. It has various other
names. Perhaps you know it by the name of "brier-stitch." The first and
simplest form is the single feather-stitching. A thread as fine as No.
60 sewing cotton or a heavy Germantown wool can be used for it. Baby
blankets or a blanket for yourself are pretty feather-stitched in wool.

[Illustration: Fig. 108. Single feather-stitching]

Like smocking, patterns can be had for feather-stitching. But the best
embroiderers never use them, as their mechanical correctness makes the
work too much like machine work. I do recommend, however, a faint line
drawn so as to have something on which to guide your line and gauge
your stitches.

[Illustration: Fig. 109. Double feather-stitching]

Let us thread our needle with a piece of coarse blue thread. On a
little piece of muslin draw a faint pencil line across it. Commence
from the upper right-hand side of the line. Take a short stitch about
three sixteenths of an inch on the right of the line, slanting to the
line. Let the thread come under the point of the needle in each stitch.
The second stitch is taken on the left side of the line the same
distance over and the same in slant (Figure 108).

[Illustration: Fig. 110. Triple feather-stitching]

[Illustration: Fig. 111. Four on each side]

Double feather-stitching is two stitches to the right, two to the left
and so on till the line is finished (Figure 109). In fact you can
make three, four (Figures 110 and 111), or five stitches or even more
if you wish on each side. The prettiest little border can be made of
feather-stitching in circles. Take a quarter or a fifty-cent piece and
draw a faint line around it on the material about one inch from the
edge. Move the piece till it overlaps the pencilled circle and draw
another circle. Repeat as many times as necessary to go around the
skirt, sleeve, or section you are decorating. A row such as this makes
a pretty decoration around the sleeves and neck of a night dress or the
ruffles of drawers. Marking cotton No. 20 or No. 25 should be used for
feather-stitching underwear.

Infants' dresses, bibs, or petticoats of lawn or any very sheer
material of cotton or linen should be worked in fine marking cotton,
either Nos. 25, 30, 40, or 50.

Just a word about threads. There are several different kinds. The
most popular and best known are D. M. C., Madonna, Royal Society, and
Utopia. The numbers run about the same. Some teachers recommend one
certain kind, but the result obtained from using any of them is almost
identical.

[Illustration: Fig. 112. Seaweed-stitch]

There is a pretty little stitch that can be made with a foundation of
double feather-stitching. We used to call it "seaweed-stitch" when we
were youngsters. I remember I made a white cashmere coat for my doll
and used the seaweed-stitch along the hem and above the opening, and on
the cuffs and collar of the coat. It was embroidered in rose coloured
filo silk. A row of double feather-stitching was worked in the usual
way. At the end of each stitch a little Van Dyke point or V was worked.
Try it yourself and see how dainty it is (Figure 112).

A good way and something new for decoration is the feather-stitchery
used like festoons on the hems. The way this is done is to take a
compass and make a circle about two and a half inches in diameter. Cut
it out in heavy paper or thin cardboard. Baste the hem in place and
then trace one-third of the circle. Repeat in like manner till the hem
has the appearance of large scallops. Along the lines work the single
or double feather-stitching in No. 20 marking cotton through the two
thicknesses of the material. Pull out the basting threads from the hem
and then carefully cut away the material within each scallop on the
wrong side of the hem. In other words, the upper part of the under hem
is cut close to the stitching. Cut right down to the feather-stitching.

Only thin materials are pretty worked like this, as the doubled
material gives a milk-white appearance, while the upper or single
parts are transparent. A lazy-daisy stitch worked in the centre of
each scallop adds further beauty to a feather-stitched hem such as has
been just described. The lazy-daisy has been aptly called because it
requires a stitch to connect each petal to the material.

Another name for this lazy-daisy stitch is the "bird's-eye" stitch
(Figure 113). It is used to represent clovers, daisies, or leaves.
The stitch is made, if for a daisy, from a common centre. Bring your
needle up from the centre of the daisy and take a stitch the length of
the petal. Let the thread come from the left under the point of the
needle. Pull the needle through the material on the right side. A short
stitch at the end of the petal catches it down to the material. The
needle is now brought back to the centre and the next petal made in the
same manner. Any size daisy can be made like this from the quarter to a
two-inch size. Remember that the larger your daisy is the more petals
it should have. As fine thread should be used for the little flowers
and the heaviest silk or lustre for the big ones, it is a wise plan to
faintly mark in pencil the daisy. One line will be sufficient for each
petal. If you do this, you can then be sure that each petal will be the
same length as the last.

[Illustration: Fig. 113. The lazy-daisy stitch]

A charming little yoke can be made of groups of fine tucks and rows of
the daisies.



XI

COUCHING, SHADOW WORK AND TURKISH STITCH HOW TO STAMP DESIGNS


The more one does of fancy work the more fascinating it becomes. Every
new piece presents an opportunity for new stitches and colours.

We have talked a lot in the first chapters of this book as to the
different implements necessary for sewing and by now I am sure you have
a well-equipped sewing box or basket. Now it will be necessary to add
considerably to your work box for embroidery.

The crewel needle which I mentioned in the ninth chapter is the most
important implement. Get a pack of assorted Nos. from 5 to 10. They
will answer every purpose unless you need a large tapestry needle for
couching. The most unfortunate thing about a crewel needle is that the
eye has the bad habit of breaking. This is caused from the steel being
so fine at the top that vigorous working snaps it off very quickly.

A tapestry needle is like a large crewel needle, only it is much
stronger and the eye is very large.

A stiletto of ivory, bone, or steel should also be in your box. An
orange stick can be substituted for a stiletto in case of emergency.

A small pair of scissors, too, should be included to cut the ends of
silks or pare away the material after buttonholing or making an eyelet.

I have kept the most important till the last. That is the embroidery
hoop or rings. Really you would be surprised to see how many different
kinds there are in this world. First there are the black celluloid ones
that have their good points, but they do not stretch over the material.
Then there are the common wooden ones that have sharp edges that catch
and fray the silk on every turn. There are some wooden ones that have
a felt lining and whose edges are an improvement on the cheaper kind,
but they also do not stretch over thick fabrics. The kinds that have a
spring and may be adjusted to any size desired have their advantage,
but the spring catches the silk also and of course that will never do
for fine work. The simplest, best, and cheapest kind is the pair that
is made at home. Get two pairs of the cheapest rings, even if their
edges are rough. One pair should be small enough to set inside of the
other. They vary from the smallest to the largest circular kind, each
one setting inside of the other. Select two pairs that come next in
size to each other. The most convenient size and ones that can be used
for all kinds of work are the six inch. Take the larger hoop of each
pair for your work. Now cut a piece of canton flannel in half-inch
strips, or if mother has the coloured selvage left from a piece of
flannelette, get that. The largest hoops should be wound over and over
like the hoops they use in schools for fancy drills. The other hoop
should be padded before winding it. To pad, lay strips two or three
thicknesses deep around the hoop and then wind thickly like the other
hoop. Hoops like these never leave marks on the material, as often
happens with the celluloid or wooden hoops. Another point is that the
sheerest material, such as chiffon, can be used in them, while if a
heavy burlap or crash is embroidered over them a little of the winding
strips can be removed for the time being.

There are other things you might find handy for your box, but it is no
use getting them till you have occasion to use them.

Now we are ready to make use of some of the things just described. The
tapestry needle will be brought into use for our next stitch, which
will be couching.

It is a beautiful old stitch that is often used as an outline. It can
be made as a heavy thick cord, or yet again it need only be the size of
a fine string. The expression is often used, "Couch a cord on." Cord is
used instead of threads and lustre on pieces where only the effect is
wanted.

[Illustration: Fig. 114. Couching]

To couch with a number of silk or lustre threads select a No. 2
tapestry needle. Cut the skein of silk so that you will have the
longest length of thread possible. Thread your needle with all the
strands in the skein, if the eye will carry them. Make a stiletto hole
in the cloth on the line of the design. Bring the tapestry needle
through to the back (Figure 114).

A crewel needle is threaded with a single strand of silk, the same
shade or lighter or darker if you desire. Fasten the silk ends down
neatly on the back of the material with the single thread and bring it
up one quarter of an inch from the hole and span the cluster of silk
threads. The threads are caught down in this manner at quarter-inch
intervals. When the end of the line is reached, the cluster of threads
is again taken through to the back of the material.

Couching is a stitch that you will hear more about in later chapters.

The Turkish or Ismet stitch is another name for cat-stitching or
herring-boning. See Figure 98. The stitch is taken vertically instead
of horizontally, as in cat-stitch. Turkish stitch gets its name from
the embroideries from Turkey (Figure 115). It seems to be the favourite
stitch of the Turkish ladies.

[Illustration: Fig. 115. Turkish stitch]

Have you ever noticed how many pieces of Turkish embroidery are worked
on coarse unbleached muslin or tan linen? The colours are generally
bright green, blue, coral pink, chestnut brown, purple and then
outlined in black or gold thread.

Shadow work, is not that a funny name for embroidery? But you can
understand why it is called that when you see a piece worked. It
gives the appearance of a design under the cloth, as all the stitches
are taken from the wrong side of the material. The design is drawn or
stamped on the wrong side. Lawn is usually selected for the background
of shadow work because of its transparency. A heavy cotton such as No.
16 or No. 20 marking cotton or D. fine lustre is necessary.

Daisies or chrysanthemums are most popular for shadow work on account
of the smoothness on their edges. Not that it is impossible to work an
indented edge, but it is more difficult.

[Illustration: Fig. 116. The right side of shadow stitch]

To work the shadow stitch, place your work over your embroidery hoop
with the design side up. Start to work a petal from the heart of the
flower. Do not use a knot. The stitch is like cat-stitching (see
Figure 98). First you take a stitch on one side of the petal, then you
pass over to the other side. Be sure you take the same length stitch
every time. The stems are worked in outline stitch. Shadow work from
the right side looks like back-stitching (Figure 116). It is used on
aprons, shirtwaists, or bureau scarfs where a good effect is wanted
with very little work.

There are two ways of working the leaves of daisies or chrysanthemums
in shadow work: First, and the best in my opinion, is to start and work
from the top of the leaf to where the midrib commences in the design.
Now work from the midrib to the outer edge on the right side of the
leaf. The left-hand side is yet to be filled in. Start from the base
of the leaf and instead, however, of putting the needle through the
material by the midrib catch one thread upon the midrib and then take a
stitch on the left-side edge of the leaf, up to where the midrib ends.

The other way of working a leaf is to outline the midrib first. Then
start from the base of the leaf and work across the entire leaf. The
former way is the better, because there is not such a wide stretch of
thread on the wrong side as in the latter method.

Batiste, organdy, and lawn are the usual materials used in America
for shadow work, but in England, where more substantial materials are
generally liked, tea cloths of linen in shadow stitch are often seen.
Tiger lilies are good for any large piece.

The effect of shadow work on linen is as if a padded design was placed
on the material.

White is the nicest for working shadow stitch on waists, especially as
colour is apt to cheapen the effect.

Remember that a design drawn out in pencil soils the cottons or silks
and necessitates the article being washed before it is used. You can
buy patterns for embroidery so cheap and in such excellent taste that
it pays one in the end to use them instead of drawing on the material.
There is the perforated design that can be had from five cents up.
It is the oldest and in some ways the most expensive pattern. The
perforated paper is laid, with the rough side up, over the material on
the ironing table or any other flat surface. An especially prepared
powder that embroidery shops sell for stamping designs is the best to
use. A pouncet is several layers of felt rolled together, or a piece
of wood covered with felt. Rub the pouncet in the powder. See that the
pattern is weighted down so that it will not slip while you are working
on it. Rub the powder in with a circular movement. Lift the weights
from the lower edge of the paper, and gently raising the pattern see
that the design is well on before removing the pattern. A hot iron
will be necessary now to set the powder. Every time you use the iron
just clamp it down on the design. Wipe it off on an old piece of cloth
before you press it again on another section of the design. Each time
the iron touches the powder, part of it adheres to the iron and the
design would be spoiled if the iron was used again before wiping it.
After the design has been set, the iron can be used freely over the
whole work.

There is another method of stamping with a perforated pattern, and that
is placing the smooth side of the design face upward and using a blue
paste that comes in cake form. The pouncet is dipped in kerosene or
naptha and then rubbed on the paste. Apply to the paper as directed for
the powder. This method requires no iron, but care must be taken not to
get the pouncet too wet or the design will run.

A third method for stamping is one that requires to be rubbed with the
back of a spoon. The fourth and newest method of stamping is by the
transfer designs. The patterns are in different colours. Place the
transfers with the bright or raised surface next to your material and
press with a heated iron. Some patterns require a very hot iron, while
for others a moderately heated iron suffices.

You can make a perforated pattern yourself by drawing a design on a
piece of paper and using a sewing machine to perforate along the lines.



XII

BUTTONHOLING AND WALLACHIAN EMBROIDERY


Embroidery buttonholing is a little different from the buttonhole
stitch used in sewing. It is a stitch that is most used to finish
the edges of centre pieces, scarfs, and, in fact, any article where
embroidery is wanted to finish the work. You know that it is possible
to use a fancy stitch, such as the Turkish stitch described in the last
chapter, but in that case the material will have to be turned back and
hemmed. The twill or purl of buttonholing, as the little ridge on the
edge is called, serves as a resistance for the material from fraying
out.

The buttonhole stitch is the most popular in embroidery. It is the
foundation for many other stitches. Feather-stitching is really an open
form of this stitch.

As a usual thing it is necessary to pad before working buttonholing. It
raises the work and makes it much more durable as an edge. The padding
can be done in either running-stitch or chain-stitching.

Let us take for our first example the straight buttonholing. It is the
simplest form. Cover the space between the lines with coarse, running
stitches. Let the background be medium weight linen. The padding
thread should be No. 16 or No. 20 marking cotton, or two strands of
white darning cotton makes an excellent padding. The stitches can be
fully one quarter of an inch in length. Take up a single thread of the
background so that the padding will be all on the top of the material.
This keeps the work well raised on the right side and perfectly flat
on the wrong side. An extra row or two toward the outer edge of
buttonholing raises the edge prettily. Chain-stitching is a more rapid
way of padding, but should only be used for coarse work. Remember that
the wider the buttonholing the more padding will be necessary.

The padding should be worked over your embroidery hoops, keeping the
work as near to your fingers as possible. The actual buttonholing gets
a rounder effect if done over the finger, though it is possible, of
course, to do it over the hoops.

Again, no knots in buttonholing. Thread your needle with No. 25 marking
cotton. Make three little running stitches and one back-stitch to
insure firmness in the starting. Let your thread come up slightly
under the lower line of the buttonholing. With your left thumb holding
the thread down to the material draw your thread to the right, take a
stitch over the padding, bringing the needle out slightly below the
lower line. The thread should fall under the point of the needle in
each stitch.

The next thing we learn in buttonholing is a scallop. The deeper the
scallop the more difficult it is to make a good corner and to keep
the slant of the stitches right. When you buy a stamped piece of
embroidery, select a pattern that has a shallow scallop and one where
the points are not too sharp. In working a scallop the stitches should
slant vertically in the direct centre, slanting the other stitches
toward this point (Figure 117).

[Illustration: Fig. 117. A simple scallop]

The object in carrying the needle slightly beyond the stamped line is
that all the stamping may be well covered. A stitch that is taken
directly through the line shows the stamping.

The diagrams (Figures 117 and 118) show how to work a simple scallop
and one with a sharp scallop. A good deal has been written about the
cutting of scallops, but the safest and wisest is to wash the piece
before cutting out the scallops. A pair of small embroidery scissors
should be used to cut the material away close to the twill of the
buttonholing. If a scallop is cut before it is washed it frays so much
that the edge has an untidy look.

[Illustration: Fig. 118. A sharp scallop]

Some women work a row of machine stitching close to the lower edge
before padding it, as a preventive from fraying, while others insist
on cutting the material to allow a hem on the wrong side only. Try the
first way and see if you are not successful. Another point to bear in
mind in buttonholing is that the stitches should be taken very close
to each other. If a piece of buttonholing is well done it is hard to
distinguish one stitch from the other, and yet they must not be made
one on top of the other or the buttonholing will be rough.

Wallachian work gets its name from a little community in Pennsylvania.
It is a German word and is nothing more than coarse buttonholing. It
is especially appropriate on heavy waists, centre pieces, pillow tops
or work bags. A finer form of it looks well on sheer waists. The rings
or circles are worked from a centre like the spokes in a cart wheel
(Figure 119).

[Illustration: Fig. 119. A Wallachian ring]

[Illustration: Fig. 120. Wallachian stitch]

The leaves or petals of a Wallachian figure are worked on the slant,
and here is the difference from ordinary buttonholing and the
distinctive feature of Wallachian embroidery. Usually the petals have
an indented top and a line running through the centre. Begin at the
lower right-hand section and take a short stitch on the line as for
outlining. The next stitch is taken close to this from the midrib to
the outer right-hand edge. The stitches need not be quite as close as
in buttonholing and no padding is required. Continue in the same slant
to where the centre line stops. The stitches from this point radiate
till they are in a good slant to continue down the left side. Note the
stitches in the diagram (Figure 120).

Some people do not slant their stitches and the result is that the work
is not as pretty and loses its chief charm.

Placing your thimble on a piece of material, make a little circle
around it and in the centre make a little dot to practise the
Wallachian ring on.

[Illustration: Fig. 121. A whisk broom holder in Wallachian stitch]

You will find that your thimble or spool is a great help to you also in
making scallops. Draw a line with the ruler just below where you want
your scallop to be. Inscribe half a circle with the aid of your thimble
or spool on the straight line. Just within this half-circle draw
another half-circle that will touch the upper line of the scallop. A
ten-cent piece or in fact any coin can be used like this. Embroidered
pieces should be washed by themselves, especially if they are worked in
colours.

A little girl I was teaching some years ago was very slow in working
a centre piece. She finished the piece one day just before her term
was over. Thinking that she would surprise me, little Daisy decided to
launder the piece herself. Her mother knew nothing about embroidery, so
was not able to tell her how to proceed. So Daisy washed the piece and
having seen how mother bleached the linens, Daisy desired to give her
piece a sun bath. She spread it out in the sun and when she went for it
the colour was half out. Poor little Daisy was heart-broken. She would
not have had this trouble had she observed the following directions:

Put the piece to launder in warm water and rub it with a pure soap,
such as castile. Ordinary laundry soaps are too strong of lye to be
used. If the piece is very soiled let it soak a long time, several
hours. Usually washing the piece out in water is sufficient. Rub with
the hand only. Rinse in clean water and lay the piece on a thick cloth
or a Turkish towel. Roll the towel up and leave until the piece is
almost dry.

Lay the embroidery, with the worked side down, over a heavy padded
surface. Press with a hot iron quickly. If the centre of the piece
puckers, dampen it again till you have pressed it out thoroughly.

If you fear to put the iron directly on the piece lay a thin white
cloth over it and then press. Many a really beautiful piece is spoiled
in the laundering.



XIII

ROMAN CUT-WORK, FANCY BUTTONHOLING FOR BORDERS, WORK BAGS, BERMUDA
FAGOTTING


Roman cut-work or Colbert embroidery is one of the prettiest forms of
buttonholing. The right way to work it is to make the stitches so that
each one is distinct from the other. Some people insist on crowding the
stitches as in regular fine buttonholing, which is quite a mistake, as
its distinctness lies in dissimilarity to the ordinary buttonholing
(Figure 122).

The work is used for centre pieces, corners of lunch napkins, coat
sets, as well as on heavy linen dresses. In Scotland the little girls
make the entire yokes of their night gowns in cut-work as well as the
top of their night gown case. These cases are placed on top of the bed
pillows during the day and are marvels of fine handwork. This custom is
not restricted to Scotland, but Italian, French, and German women are
also proud of their night dress cases.

The design for Roman cut-work should be bold and not too close
together. It should be stamped directly on the material. The American
way of working it is to run a line of fine stitches on the outline and
then work a row of buttonholing. The stitches are a little less than an
eighth of an inch deep. The background spaces between the design are
then cut away close to the buttonhole edge. Do not neglect to wet and
press the linen before cutting the buttonholing. Keep the twill of the
buttonholing on the outer edge of the design so that the background
will be bordered with the twilled edges (Figure 123).

[Illustration: Fig. 122. Roman cut-work]

The European method of Roman cut-work is to run the thread first and
then cut the material so that there is an eighth of an inch extending
beyond the running stitches. This is turned under till the running
thread forms the edge and then the buttonholing is worked through both
thicknesses of the material. This way prevents the linen from fraying.
The design is basted over a piece of coloured paper, letting the
basting stitches follow closely the buttonholing. The wide spaces are
then filled in with a simple lace stitch such as the twisted bar, woven
bar, or spiders. Sometimes the spider is used in conjunction with one
of the former stitches, and it is an excellent stitch for filling in
the corners. Marking cotton No. 20 or No. 25 should be used for Roman
cut-work, as well as the lace stitches.

[Illustration: Fig. 123. A Roman cut-work centre piece]

To make the twisted bar, plan the open spaces so that they will be well
filled and yet not too crowded. Span from one side of the space to the
other with the thread, then return and whip the thread or stitch three
or four times. The stitches may be connected and have the appearance of
a series of points (Figure 124).

[Illustration: Fig. 124. The twisted bar]

The woven bars are made by working two threads across the space about
one eighth of an inch apart. Start from one end and weave. Take up
one thread on the upward and the other thread on the downward pass.
Continue in this manner till the whole bar is woven. The bars are
placed at equal distances apart (Figure 125).

[Illustration: Fig. 125. The woven bar]

The spider is a little more complicated. It is made on an uneven
number of threads, usually seven. They may be double or single. To
make the whipped or double-thread spider, span the space with the
thread and then whip back to the centre and connect the thread to the
buttonholing again at some little distance from the first stitch. Whip
back to the centre again and take a stitch directly opposite. Continue
in this manner till there are five, seven, or nine threads around the
centre, then proceed to weave under one and over the next thread until
a good-sized spider is made. Do not make too large a spider, as it
detracts from the work. An illustration for the single spider is given
in the chapter on lace stitches.

[Illustration: Fig. 126. Blanket stitch]

The blanket stitch is a favourite for working the edge of flannel
skirts or quilted covers. Worsted or coarse silk can be used for it.
It is made on the raw or folded edge of the material. Two stitches
are long and two are short. Sometimes they are worked like a pyramid.
Beginning at the base we increase each stitch till we reach the point
and then decrease each stitch in length as we work back to the base on
the other side (Figure 126).

The triangular buttonhole is a pretty stitch for a conventional design
that has long narrow sections. It may also be used for working a very
large simple scallop (Figure 127). The way we were taught in school
was to mark the section to be worked in deep points. The twill of the
buttonholing must come on the lines. The stitches are not very close to
each other. The stitches are taken on the line across to the next line.
Begin at the longest opening and make every stitch shorter. When the
line is covered, turn the work so that the twill of the buttonholing
touches the top of the stitches just made. If this stitch is used on
the outer scallop it will be necessary to hem the material, letting the
triangular buttonholing form the edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 127. The triangular buttonholing]

Then there are fancy forms of buttonholing that are used especially
in Mount Mellick work. The double buttonhole stitch is effective to
fill in the large leaves. The stitches are taken in groups of two,
then a little space and two more stitches. Continue in straight rows.
Sometimes one will see a leaf worked one half in double buttonholing
and the other half in a close stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 128. The honeycomb stitch]

The honeycomb or mesh is a fancy name for another form of buttonholing.
Work a row of buttonholing about a quarter of an inch apart. The
distance may be changed to suit the design you are working on. In the
second and all other rows, the needle is over the buttonhole loop
directly above and a short stitch taken a quarter of an inch, or the
distance you have decided on, below the loop. In starting each row
bring the needle up a quarter of an inch, or more or less as you
desire, below the previous row. The distance must be kept even to
achieve satisfactory results. It is not necessary to start from one
side always. The first row is worked from left to right, the second
from right to left and so on, back and forth, till the space is filled
(Figure 128).

Bermuda fagotting is the name of a stitch that gives the effect of
drawn work, when no threads have been drawn. It is used on scroll
designs as well as to outline a simple floral pattern. Lawn, dimity,
China silk, handkerchief linen, or nainsook are the prettiest materials
for this stitch, as it demands a fine, transparent background to give
the right effect.

[Illustration: Fig. 129. Diagram of stitches]

Sewing cotton No. 100 or 150 and a special needle are the only
requirements for this work. The needles can be bought from any art
needlework shop for five cents each. It is like a large-sized carpet
needle with a small eye. A carpet needle can be substituted if it is
not possible to obtain the regular needle in your locality. Tie one end
of the thread to the eye of the needle. While practising this stitch it
will be necessary to make guide lines. On each side of the design line
make a row of dots an eighth of an inch apart. The dots above the line
must be directly over the lower dots. Note the diagram (Figure 129) of
this stitch. I have numbered the first six dots.

Take a stitch from one to three and tie the end of the thread under
this point. Make the stitch a second time from these points, pulling
the material between them closely. Pass the needle underneath and
connect one and two with two stitches. Then pass to point four and
connect two. Three and four are connected in the same manner. It is
only necessary to tie the thread when commencing the work or a new
thread. The needle is so large that it makes quite a hole in the
material and the thread is so fine that the manner of working is not
clear to the average eye unless a detailed explanation is given (Figure
130).

[Illustration: Fig. 130. An enlarged drawing of Bermuda fagotting]

When working on a curved line or a corner it will be necessary to make
an extra stitch on the outer or longer side only.

The scroll lines or stems of a conventional shirtwaist design are more
dainty when made in Bermuda fagotting. The corners of handkerchiefs
or a design on underwear or yokes and collars lend themselves to this
style of adornment.



XIV

SATIN-STITCH AND MARKING


The more interested we become in embroidery the more we find how much
more there still is to be learned about it.

There may be embroiderers who are experts in one branch of the subject
and yet who will do very unsatisfactory work in another. For instance,
one girl may be very proficient in fancy stitches and yet may not
do the simple stitches or vice versa. Few American girls excel in
the satin-stitch, not because it is hard, but it must be perfectly
accurate. The average German, Swiss or French child can do better
satin-stitch at the age of twelve than the average American woman does.
From the time the children in those countries can hold a needle in
their hand they are taught to sew and embroider.

[Illustration: Fig. 131. A letter in satin-stitch]

Satin-stitch is a stitch that is taken over and over across a space.
Sometimes it is quite heavily padded and at a first glance gives the
appearance of a piece of material heavily raised. Fine designs should,
however, be slightly padded. There are three ways in which padding may
be done. There is the running or uneven darning, the chain, or the
filling-stitch. A great deal depends on the smoothness of the padding.
The chain-stitch should only be used for coarse work. The padding
should not cover the stamped outlines, for they are needed as a guide
for the satin-stitch. The padding is usually worked in a heavier thread
than the outer stitches. Darning cotton that comes in four strands is
often used. One or two strands is sufficient.

[Illustration: Fig. 131A. Satin-stitch]

The prettiest satin-stitch is taken straight across. The stitches
should not be crowded, but should be worked so that when the embroidery
is finished the stitches are hard to distinguish one from the other.

[Illustration: Fig. 131B. Satin-stitch dot]

The Old English letter "E" (Figure 131) shows a good example of
satin-stitch and outlining. The latter was used on the single lines.
The entire letter may be carried out in satin-stitch by first running
the single lines with uneven darning stitches and then covering these
with fine satin-stitches. Make the padding stitches as close together
as possible, or the satin-stitches will be uneven.

The letter "C" (Figure 132) offers an opportunity of combining two
colours. After the satin-stitch has been done, a little back-stitch
is worked through the centre of the heavily padded sections. This
combination of stitches is pleasing when colour is used, as the
satin-stitch is in one colour and the centre stitches in another. A
great many of the regular sewing stitches can be used instead of the
embroidery ones. For the very fine lines, back-stitching can be used,
making the stitches finer than those used in ordinary sewing.

[Illustration: Fig. 132. Satin-stitching and seeding]

The letter "A" of Figure 133 shows a good combination of satin-stitch
and back-stitching.

[Illustration: Fig. 133. Satin-stitch and back-stitching]

Satin-stitch can be worked straight across or on the slant. Most of
the modern work is straight, though a great many Germans still prefer
to slant their stitches. The work should be held toward you and the
needle straight. The padding should be worked lengthwise on the design
and the satin-stitch in the opposite direction.

The Chinese do beautiful embroidery, usually in satin-stitch which is
not padded and the finest of silks are employed for the work.

Another way of marking is to make a row of French knots along the
outline design. A single line script letter lends itself best to this
kind of work.

[Illustration: Fig. 134. A simple letter in back-stitching]

For bath towels an outlined letter is better than a padded one. The
letter on a school bag or a heavy Turkish towel should be very simple
as the wear they get does not warrant the spending of too much time on
them. If there is a monogram to be made it is prettier if the initials
of the Christian name be light and the surname heavy.

We learned about outlining in the first chapter of embroidery stitches,
but outlining in combination with outer stitches is a little surprise
for you. We have the German to thank for most of the good combinations
of stitches or letters. After the letter has been outlined in white,
we will say, a thread of colour is taken. Starting from the upper
left-hand side the needle is passed under the first stitch of the
outlining, up through the second stitch and down again through the
third, till every stitch has been taken up on the needle (Figure 135).
The threaded needle should not pass through the material except at the
beginning and end of each line (Figure 136).

[Illustration: Fig. 135. A pretty combination stitch]

[Illustration: Fig. 136. A letter in fancy stitch]

Another manner in which a letter may be embroidered, especially an old
English letter, is to work it solid in white and outline it in colour.
The Van Dyke point is good also where a broad space is to be filled. It
is sometimes called the bird's-eye stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 137. A simple way to work a letter]

Start at the top and on the left side of the letter or space it is to
fill. Insert the needle on the right side and take a stitch to the
centre on a slant like a buttonhole stitch. Fasten to the material with
a little short stitch. Bring needle out at the extreme left and repeat
directions until the space is filled. Each stitch forms a V (note
Figure 138).

Sometimes you will find a very elaborate letter, the outline of which
has been worked in satin-stitch or French stemming. Little eyelets or
satin-stitch dots are worked between the lines.

[Illustration: Fig. 138. Van Dyke stitch]

When two or more letters intertwine they are called a monogram. It is
not every set of letters that will make good monograms. Letters that
have a good swing should be selected so that though they intertwine
each letter should stand forth clearly. It is permissible to use the
surname initial a trifle larger than the Christian initial. When
monograms are composed of three letters and one of the smaller letters
is placed on either side of the larger one the effect is very pleasing.
The smaller the letters, the finer the thread should be. No. 50 or
60 marking cotton can be used for letters one half-inch in size. A
three-quarter inch letter should be carried out in No. 45 marking
cotton. A one-inch letter requires No. 35 cotton, while the two-inch
letters take No. 30 and so on. The larger the letter the coarser the
cotton.

[Illustration: Fig. 139. A letter in Van Dyke stitch]

[Illustration: Fig. 139A. Seeding]

The beauty of a monogram is to have something original. Perhaps you
want to work your bag. Take a tea cup and place on the material in the
position you desire the monogram. Run a faint pencil line around the
cup. Draw a block letter in the centre so that it touches the upper
and lower edges of the circle. Your two Christian initials are then
placed one on each side of the centre letter. Try to fit the letters
so as to keep the circle perfect. It may be you will not really draw
block letters, but so much the better, as the monogram will be more
original. If it is impossible to make a complete circle with the
letters, embroider the sections of the circle between the letters
in stem-stitch. Stem-stitch, you will remember, is an outline-stitch
covered with the over-and-over or small satin-stitch.

A monogram of this sort is especially appropriate for a man's
handkerchief. A twenty-five-cent piece, or a fifty-cent piece if it
is a very large handkerchief, should be used for the circle. Seeding
(Figure 139A) may be combined with satin-stitch in working monograms.
Seeding is nothing more than a series of little back-stitches. A good
effect is obtained by working one letter in satin-stitch and the other
in seeding. It will be necessary to outline the outer edges of the
seeded letter.

You have probably noticed the gold emblems and lettering on the sleeves
of army officers' regimentals. They are generally worked in bullion,
though sometimes gold thread is used. Bullion comes in gold and silver
and at the first glance looks like the Oriental gold or silver threads.
The difference is, however, that bullion is tubular, while the threads
are usually composed of two or three strands twisted together or
over and over a thread of red cotton. The red cotton makes a strong
foundation for the gold threads and, by the way, do you know that all
silk that comes on spools has a fine thread of cotton running through
the centre? The purer the silk the less cotton is used, but the latter
is very necessary, as the threads will not stand very much strain if
they are all silk.

Now let us get back to emblems in bullion. It is necessary in bullion
work to have a fine cardboard foundation which is called "the cartoon."
Trace your design on the cardboard and then cut the design out. Baste
the cartoon to the background, which may be of any material you desire.
Broadcloths, silks, satins, and velvets are the materials usually
selected for the work. Thread a fine needle with a piece of silk.
Fasten the thread on the wrong side of the material and bring the
needle up through the right side. Let us suppose that you are working
the block letter A. Start from the apex of the letter. Cut a piece of
the bullion just the size of a very small bead. Slip the needle through
the cut piece of bullion and span the point of the letter. Continue in
this manner till the cardboard is closely covered with the bullion.
Each piece of bullion is cut to fit the space it is to cover.

In working a five pointed star, start and pad each section lengthwise,
if it is to be embroidered in silk or cotton. For bullion work the
cartoon is always necessary.

Work each section of the star from the point to the centre. Work from
left to right, so that each section that is worked is to the left.

Papier-maché letters can be bought that may be used as a padding. They
are very satisfactory for anything that is not to be laundered, but
continual washings flatten the papier-maché, while if the padding is
made of cotton it lasts as long as the background.

Handkerchiefs for yourself can be daintily marked in very fine
feather-stitching in D. M. C. marking cotton No. 80. Remember to keep
the stitches in a pretty slant.

There are numerous places that a letter or monogram can be used. A
girl I know who is at a boarding school has marked all her bed linen
and towels. For each pair of sheets and two pillow cases she uses a
different style letter or monogram so that her linen is in sets.

Cross-stitching is appropriate for bath towels, although face towels
are often very attractive worked in this stitch.

The question often arises as to which is the right place to put a
letter or monogram on a table cloth, napkin, pillow case, or sheet, and
though you may not be interested in any of these articles at present,
it is well to know these little points when helping to mark the
household linens.

Napkins are usually marked with the letter in the direct centre when
folded. Of course, like many other things, there are fads for changing
the position. One extreme style is to mark the letter in the direct
centre of the napkin. This style necessitates folding the napkin in a
fancy shape so that the embroidery will be seen at its best advantage.

There are two good ways to mark a table cloth. One is to place the
lettering midway between one corner of the table and the hem. When
the cloth is on the table the letter is below the top. The second and
newer way is to have the letter on the top of the table on a line with
the plates. If two sets of letters or monograms are used place them at
diagonal corners.

On sheets the letters should be placed two and a half inches above the
hem. The letter is worked so that when the sheet is folded back the
base of the letter is toward the foot of the bed.

Pillow cases or towels are marked in the centre of one side, two inches
above the hem.

Again let me impress upon you not to embroider white washable material
in silk, thinking that because silks are more expensive they are
better. Silks are apt to discolour in laundering. Cottons are now
manufactured that have a high gloss like silk and yet they never
discolour.

[Illustration: Fig. 140. A handkerchief corner in satin-stitch]

Another pretty and new way to mark letters on lawn or fine linen
handkerchiefs is one that gives the effect of Bermuda fagotting and yet
it is only hemming with a large needle (Figure 140). Draw the letter
in pencil on the handkerchief. Thread a large tapestry or chenille
needle with a piece of No. 200 linen thread. Cotton thread may be used
but it is very apt to break. Tie one end of the thread to the eye of
the needle so that it does not slip out. Thread another needle with a
strand of No. 8 marking cotton and pass it to the back at the beginning
of the letter. Unthread the needle, allowing a half inch to extend
out of the back. Let the No. 8 cotton follow the lines of the letter
and take a stitch into the material with the large needle. Work from
right to left, holding the No. 8 cotton from you. Pull the fine thread
tight around the stitch you have taken. Now pass your needle around
the same group of threads of the material, holding the stitch over the
heavy cotton. Work around the entire outside of the letter, then turn
and work the inner line. Stitch again through the hole already made,
taking up the same group of threads. Sometimes this style is called
ladder-stitch, as the heavy cotton gives the effect of the side of the
ladder and the groups of threads represent the rungs. Any design that
is uniformly narrow can be carried out in ladder-stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 141. A simple letter for towels]



XV

EYELETS AND FRENCH KNOTS, BULLION STITCH, AND OTHER FANCY STITCHES.


The most beautiful of the embroidery stitches is the eyelet, and it is
also one of the hardest. A piece of embroidery that is thickly covered
with eyelet-work and possibly a little satin-stitch and buttonholing
is commonly termed Madeira embroidery. One will often see a piece of
the Madeira embroidery so closely covered that it is almost impossible
to put another stitch in between the embroidered spots. About fifty
years ago it was a matter of impossibility to buy machine embroidery,
and eyelet-work was one of the last things made by machine. It was an
easy matter to distinguish the hand-work from the machine-work up to
about five years ago. A certain regularity of the stitches and the kind
of thread used proclaimed it machine to even the amateur. Now-a-days
the crafty manufacturers stamp the material to imitate the hand-made
embroideries and use a thread of the same quality so that sometimes
the professional embroiderers find it hard to distinguish it from the
real.

If you should ask a boy who has watched his mother working one, what
an eyelet is he will probably tell you that it is cutting holes in the
material and sewing them up again. To his mind this is a great waste of
time.

[Illustration: Fig. 142. Baby's bootees]

Besides being ornamental, the eyelets often play an important part.
They are used to run ribbon through in corset covers, night-gowns and
other pieces of underwear, as well as on bags, baby bootees, (Figure
142), caps and carriage covers. No machine beading can impart the
elegance that a well-made eyelet does to a personal garment. Eyelets
can be either round or oval. For a small round one run a tracing thread
on the outline. Let each stitch take up but one or two threads of the
material. Use No. 35 or finer marking cotton for small eyelets. With
your stiletto pierce a hole in the outlined edge till it is just the
size of the stamped eyelet. Now with the same thread sew around the
opening with close over-and-over stitches. The stitches should only be
the width of the stamped line (Figure 143). They must be even, else you
will have a "Pig's-eye."

[Illustration: Fig. 143. The way to work an eyelet]

For the large round eyelet, as well as the oval, in all sizes it will
be necessary to cut the material within the outline which has first
been traced with the running thread. The cuts should be made lengthwise
and crosswise, right to the tracing thread. The cut material is turned
under to the wrong side and the eyelet worked as just described. After
the embroidery is finished turn the material over and any part of
the cut cloth that extends beyond the stitches trim off. Your fine
embroidery scissors should be used for the cutting.

[Illustration: Fig. 144. The round eyelet]

Sometimes you might like to make an eyelet to represent a grape. Some
embroiderers call it a shaded or padded eyelet. After the eyelet has
been traced make another row of tracing or padding below the lower half
of the eyelet. Start from the centre side of the eyelet and make the
second tracing deeper on the lower portion of the eyelet. If any space
is left between these two rows of tracings fill in with other rows of
uneven darning (Figure 144A).

[Illustration: Fig. 144A. A padded eyelet]

When eyelets are used on the outer edge of a design, they should be
buttonholed.

[Illustration: Fig. 145. A simple centre piece in eyelets]

The next stitch to claim our attention is French knots. In France they
are known as the English knot. They are used to fill in the centres of
flowers. When working a piece of golden rod the natural effect is best
produced by using French knots very close to each other. A row worked
on each side of a row of feather stitching makes a pretty decoration on
babies' dresses, caps or even on yokes of dresses for yourself.

[Illustration: Fig. 146. An eyelet design for a pillow]

A heavy thread is good to practise making the knot. The actual size
or kind of thread to use should depend partly on the kind of material
and partly upon the other style of work or stitches that you intend
combining with it.

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. Many a Happy Hour is
Spent Embroidering]

To work the knot, fasten the thread securely on the wrong side and
bring the needle through to the right side. Now hold the thread down
with your left thumb. With the right hand put the needle over and under
the thread until there are three or four coils of the thread around
the point of the needle. Now hold these coils down with the left thumb.
Turn the needle so that its point will go down through the material as
close as possible to the place through which it came (Figure 147).

[Illustration: Fig. 147. French knots]

A pretty idea for making knots for dress trimmings is to thread the
needle with two strands of silk, each of a different colour.

Bullion stitch is an elongated French knot. It is used considerably in
Mountmellick embroidery, to represent grains of wheat. Small leaves and
daisies are oftentimes carried out in bullion stitch.

To make the stitch we will say that we are working on the conventional
daisy. Bring the thread up to the base of the petal. Insert the needle
so that the length of the petal lies on top of it. (See Figure 148.)
Twine the thread around the needle point until there are as many coils
as the length of the petal. The left thumb should hold the coils in
place while you are twisting them. The needle is now drawn through the
material. It is put through the same hole, or as near as possible to
the one from which it came. Keep the left thumb holding down the coils
until the stitch has been fastened.

Another way to accomplish bullion stitch, which has the same
appearance, but which really is a very much slower method, is to lay a
heavy thread the length of the stitch desired and then neatly wind the
cotton over it. It requires a heavy cotton to work this successfully.

[Illustration: Fig. 148. Bullion-stitch]

An embroidery needle should not be used for either French knots or
bullion stitch, as the eye is apt to stick when pulling it through the
coils. A large sewing needle should be substituted.

[Illustration: Fig. 149. An elaborate piece of buttonholing and
satin-stitch]

Any girl can make dainty and original designs for eyelet work if she
will invest in compasses. As has been stated before, eyelets vary in
size. The size that is most effective for decorating heavy linen or
cotton is an eyelet a little less than half an inch in diameter. A
larger eyelet is often used, but it requires a good deal of patience
and experience to keep it in shape.

With the compass hundreds of designs may be used. The most popular
as well as being the most attractive is the simple daisy. A circle
is drawn to represent the centre. A quarter of an inch over from the
centre circle, or less if you wish to, draw six other circles so that
they form a ring around the centre dot.

A design such as this can be used on a ruffle of a petticoat or
between tucks on dresses while for a whole linen piece there is
nothing handsomer for a scalloped or hemstitched centre piece, doily,
bureau cover and many other articles on which a bold, open effect is
appropriate.

The Wall-of-Troy design is a good one for compass work, only it is
suggested to faintly rule the design then inscribe the circles so that
their centres are on the line. For instance, suppose you want to make a
border design about an inch and a half deep. Take your rule and keeping
on a straight thread of your material draw a two-inch line, then leave
a space, then draw another line, so on to the end. An inch and a
half above these lines draw another row of lines just over the spaces
of the first row. Connect the ends of the lines together. Plan so
that there is a circle at the points or corners of each line. Between
these dots on the horizontal lines make two more circles, while on the
vertical lines make only one. These instructions are for a circle the
size described; for a smaller eyelet it will be necessary to add more
circles to the lines.

A still simpler design is one that is made on a square, that is, with a
dot at each corner and one in the direct centre. The dots must be kept
the same distance apart.

The Italian girls will make the most elaborate designs of compass
work on strips of firm, heavy muslin for ruffles for underwear. They
are not like the American and French girls, who will only wear the
sheerest kind of light material. The advantage the Italian girl has
over her French and American sisters is that when she embroiders a
garment it lasts for years, even if it is constantly used, while
delicate embroidery is apt to have a very short life on account of the
background. To the American girl this is no drawback, as she is always
craving for new things.

Sometimes a thimble, spool, or even a twenty-five cent piece is used
instead of the compass when a large eyelet is required.

An edge of eyelets is very handsome on a collar and cuff set or
handkerchief. They should be placed so that after they are worked they
touch each other. The entire eyelet may be carried out in buttonholing
or the lower half may be buttonholed and the top worked in the regular
way. After the work has been completed dampen the edge and press before
cutting out the material from underneath the lower edge of the eyelet.

It is possible to work the eyelet without any buttonhole stitches and
yet use it for an edge. In that case a little padding is required and
the stitches should be close together.

A linen hat that has a simple scallop edge and a simple design on the
brim and crown is a treasure that usually only the wealthy enjoy. It
is nice to know how to embroider, but unless we put to use the things
we know our knowledge is like a white elephant on our hands. After a
careful study of the diagram of the stitches you desire to make and
reading the description as to how to make it, a little child could
almost work a hat, but the mounting of a hat is not so simple. Yet,
what is the use of taking time to embroider one if you do not intend
to make it up?

Eyelet work is particularly dainty on a hat as it gives a lacy effect.
The material should be a medium weight linen so as not to be too stiff.
At one time butcher's linen was thought to be the only kind to be used,
but of later years a softer linen is preferred. Lingerie hats have been
used for years, probably long before you were born. Every year the
shape varies a little. One year it is a narrow brim sailor, next year
it is a wide brim, then again a high, next a Tam-o'-shanter crown. The
last four years it has been the mushroom shape. For most faces there is
nothing more becoming and girlish than the latter (Figure 150).

[Illustration: Fig. 150. A lingerie hat]

Sometimes the mushroom shape is covered with hand-embroidered ruffles,
while again a circular piece having the crown cut out is used. The size
of hat varies by what fashion dictates, so it is hard to say just how
large your linen should be cut. A twenty-two or twenty-four inch circle
makes a neat little shape.

After the embroidery has been worked as described in the first part of
this chapter, the frame is prepared for mounting it. A wire frame is
lighter and more satisfactory than a buckram frame.

The first thing to decide is, how are we going to face the hat? Tucked
ruffling, net, dotted swiss, or fine ruffles of Valenciennes lace may
be used. Most people prefer to cover the entire frame with cheap, fine
lawn before facing or covering the hat.

This is done by placing the hat on the lawn, the brim touching the
material, and cutting a circle a trifle larger than the brim. Cut a
circle out for the crown and slip the lawn over the frame. If the crown
is too large to allow the lawn to be slipped over it a wide bias band
of the lawn can be used to cover the brim. The bias strip should be
just the depth of the brim. For the crown, cut a circle large enough to
cover the top and use a bias band around its sides.

Tack the muslin to the frame by long basting stitches. It will be
necessary to pass under the wire when taking a stitch to keep the
material in place. The tucked ruffling can be bought by the yard,
trimmed with a row of narrow lace. The entire thing is banded. To
adjust a ruffling of this sort place the band around the edge of the
crown and tack the ruffle in position at short intervals and at the
extreme edge of the brim.

Net or dotted Swiss is pretty shirred or corded or even put on plain. A
strip three times the length that it would take to go around the brim
plain is cut the depth of the brim. This band is cut on the straight
of the goods. A shirring string is run on both sides. The strip is
placed in position and pinned taking care to distribute the gathers
evenly. The shirring string under the crown is pulled up first and the
material over-handed to the frame. The gathering thread on the outer
edge of the brim is also adjusted like this, only instead of over-hand
stitches, fine running stitches are preferable. Then a small heading
is made on one side of the strip that is to be shirred. The heading
makes a pretty, soft finish at the edge and does not require any great
length of time to do. Allow three quarters of an inch, or more, in the
depth of your ruffle if it is to have a heading. Turn one edge of the
material to the wrong side. The turn should be a little more than a
quarter of an inch deep. The gathering thread is run a quarter of an
inch from the folded edge of the material. When the thread is pulled up
the heading is formed.

If the material is to be corded, baste a narrow round cord like a
corset lace inside the material. The cord is placed where it is desired
and the material is folded over it as for a tuck. A running thread is
worked close to the cord to keep the two pieces of material together.
The threads are afterwards drawn up to bring the fulness of the ruffles
to fit the outer edge of the hat.

Three rows of cording are quite sufficient on the edge and the other
two rows at equal intervals from the outer brim to the crown.

The ruffles of Valenciennes lace are adjusted by pulling the drawing
string on the edge of the lace, and basting the first row of lace on
the extreme edge. The second row just touches the first, and so on,
filling as many rows of lace in as required.

The embroidered piece is then washed and the brim placed. The edge is
tacked at intervals while around the crown the stitches are taken very
close together.

The Tam-o'-shanter crown is pulled in shape by a gathering thread, if
it is cut in a circular shape and the gathering is all on the edge. Cut
the circle large enough to make a pretty Tam-o'-shanter.

The embroidery decoration may be in the direct centre of the crown. If
the design is a small one it can be scattered over the crown to give an
all over effect.

There are many ways that a lingerie hat may be trimmed and it is
hard to say which is the prettiest. A black ribbon band and a bow is
simple but severe. White taffeta ribbon may be used the same way if
an all white hat is wanted. In fact any shade of ribbon is attractive
used like this. The illustration shows a pretty way of trimming a
lingerie hat for a girl of about fourteen. A narrow coloured ribbon
is used around the crown and a rosette of leaves with rose buds and
forget-me-nots is attractively placed on one side.

Sometimes coloured linen is used for the hat and in that case the
embroidery may be worked in the same shade as the linen; or white.
The hat is then trimmed with white or black. A coloured hat is not as
practicable as a white one, as the former is apt to fade and may not be
as becoming as the white.

A baby's buttoned hat is made of two circular pieces scalloped out
at the edges, one piece being four or five inches smaller than the
other. The large one is used for the brim. The head size is cut out
of the direct centre and then bound in tape. Three inches from the
crown opening sew a circular row of buttons, a half inch apart. Use a
washable linen, lace, or crochet button for this purpose.

One inch from the edge of the crown make as many buttonholes as you
have buttons. A pair of daintily hemstitched strings that are attached,
one on each side of the crown opening, completes this charming little
hat. It can be easily unbuttoned and laundered flat. These hats are
made of duck, pique or heavy linen. They are the nicest thing you can
make for your little sister for the summer when she wants to play in
the sun.



XVI

LONG AND SHORT, KENSINGTON EMBROIDERY, AND RIBBON WORK FOR SIMPLE
FLOWERS


It is the ambition of every one who starts to embroider to make a piece
of flower work and though the floral designs are most fascinating to
embroider they are by no means as artistic as the conventional.

The way to embroider a piece of flower work and obtain an original
colouring is to get a natural flower and place it in a vase in a
position that you can clearly see the light and shadow. The best flower
to start with is a daisy. Note that the petals are not a dead white,
but there is a suggestion of green toward the centre of the flower. Get
mercerized cotton to work with at first until you become accustomed to
the stitch.

There is no cut and dried rule in regard to the colouring, but the art
of shading a piece naturally is a lesson that is very essential for the
embroiderer.

To many people the term embroidery means flower work and only after
a course of instruction they discover for themselves how much more
artistic and in keeping with most rooms is a conventional design.

Flower work, however, is not to be despised as you will learn more
about colour combination and Kensington stitch in one piece of this
style than any kind of embroidery.

[Illustration: Fig. 151. Long and short stitch]

All flower work has long and short stitch on the edge of the petals or
leaves that do not turn over. Daisies do not have turn over leaves as
often as a double rose or chrysanthemum. Suppose we draw a very large
daisy on a piece of white muslin. With your needle threaded with white
lustre start from the right-hand side. Take one stitch on the line.
Place your needle back near the same point from which you started. Take
a short stitch that goes a wee bit outside of the stamped line past the
first stitch. The object of going beyond the line, is that the stitch
completely covers the stamping.

The third stitch is taken at the same slant, only longer. The fourth
is a short one and so on, first one short and then one long until the
top of the petal is reached. Remember, though, these stitches are only
on the edge. The left half is worked the same, but the stitches slant
a little differently. A good rule to mention right here is, that all
stitches should slant to the heart of the flower. In leaves they slant
toward the base. The inside of the petal, when the long and short
stitches are completed, should be irregular (Figure 151).

The Kensington stitch gets its name from an English school of
embroidery. It is more like outlining than any other stitch.

After the edge of the flower has been worked in long and short stitch,
the Kensington stitch is used to give the solid effect.

The piece must be held all the while in a tight fitting pair of hoops
so that it can not sag in the least.

If the petal is long, two or three rows of Kensington stitch will have
to be worked to fill it in. If silk is desired, two strands are used
for the edge and one strand for the Kensington stitch. The stitches
are dovetailed into each other. Each row must have an irregular lower
edge, else they will look like bricks laid one on top of the other. The
stitches should be so worked that it is difficult to tell where one
ends and the other begins (Figure 152).

[Illustration: Fig. 152. The Kensington stitch]

Three shades of green are sufficient for the leaves until you are quite
expert. In working them embroider on the edge of the lower half of
each leaf with the second shade and the upper part with the lightest.
Work one side first using the second shade under the lightest and the
third under the second. Work to the midrib only. It is not necessary
to work in the veins, but if they are desired they are put in after
the leaf has been worked. Do not hesitate to cover the stamped veining
on the leaf you are working, as the next leaf will be a guide to where
to place the veins. They may be in the lightest or deepest shade of
green, while sometimes a reddish-brown is substituted.

The centre of the daisy may be satin-stitch or a cluster of French
knots. If the dot is worked from the centre to left and from the centre
to right you are more apt to get a perfect outline than when starting
from one side and working to the other.

As a usual thing the lightest shade is on the outer edge of most
flowers, but there are a few exceptions, like wild roses and some
species of pansies in which the deepest shade is on the edge and toward
the centre it is lightest.

The stems may be worked in satin-stitch or Kensington in wood shades or
deep greens, whichever give the more realistic effect to the flower.

It is a great mistake to use white for the background of flower work.
Cream or pale gray make a very much softer and more pleasing effect.

Sometimes a little of the stem brown can be worked into the leaves.

Have you ever seen a lace spread or centre piece with flowers
embroidered on it? You might think that the worker was more than
ordinarily clever, but really any one who can embroider flowers can do
this. Baste a piece of fine lawn on the section you desire to embroider
and stamp it with a spray. Embroider in the usual way and when the
spray is finished neatly cut away any of the lawn that extends beyond
the flower without cutting the lace. The result is that the piece has
the effect of a natural flower resting upon it.

The finer the silk used the more delicate shading can be accomplished.

There is another way to represent flowers that is particularly
beautiful. It is known as ribbon work or rococo embroidery. The ribbons
especially made for this work vary from slightly less than one quarter
of an inch to a little more than a half inch in width. The colours do
not range in such long lines as the silks. In fact it is rare to find
a shop that carries more than ten colours. Sometimes the ribbons are
shaded. They are soft and do not crease quite as readily as an ordinary
ribbon.

A No. 6 crewel needle is about the right size for the narrow ribbon,
while the half inch ribbons need a No. 3.

[Illustration: Fig. 153. Ribbon flowers]

Forget-me-nots, conventionalized small asters, and little roses are
suitable for the narrow ribbons. Satin, moire, broadcloth, or heavy
silk are used for the background and the daintiest of needle cases,
jewel cases, handkerchief bags, belts, and other little accessories
may be evolved from a small piece of silk and a few yards of ribbon.
The design is stamped on the background and all the single lines or
stems outlined with filo silk. Let us imagine we are working on a spray
of forget-me-nots. The needle is threaded with six inches of the narrow
green ribbon. Slip your needle from the under side of the material
drawing all the ribbon through but a quarter of an inch. One stitch
is generally sufficient for a leaf, though sometimes the leaves are
wider and require two or possibly three stitches. The ribbon serves
the same purpose as silk. The one point to remember is that the ribbon
should not be twisted. Naturally in pulling it through the material
several times it becomes so wrinkled that a short piece works to better
advantage than a long one. The flower is made in the same way, one
stitch for each petal and when completed a French knot is made in the
centre of the flower (Figure 153).

The ends caused from starting and finishing off are fastened or caught
down with a piece of fine thread on the wrong side.

Do not pull your stitches. The work is very much prettier when it lies
soft and full on the background.

It is well to make use of every piece of fancy work you do and yet
sometimes a new thing may strike your fancy and you would like to make
a small piece.

A card case is acceptable to every girl and it is a good plan to make
them to match your visiting dresses.

Take a piece of material five by ten inches long. Three inches from one
of the short edges stamp a design that will not occupy a space larger
than three inches long and two inches deep. The length of the design
must run parallel with the short edge of the material. The bottom of
the stamping must be five and a half inches from the short edge of the
material.

[Illustration: Fig. 154. A card case]

A little spray of lilies of the valley on a green silk background makes
a dainty case (Figure 154).

Get a piece of stiff tailor's canvas and cut it to measure eight and
three quarters inches by four inches wide. A piece of china silk the
same size as the satin will be needed for the lining. It is best to
select the shade of silk that harmonizes with the outside material.
With a green cover a lining lighter or darker is suggested. The latter
is preferred as the constant fingering of a light colour is apt to soil
it.

Cut all three pieces so that they are true oblongs; two and a quarter
inches from the short edge make a crease. Two and a half inches from
the first crease or four and three quarters inches from the outer edge
make another crease and cut along it, thus separating the stiffening in
two.

[Illustration: Fig. 155. The foundation of the card case]

Two and a half inches on both sides of the now short edges of the piece
that is not creased draw a line from side to side and crease.

On the extreme right-hand side measure down one and a half inches from
the corner and make a dot; measure up from the lower corner and make
another dot. The space between the dots should measure one inch. Take a
twenty-five cent piece and place on the space between the dots so that
the edge of the material is under the direct centre of the quarter.
Make a semicircular curve on the canvas around the quarter. Cut along
the pencil lines (Figure 155).

[Illustration: Fig. 156. The canvas interlining]

The stiffening now ready, baste it to the lining. See that all creases
have been smoothed out of the China silk lining before basting. Place
the two pieces of canvas so that there is an equal margin on all four
sides. The cut edges of the canvas must be placed one eighth of an inch
apart as shown in the diagram (Figure 156). On one side is the four and
three-quarter inch piece and the other is the four inch. Pin or baste
the canvas through the centre to keep it in position. With a threaded
needle cat-stitch the silk to the canvas, care being taken to see that
the stitches do not appear on the silk side. Cat or catch-stitching is
another name for herring-boning, which is explained in the chapter on
feather-stitching.

Before turning a corner, cut off a small piece of material to prevent
the corner from being bulky. Treat each corner in like manner: when you
come to the little curved part, slash the material so that when it is
folded over the canvas it will fit perfectly smooth.

Fold the canvas and lining along the creases originally made in the
canvas. An iron pressed over them will help to make them stay in
position. The embroidered piece is then placed over the wrong side
of the canvas. A half-inch turn is made on all sides. Turn this half
inch toward the wrong side of the canvas. Sometimes a layer of cotton
batting is laid under the embroidery between the canvas and satin. The
satin piece is basted to the canvas. The folded edge of the satin and
the folded edge of the silk are overcast with tiny stitches. Fold back
the two sections of the case and over-cast each side (Figure 157). Your
card case is now completed.

[Illustration: Fig. 157. The inside of the card case]


A bill folder is made in the same way, only that the ends are not
stitched together to form pockets as in the card case.

It is always well to know how to make pretty, attractive pieces of
needlework that will make acceptable gifts for Christmas or a birthday.

Nearly everybody has a hobby. Sometimes it is saving receipts,
sometimes keeping newspaper clippings, and then again it may be keeping
theatre programmes. It is well to consider what gift is most suitable
for the one that is to receive it; to make for the faddist an envelope
to keep her clippings will be just the thing.

[Illustration: Fig. 158. The way to make an envelope]

Take a piece of brown linen ten and a half inches by nine and a
half inches. Fold it in half so that it measures five and a quarter
inches by nine and a half inches. Stamp a spray of daisies or wild
roses on one side and mark what the envelope is supposed to hold,
such as receipts or clippings. Brown linen does not soil as easily
as white. Embroider the flowers and the lettering, then dampen the
linen thoroughly and press on the wrong side. Now take two pieces
of cardboard that measure eight and a half inches by four and three
quarters. Cover the cardboard with the linen, use long stitches as
described in the needle case, except that two pieces of the cardboard
are placed side by side on the brown linen. Now take two pieces of
brown paper the same size as the cardboard and cover the stitches.
Paste should be used to make the paper stick to the linen.

[Illustration: Fig. 159. The envelope]

[Illustration: Fig. 160. The case completed]

Make six envelopes by taking six pieces of paper nine by thirteen
inches and cut a two and a half inch square from each corner (Figure
158). One inch over from where the squares are cut make a star. There
are eight such points as you note. Connect the dot to the corner by
a line. Cut the paper along the lines. Fold the ends in, then fold
the bottom flap over these and paste. Fold the top flap over without
pasting (Figure 159).

Now, holding these six envelopes in the case with bottom edges touching
the space between the two cardboards, punch three holes through linen,
cardboard, and envelopes.

Take a half a yard of ribbon and run through the holes and tie the ends
in a bow on the corner.

Take another half a yard of ribbon and cut in two. Fasten a piece on
each side of the cover (Figure 160). These two pieces are tied in a bow
and keep the base of the case closed.



XVII

HARDANGER EMBROIDERY FOR SQUARES, PIN CUSHIONS, AND SPREADS


We have to go back to the foreign embroideries to find those that are
beautiful and yet substantial enough to last beyond the usual life of a
piece of fancy work. There is nothing we have originated in embroidery
on this side of the world as rich as Hardanger work, and yet it is
comparatively little known. The background for this work is a loosely
woven material like scrim or basket weave materials such as Java canvas
or the regular Hardanger canvas which is imported.

It is lots of fun working Hardanger in wool on Java canvas as it goes
so quickly, and after we have learned the stitches we can work it on as
fine a canvas as we desire.

The simplest stitch is the block. Thread a large tapestry needle with
a piece of heavy wool. On your piece of Java canvas work a little
block. The worsted is on the right side of the canvas, and then taking
a stitch over four threads of the canvas bring the needle up on the
next opening to the right on the same line as the first. Five stitches
constitute a block; a space of four threads is then left and the next
block started, (Figure 161). A great deal of Hardanger has these blocks
running at right angles to each other with no space between the blocks.
Mistakes cause a great deal of trouble and sometimes it is necessary to
rip out quite a lot of stitches before they can be rectified and for
that reason you must be very accurate in your counting.

[Illustration: Fig. 161. The block]

[Illustration: Fig. 162. The star]

The star is another favourite figure in Hardanger work (Figure 162).
Four stitches are taken over four threads of the material, side by
side, then five stitches over eight threads of the material and then
four again. This forms one side of the star. The second side is made
exactly the same only that at the base of the thirteenth stitch the
first stitch of the second side starts forming a right angle. The star
has four sides as you will note in the diagram of this stitch. Now
count and see if there are twelve threads on each of the inner sides of
the star. If you find any mistake go over it and straighten it out.
There must be twelve threads on each side. Cut four from each corner.
This will leave four threads directly in the centre of each side. With
a piece of embroidery cotton about the weight of a thread of your
canvas weave the bars. The weaving is very simple, over one and under
the next till the bars are woven. Some of these bars have little knots
on the outer centre edge of each. They are called picots (pronounced
pe-co) and they are made somewhat like a French knot. The bar is woven
half way across and laying the needle on the bar the thread is wound
around the needle point. Hold each twist down with the left thumb
(Figure 163). The needle is drawn through and the result is a little
knot on the thread near the stitches. A little stitch is taken into the
woven part of the bar and the thread carried over to the other side of
the bar and another picot made.

[Illustration: Fig. 163. The picot]

For an ornamental stitch to be used on the material between the
stars or blocks make a diagonal stitch like the first stitch in cross
stitching (Figure 164).

Pin cushion tops are easy to make and the following instructions are
given for cushions about four or five inches square. Take a square of
scrim or Hardanger canvas eight inches large. It will be necessary to
pull a thread so that the material will be quite straight on the edges.
Pull out four threads about one and a quarter inches from the edge on
each side of the material. Turn a quarter-inch fold on one side and
crease the material again so as to make a half-inch hem. Baste it down
so that it just touches the drawn threads. Repeat on the four sides.
Be sure that at the corner the double thickness of drawn threads are
exactly over each other. We are now ready to hemstitch the hem. Thread
the needle with No. 90 sewing cotton. Run the thread under the hem and
holding the double part of the hem toward you take up four threads of
the material. Pass the needle again around this group and now into the
hem. Continue in this manner around the four sides. At the corners it
will be necessary to take up both thicknesses of the material.

Crease the finished square in four. Count sixteen threads upon the
crease from the hemstitching and with lustre No. C or heavy linen
thread "aa" make a little block of four strands of floss over four
threads of the material. Make a flight of eight blocks each at right
angles to the other. Now instead of continuing in the same direction
turn and work seven more groups down and to the left. Turn again to the
left and work seven blocks for the third side of the square. Six groups
to the right of the third row completes the square.

[Illustration: Fig. 164. A simple ornamental stitch]

[Illustration: Fig. 165. A good arrangement of picot]

Now with your fine embroidery scissors cut close to the stitches of the
three blocks at each corner. The cut threads are drawn out. Four more
cuttings will be necessary on each side. They should be made against
the stitches only; that is, the threads that are running in the same
direction as the stitches should be cut. Figure 165 shows where the
cuts were made and the threads drawn out. The remaining threads are
woven. A mercerized or dull finished marking cotton is used for the
weaving. It may be either the plain weaving or may have picots on each
side of the bar. Another pretty arrangement of picots is to place them
on one side of the bars so that they appear in groups of four each
facing the other (Figure 165).

Sometimes a lace stitch is used such as the spider or simple loop
stitch. Directions for making a spider will be found in the chapter on
lace stitches. The loop stitch is made by taking a stitch in the centre
edge of each bar. Take a stitch just as if you were buttonholing.

Buttonholing the edge is preferred by many to hemstitching.

A pretty stitch often seen bordering a row of drawn work is made in
pyramid form. It can be as deep as desired. First take a stitch over
two strands of the material then three, then four, then five and down
again to two (Figure 166). This stitch must be worked of course before
any of the threads are drawn.

[Illustration: Fig. 166. The pyramid stitch]

If a little larger and more elaborate square is wanted, take a piece of
material nine or ten inches square. Make a star, skip four threads and
work the open squares described for the smaller pin cushion.

On the opposite side of the square, directly across from the first
star, skip four threads and make another square. At the other two
corners of the square make a star (Figure 167).

[Illustration: Fig. 167. The Hardanger square pin cushion]

The German peasant girls are proud of their aprons with a border of
Hardanger embroidery. It is a common thing for them to have a border
fifteen or eighteen inches deep. Often they will make yards and yards
of a pattern, say four inches wide, and they will insert it above the
hems on sheets and towels and cut out the background material.

There is no nation on earth as thrifty as the Germans. A German girl
I know who is only nineteen years old has her entire bedroom fitted
up with Hardanger articles that she has made herself. First there is
the bedspread and bolster, each most elaborately embroidered with an
all-over design. Then there is a round pillow (the edge buttonholed)
and a square pillow as well as the bureau scarf and pin cushion. If
she bought the articles already worked she would have paid hundreds of
dollars for the outfit, while the actual cost was only a few dollars.
Nearly all the best of fancy-work shops sell small pamphlets on
Hardanger work that are not expensive and after one is familiar with
the foundation stitches it is an easy matter to follow the designs they
give.



XVIII

APPLIQUÉ ON LINEN AND OTHER MATERIALS AND HEDEBO EMBROIDERY


Appliqué, or laying one material on another and stitching or
embroidering them together is one of the simplest forms of embroidery
that even the Indians years ago knew how to do. How many of you have
not seen on an Indian woman queer shapes cut out of leather and
ornamented with beads used for a border on her skirt?

There are two kinds of appliqué, underlaid and overlaid. Most of the
work is the latter kind. The underlaid is a little more difficult to
do. It will be explained at greater length later in this chapter.

Appliqué is such easy work that you will almost think it a mistake not
to have heard about it before, but after all it is really necessary
that we should know the simpler embroidery stitches before we attempt
an appliqué piece, so that we can decorate it in the manner to suit
ourselves.

The European peasants work some of the crudest specimens of appliqué,
yet their colour schemes and choice of material are good. For
instance, Russian crash, which is sold at the towel department of many
of our large department stores, from twelve to twenty cents a yard,
and which is very narrow, usually about sixteen inches wide, is often
employed as the background of their portières.

Before the Russo-Japanese War it was possible to get Russian crash as
wide as forty inches. It is made by the peasants in their homes from
the waste ends left from weaving linens. You have no doubt read of how
poor Russian peasants live in hovels in the same room with the cow, if
they are fortunate enough to possess one, and their pigs. Necessarily
the work they do is not very clean but the artistic qualities of the
crash overcomes the fact of the dirt.

The better class of peasants will take three strips of crash and
connect them together with coarse sewing or lace stitches and then
apply circles of broadcloth, or coloured linens on them. Other
geometrical figures are often applied.

I heard of a Southern family the other day who are so thrifty that they
allow nothing to go to waste, not even the old coats and trousers that
have played the double rôle of clothing the father and then have been
cut down for Johnny. After Johnny has had all the wear possible out of
them Grandma again cuts them, this time in the shape of leaves, and
sews them on a large muslin circle, one overlapping the other. This
forms a mat for the dining room. I am telling you this story not that
you may imitate it, but rather to let you know that after all we have
women here that are as clever and thrifty with their needles as the
European women.

[Illustration: Fig. 168. A pillow in Hedebo embroidery]

For appliqué work the design is cut out and the wrong side covered
almost to the edge with a paste made of starch and water.

When a complicated piece of appliqué is to be worked, stamp your
design on the background. Then on the right side of the material to be
appliquéd, or on the wrong side of velvet, lay a piece of transfer
paper. Place the design on them. With a blunt pointed instrument go
over the line firmly till you have a tracing of the design. If the
lines are not quite clear go over them with a pencil.

Cut out each piece and paste it to the background. The edges may be
machine stitched or satin-stitched or outlined. A cord, also the
couching stitch, makes a good finish.

Very clever representations of animals can be made by appliqué. Take a
duck, for instance. The breast can be white felt, the head dark green
velvet. The wings dark brown and the back and tail a lighter brown
broadcloth. The legs and the bill should be canary-coloured taffeta
silk. Cut each section so that it slightly laps over the other.

Appliqué underlaid is accomplished by stamping the design on the wrong
side of the material and then cutting it out. The background is left
intact like a stencil. A piece of material of a different colour is
laid under the cut piece of material. The raw or cut edges may be
treated in many ways. The material may be turned back and stitched
by machine or the edges may be finished with buttonholing stitches,
couching, fine satin-stitch or chain stitch. The turning back of the
cut edges requires that they be neatly done or the embroidery will not
show to its best advantage.

Hedebo embroidery is in no way connected with appliqué work, but like
the latter it is a branch of needlework that few people in America
understand. Without exception it is the most elaborate form of white
work. The stitches give the effect of being very difficult, but this
is not so. The work requires a lot of time and careful planning of the
stitches for which buttonhole stitch is usually the foundation.

[Illustration: Fig. 169. An elaborate design in Hedebo]

[Illustration: Fig. 170. Part of a Hedebo collar]

Hedebo is worked on a finely woven linen. The design is stamped
directly on the material. A thread of D.M.C. No. 25 or spool linen
thread outlines the figures. Within the design, the linen is cut one
eighth of an inch from the running thread. This eighth-inch extension
is then turned under the stitches and basted down. A small piece
of dark green oilcloth is then laid under the figure to be worked
and basting stitches hold the material and oilcloth together. The
oilcloth protects the fingers and it is often used by foreigners in
making eyelets. A small piece is used and it is moved as many times as
necessary. A large piece is too clumsy to hold. On the extreme double
edge of the opening of the design fine buttonholing stitches are taken.
The stitches are about one thirty-second of an inch apart.

A section of a design suitable for a collar is shown here and the
stitches will now be explained that have been used on it (Figure 170).

A bar is formed by laying two or three threads so that they span the
opening from side to side. Over these threads fine buttonholing is
worked.

The little triangles are worked by making seven or nine stitches into
as many of the buttonhole stitches. The second row is worked into the
first, one stitch from each end is omitted. Continue in this way to the
point (Figure 171).

The three large loops that separate the pyramids or triangles from
each other in the two outer circles are worked by making two loops
that will each take up half the space between the triangles. These
loops are whipped two or three times to make them heavier and then
they are covered with buttonholing. Work the first and half of the
second and then make the loop for the third or last and work it also in
buttonholing, then finish the second (Figure 172). The centre of the
circle is made by connecting the opposite triangles and loops together.
Gently distribute the threads from the centre to allow a small opening.
Put a thread around this opening and neatly buttonhole the threads.

The middle figure is made by working a row of open buttonholing then
running a drawing thread into the loops and buttoning this band with
tiny stitches.

The stitches of the middle circle are somewhat simpler than the ones
just described. A circle of open stitches is made directly under the
buttonhole stitches on the material. Divide this circle in eight parts
and make a large loop at alternate eighths. A connecting thread at the
centre base of each loop connects each opposite pair of loops. The
triangles are worked from the centre to the outer edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 171. Triangle in Hedebo embroidery]

The open triangles are made by working a row of open loops around the
three sides. The loops are drawn slightly together with another thread.

[Illustration: Fig. 172. Buttonholed loops]

There are many pretty edges that can be used as finishes for work. The
linen pieces, however, have to be hemmed first and then the fancy edge
put on. An edge of pyramids is attractive. An edge of buttonholed
loops with a picot in the centre of each bar as described on Hardanger
is also good. Sometimes the loop or pyramid may need stretching in
shape. Take a pin in the lower centre and pull the edges out the
desired size.

In turning curves an extra little loop may have to be worked so as not
to crowd the large points.



XIX

HEMSTITCHING FOR HANDKERCHIEFS AND COLLAR AND CUFFS SETS, ALSO SIMPLE
DRAWN-WORK STITCHES


Drawn work is another of the fascinating branches of fancy work and
when used in combination with embroidery it greatly enriches the piece.
Suppose now that you wanted to make a handkerchief and yet did not want
to take the time to buttonhole the four edges. Well there is nothing
more appropriate than hemstitching. The very expensive handkerchiefs
only have two threads drawn before hemstitching them but it will be
easiest to hemstitch when more threads are pulled.

[Illustration: Fig. 173. Hemstitch]

Handkerchief linen that can be bought from one dollar up per yard is of
course the correct thing to use, but lawn or fine china silk is often
substituted.

A third of a yard of linen thirty-six inches wide will make three
handkerchiefs. A thread will have to be drawn so that the squares will
be perfectly straight. A twelve-inch square of linen will make a nice
little handkerchief. Narrow hems not more than one-quarter inch wide
are more generally used at present so we will plan our handkerchief for
that.

[Illustration: Fig. 174. Hemstitching, second step]

Measure up from the edge of one side five eighths of an inch and draw
out four threads one at a time. The other three sides must also be
treated in like manner. After measuring the first side with the tape
measure the other sides are more accurately measured by turning up one
corner of the side that has the thread drawn so that it forms a right
angle. The upper edge of the angle must just touch the drawn threads.
Crease firmly along the diagonal as shown in the diagram. Now with the
piece still folded over pull the first thread of the second side of
the handkerchief so that the corner when turned back forms a perfect
square (Figure 173).

When the threads of the four sides have been drawn fold back one eighth
of an inch, then make a double fold so that the hem is just one-quarter
inch wide. Baste it down so that the folded edge lies right under the
drawn threads. With your needle threaded with a piece of No. 100 sewing
cotton, start from one corner. Let the end of your threaded needle
fall between the two thicknesses of the material. Bring the needle
through the edge of the hem. Work from right to left; pass the needle
under four of the upright threads. Now pass again under the same group
of four threads, but this time carry the needle through the edge. Hem
directly on a line with the fourth thread of the group (Figure 174).

[Illustration: Fig. 175. Another way to hemstitch]

Another way is to hold the material with the hem toward you and work
from left to right. Pass the needle under four threads letting the
thread in the needle fall under the point of the needle. Pull the
needle through, thus forming a loop and taking a stitch into the hem in
the usual way (Figure 175).

If your thread gives out or breaks, start the next thread by working
over two or three of the stitches.

In hemstitching the corners take up four of the double threads.

When hemstitching on coarser material more threads can be drawn and
also a greater number of threads can be taken up when working.

Dainty little collar and cuffs sets can be made by hemstitching the
hems: and a quarter of an inch above this work make a row of French
knots or feather-stitching.

[Illustration: Fig. 176. Double hemstitching]

Sometimes when a very open effect is desired it is necessary to double
hemstitch the threads. This is very simple. Hemstitch in the usual way,
then turn the work and take up each group on the other side of the
drawn threads (Figure 176).

Drawn work is worked to perfection in Mexico. There they have large
classes for the mountain children who do most elaborate pieces on
frames.

Hemstitching is not always necessary in doing drawn work. Many
beautiful borders can be made with simple stitches.

The sheaf stitch (Figure 177) is made by pulling the threads for a
space of a quarter of an inch or more. Decide the width that you desire
and then cut the threads perpendicularly. Draw the first and last
thread to the distance desired, and then cut opposite end to match the
first slash. After the threads have been drawn out neatly buttonhole
the cut edges with narrow buttonhole stitches. Now place your work in
your embroidery hoops, or, better still, if it is possible, buy a pair
of oval ones that are especially made for drawn work. Fasten thread in
the centre of one of the buttonholed sides.

[Illustration: Fig. 177. The sheaf stitch.]

The number of threads to take up will depend on the coarseness of the
weave of the material. For medium weight linen take up either six or
eight threads using a stitch like that shown in the first step of the
second method of hemstitching. Pass on to the next stitch and when the
row is finished fasten in the second buttonholed side. The thread that
passes from sheaf to sheaf should lie straight enough so as not to sag
between each group or pucker the material.

Another pretty stitch that reminds one of a fish bone is worked
somewhat like feather-stitching.

Prepare the space as for the sheaf stitch. Connect the thread in the
same way. Take up six threads on the left hand side placing the thread
under the point of the needle as it comes through. Now on the right
hand side divide the group made by the first stitch in half and take
the last three threads and the three next to it that are not worked
(Figure 178).

[Illustration: Fig. 178. A simple stitch in drawn work]

A simple stitch is the twist stitch (Figure 179). Prepare the material
in the same way as for the last two stitches and securely fasten your
needle in the centre of the bar, skip the first three threads. Take up
the next three on your needle; pass the needle back under the first
three. Continue like this till the end of the row is reached.

[Illustration: Fig. 179. The twist-stitch.]

A dainty all-over effect suitable for yokes or corners of
handkerchiefs, cloths, etc., is made by drawing the threads out so that
the material left forms squares. Pull a quarter inch of threads then
leave a half inch of material. Repeat in this manner until the space is
covered. Cross the lines, forming squares of the material (Figure 180).

The double hemstitching, sheaf-stitch, fishbone, or twist stitch can
be worked on the drawn threads. You will note that you will have at
each corner of the solid squares an open quarter-inch square. They
will require an extra stitch such as the spider described in the lace
stitches or the loop stitch described in the Hardanger chapter.

Sometimes it is hard pulling the threads of linen. If the threads are
soaped they come out very easily. Do not wet the soap but just rub it
dry on the material.

Some of the finest examples of hand embroidery or drawn work are found
in the convents. Perhaps you are under the impression that drawn
work must be done right with the hem, but that is not so. I want to
describe a beautiful handkerchief to you that I once saw in a convent.
It was made of the sheerest handkerchief linen and one thread only had
been pulled for the hemstitching. A quarter of an inch above the hem
another thread was drawn, but this time, instead of letting it extend
to the hem, a thread was cut one quarter of an inch from the hem at the
beginning and ending. Six threads were drawn like this at eighth of an
inch spaces. The four sides were treated in like manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 180. The threads pulled to form squares]

[Illustration: Fig. 181. Cat-stitch over the tape]

[Illustration: Fig. 182. Five rows of tape cat-stitched]

Where the threads intersected at the corner, the squares were
hemstitched all around, two stitches being allowed to each side of the
square. The stitches were taken through to the centre of each square.
Beyond where the lines intersected the six long lines were treated
quite differently. A piece of fine braid not more than an eighth of an
inch wide was taken on the space between the first two rows of drawn
threads. A regular cat-stitch was worked over this. First a stitch
was taken on the drawn threads above the braid, then, one below it
(Figure 181). When the braid was entirely covered with stitches on the
first row, a second piece of tape or braid was placed over the space
between the second and third rows of drawn threads. This time instead
of catching the thread of both rows, the stitches are taken into those
of the previous row on one side of the tape and into the third row of
drawn threads on the other side of the tape. Five rows of tape complete
the band between the stitches. Of course all this work is on the wrong
side of the handkerchief. On the right side, a totally different effect
is produced. At first glance you would think that there are five rows
of tiny tucks with hemstitching on each side, until you look again
closely and see that it is padded hemstitching (Figure 182).

[Illustration: Fig. 183. A handkerchief for an ambitious little girl]

A section of a drawn work handkerchief for some ambitious little girl
to own is shown in the illustration on this page (Figure 183). It is
like a cobweb. A piece of handkerchief linen twelve inches square is
selected. Starting from the outer edge of the four sides an eighth of
an inch wide space is left, then the threads drawn for an eighth of an
inch. Repeat this seventeen times. At the corners the space and drawn
threads form squares.

Now the rest of the space should be divided up in like manner, so
starting from one corner of the solid square in the centre, draw the
threads for an eighth of an inch, then leave a space the same length
and then draw again. Continue in this manner on the four sides of the
centre square. Pull out all the cut threads and you find that you have
a deep border of little squares. Buttonhole around the four sides of
the centre square with tiny stitches, thus keeping the linen from
fraying.

To get the pointed edge as shown in the handkerchief, buttonhole over
the line of horizontal threads and four of the vertical. The little
filling stitch I am going to suggest to you is so simple that really
after you have buttonholed the handkerchief your task is almost
completed.

Start in the first point under the solid square and work diagonally
across the open space. Pass your thread around the centre of the little
square also on the diagonal. Continue across till you reach the
buttonholed edge around the linen square in the centre.

Skip the next point and work the same stitch in every other point. This
stitch and in fact all the rest of the handkerchief should be carried
out in No. 200 sewing cotton.

In between the worked points make another stitch which is very similar
to the one just described.

It is started from the edge and a stitch is taken on the diagonal
across four of the squares and half way across the solid squares at the
corner of each group.

Having reached the buttonholing next the linen you turn your work and
repeat the stitch over the same square. The stitches now form the
figure 8.

The design of drawn work in the centre of the square is simple as well
as being particularly pleasing. Draw the threads for a half-inch space,
one quarter of an inch above the buttonholing. This must be done on
the four sides of the square. The corners must be buttonholed before
beginning the drawn work. Start the first thread for the drawn work in
the centre of one of the buttonholed corners. Work the sheaf stitch all
the way across. Now start a second thread, knotting the first sheaf in
three, the next in two; so on to the end. These stitches are taken
quite close to the linen. Both sides of the sheaf stitch are treated
the same.

The daisy in the corner completes the pattern. The daisy is made on
the foundation of cross-stitches caused by the sheaf stitch. A Maltese
cross is made thus forming twelve stitches catching all these together
in the centre. Now weave a thread around in a circle, one eighth of an
inch from the centre. To form the petals of the daisy start a thread
from one of the threads that connect with the buttonholing and catch on
the woven circle as you would if you were doing fagotting.

Wherever threads are drawn so that they intersect at right angles, as
in the case of this handkerchief, a space is left vacant which is very
unsightly if not filled in with some figure. Here it was with the daisy
which is extremely easy but in the majority of cases it is with the
Maltese cross.

The wide strip of drawn work shows a pretty pattern for linen scarfs.
It is nothing but right that every girl should take an interest in
her bedroom. She may not be fortunate enough to have one entirely
by herself but that does not excuse her from trying to make it as
attractive as possible. The key-note to beauty and elegance is
simplicity. Better have a dainty bureau scarf hand made and a few
necessary toilet articles than a bureau beribboned and with a lace
scarf, crowded with old visiting cards, dance orders, and dainty
nothings that only catch the dust and give one a bewildered feeling
when one looks at them. The scarf should be worth displaying if it is
hand work, for remember what is worth doing is worth doing well.

The butterfly pattern of drawn work (Figure 184) is simple and pretty
enough to please the most exacting and as has been said before is most
appropriate for bureau scarfs. The material of the scarf may be linen,
lawn, or scrim. It is quite unnecessary that the drawn work extend
around the whole scarf--three sides, one long and the two short, being
quite sufficient.

[Illustration: Fig. 184. The butterfly pattern in drawn work]

Draw the threads out for an inch, then hemstitch the cloth on both
sides of the space; be sure to take up the group of threads already
hemstitched when working on the second side. Fasten the thread in the
direct centre of one end of the drawn work and catch eight groups of
threads to form the sheaf stitch. An eighth of an inch above the centre
thread start another thread. Divide the sheaf in thirds and knot each
section of the first sheaf. Pass the thread to the second sheaf and
repeat the same thing, this time under the centre instead of above it.
Alternate sheaves are divided above the centre line and the remaining
sheaves under.

A third thread is started beginning an eighth of an inch below the
centre and the other side of the sheaf is divided in three.

A fourth thread is started one eighth of an inch from the solid
material. This time the sheaf is divided in four, in groups of two.
First the top of one sheaf is woven like this, then the bottom of the
next. Continue in this manner till the end of the strip is reached.

The fifth thread knots the groups on the side of each sheaf that was
omitted by the fourth thread.

You will notice now that the four threads cross each other in the
centre of the space between each sheaf. Knot the threads in the centre
and weave across the lower four threads until you have made as large a
fan as the space will allow. The remaining threads are divided in two,
three on each side, and two other fans are woven on them.

In the next space the fan of four is reversed and is made in the
opposite direction to the first group. This pattern is commonly termed
the butterfly pattern.

Drawn work should be worked on frames, though it is not necessary to
use the large square one of the Mexicans. The nicest kind of frame and
one easy to handle is the oval form, which comes in different sizes.
They are particularly convenient to hold a long, narrow piece, which
can be worked to better advantage than on the round rings.

Every once in awhile one sees specimens of a new kind of drawn work.
There is the Mexican of which we have had a few of the simplest
stitches, there is the Hardanger or Swedish drawn work, which is
described in another chapter, the Porto Rico drawn work which is very
intricate and also very trying to the eyes, but after all none compares
in simplicity to the Bulgarian drawn work. It is so substantial that
often after the material of the article on which the work is done has
worn out, the drawn work is as good as new and can be transferred to
another piece of material.

Bulgarian drawn work instead of weakening the material as Mexican work
usually does strengthens it considerably.

The work is done in spaces varying from a half inch to three inches
in width. It can be done on linen, huck or lawn backgrounds, though
sometimes scrim is used. Personally I do not think it pays to work
elaborate patterns on scrim as the background is not substantial enough.

We will take for example the first towel end shown in this work.

[Illustration: Fig. 185. A towel in Bulgarian drawn work]

Draw threads out of an inch and a half space. It is not necessary that
the cloth should be hemstitched, though till you are quite familiar
with the work it may be easier for counting. The hem is then turned
over and hemstitched. Make the double hemstitch on the other side as
described in the first part of this chapter.

I have found that though there are many threads that may be used for
weaving there is nothing quite as satisfactory as Electro in its
finest number. Start from the extreme lower left hand corner. Weave
back and forth over three of the groups with a blunt pointed crewel
needle for one quarter of the distance from the hem. Now omitting the
first group weave across three. You will see that you dropped the first
group and took up the fourth. Weave to the middle of the space. Now
drop the second group and weave across to the fifth group until you are
three quarters across the space. Now drop the third group and weave
across to the sixth. Weave until the space is filled. Without breaking
your thread weave the seventh, eighth and ninth, then the eighth, ninth
and tenth, next the ninth, tenth and eleventh, then the tenth, eleventh
and twelfth. Weaving the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth brings you
back again to the hem.

The woven threads will look somewhat like an arch of blocks. Between
the arch there are six groups of threads. Let us weave that in pyramid
effect. Start at the hem and weave across the six for a little more
than a quarter of an inch. Then dropping the first and last groups of
threads of the proposed pyramid weave over four threads for another
quarter of an inch. Again dropping the first and last threads of the
four you were weaving, work across two. Fasten your thread by bringing
it through the woven stitches into the hem. A new thread is started in
like manner. You are now ready to start another arch, close to one just
made.

A little more elaborate design is shown in the second towel end, a
detail of which is also given (Figures 186 and 187.)

[Illustration: Fig. 186. Detail of Fig. 187]

After the threads have been prepared as has been just described for the
first towel start from the lower left hand side and weave across the
threads eight times. The weaving is very simple. First you take two
groups with needle pointing to the left and then you take the one group
that you didn't take up the first time. You work back and forth as it
were.

Now drop the first thread and weave across to the fourth group as in
the first towel. Each set of three groups will only have eight lines
however. Continue in this manner till you are one space from the solid
material, then weave across four instead of three. Start to weave down
on the right side over the three groups under the block of four. Now
continue weaving over groups of three until the hem is almost reached
then weave the last block over four (See detail of Figure 187).

On each side of these blocks weave a row working over two groups.

[Illustration: Fig. 187. A more elaborate design in Bulgarian drawn
work]

The groups of thread within the woven rows are woven into a triangle.

Bulgarian drawn work is used on pillow cases, handkerchiefs, towels,
dresses, scarfs, or small square cloths.

Sometimes coloured threads are used and the result is very effective.
Use cottons and if they are coloured boil them in salt and water before
working with them.



XX

EASY LACE STITCHES, FAGOTTING, SINGLE MESH, DOUBLE MESH, SPIDERS, FAN,
MALTESE CROSS, TWISTED AND BUTTONHOLED BARS, PICOTS FOR SIMPLE EDGES


One of our best authorities on lace has said that there are over one
hundred different stitches used in lace. Now there are various kinds of
laces; there are crochetted, bobbin, as well as needle point laces. It
is about two branches of needlework laces--Renaissance and point--that
we will talk about in this chapter.

Renaissance lace is made by basting a flat braid on a given pattern and
filling the spaces between with simple lace stitches. Point lace is
made of very fine plain braid with much finer thread and more elaborate
stitches.

The basting of the braid is extremely important. Sometimes only a
single line is given to indicate where the braid will be, while again
a double line is shown. The braid must not be wider than the double
lines. It may be basted so that the side held toward you will be the
right side of the lace or _vice versa_. Start from one corner of the
design, turn over one end of the braid an eighth of an inch. For coarse
work one row of basting stitches through the centre of the braid is
sufficient but for fine work baste along both edges of the braid.

In basting around a loop the inner edge of the braid will have to be
gathered. This may be done in two ways: the first by pulling a thread
or by running a thread on the edge. At a sharp point the braid will
have to be turned.

[Illustration: Fig. 187A. Fagotting and feather-stitching on a cap]

The preferred method of working the lace is to have the right side
facing you. In starting to braid turn up one eighth inch of braid and
start from a point so that the end may be covered later.

The braids vary from one cent to fifteen cents per yard.

[Illustration: Fig. 188. Fagotting]

[Illustration: Fig. 189. Single Brussels stitch]

A simple stitch in lace that greatly resembles the Turkish stitch
in embroidery is fagotting. It is a stitch that is often used by
dressmakers to connect bias bands together for yokes and sleeves. For
this as well as other lace stitches the beginning of the thread should
be fastened so as to be unobserved by the average eye. If the braid
is neatly over-casted the end will be quite secure. Starting from the
extreme left of the section to be fagotted take a stitch through the
braid on the opposite side of the opening, letting the thread fall to
the right. The stitches are taken from side to side. This stitch is
best suited to long narrow spaces (Figure 188).

The foundation stitch of lace is the single mesh or net stitch. It is a
stitch that may be used in almost any shape opening. It is a good thing
when working a piece of lace to pick out one stitch for filling in the
background; then the design proper can be as fancy as desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 190. A handkerchief in simple lace stitches]

The mesh or net stitch is good for a filling stitch. A blunt pointed
needle is the best for working lace as you are not so apt to stick
yourself. Make a row of open buttonholing, not however through the
background. The second row is worked slightly below the first row. Each
stitch is taken into a loop of the upper row. If the spaces decrease
in size drop one stitch from each end for as many rows as necessary.
To finish the stitches overcast them to the braid. To many lace makers
this stitch is known as single Brussels (Figure 189).

Double Brussels or the knot is worked like the single only that there
is a second stitch taken in the same position as the first. The last
must be short and drawn tightly (Figure 191).

[Illustration: Fig. 191. Double Brussels stitch]

Another pretty filling-in stitch is the spider. It can be as large as
desired allowing the space it is to be used in to determine the size.
A thread is spanned across the space and the braid whipped for a short
distance, say a quarter of an inch. The space is spanned again so that
the threads cross. Pick up all the threads on the needle through the
centre and make a little stitch to bind them. Now begin to weave over
one leg or strand and under another, so on till a good-sized body is
formed to the spider. In weaving be careful not to skip one of these
little legs (Figure 192).

Another way to work a spider, to make it a little stronger is to whip
each leg as it is spanned.

A third and more elaborate spider is one made with the foundation
thread as described for the first spider and then instead of weaving
straight around make a stitch back over one leg and forward under two
until the body is the desired size. This is called the spider in its
web (Figure 193).

[Illustration: Fig. 192. The simple spider]

It is easier to weave on an uneven number of threads, and the number of
these should depend on the space. A large space requires a large spider
with lots of legs.

[Illustration: Fig. 193. The woven spider]

A fan (Figure 194) is made by spanning three or five threads so that
they come to a common centre on one side and on the other they are
arranged in ray effect. The weaving is started from the base under one
thread and over the other on the first row if there are only three.
The second row is like the first, only the threads skipped in the first
row are taken up. Alternate rows agree.

[Illustration: Fig. 194. The fan]

A Maltese cross looks like four fans caught together. The threads are
crossed lengthwise and crosswise and the stitches taken to gather the
threads in the centre. The weaving is the same as the fans. In weaving
the fans or crosses do not work much more than half way up (Figure
195). A twisted bar is nothing more than a thread overcasted (see
illustration, Figure 124).

[Illustration: Fig. 195. A Maltese cross]

A buttonholed bar is made by laying two or three threads and
buttonholing over them (Figure 196).

In this age of machine work there are all sorts of braids that may be
procured for lace work. Little edges that were impossible to buy are
now made by machinery.

A little edging makes a dainty finish to a straight braid and also
enhances the beauty of the fancy braids.

To make a simple edging, work a row of picots on the edge of the braid
which forms the edge of the design.

Dainty yokes, collars, baby caps, and tie ends can be made of a few
yards of braid and two or three different kinds of stitches.

Another decoration I would like to tell you a little about is Limerick
darning. It is often used with fine lace work on a background of fine
net.

The lace thread is used for the darning. The most common of the
stitches is the plain darning taken up over one hole and under the next
of the net. The next row is worked close to the first.

[Illustration: Fig. 196. A buttonholed bar]

Darning on net is a decoration that is often used by itself. Smart
little turn-over collars and cuffs are most attractive darned in heavy
white floss or colour if preferred. Pin cushion covers and other
dainty articles that every girl loves to have in her bedroom may be
darned to good effect.

One of the most simple forms of lace work is Connemara lace. It gets
its name from the Irish county of that name.

The materials required are Brussels net of any size desired, lace braid
of a width to correspond with the net, heavy lace rings, a ball of
Renaissance thread No. 60 or linen spool thread No. 25, as well as a
spool of coloured cotton.

Connemara lace is used extensively for curtains, bed spreads and in
fact, on any large piece, when the effect is desired and yet not much
work. A good design for Connemara lace is shown in Figure 197.

[Illustration: Fig. 197. A good design for Connemara lace]

The net can be white, ecru, or black.

Draw a simple yet bold design on a piece of stiff paper or better still
a piece of pink or blue paper muslin.

The rings can be bought all ready for applying, for a couple of cents
per dozen but they can also be made at home. Take a pencil and wind
around one end of a thread about as many times as you would judge from
the illustration of the button or ring half worked (Figure 198). Slip
the threads from the pencil and carefully and closely go over them with
buttonhole stitches till all the loose threads are completely covered.

[Illustration: Fig. 198 Button half worked]

Baste your net over the design, then baste the braid along the design.
With a fine thread secure the braid on the extreme edge to the net only
with fine running stitches. Sew one side of the braid entirely around
the design then sew the other side down.

The rings are buttonholed to the net.

If a very elaborate piece is wanted, lace stitches may be inserted in
spaces that are bound on all sides with braid. The stitches, however,
should be of the simplest, such as the twisted bar or spider.

Honiton braid which is an egg-shaped braid is much more beautiful than
the plain Renaissance braid employed in Connemara.

The dearest of baby caps, handkerchief tie ends, and other dainty
little articles on which a fine decoration is desired can be made from
fine net and Honiton braid. Each section of braid can be cut and made
to form petals for a flower or to represent a leaf. Honiton is of
course more expensive than Renaissance braid but a yard of Honiton goes
a good way.

There is a thread that can be bought by the yard, called picot or
purling thread. It has a loop at short intervals each side of it. The
needle can be threaded with it and can be used for stems, tendrils, or
other parts of a design where a fine single line is desired.

The centre of a flower in Honiton appliqué may be in worked various
ways. A small ring or button may be used or spiders may be woven in the
centre. Again the single Brussels or mesh stitch is worked in a little
circle in the centre. Use a very small ring, if you decide on rings for
centre, as a large ring spoils the effect of a flower. Any child can
make designs for Honiton appliqué.

The background for Honiton is the fine Brussels net. Sometimes a double
thickness of net is basted over the pattern and the Honiton sewed on or
appliquéd to the net. The double thickness of net gives a moire effect.
Each section of the braid is sewed to the net only. Sometimes two
widths of braid are used, one size for the flowers and another for the
leaves.

The braids at most art shops can be had in black, cream, or white.
If, however, you are not fortunate enough to get cream, the white can
be dyed at home to be as light or deep as you desire. I use cold tea
diluted in water for a light cream, and coffee for the deeper cream.
Put the lace to soak in the tea or coffee for a couple of hours. Rinse
in cold water and let dry. If it is not a deep enough shade put more
tea or coffee in the water and soak the lace again. Another way to dye
lace, chiffon or any delicate fabric is to get a tube of oil paint the
colour you desire and dilute it in gasolene. Of course the gasolene
makes the paint light, so test the solution by dipping a small piece
of cloth in and see if it is the right shade. A quart of gasolene is
sufficient unless the article is very large.

I know a girl who dipped her white hat all trimmed with flowers and
tulle that was quite soiled into a mixture of gray paint and gasolene
and the result was a pretty dove gray that everybody thought was new.

Teneriffe or Brazilian point lace is such a simple form of lace making
that I am going to stop and tell you a few words about it before we
proceed to the next chapter.

Little forms which look like a large spool with pins stuck in them
can be bought in many art shops, but you can easily make a foundation
yourself for Teneriffe lace.

Draw a circle two inches in diameter on a stiff piece of cardboard.
Sometimes the circle is drawn on white muslin and fastened securely
to an embroidery hoop or frame. Divide the circle into halves, then
quarters, then eighths and each eighth divide into six equal parts.
Make a dot at each division. Thread a needle with a piece of coarse
thread. Insert the needle one quarter inch beyond the circle and bring
it up on a dot. Continue in this manner all around the circle. Fasten
securely.

[Illustration: Fig. 199. The first step in Brazilian point lace]

Now thread a needle with a long thread of No. 80 linen thread. Let it
be extra length. Pass the needle under each loop from side to side
until each little stitch has a thread passing through it. (Figure 199).
Knot the threads in the centre and weave four or five rows, over and
under the strands close to the centre. Skip a quarter inch then carry
a thread around and knot each thread as you pass it. Count the threads
and divide the number by six; on this number weave a little pyramid.
Repeat the little pyramid five times, each time letting it be woven on
the same number of threads as the first. Take a thread and catch every
two threads above the centre figure. An eighth of an inch above this
work another row, this time dividing the two threads previously caught
and taking one of them and one of the next row together. An eighth of
an inch above the row make another row, catching the same threads as
were taken in the first row from the central figure (Figure 200).

[Illustration: Fig. 200. A motif in Brazilian lace]

Sometimes a pin cushion is used to make Brazilian lace. The pins are
stuck in and the threads wound over them.

Brazilian or Teneriffe lace can be used for borders on handkerchiefs
or other fine articles, while again they may be used as medallions on
waists or other thin clothes. The material from under them is cut out
so that a lacy effect may be produced.

Other patterns may be readily made. Remember that the stitches are very
similar to those used in the corners of drawn work borders.



XXI

SIMPLE BASKETS


Basketry is so easily done and at such a small cost that almost
any one, even a very little child, can master it without very much
difficulty. With very few tools some beautiful gifts and other useful
articles may be made.

In this chapter it is my intention to tell little children just how
to make some pretty things with materials that they can obtain from
nature's storehouse and otherwise.

In making baskets a great deal of rattan is used. I suppose that some
of my little readers will wonder what rattan is. Well, I will tell
you. It is a kind of grass or leaf which grows in forests of foreign
countries, twining about the tress, hanging from branch to branch
sometimes hundreds of feet in length but hardly ever over an inch
thick. The people over there in those countries send this material to
us so that we can make many pretty things. For little boys and girls
living in the country there are materials which they can get from the
fields and river banks that may be substituted for rattan.

For instance the water willow when peeled proves a very good material.
Reed, which is a sort of grass that grows on the banks of rivers, may
also be used after it is dried and peeled. Raffia is another material
which is commonly used for this work. It is a sort of soft substance
generally pale yellow and can be bought by the pound at any large store.

Dried grass is sometimes substituted for raffia and the results are
often just as pretty as those obtained by the original material.

Grass twine is used. It is something like rope, and rope is often
substituted for it. Raffia is generally used to cover it in making
baskets.

A few tools will be necessary for our work such as a strong pair of
shears, a tape measure or ruler, a vessel for water, and some very
coarse, blunt-edged needles.

Simple baskets of rattan are very interesting to make and I will tell
you how to make a small round basket without a cover.

For this basket you will need four fourteen-inch pieces of rattan or
spokes as we are going to call them, one eight-inch piece and two or
three longer pieces for weavers.

Before starting the work, the rattan should be soaked in water until it
becomes soft enough to bend easily. Then two of the pieces are placed
side by side in a vertical position and the other two in a horizontal
position crossing the vertical pieces at the centre. Between the two
horizontal pieces and to the right of the centre the half spoke is
placed.

[Illustration: Fig. 201. Weaving the bottom]

These are held in position by the left hand, while the right hand does
the work.

One end of the long piece called the weaver is placed at the centre,
back of the horizontal spokes, with the end toward the right. The
first finger of the right hand presses the weaver across the vertical
spokes, under the horizontal on the left, over the vertical, and behind
the horizontal again. Repeat twice so as to fasten well.

Separate the spokes evenly, and it is now ready for the weaving (Figure
201).

If there is any of the winding piece left, it may be used as a weaver.

The weaving is done by pressing the weaver under one spoke and over the
other until the bottom of the basket is about two and one half inches
across.

Soak it in water for a few minutes and then bend the spokes upward to
form the sides of the basket.

In order to make the weaving of the sides of the basket easier, rest
the work on the knee, holding the spokes with the left hand and press
the weaver under and over the spokes with the first finger of the right
hand. If the weaver comes to an end join a new piece by crossing them
behind a spoke about an inch from the end of each.

When the sides of the basket have been woven, leaving about an inch and
a half of the spokes extending, it is ready for the border.

Cut the spokes to an even length with a slanting cut, so that the
points may be easily pushed down between the weaves. Hold the spokes in
water for a few minutes and then push one of the spokes down beside
the next spoke at least three quarters of an inch below the edge. Do
this with every spoke until the border has been completed. Now our
little basket is finished and ready for use.

Sometimes little girls like to have their baskets brightened up. A
pretty lining of silk or other material would do this very nicely.

[Illustration: Fig. 202. The basket]

Perhaps some children would like to know how to make a basket with
a cover. It only requires a little more time but it will prove very
interesting.

The material for this basket consists of six sixteen-inch spokes, one
spoke nine inches long and three or four weavers.

The bottom of this basket is made in the same way as the one previously
described. After this much has been done, wet the spokes and proceed
to turn them up and weave the sides of the basket. The weaving is
done rather loosely until you have used three of the weavers. The last
weaver is drawn more tightly so that the basket will assume the shape
of an apple with the top cut off. The edge is finished off with a flat
border which may be made by soaking the spokes in water until they
become quite soft. Each spoke is brought behind the next one to the
right of it, and out over the front of the basket. Then the end of each
spoke which is lying over the front of the basket is brought up over
the next spoke to the right and is pressed down inside of the basket.
When it is dry the ends of the spokes may be cut off.

[Illustration: Fig. 203. A mat]

The cover is made like the bottom of the basket, only the spokes are
bent gradually upward from the centre. The material for this cover
consists of six fourteen-inch spokes, one spoke seven or eight inches
long and two long pieces for weavers.

When the cover is nearly as large around as the top of the basket it
is finished off with a border like the one described for the top of
this basket. The cover has to be fastened to the basket and the easiest
way of doing this is by making rings of rattan.

A piece of rattan about twelve inches long is tied into a ring, the
ends being twisted in and out of the ring. Three rings are necessary,
none of them measuring more than a half or three quarters of an inch
across. One ring is attached to the cover on the front between the
border and the last row of weaving, the ends being sewed under a spoke.
Another ring is attached in the same way at the back of the cover and
the third is fastened across a spoke in the front of the basket between
the fourth and fifth rows of weaving. The cover is placed on the basket
so that the ring at the back will be just over a spoke of the basket. A
small piece of weaver is then placed between the third and fourth rows
of weaving, below the border and to the left of the spoke mentioned. It
is brought through the ring on the cover and drawn just tightly enough
to allow the cover to close easily. The ends are crossed and brought
through to the inside and sewed down, as the rings were. When this is
done the basket is complete.

There are many other pretty articles that can be made easily, such as
a mat for a teapot or lamp and trays for other purposes (Figure No.
203).

A very simple way to make a mat would be to cut four fourteen-inch
spokes of rattan, one eight-inch spoke, and two weavers. The mat is
started in the same way as the first basket in this chapter. When the
end of the first weaver is reached, a second is joined to it. By the
time the second weaver has been used, the mat is large enough for a
border. The mat has to be bound. The binding may be done by passing the
weaver under the last row of weaving just before it reached the next
spoke. It then goes behind that spoke, in front of the next and under
the last row of weaving. The spokes should then be soaked in water,
and when soft take spoke No. 1 and cross No. 2 and push it down beside
No. 3 and so on around the mat. A number of these mats may be made and
joined together for various purposes. Two mats joined by ribbon make a
very pretty whisk-broom holder.

In nearly all this work weaving is the principal thing. By changing the
weave we can obtain very interesting and pretty results. The simple
over and under weave may be changed by using two weavers and twisting
once, twice or three times between the spokes according to the size of
the article.



XXII

RAFFIA BASKETS AND NAPKIN RINGS


Raffia is so soft and strong that it is very well fitted for the work
of children's fingers.

So many different things can be made with raffia that it is just as
precious to the little ones as the same amount of gold.

Little baskets made of raffia are dainty and easily made. For example
a work basket, a candy basket, or a basket for handkerchiefs, collar
buttons, and many things are interesting.

For one of these baskets we need one long piece of rattan, a bunch of
raffia and a blunt-pointed needle. Soak the piece of rattan in water
until it is soft enough to work with. Wind the end into the smallest
possible ring and with the needle full of raffia start in the middle
of the ring and sew over and over from left to right until the end is
firmly fastened. The next row is brought around at a little distance
from the first and the raffia is brought down through the centre, up
and once around the coil, thus holding the first coil to the second.

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. It is Jolly to Make a
Raffia Work Bag]


Wind the raffia around the rattan until the coil has been brought half
way around the second time, when it is again sewed through the centre.
At quarter distance all the way through the basket these joinings are
made and they must be made to the right of the one below and joined to
the previous row. The joinings form a pattern.

As the basket grows larger the number of joinings increase. New
needlefuls of raffia are always started at a joining, the old strand
being brought from left to right through the upper part of the joining.
The new strands being brought from right to left through two twists of
raffia and drawn through so as to leave the short end lying next to the
rattan.

Begin to wind again and soon both ends are covered. When you have
made about ten rows, which will form the bottom of the basket, bring
the rattan above the last row and proceed as before. Each new row is
brought above the previous one so as to form the sides of the basket.
When the basket is about eight rows high, the ninth row is brought just
a little inside of the eighth so as to have something for the cover
to rest upon. When about three inches from the point where the rattan
was brought up to make the sides of the basket, it should be cut long
enough to finish the row and then shaved off to a flat point which is
sewed closely to the last row. For this basket we will have to make a
cover.

The cover is made in the same manner as the bottom of the basket. When
you have nine rows complete, a border is made to finish off the cover.
The tenth row is sewed to the ninth by a fancy stitch which is made
by winding once around the ninth from left to right and once around
the tenth from right to left and so on alternately until the row is
completed.

The end of the rattan is shaved off and sewed to the last row. A pretty
lining would beautify this article very much.

One of the very simple things which a very small child could easily
make is a napkin ring (Figure 204).

Cut a piece of cardboard or stiff paper about an inch and a half wide
and eight or nine inches long. Paste the ends together forming the
ring. Take two strands of raffia and knot them. Place the knot inside
the ring holding it with the first two fingers of the left hand. The
strand on the right is brought up and across the ring on the top, the
end hanging over the left side. The strand on the left is brought
around the right strand under again through the ring and out on the
right through the loop made by the right strand in turning and
crossing the ring. Pull both ends. The strand on the left is brought
across the ring, the right strand placed over it through the ring and
out through the loop on the opposite side. Pull both ends. The little
knot formed on the edge is called "Solomon's Knot" and it makes a very
desirable edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 204. The napkin ring]

Different colours may be used in raffia which brighten the ring very
much and make the work more interesting.

When the strands of raffia come to an end, a new one is joined by
placing the end over the old one about an inch or an inch and a half,
and working with them as one. The ends may be cut off after the ring
is finished. Sometimes a small bunch of raffia about an inch long is
tied to the outside of the ring. The ends are frayed out to add to the
effect.

There is one article which proves to be most delightful and interesting
to make (that is, to the girls) a doll's hat (Figure 205).

I think that nearly every little girl knows how to braid raffia and
after you have learned how to sew this braid together you can make any
size or shape in hats.

Braid some raffia, say about two or three yards. Have several loose
strands and a needle and scissors.

[Illustration: Fig. 205. A doll's braided hat]

Just as in making large hats we begin with the centre of the crown. A
needle is threaded with a fine strand of raffia and the work is begun
by winding the end several times with the end of the strand threading
the needle.

A coil is then started with the edge of the braid up, not the face,
and it is sewed through at least two braids at a time, in stitches
which run in the direction of the braid. The needle is put in slanting
down from right to left and up in the opposite direction. The crown
is coiled round and round until it is about two or two and a half
inches large. The coil is then brought round with the upper edge just
below the centre of the last row. The following rows are sewed in the
same way until the crown is completed or high enough to suit you. Have
care in sewing the braid so as to show as little of the stitches as
possible. The brim is made by flattening out the braid and sewing it so
that it overlaps the centre of the braid of each preceding row.

When the brim is wide enough one or two rows are sewed more tightly
than the others and the end of the braid is sewed under the brim very
flatly. Now the hat is ready to be trimmed.

I would like to tell a little about the handles of baskets in this
chapter. In most of the baskets already described a cover has been
made. Some people would rather have a handle to the basket, so let us
see if we cannot learn how to make some handles. The twisted handle of
rattan is made by using one spoke of rattan of suitable length, and a
weaver. A knitting needle or something similar will be necessary for
the work.

The needle is pushed down beside a spoke of the basket and then drawn
out again to make room for the end of the rattan to be pushed in, about
three inches below the top of the basket. The other end is inserted in
the same way on the opposite side. This makes the foundation handle.
The end of the weaver is inserted under the third row of weaving to
the left of the spoke and pushed up between the weaving. It is twisted
around the foundation about an inch apart. When the opposite side is
reached, the weaver is pushed in under the third row of weaving on one
side of the handle spoke and brought out on the other side. The weaver
is then laid across the first twist and each of the following ones, to
the other side where it goes under the third row as on the opposite
side. About five or six times across will cover the handle. The weaver
is fastened off by bringing it inside the basket across a spoke, in
again, and then cut off.

The braided handle is made by using six pieces of rattan braiding using
two pieces in each strand.

While weaving the basket, three pieces are pushed in on each side of a
spoke and the weaving is continued over the spokes.

The double ring handle is made by twisting rattan into rings and sewing
the rings to the weaving of the basket on opposite sides.

In sewing baskets or other articles, different kinds of stitches are
used. To put a hat together the braids are sewed together with a
plain stitch, whereas in putting a basket together a fancy stitch is
employed.

The Indians are famous for the various kinds of fancy stitches, which
they have used in making basketry articles.

The skip stitch which is used in sewed baskets is made by enclosing two
spokes at a time or enclosing one spoke between every two.

Another useful and decorative stitch which is often used is the split
stitch. The spokes are twined with raffia for a certain distance and
then are split in two and the right spoke of one is joined to the left
spoke of the other and twined with raffia as one.

Sometimes in making a cover for a hanging jar the spokes radiating from
the centre are brought diagonally across each other and joined together
by the winding stitch.

Many of the simple lace stitches described in a preceding chapter prove
very useful in basketry work.

To make the melon-shaped basket shown in Figure 206 a six-inch pair
of embroidery hoops will be needed. One hoop is placed inside of
the other. The inside hoop is perpendicular while the other one is
horizontal. Tie the two rings together at the point of intersection.

From basket splint one sixteenth of an inch thick, cut six strips which
are ten inches in length. They should be one inch and three quarters in
the centre and taper to points at both ends.

[Illustration: Fig. 206. A melon-shaped basket]

Select raffia in two shades. The natural and brown were used for this
basket. With a strand of the brown start to weave at the point of
intersection.

Wind around the four pieces of hoop until a square about one and a half
inches is made. Repeat on the opposite side of the hoops.

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. Sewed Raffia Baskets
Make Attractive Gifts]

Take two of these pieces of prepared basket splints and insert them in
the centre of both squares. First one side of the pieces is inserted
in the square and then the other end of the ribs is inserted in the
other square. The natural colour raffia is now used to weave over the
hoops and ribs. The weaving is done over and under and back and forth
from side to side until there are a dozen rows of weaving. The other
side of the basket is treated in like manner.

The other four ribs are inserted two on each side of those previously
placed. Now begin and weave all the way across. Weave several rows of
brown then the natural raffia. You will put in more or less of the
brown raffia as you desire, only the pattern on each side of the centre
must agree.

Instead of weaving from one side and then across to the other, it is a
better plan to weave a little first on one side of the basket and then
on the other. In this way you are sure of your pattern.

[Illustration: Fig. 207. The cover]

If the raffia is threaded in a large needle it is easier to weave.

Another strand or more is wound around the handle. A basket such as
this makes an attractive fruit basket and is just the thing to give to
sick friends or to use when going berrying.

[Illustration: Fig. 208. Buttonholing the cardboard]

[Illustration: Fig. 209. A simple basket box]

Raffia can be used in many ways as you have already seen. A pretty box
for jewellery is one that is almost as easy to make as the napkin ring.
Get a sheet of thin white cardboard. The brown cardboard is a very weak
material and easily bends and breaks. Cut two circles of cardboard five
inches in diameter. Use compasses to inscribe the circle, so that it
may be perfect. Then cut a strip seventeen inches long by two inches
wide. From the centre of one of the circles cut a two-inch circle. This
piece will be the top of the box. Now thread your needle with a strand
of the raffia which has been soaked in water and buttonhole in raffia
over the cardboard. When the cardboard has been entirely covered with
the raffia stitches (Figure 207) take the other circle of cardboard
and cut a half-inch circle from the centre. Cover this piece of
cardboard like the top. (Figure 208). The raffia should be wiped before
using it; if not the water will spoil the cardboard.

The centre opening on the cover will be filled with a
spider-in-its-web. Make four strands of raffia across the space. We
now have eight spokes. Take the threaded needle back to the centre and
having passed under a spoke go back and pick it up. The idea is to go
back over one and forward under two. Continue in this manner till the
spider is the size you desire.

The long strip of cardboard is sewed together and is worked like the
napkin ring. With a strand of raffia, cast or bind the bottom of the
box to the side. The top is fastened on one side with two strands of
raffia which are tied in a bow. The extra ends are cut off.



XXIII

RAFFIA HATS


Many of our little girls have made any number of dolls' hats by just
braiding raffia and sewing the braids together.

If you were to make a large hat (by this I mean a hat large enough
to wear yourself) by sewing braids of raffia together, it would be
entirely too heavy and also would fall into any shape, perhaps not a
very desirable one.

The only thing to do would be to procure a wire frame and to make the
raffia hat on it.

In order to do this we will have to braid enough raffia for the whole
hat before doing anything else.

For this kind of braiding the raffia will have to be soaked in water
and then rolled out so that the strands will look like pieces of ribbon
about three quarters of an inch wide.

You may use a five, seven, or nine strand braid for this hat. Take one
long strand of raffia and place it horizontally on a flat surface. Tie
seven long pieces to the horizontal piece as shown in Figure 210.

Begin with the last strand on the right-hand side and weave it over the
next, under the following one, etc., toward the left side letting it
hang out to the left. Take the next strand on the right and weave it in
the same manner as the preceding one.

[Illustration: Fig. 210. Weaving the raffia]

When the left-hand side is reached, drop the first left-hand one with
the rest and let the new weaver hang out till the next is brought over.
The first one, when it reaches the left side, is always turned over the
last weaver just brought over before dropping it (the first one) into
place with the others.

When the first set of strands are used, replace them one at a time by
using the new and old together about two inches from the end of each.

It will take about eighteen or twenty yards of braiding to cover the
frame. When the braiding is ready to sew on the hat, begin with the
centre of the crown. When the crown is entirely covered, start with
the brim and begin sewing the coils together to the frame at the base
of the crown. The under side of the brim may be covered with silk or
material of a similar kind, or if you prefer to have it, covered with
braid sewed on in the same manner as the outside, beginning at the base
of the crown.

When the whole hat frame has been covered with the braiding, you may
roll it in the front or on the side, or in fact any place to suit
yourself. A nice large bow of ribbon placed on the hat in a becoming
fashion would make it very attractive, or for those who prefer flowers
and ribbon the hat trimmed in this manner would be equally charming.

A woven raffia hat made on a wire frame is a very charming and neat
creation.

It takes time and patience and skill to make the hat, but when it is
finished you are doubly repaid for your work and the time spent on it.

The crown is woven first and then fitted to the crown of the wire
frame. Take a small strand of raffia to make a ring of very small
dimensions, say about one quarter of an inch in diameter. To this
ring, knot eight strands of raffia as shown in Figure 211. Eight more
strands are tied around each of the eight strands, using the very
pretty and effective "Solomon's Knot."

[Illustration: Fig. 211. The crown of the hat]

This knot is a very simple twist and may be tied either with a double
or single strand. The strand which is tied on is laid first under the
main double strand and then both ends are crossed over each other. The
right one goes first under the end of the left-hand one and over the
double middle strand and then again under the loop of the left-hand one.

It would be well to practise with strands of raffia other than those
used in making the hat so as to become quite familiar with the knot
before using it on the hat. Counting the eight strands tied to the
ring and the sixty-four strands that are Solomon-knotted to the
original eight we have seventy-two strands in all. They start from a
common centre and are brought down and outward through the pattern and
are knotted one by one onto the main strands as they cross.

If you were to trace any one of the seventy-two strands you will find
that it comes to the outside edge of the square through a very simple
course. The last or eighth strand, knotted to the main strands, is used
to tie up the bunch of strands coming from the sides of the diamond.
It falls into place with the other strands and is tied up in turn as
the others are. The larger knot tying up the bunch of raffia in the
centre of the diamond is the same kind of knot as the smaller ones. It
may look slightly different in composition, but that is due to the fact
that it is being tied around a larger bulk.

After the knots have been all tied at the edges of the diamonds, the
ends are woven under and over making a sort of a square design as shown
in the illustration.

The finishing of the crown is done by taking four strands, two from
each of the squares at the centre, and knotting them together with a
simple knot. Two from each side are knotted together.

If you find that the strands do not come out in sets of four, make an
extra strand by splitting in two one of the other strands.

The brim of the hat is not so tedious to make as the crown and having a
larger surface on which to work you will find that the progress is more
rapid and requires less time and energy.

Knot on the outer wire of the frame as many strands of raffia as will
fit very closely but easily side by side and then tie them into loops
such as were used on the edge of the crown of the hat. This loop is the
same as that used in making the shopping bags and hammocks described in
the next chapter.

You may use your own judgment in designing the brim. The outer edge may
be made of the same loops that we have just spoken of. On the next row
the strands of raffia are drawn down tightly and tied around the wire
with a simple knot.

Alternate these two designs and you will have a very pretty brim.

To finish off the edge on the brim, cut the ends off to about three
quarters of an inch in length and sew them in under the wire with a
needle threaded with fine raffia. A tapestry needle or a darning needle
would do for this purpose.

The trimming for this hat could be easily made of raffia. I will leave
it to the maker to decide what would be most suitable to the taste.
I might suggest such articles as buckles made of raffia or rattan or
perhaps quills made of raffia.

If you do not care to have the hat trimmed with its own material,
velvet ribbon, satin, flowers, quills, etc., would make a desirable
trimming.

A very bewitching hat of a plain, three-strand braid of raffia can be
easily made with very little trouble.

The raffia has to be soaked in water until it is soft. Unroll each
strip and it will probably be about three quarters of an inch wide. In
order to make the braid thick enough it will be necessary to use three
or four pieces in one strand of the braid. Braid about nineteen or
twenty yards before beginning to make the hat.

Choose a wire frame of a low rounded crown and a broad flat brim. If
you wish to change the shape of the frame after the braid is sewed on,
it will be a very trifling matter.

The end at which the braid is begun forms the centre of the crown. It
is bent over at about five eighths of an inch from the tip and the
long end is coiled around in a second row, the edge of which comes an
eighth of an inch under the edge of the centre. It is generally sewed
on with a darning needle, threaded with a very fine strand of raffia.
Use the back-stitch bringing the strand all the way through on the
right side and then all the way through underneath.

The crown is made entirely by sewing the plaits together, separately
from the wire frame, but it will be well to try it on the frame
occasionally so that it will securely fit. When about six or seven rows
have been sewed together and the crown is four or five inches high, the
brim is begun. The coil of braiding is brought around more loosely and
flattened out as it is sewed.

When six or seven rows have been completed, the brim at the back will
be large enough. Each succeeding row will have to be cut as it gets
near the back and the end fitted in under the previous row until the
sides near the back are about nine or ten rows wide and the front
twelve rows. It would be well to pull the coil slightly tighter as it
draws nearer the outer edge so that the last rows may roll a little.

If you care to have the under brim of braided raffia it can be made in
the same way, except that it is one row wider at the front and sides,
to allow it to roll over the edges of the brim. It is pressed on the
wrong side and attached to the under brim of the wire frame, with very
small stitches of raffia. The outer edge of the under brim should not
be fastened until the crown and the top brim are on the wire frame, as
the top brim should come over the edge of the under brim.

The crown and the upper brim are now pressed on the inside and put on
the frame to which they are caught with a stitch of raffia here and
there.

The centre of the crown particularly should be firmly attached with
stitching to the centre of the wire frame. A row of braiding is brought
around to cover where the upper and under brims join inside the rolled
brim and is sewed on either edge with small stitches of raffia.

[Illustration: Fig. 212. A braided hat for yourself]

A hat like this would be very pretty trimmed with a satin ribbon or
silk bow. A large bow at the side or the back would make it very
attractive if the bow is of a contrasting colour.

Some people prefer leaves and flowers, with a little touch of silk;
others quills or feathery materials. In fact it may be trimmed with
material of any kind.



XXIV

KNOTTING FOR DOLLS' HAMMOCKS, SHOPPING BAGS, AND OTHER PURPOSES


Knotting of raffia for dolls' hammocks, shopping bags, belts, coverings
for hanging jars, and many other things proves to be a very interesting
part of the basketry work.

Little girls could easily make some very pretty belts to be worn with
some of their dainty frocks, and I don't know what could be more
delightful than a hammock for dolly to sleep in.

First let us see how we can make dolly's hammock. We will have to have
two small brass rings about three quarters of an inch in diameter,
twelve pieces of raffia, and a pair of scissors.

Place one of the rings on a table or other flat surface and tie each
of the twelve pieces of raffia on the ring, leaving an end about an
inch long. Begin and tie simple knots three inches from the ring and
one inch apart, knotting the strands two and two until nine or ten rows
have been completed. Finish the hammock by fastening the ends three
inches from the last row of knots, to the other ring. The hammock is
ready for Sally Ann to have a nap.

The next thing to do is to make a shopping bag, to carry all the small
bundles when you go down town to buy dolls' clothes.

This little bag is made with the same kind of knotting, only the number
of strands and the arrangement of them differ (Figure 213).

Twenty-two strands of raffia and a pair of scissors are necessary.
Arrange twenty of the strands in pairs, and tie each pair in the
centre. Place them on a table with the knots side by side, leaving a
little less than ten inches on each side of the knots. Begin on one
side of the centre knots, and tie one strand from one knot to the next
strand from the next knot. They must be an inch from the first knots.
Tie the same two strands an inch from the centre on the opposite side.
In the same way tie the outside strands of this group to form the
corners. Tie them one inch from the first centre knot. Make ten rows of
knots an inch apart. When these have been completed, the bag is ready
for the handles.

Separate the strands on one side of the bag from those on the other.
Divide the group on one side in half. Fasten each group one and a half
inches beyond the last row of knots. Braid the strands about six
inches. Do the same with each group, making four braids in all. Hold
the two braids from one end of the bag together so that the loose ends
of one braid overlap the other. Beginning at the middle point make a
binding one and a half inches to the right and a similar one to the
left. Cover the binding with "Solomon's Knots." Keep the lines of
knotting straight. Finish the opposite handle in the same way.

[Illustration: Fig. 213. A shopping bag]

Some day when you have shopping to do for your mother, take your bag
along and see how handy it will be.

In the beginning of the chapter I spoke of a belt to wear with a pretty
frock. A belt made of a six strand braid proves to be very serviceable
to some little girls. You may use plain white raffia or a plain colour
but oftentimes two colours add to the attractiveness of the belt.

Take three long pieces of raffia, that is, if the raffia is very thick;
if not, six or twelve pieces using two or four pieces as one strand.
Hold the strands at the centre in the left hand. Put the strand on the
extreme right over and under the next two strands. The strand on the
extreme left is put under, over and under the other strands. This forms
a braid. Continue doing this braiding until the belt is long enough to
suit you. To finish the ends tie the remaining loose strands close to
the braid and cut off the ends. Turn the knots under and sew over the
ends with the loop-stitch described in a preceding chapter.

In working with raffia many times an article will need something to
put a finishing touch to it, I would suggest using a fringe or tassel
according to the kind of work in question. In my experience they have
proved to be just the thing for such purposes. For example, in knotting
raffia for a work bag, the ends of the raffia may be left hanging and
when cut to an even length provide a very plain finish for the bottom
of the bag. Fringing or tassels would, I think, add considerably to the
appearance of the article. To make fringe on the bottom of such a bag
it is necessary to cut the ends an even length after the last knot has
been made, and with a pin or needle fray out the ends very finely.

The way to make tassels for a finish is to wind a strand of raffia
over a cardboard about two or three times, or if the tassel is to be
quite thick, wind five or six times. Slip it off and bind it several
times near the top with the end strand of the bag. Sew it fast with a
tapestry needle. Cut through the centre of the loops. A row of these
across the bottom of a bag are very effective.

[Illustration: Fig. 214. A whisk broom]

A very dainty little article for a very small child to make is a little
clothes brush or whisk broom. Secure a brass ring about one inch in
diameter and cover the ring with the loop stitch. Fold twelve strands
of raffia twice and slip the bunch through the ring bending it in the
middle. Make a binding one inch below the ring and one inch long; cover
the binding with "Solomon's Knots." Fringe the ends well and trim off
evenly (Figure 214).

Knotting in silks, cotton or linen strands should be mentioned in
this chapter. It is a difficult thing to find a piece of fringe that
will just match the colour of silk you have but it is an easy matter
to make the fringe yourself. The simplest kind is the knot fringe.
It can be made of filo, rope, twisted, or heavy floss when used in
connection with a silk, satin, or velvet background. For cotton or
linen background, cotton floss or fine cord can be used.

Let us suppose that you wish to make the fringe into a hem. Take a
cluster of six or eight strands of rope silk, ten inches in length,
and draw them through the extreme edge of the hem. If the other kind
of silks are used, more strands will be necessary. Knot the cluster
close to the hem. At a little less than a half inch distance over make
another cluster and repeat in this manner across the space on which you
want the fringe.

Now take the first cluster and divide it in half. Hold the half nearest
the next group in your left hand and divide the second group. Taking
the half close to first group, knot the strands together one half inch
from the hem. Continue like this all the way across. Do not pucker the
material when knotting.

A third row of knots is now made below the second. This takes up the
first half of the knot previously used and half of the next group.
In this way you form a diamond. If a deeper fringe with more knots is
desired cut the strands of silk three inches longer. For every inch of
fringe allow three inches of strands.



XXV

SIMPLE BEAD CHAINS ON SINGLE STRINGS, A HOME-MADE LOOM, WOVEN CHAINS,
BELTS AND PURSES


Have you ever taken pop corn and made a chain of it for Christmas
trees, or perhaps you have strung cranberries? Maybe it was the first
time that you ever held a needle. I remember when we were youngsters
living in the South, our nurse used to take us out under trees and we
would string "Job's Tears" for hours. Many drug stores sell these seeds
on strings for infants to cut their teeth on.

The simplest form of bead work is just as easy as stringing pop corn or
berries. Beads come in all sizes from the tiny ones that are no bigger
than a top of a pin to the large ones the size of a marble. Sometimes
you can get odd-shaped beads, flat on one side and curved on the other.
A string that is pretty enough to wear on state occasions can be made
of heart-shaped and round beads.

The regular bead needle is very fine and long. It is better when
stringing a single strand to double the thread. Use linen thread No.
100 or 150. Thread the needle with a piece of thread eight inches
longer than double the length of the necklace. Bring the two ends
together and make a knot three and a half inches from the ends of the
thread. The thread will be very much stronger if you wax it. Now thread
seven small round beads then an odd shaped one. Repeat in this manner
till you have the length of chain desired. Cut off the needle and tie
the remaining thread in a tight knot close to the beads. Ribbons are
sometimes used to fasten the chain or necklace together but the little
clasps that you can buy for a few cents are neater and do not get
soiled as ribbon does. Fasten on the clasp with the thread that extends
beyond the knots.

A sweet little daisy chain can be made on two threads. Thread two bead
needles with two long threads. Bring one end of each thread together
and make a knot as described above. Fasten the knot to a table with a
pin so that one needle is on the right and the other one on the left.
Thread two white beads on your right hand needle. Put your left hand
needle down through the white bead so that you have a thread coming
from each side of the beads. Your needles will have changed position.
Thread the right hand needle with one yellow bead. Pass the left hand
needle down through this and again the needles are reversed. Thread two
more white beads like the first two and do the same thing. Now take the
right hand needle and thread two more white beads and carry the needle
through the first two white beads from right to left. Thread two more
white beads on the same needle and carry it through the second or top
group of white beads from left to right. Thread ten green beads on each
of the needles and now we are ready to make another daisy (Figure 215).
Continue in this manner till the necklace is complete.

[Illustration: Fig. 215. A daisy chain]

Another and more elaborate daisy chain is made on one needle. Make a
knot in the thread and string four green beads. Hold this down between
the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. Thread one green bead and
pass through the third of the four beads. Thread another green bead and
pass through the first bead. Thread one white bead and pass through the
green one on the left. Thread another green bead and pass through the
green one to the left (Figure 216).

Third row--Thread a green, pass into a green to the left. Now thread a
white bead and pass in through the first white bead.

[Illustration: Fig. 216. A woven daisy chain]

Fourth row--Thread a yellow bead and pass through last white, and a
green bead through the green.

Fifth row--A green bead through the last green, a white through the
yellow.

Sixth row--A white bead through the last white, a green through the
last green.

Seventh row--A white through the last green, a green through the last
white of the sixth row.

Then three white beads on the needle and pass through the first white
on the second row. Carry the thread through the daisy thus formed till
you have it again in same position as it was before you threaded the
three beads.

Eighth row--One green into the last green, one white into the last
white. (Note that you are now starting another daisy on the left-hand
side).

Ninth row--One yellow into last white, one green into last green.

Tenth row--One green into last green, one white into yellow.

Eleventh row--One white into last white, one green into green.

Twelfth row--One white into last green, one green into white.

Repeat the directions from the second row. Note that though the chain
is four beads wide there are only two beads that you work on in each
row.

If the thread breaks, start the new one, two or three rows back and go
through the different beads.

The above directions are for a chain that is worked without a loom.
Now-a-days it is quite possible to buy a little loom for about fifty
cents, but you can make one at home that will not cost you a penny. The
size of the loom will depend on what you are working but we presume
that it is a chain. Should you ever make a purse it would pay you to
buy a loom.

To make the home-made loom get a piece of card and a wooden meat
skewer such as butchers use. Fasten the skewer down on both ends to
the cardboard about two inches from the upper edge. One inch above the
skewer in the direct centre make a hole and one inch from the bottom
edge of the cardboard make another hole. Cut six pieces of No. 90
linen thread, thirty-six inches long. This measurement is sufficient
for a chain twenty-seven inches or under. Tie one end of each thread
to the skewer. Now holding the six threads together, carry them down
through the bottom hole across the back of the cardboard and tie in a
loose knot to the top hole.

[Illustration: Fig. 217. A home-made loom]

Thread a bead needle with a thread of No. 100 linen thread that has
been well waxed. Tie the thread to the extreme right hand thread of the
warp. Now we are ready to make the chain (Figure 217).

First row--Thread the needle with five yellow beads. Pass the needle
toward the left under the warp threads, letting one bead slip in every
space. On the left hand side bring the needle up to the right side and
slip it through the five beads.

[Illustration: Fig. 218. The design for the chain described]

Second row--Thread five blue beads and fasten them in the same way.

Third row--Thread five yellow beads.

Fourth row--Five red beads.

Fifth row--Five red beads.

Sixth row--Two red, one blue and two red.

Seventh row--One red, three blue, one red.

Eighth row--Five blue.

Ninth row--One red, three blue, one red.

Tenth row--Two red, one blue, two red.

Eleventh row--Five red.

Twelfth row--Five red.

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. The Fascinating Task
of Making Bead Chains]


Continue in this manner for as many inches as needed (Figure 218).
When you have used up all the warp threads on the upper side of the
cardboard roll the finished chain over the skewer and fasten the
remaining threads in the lower hole.

[Illustration: Fig. 219. Another design for chains]

To make a belt or purse the larger loom will be necessary. Designs used
for cross stitch are suitable for bead work.

[Illustration: Fig. 220. A third design for a chain]

Before I tell you how to make any more bead chains and the other
articles that may be made with beads, I want to tell you how to make a
dainty purse that is illustrated in this chapter. It is made of gold
and rose-coloured glass beads and it belongs to a bright little girl I
know who has been using it for the past three years. A spool of heavy
buttonhole twist of a colour to correspond to one of the coloured beads
is needed (Figure 221).

Take eighteen strands of silk, each a yard long. See that the ends are
all even. Tie a tight knot through the centre of the threads. Thread a
bead needle with one of the strands of silk. Put on two pink beads then
three yellow, five pink, three yellow, five pink, three yellow, five
pink, three yellow, five pink, five yellow, one pink, seven yellow, one
pink, seven yellow, one pink, seven yellow, one pink, five yellow, five
pink, three yellow, five pink, three yellow, five pink, three yellow,
five pink, three yellow, seven pink. This completes the first string.
Do not allow any beads to drop, which they are very apt to do while you
are working on another row. It is suggested that the strand of silk on
the left of the beads should be knotted closely to the beads to prevent
them from slipping.

[Illustration: Fig. 221. The bead bag described]

Unthread your needle and take the next strand; thread two pink, one
yellow, then slip your needle through the second yellow bead of the
first row, thread one yellow, five pink, one yellow, now slip your
needle through the middle yellow bead of the first row or in other
words slip your needle through every eighth bead on the first row. The
colouring remains the same. I will start the instructions again for the
second row which is to be threaded, two pink, one yellow, slip needle
through bead on first row, one yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip
needle through bead, one yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip needle
through, one yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip needle through bead,
one yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip needle through bead, three
yellow, one pink, three yellow, slip needle through, three yellow, one
pink, three yellow, now slip needle through bead, three yellow, one
pink, three yellow, slip needle, three yellow, one pink, three yellow,
slip needle, one yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip needle, one
yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip needle, one yellow, five pink, one
yellow, slip needle, one yellow, five pink, one yellow, slip needle,
one yellow, six pink, slip needle into last bead of first row and knot
the two threads close to the bead. Be sure that the knot is large
enough not to slip through the hole of the bead.

Thread your needle with the third strand. Put on two pink, three
yellow, two pink, slip needle through third bead of first group of five
pink of the second row. (For the rest of the row "slip needle" means
slip the needle through the fourth bead below the one slipped through
on the second row) two pink, three yellow, two pink, slip needle, two
pink, three yellow, two pink, slip needle, two pink, three yellow, two
pink, slip needle, two pink, five yellow, slip needle, seven yellow,
slip needle, seven yellow, slip needle, seven yellow, slip needle, five
yellow, two pink, slip needle, two pink, three yellow, two pink, slip
needle, two pink, three yellow, two pink, slip needle, two pink, three
yellow, two pink, slip needle, four pink.

The fourth row is the same as the second. Every other row from the
third is also worked like the third.

The last row which joins the bag--Two pink, slip needle into fourth
bead of next to last row, thread three more beads, slip into centre
bead of the group of sevens of the first row. The pattern is
diamond-shaped as you will note, therefore after threading your needle
with three beads of the shade to correspond with the previous row slip
your needle in the centre bead of the groups of seven of the preceding
row and the first row. Work first to the right and then to the left.

Every two strands of silk must be knotted together to keep the beads
from slipping off. Braid the threads extending beyond the bead work in
groups of three. A large bead or slide will be necessary to make the
purse a practical money bag. Get two big beads that have openings large
enough to pass all the silk threads through. Take a knot on the silk
thread after the first large bead is in position. This knot should be
two inches at least from the beads. The silk threads may now be cut
quite close to the knot or they may be cut one inch from the knot to
form a tassel.

If the little purse was left without any further work it would look
quite top heavy and unfinished, for that reason a bead tassel is
suggested as shown in the illustration of the bead purse.

Thread your needle with a long strand of the buttonhole twist. String
about two and a half inches of pink beads. Before commencing to string
the beads fasten the thread in the heavy knot at the bottom of the
purse. Catch the thread with the beads also in the knot. Make two pink
strings this length and two yellow. Then make four strings, two pink
and two yellow, that are not more than an inch and a half long. Fasten
off the threads securely and the bag is complete.

Three bunches of pink beads and two bunches of yellow will make two
purses as have just been described. The beads vary in price from six
cents a bunch to twenty-five cents. Sometimes the more expensive kind
have only half the number of beads that the cheaper bunches have. Do
not get too small a bead or the work will become very tedious. The
large beads for the slides are more expensive. They cost four cents
apiece or more.

Of course other colour combinations can be made, also other patterns.
Silver and blue is another pretty combination for a bead purse.

Now while we are on the topic of beads, I would like to tell you
about some sensible portières and cushion tops that I recently saw at
an Arts and Crafts exhibition made of an inexpensive background and
beads. Monk's cloth was used for one of the portières. Monk's cloth
is somewhat like burlap but the weave is coarser and more even. A hem
was turned on one short side and one of the long sides and the thread
drawn out for a space of about two inches. The threads were hemstitched
and then a design of beads worked between the groups of threads. To
accomplish this the design was well planned out before commencing the
work. The number of beads needed to fill out the space can be judged by
placing the beads in the opening and testing that for yourself. After
the design has been selected make a pencil copy of it. It is better to
restrict yourself at first to just two colours. Fasten your sewing
thread securely to the threads of the material. Use carpet thread for
the weaving. Let us suppose that you have selected a pattern that is
seven rows of beads deep and you have chosen tan as the background and
red and chalk white beads for the decoration:

First row--Thread one red bead, six white, one red, six white. As we
will only work a section at a time, let us secure the beads. Slip your
thread under the hemstitching. Now let each bead come between two
consecutive groups of hemstitching. Bring your thread to the right
side. Be careful not to disturb your beads. Now carry the thread
through the beads again. The thread should be drawn tight but not so as
to pucker the hem.

Second row--Work this by stringing one white, one red, four white, one
red, one white, one red, four white, one red. Fasten as described in
the first row.

Third row--One red, one white, four red, one white, one red, one white,
four red, one white. Fasten.

Fourth row--One red, one white, one red, four white, one red, one
white, one red, four white. Fasten.

Fifth row--One red, one white, four red, one white, one red, one
white, four red, one white. Fasten.

Sixth row--One white, one red, four white, one red, one white, one red,
four white, one red. Fasten.

Seventh and final row--One red, six white, one red, six white. Fasten.

After this section is worked slip your needle through the beads to the
last one on the first row and continue to weave.

The beads to use for portières or large pillows are round ones that are
three eighths of an inch in diameter.

For curtains, table covers or any article where the weight of the
large bead is not desirable use a smaller bead that is not more than a
quarter-inch in size.

Scrim curtains with a single row of the smaller beads add a pretty
touch of colour to the otherwise plain window. Almost any shade can be
had in the beads, but the trouble is that they can not be bought at
every store. A bead supply house is the one from which to get them.
They cost only one-quarter as much as when bought in a department store.

Ecru scrim with a row of turquoise blue, canary yellow and sage green
beads and the simple twist stitch such as described in the chapter on
"Simple Stitches in Drawn Work," makes a curtain suitable for a simple
room. The way to accomplish this work, is to take a stitch on the drawn
thread, in the regular way for the twist stitch, then slip a bead on,
then take another stitch, then a bead, so on to the end.

If a skeleton square of beads is desired on a sofa cushion it is
advisable not to draw it out in the same manner as for a curtain.

For a two-inch border to be set in four inches from the edge, crease
the cushion through the direct centre. Measure four inches from the
edge and cut the material on the crease for two inches. Treat each side
like this. Draw the threads out on each side of the cut, stop when
you get four inches from the edge. Of course the material must be in
a perfect square and just the size you want for the pillow before you
begin any of the work. Place the beads as explained for the portière.
Do not cut the threads you drew out but, threading a needle with two
or three at a time, carry them through the beads. In this way there is
no necessity for cutting and buttonholing the corners where the border
intersects, as in drawn work. Loose woven materials such as monk's
or arris cloth are extremely hard to buttonhole and even after very
careful work they are apt to fray.

If a fancy edge is desired for the pillow one made of beads is far more
appropriate than anything else. After the pillow is complete and made
up, put on the bead edge by catching a bead to the material at a short
distance from each other.

For a canoe or porch pillow there is nothing more durable than bead
pillows of a dark colour worked with gay coloured beads.



XXVI

BRAIDING AND WEAVING FOUR AND SIX STRANDS

WEAVING ON LOOMS


Braiding or plaiting can be done in any materials and may be used for
shopping bags or circular rugs. Raffia, corset laces, heavy silk floss
or rags can be utilized for the braiding.

It is extremely difficult to conceal the ends when three strands are
used so for that reason I have selected four strands to commence with.

[Illustration: Fig. 222. The strands crossed]

When working with cords or very long strands of material, knot the four
ends together. Pin the knot to your knee and proceed to weave. Take the
extreme left-hand strand and weave under the next strand. At the same
time weave the extreme right-hand strand over the next. Cross the two
strands in the centre. (See Figure 222.) If a knot is not desired at
the start the cords may be commenced as shown in the Figure 223.

To braid with six strands take the extreme left-hand strand and weave
under and over to centre and with the right-hand strand weave over and
under to centre and cross the left-hand strand (see Figure 224).

[Illustration: Fig. 223. The way to commence braiding without a knot]

After the braid has been made it can be sewed together for a mat. In
joining a strand insert the new piece so that it extends a little
beyond the braid. If a long braid is desired it is best to have the
strands of different lengths so that the joinings will not be all in
one place (Figure 225).

When braiding or weaving with rags cut the strips about three quarters
of an inch wide. Old rags can be used for this, cutting out the weak
parts. Cheap cotton fabrics when new make excellent mats.

Weaving on frames is very interesting and not such a difficult task
as you imagine. There are hand and treadle looms. The following
instructions will be for the former. A stretcher such as artists use
for painting can be used or four pieces of board twenty-four inches
long by four inches wide and one inch thick. Take the four pieces to
form a frame.

[Illustration: Photograph by Eddowes Co. A Cushion Top Can be Woven on
a Simple Hand Loom]


Buy three half-inch dowels or long round sticks; which may be bought
from a hardware shop; and sand-paper till they are quite smooth. Screw
in four large picture rings two on each side of the frame, one at each
end. Slip one dowel through the rings at each end and tie to picture
ring.

[Illustration: Fig. 224. Braiding with six strands]

The warp may be cord which is sold by the pound or a heavy soft twine.
A wholesale cord or rope house will be the best from which to buy the
warp.

A thin board such as you have in your window shades and to which
the string is attached makes a good shuttle. Cut it so that it is
twenty-two inches long and wind the warp on it lengthwise.

Tie one end of the warp thread to the lower left-hand picture ring.

Lay the warp threads over the lower dowel, up through the frame and
over the upper dowel. Remember always to lay the thread outside and
over each dowel. The first six threads are placed very close to each
other. After that the threads are laid half an inch or a little more
than a quarter of an inch apart. The finer the weaving the more warp
threads will be needed. The usual allowance is from four to eight
threads to an inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 225. The way to join a braid]

Two plain boards that are as long as the dowels and three inches wide
by a quarter of an inch deep will be required now. Slip into one of
these boards at each end between the warp threads and bring the boards
to the centre and tie together to keep them from slipping.

Take a piece of cord nine inches longer than a dowel and tie to the
throat of the lower left-hand screw. Make a knot at first warp string
and slip it over dowel. Twist the double thread two, three or four
times. Repeat slipping over dowel and twisting between every two warp
strings until you reach the right hand screw. Tie the threads to the
screw. This is called pairing the threads. Repeat the pairing at the
other dowel. When the pairing is finished slip the lower dowel out of
the rings and tie the dowel again to the screws.

To space the warp threads an upholsterer's needle and carpet thread
will be needed.

If the weaving occupies the full size of the frame, hitch or tie the
carpet thread to the lower left-hand screw, while if the warp threads
do not extend very far over place an extra screw on the outside of the
frame where the warp threads begin.

Buttonhole stitch over the dowel keeping the lower thread down and the
upper thread on top.

Hold the warp threads apart with finger of the left hand while
buttonholing. Pull your stitches tight. Two or three stitches should be
made between each two warp threads. The stitches must be an eighth of
an inch apart.

Now we are ready for the bridge.

Two feet, as they are called, will be necessary to support the bridge.
A carpenter will make them for a small amount. They should be seven
inches high by three inches wide at the base (Figure 226). One foot is
placed in the centre of opposite sides of the frame and the third dowel
run through the holes.

Loosen the two boards at the centre and place them close to the dowel.
Place the bridge over the set of threads nearest you. Take a six-inch
piece of cord and catch up first warp thread. Tie thread to bridge.
All knots should be made like a weaver's knot. The loop should not
extend lower than two inches below the bridge.

[Illustration: Fig. 226. The foot]

This completes the setting up of the loom. To weave, the material may
be cut as stated before or raffia or Indian fibre may be used. If the
weaving is to be in one colour only, it is well to join the pieces
together and wind on a long shuttle. If short pieces are used a hook
will be required. It can be made of a strip of wood taken from the hem
of window shades. Notch one end of it.

A selvage will be necessary at the beginning and the end of the weaving
and is done in a fine cord.

Start at left-hand corner and tie the thread to warp. Pass the shuttle
to right-hand side between the threads. Lower the bridge and pass the
shuttle back again between the threads to left-hand side. Raise the
bridge again and repeat as just explained. It will be best to comb down
the woof to keep it straight and regular. A regular weavers' comb can
be bought, but a coarse hair comb may be substituted. Six rows will be
sufficient for the selvage. The regular weaving is worked the same
only in coarse warp. Remember the bridge must be lowered every other
time.

In weaving a new thread or strand commence a little way back from where
the last strand stopped.

Learn to weave and you get much more artistic effects in rugs than
ordinary rug or portière weavers obtain.

Beautiful cushions and other useful articles can be made by weaving.

It is a great mistake to think that all cast off clothing can be woven
into handsome rugs or portières. True it is possible to weave them, but
it is almost a hopeless task to get artistic effects from old coats or
a lot of dark articles.

The modern rug weavers get a few yards of cheap muslin in two or three
shades and make a rug that can be sold for two or three dollars. Silk
is not like old woollen materials, it can be utilized to the last thread
because it is soft and works to good advantage.

Two old silk petticoats will make two pillow tops that are artistic as
well as useful. One of the most beautiful examples of silk weaving was
a cushion I saw made from two old silk petticoats; one was sage green
and the other Delft blue. The strips were about one inch wide. All the
worn parts were cut out. No piece was considered too small to use.

Every pattern of rug has a name given it by the weaver. The most common
pattern is the hit-and-miss. The name aptly describes it. There are
never two hit-and-miss patterns that are exactly alike. To look at a
collection of hit-and-miss rugs one is reminded of the Croton shrub
which has no two leaves alike. As children, we used to call them
Match-me-if-you-can trees.

A hit-and-miss pattern is a good one to learn on.

Do not weave first one green strip then one blue and so on, because you
will get a jumble of blue that is neither interesting nor pleasing.
Decide on which colour you would like for the background, then use most
of that shade.

I have heard an old weaver say that when she works the hit-and-miss
pattern she will carry first one stripe of the background the entire
way across and probably start the second row. A little strip of the
second colour is then used and then the background again. The good
worker never cuts her strips all the same length but strives to get the
effect of little slashes of colour against a solid background. A rug
made of medium blue and white rags suggests the sea with white caps on
it.

When an Indian weaves a rug, he sits on the floor and weaves, till he
has to stand to work.

Tapestry is woven almost the same as described for rugs; instead of
the loom having a bridge that has to be moved by hand to regulate the
threads, a treadle is used.

The wrong side of weaving is always facing you on the loom and all ends
are fastened afterward with a needle and thread. Perhaps you would be
interested to know how a weaver makes a set design in tapestry. Usually
an artist designs a piece, say a design for the back of a chair. Often
the artist is the weaver himself. He will make two sketches in colour
one to put under the warp threads and the other to keep in sight. He
then starts to weave the design in as many colours as desired, then the
background is worked.

A piece of hand-made tapestry is a possession that only the very
wealthy can buy for it is indeed exceptional to find an ordinary weaver
who can make tapestry. To the French is given the honour of being
the most clever weavers in the world. As a general thing in France
weaving is an inherited trade. You will find, if you ask the weaver
what his mother, his father and his grandfathers were, he will tell
you--weavers. The hands of the men are almost as small and soft as the
women's.

I have seen a beautiful screen that represented a pansy field, if you
can imagine such a thing worked in over two hundred shades of silk.
Every conceivable kind of pansy was worked in it. It was made for a man
who loved pansies. It took four weavers three months in which to make
it, working eight hours each day.

Too much thought can not be given to the right colour for your rugs
or whatever you intend to weave on your simple loom. Study to get
harmonizing effects rather than contrasting ones. Gray is probably the
most pleasing of backgrounds and can be combined to advantage with
almost any other shade. Remember that a dark room needs a cheerful
colouring while a bright airy room can stand subdued shades.

Red excites the nerves. Lavender is depressing. Blue is a cold colour
and should be combined with other colours to be effective. Green is
restful to the eyes in any shade, while yellow seems to reflect light
and for that reason is to be highly recommended for use in a dark room.
One of the prettiest rooms I know, which is ordinarily a very dark one,
is one that has bright yellow and chestnut brown for its decoration.
The minute you enter that room you are impressed with its cheerfulness
and warmth.

No matter how pretty and beautiful are the hangings and other dainty
touches of a room, a rug remains the chief attraction. It is to a room
what a vase is to a flower. A rug is not absolutely necessary, but
unless it is the right kind your room looks patchy.

As in everything else practice makes perfect and as soon as you become
accustomed to weaving you will plan regular designs that will make the
work more fascinating. If you have a large quantity of undefinable
shades of silk or wool or cotton rags I would recommend that you dye
them all one shade.

One ten-cent package of a dye will colour a couple of pounds of rags.
Get a dye that is good for all three kinds of material as sometimes a
dye that changes the colour of silk may not affect cotton at all.



XXVII

SIMPLE CROCHETING, STITCHERY FOR EDGES AND SHAWLS

CROCHETING ABBREVIATIONS.

  1. Slip stitch (sl st)
  2. Chain stitch (ch)     (Figure No. 227)
  3. Single crochet (s c)      "   No. 228)
  4. Double crochet (d c)      "   No. 229)
  5. Treble crochet (tr c)     "   No. 230)
  6. Shell (sh)                "   No. 231)
  7. Stitches (sts)


The beginner in crochet will have very little trouble in learning the
work as the stitches used are comparatively few in number although the
various combinations in which they may be used are almost unlimited. It
is wise to become accustomed to the stitches and especially with the
abbreviations, which are used so extensively throughout all crochet
work. No doubt the beauty and variety of the patterns one can execute,
also the durability of the work are the chief causes for its popularity
at the present time.

The implement used is a crochet hook which varies in size according
with the quality of the thread used. The steel hook with the bone
handle is to be preferred.

[Illustration: Fig. 227. Chain stitch]

Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the importance of the position
of the hands when working, and the firmness of the stitches, as the
work is, at once, better and more even when the proper position is
maintained. The crochet needle should be held lightly between the
first finger and the thumb of the right hand; the hook horizontal and
parallel with the first finger of the right hand, that part of the work
which is in course of construction being held closely between the thumb
and third finger of the left hand. The thread is wound once around the
first finger, passes under the second and third fingers of the left
hand, and is wound around the small finger. It is now held in position
by bending the fourth and small fingers toward the palm of the hand.

The foundation stitch of all crocheting is the chain stitch (ch) (see
Figure 227) which is begun by making a slip knot around the needle.
Draw the thread through this loop, and you have a chain. Again draw the
thread through this second loop, continue until the chain is of desired
length.

Another stitch is the slip stitch (sl st). Insert the hook in the
foundation work. Draw loop through the work and another through the
loop on the needle.

Single crochet (s c). See Figure 228.

[Illustration: Fig. 228. Single crochet]

Insert hook in work, make a loop on the hook and draw through, making
two loops on the needle. Throw thread again over hook. Draw thread
through both loops.

Double crochet (d c). See Figure 229.

Before inserting the hook in the stitch to be worked, put the thread
around it. Throw thread around hook and draw the thread through the
stitch and you will have three loops on hook. Throw thread again around
hook and draw thread through two loops. Throw thread again around hook
and draw through the remaining two loops.

[Illustration: Fig. 229. Double crochet]

Treble crochet (tr c). See Figure 230.

[Illustration: Fig. 230. Treble crochet]

Put the thread around the hook twice, insert in the work. Draw a loop
through work, making four loops upon needle. Draw the thread or loop
through two loops on needle, then again through two loops and the
third time through the remaining two loops.

Shells (sh). See Figure 231.

[Illustration: Fig. 231. Shells]

Shells are formed by making groups of either single, double or treble
stitches worked into the same space or stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 232. Tiny insertion]

Edging and insertions are very much in use and are often applied to
blouses, collars and cuffs, towels, centre pieces, handkerchiefs, belts
and various other articles.

_Tiny Insertion_ (Figure 232).

Ch 7 catch into a ring and into one side of ring work 5 s c *ch. 7
catch in next to last s c, 5 s c in new ring. Repeat from * for length
desired and fasten off.

_Tiny Edging_ (Figure 233).

1st row--Ch. 9 turn.

2nd row--1 s c in each 9 ch, turn.

3rd row--ch 9 work 1 d c in first s c made, turn.

4th row--* Over ch work 9 s c Work ch of 9 turn.

5th row--1 d c over the d c of preceding row. Turn.

Repeat from * until you have length desired.

[Illustration: Fig. 233. Tiny edging]

For the edging made:

1st row--Over each d c on one side and each empty ch on the other work
4 s c.

2nd row--Work 1 d c into first s c then * 2 ch, miss 2 s c and work 1 d
c into next. Repeat from * along both sides of insertion.

_Loop Edging_ (Figure 234).

Work 29 s c over a padding cord, then catch in 7th stitch made to form
a ring. Again work 29 s c and catch in the 7th stitch to form another
ring. Continue until the edging is the required length.

[Illustration: Fig. 234. Loop edging]

For the edge, begin at the first end for the picots and work as
follows: make 1 s c into 8th stitch of first ring, ch 5, skip 1 s c--1
s c in next stitch. Repeat for three picots. Ch 2, begin in 8th stitch
of next ring and make 3 picots there and so continue to the end of
edging.

_Loop Insertion_ (Figure 235).

Ch 10 and catch in a ring into one side of ring work 6 s c, ch 10,
catch in the last s c forming a ring, and into new ring work 6 s c.
Continue in this way for length desired. Then work down the other side
of rings 6 d c in each.

[Illustration: Fig. 235. Loop Insertion]

Now work down each side of insertion 1 s c in the centre point of each
side of the ring and 5 ch between. In these ch loops work 6 s c each
and fasten off.

_Narrow Crochet Edging_ (Figure 236).

Ch 14.

1st row--1 d c in 10th ch from needle, ch 3, 1 d c in same st. Ch 3, 1
d c in next st, ch 3, 1 d c in same st. 3 stitches on foundation will
stand beyond the row.

[Illustration: Fig. 236. Narrow crochet edging]

2nd row--Ch 6 turn * 1 d c in centre loop of cluster of three, ch 3
repeat from * 2 times. 1 d c in same space, ch 2-1 d c in third ch of
turning loop.

3d row--Turn ch 5 * 1 d c in centre of loop of clusters, ch 3 repeat
twice from * 1 d c in same space * ch 1-1 d c in 6 ch loop, repeat from
* 7 times ch 1-1 s c in end of foundation.

4th row--Turn ch 6-1 sl st in fourth ch from needle ch 1-1 d c in next
space between d c, ch 5-1 sl st in fourth ch from needle, ch 1-1 d c
in next space. Repeat from * 5 times. Ch 3-1 d c in centre loop of 7
ch clusters, repeat from * three times more ch 2, 1 d c in third ch on
turning loop.

5th row--Turn ch 5, make clusters in centre loop as with other row.
Repeat from 2nd row. On each repetition of 3 row the final s c is taken
up in the loop of 3 ch of the former scallop.

_Cone Insertion_ (Figure 237).

1st row--Ch 15 turn 1 d c in ninth ch from needle, ch 3 skip 2-1 d c in
next, ch 3 skip 2-1 d c in last stitch.

2nd row--4 s c in first space, ch 1 in second space work 2 d c--1 tr c,
ch 3, 1 tr c, 2 d c, ch 1, in third space work 4 s c.

3d row--Ch 10, one sl st over 3 ch--ch 5, 1 tr c in last s c of
preceding row.

[Illustration: Fig. 237. Cone insertion]

4th row--4 s c in first space, 1 s c in same space with sl st, 4 s c in
next space.

5th row--Ch 6, skip 2 s c of preceding row, 1 d c in next stitch. Ch
3, skip 2-1 d c in next stitch. 3 ch, skip 2-1 d c in final st. Repeat
from beginning of second row.

_Crochet Insertion with Ribbon_ (Figure 238).

[Illustration: Fig. 238. Insertion with ribbon]

Make a ch of 35 stitches: 1 d c in 7 st from end of ch, 3 ch, 1 d c in
next 3 rd st of ch, 3 ch, 1 d c in next 3d stitch of ch, 3 ch, 3 d c in
5th of ch, 3 ch, 3 d c in same st as last 3 d c to join shell, 4 ch, 3
d c in next 5th st of ch, 3 ch, 3 d c in same stitch as last three, 3
ch, 1 d c in next 5th of ch, 3 ch, 1 d c in next 3d of ch, 3 ch, 1 d c
in last stitch of ch, 8 ch; turn. Work the next and every succeeding
row the same. Run narrow ribbon under and over 3 ch. in centre. This
trimming is very pretty when used on a blouse waist.

[Illustration: Fig. 239. Rainbow shawl]

_Rainbow Shawl_ (Figure 239).

Either Saxony or floss may be used, about six skeins of white and half
a skein of each of the colours used being necessary.

_To form main part of Shawl._

Ch 68 sts of white.

1st row--Turn and work back thus: Draw out st on hook about
three-fourths of an inch, pass hook under the single thread of wool,
draw through st, pass it under wool, work a sl st, 1 ch (in the way
you work first st of every row). To make second st* pass hook through
second, draw up to three fourths of an inch, catch the wool and make 2
close ch: repeat from * to end of chain. Turn and repeat from first row
till you have worked 76 rows in the white wool.

_To make the Rainbow Stripe on either end of white._

Fasten in the pink wool and work two rows, then in the order
named--yellow, orange, light green, dark green, indigo, light blue,
violet. Finish the end with two or more rows of white.

[Illustration: Fig. 240. Cross stitch]

_To make Fringe._

*Chain 35, fasten down in next st with a sl st, repeat from * to end of
row. Finish both edges of scarf with a row of knot stitches.

CROCHET SCARF (Figure 241).

Material, 8 skeins Shetland Floss.

[Illustration: Fig. 241. Shawl in cross stitch]

Directions for Cross Stitch (see Figure 240).

Make a chain the desired length: work 1 tr c in the fourth stitch of
ch. Now stitch back into the first and second of ch and make a tr c in
each. (This forms a cross stitch.) Repeat to end of chain.

_To make Scarf._

Ch 139 stitches.

Work 34 cross stitch on ch; continue working back and forth with cross
stitch until scarf measures 1-1/2 yards in length. Finish ends with a
fringe. Each strand is 6 inches and 8 strands of wool are knotted to
each cross stitch to form fringe.



XXVIII

PATTERN DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING DOLL CAPS AND CAPES, JACKETS AND CHILD'S
BEDROOM SLIPPERS


Having become well acquainted with the stitches and patterns described
in the previous chapter, you are competent to go on with the more
intricate ones described in this chapter.

A pretty doll's cap is made of silk. Without a silk padded lining the
cap will be just the thing for the warmer months.

_Doll's Cap._

Begin by winding silk around a lead pencil 12 times: make 24 s c over
this.

2nd row--Make 2 s c in every s c on first row.

3rd row--S c in every s c on 2nd row.

Continue widening often enough to keep the work nearly flat (to do this
two s c instead of one are worked upon the one of the preceding row).
This completes the solid work of the crown.

4th row--Ch 3, make 3 d c in same stitch, skip 4 d c in next st.
Continue around entire crown.

5th row--Make a shell of 6 d c in centre of each shell of 4 d c,
leaving off within 7 shells of last row.

6th row--Make a ch of 5 st and s c in middle of next shell. Ch 5, s c
in middle of next shell. Continue around entire crown.

7th row--* 5 s c on each ch of 5 of previous row. Turn s c for entire
row around to where the shells of 4 were left. This begins the front of
cap. Turn and repeat from * 2 more rows. Next make a row of shells of 4
st in every 5th st.

8th row--Make shell of 5 d c in middle of each shell of 4 d c. Repeat
these 2 groups of 4 rows of s c and 2 rows of shells twice more.

9th row--A row of 5 ch in middle of each shell, then a row of s c.
Finish the cap with a row of shells of 7 d c around the entire cap.
Finish shells with a row of picots made by a ch of 3 caught in every st
with a s c. This completes the cap.

[Illustration: Fig. 242. Doll's Hug-me-tight]

_Doll's Hug-Me-Tight_ (Figure 242).

1 skein of Saxony white.

1 skein of Shetland floss, blue.

1-1/3 yards of narrow white ribbon.

Make a ch of 20 st., take up each ch with a s c.

Turn 19 s c in slipper stitch (slipper stitch is s c taken up on the
back thread of the row below). Crochet back and forth in this manner
until you have 8 ribs or 16 rows which form the back. Then take up 5 s
c and crochet back and forth until you have 9 ribs or 18 rows, which
forms the one front. Then count nine stitches for the neck, taking up
the remaining 5 sts for the other front and make 9 ribs or 18 rows for
the other front. Finish with a border all around of s c taking up the
whole stitch, alternating the colours, 1 row blue and 1 white until
you have four blue and four white, finish the whole with a blue picot.

Cut the ribbon into six pieces, sew one piece in each of the outer
edges to form the armhole and front as illustrated. This jacket can be
made for a child by commencing with 45 ch, 25 ribs for back and 25 ribs
for fronts.

_Jacket_ (Figure 243).

[Illustration: Fig. 243. Jacket in star stitch]

Pompadour wool through which a thread of silk runs, was used for making
this pretty jacket. Three skeins of the wool are required.

The body of the sacque is of star stitch (Figure 244).

Ch 95 on which work 11 stars, widen with 2 ch.

For sleeve make 11 stars, and back, 25 stars.

One front 11 stars. For the first 4 rows of front work 11 stars, widen
with 2 ch work across sleeve, widen 2, work across back, widen 1
star every other row; at sleeve widen 2, across sleeve widen 2, then
11 stars from the front. After the 4th row continue as before, only
widening 1 star at the four sleeve points for 10 rows. In 15th row work
11 stars for the sleeve, now drop out the entire sleeve, including the
widening points, work across back alone, leave out sleeve as before
then 11 stars for the second front; work 12 rows across sacque widening
under arms as in centre back. Tie wool at point under arm and work 13
rows around sleeve joining each row as made. For border, work 4 rows of
knot stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 244. Star stitch]

_Slippers in single crochet_ (Figure 245).

One skein of each of two contrasting colours of Germantown wool, one
pair of soles. For making these slippers in mercerized Perle cotton,
which is very cool for warmer days, two balls will be required.

In making slippers it is very essential for the work to be as tight as
possible to prevent it from stretching.

[Illustration: Fig. 245. Slipper in single crochet]

The following directions are for slipper size 3. Ch 11 sts. Make 11 s c
in slipper stitch, described in doll's hug-me-tight (Figure 246) widen
in the centre by making 3 s c in 1 ch. Make two rows like last widening
in centre, then a row without widening. When the work reaches from the
toe to the hollow part of the sole (about 12 ribs) the front is long
enough. (Alternate two rows one colour and two in the other.) Turn and
work 15 s c. Continue in the slipper stitch until the work will reach
around the sole by stretching. Join the end to the front by overcasting
on the wrong side. Beginning at the corner where the end is joined make
a row of crazy stitch around to the other side. Make 3 more rows of
crazy stitch. Finish with a row of shells.

[Illustration: Fig. 246. Slipper stitch]

Directions for crazy stitch--Make a ch of 4 sts; then throw the thread
once over the needle, take up the third nearest stitch to the needle,
and pull it through the loop; throw the thread over again and pull
it through the nearest two loops on needle and crochet the remaining
two loops off in the same manner. This completes the d c described in
chapter 27. Make two more d c in the same loop, skip 3 stitches, fasten
with a sl st in next st 3 ch. 4 shells in next st. and continue for
length desired.

_Slippers in Star Stitch_ (Figure 247).

4 balls of mercerized crochet cotton.

Star stitch is made by a ch of the required length. Insert hook in 2nd
ch from it, draw wool through, keeping both sts on hook, insert hook
in 3rd ch and draw wool through keeping this st also on the hook, skip
the next ch and take up the 4th and 5th in same manner, making 5 sts on
hook; now drop the strands of wool from which these sts were made, and
take up wool of contrasting colour, double end into a loop with short
end about one inch in length, draw this through all the sts on hook,
being careful not to let this short end slip through, ch 1 to hold sts
in place. Now with this new strand work a star by drawing it through
the eye of star, it being the tightest stitch near the ch on hook
keeping both sts on hook as before.

Draw wool also through long st down the side of star, then through next
2 ch which gives 5 sts on hook, then dropping the strand from which
this star was made pick up the wool of 1st star and loop it through
these 5 sts and ch 1 to hold the star in place. This ch should be
worked tight so it will draw the sts together and form the star, which
should be almost square. In the second row place the contrasting colour
over the star underneath, tying in the wool, ch 3 on which take up 2
sts; this gives you 3 sts on hook, the next 2 loops are drawn through
the long and short stitches of star underneath, taking up back stitch
of the long and both strands of the short or eye of star.

[Illustration: Fig. 247. A slipper in star stitch]

_For the slipper proper._

Ch 9, on which make 3 stars, 2 ch at end then work 3 stars down the
other side of ch, taking up the other thread.

2nd row--4 stars, 2 ch, 4 stars.

3d row--without widening.

Widen 2 stars every other row until you have 10 rows 2 rows without
widening, then widen in the next.

There will be 13 rows in all, and 20 stars in this last row, now divide
front and work 20 stars on either half for the sides; fit around sole
by stretching and sew up the back on the wrong side. The wool or thread
should be broken at the end of each row. (Crochet should not be worked
backward and forward unless directions are given to that effect.)

For a frill around the slippers work groups of 6 ch st two more rows of
the same. I always sew my slippers onto the soles after being finished,
by overcasting with wool of the same shade on the right side, which
saves stretching the slippers all out of shape when turning them.

_Jacket in Shell Stitch_ (Figure 248).

Material: 5 skeins of white Germantown and 1 skein of colour for edge.
No. 7 bone needle.

Ch 127, with 3 extra sts for turning.

1st row--Skip 2 ch and make 4 d c in the next. * Skip 3 ch, 1 s c in
next, ch 3, 4 d c in same st with s c and repeat from * ending with a
final s c.

2nd row--Turn 1 s c in s c below * 2 d c in same st, 1 s c in next s c
below and repeat from * ending with a s c in top of turning ch.

3rd row--Turn ch 3, 4 d c in s c below * 1 s c in next s c, ch 3, 4 d c
in same st repeat from * to end of row.

Repeat 2nd and 3rd rows 9 times, then repeat the 2nd row once more.
This gives a depth of work sufficient for the back part of sleeves. At
the end of the last row fasten off.

[Illustration: Fig. 248. Half of a jacket in shell stitch]

The lower part of the back is now to be made. Count 8 shells (sh) along
from the end of the last row and begin to crochet there, working as
with 3rd row until within 8 sh of each other end of last long row.

Crochet in pattern upon this row until 11 rows in all have been worked.
Upon the 12th row increase 1 sh in the 2 s c from each end by making 2
sh in those st instead of one.

Work without increasing for 13 rows more, then fasten off.

Go back to the foundation and upon the other side of it, beginning
where the first row ended, crochet 13 sh as in 1st row. This is the
commencement of the left shoulder and front.

Upon this row work 3 rows more in the usual way. At the end of the last
row drop the loop temporarily from the needle, tie in an extra ball
of wool at the top of the very beginning of the last row, ch 12 and
fasten off. With this ch the extra width for the centre of the front is
secured.

5th row--Again take the dropped loop upon the needle and crochet as
usual making 3 sh upon the extra ch. The row is now 16 sh wide. Work in
pattern for 17 rows more, the last row ending at the wrist. Fasten off.

On the 1st short row of lower front count 8 sh along from end of last
row, begin there, work as usual to the other end, then crochet back and
forth until the front is as long as the back, increasing 1 sh on the
13th row in the 2 s c from the underarm seam. The second front is made
exactly like the first. The 3rd pattern row now is worked up the fronts
around the neck, across the lower edge of jacket and sleeves, then
finished with a scalloped edge worked as follows: Make 1 s c in space
preceding st where s c was made on row below, ch 5, 1 s c on top of 1st
d c below, ch 4, 1 s c in same space, ch 5 and repeat from beginning
around all the edges, fasten off.

Shape the jacket by crocheting the sleeves and underarm seams together.

Crochet should be carefully washed and should not be put in the general
laundry. Make suds of warm water and a little borax. Put the article,
if of cotton or linen thread in and let it soak for a little while,
then squeeze the water out of the article between the hands. Rinse in
several waters in this manner always using warm water.

Put the piece in a white bag and hang on the line.

This way keeps the piece from stretching out of shape. Keep it on the
line till the article is perfectly dry.

Knitted articles should also be treated in like manner when washing for
if a knitted piece was pinned on a line to dry the article would be
stretched out of shape.



XXIX

IRISH CROCHET LACE


Irish Crochet lace is one of the most durable of laces and is suitable
to be worn for all occasions. It especially recommends itself for
pick-up or porch work. It looks well and does not take an endless
while to make, as almost every motif is made separately thus giving
a variety. And although one may not have more than a few minutes to
devote each day to the work, it is surprising how many articles can be
completed with little effort and little time.

The materials necessary are a steel crochet hook, considerably finer
than for ordinary crochet work, as the work must be very firm, even
and close. Irish Crochet Thread, numbers 36 to 50 or D. M. C. cotton
numbers 70 to 100 inclusive and number 10 for the padding cotton will
be needed. All laces look better if pressed before making up, this is
especially true of Irish Crochet. And when slightly soiled it can be
washed in soap suds, made from any good laundry soap; rinse thoroughly
in several waters, starch slightly and iron on the wrong side on a
heavy blanket. These simple directions help to make the lace look like
new. In Irish Crochet the motifs are made separately mostly worked over
a padding cotton.

[Illustration: Fig. 249. Doily with crochet edge]

Then these motifs are basted on a pattern of cambric, or paper muslin
which has been cut to the desired shape. A row of chainstitching is
worked and basted to the edge of the pattern, then the filling in
background is worked, joining the different motifs together with rows
of chainstitching and picots or any other background stitch desired.

_Doily with Irish Crochet Edge_ (Figure 249).

This can also be used for a bread plate.

1st row--around a 24 inch circle of linen work a row of single crochet.

2nd row--5 chain, miss 3 single crochet and fasten with a single
crochet in the 4th stitch; continue around mat.

[Illustration: Fig. 250. The design for the belt]

3rd row--Into each group of chains work 3 single crochet, 1 picot, 3
single crochet.

4th row--6 ch fasten in the picot loop.

5th row--3 single crochet, picot, 3 single crochet, 1 picot, 3 single
crochet, 1 picot; continue all around. This completes the mat.

_Belt of Irish Crochet_ (Figure 250).

This belt is very useful, especially as it is mounted upon a
foundation, which is the ordinary cotton waist belting, one inch wide
sold at all notion counters for a few cents. The crochet belt is basted
upon this belting after being stretched and starched.

To make the belt:

1st row--Chain 26, turn.

2nd row--1 double crochet in 6th stitch of chain, chain 2, miss 2
stitches and work 1 double crochet in 9th stitch of chain, chain 2,
miss 2, chain and work 1 double crochet in 12th stitch of chain, chain
5, skip 5, chain, 1 double crochet into 17th stitch of chain, chain
2, 1 double in 20th stitch of chain, chain 2, miss 2 chain, 1 double
crochet into 23rd stitch of chain, chain 2, miss 2 and work 1 double
crochet in 26th stitch.

3rd row--Chain 5, 1 double crochet in top of double crochet of
preceding row, chain 2, 1 double crochet in top of double crochet,
chain 2, 1 double crochet in top of double crochet, chain 2, 1 double
crochet in top of double crochet, 5 double crochet over chain of 5,
1 double crochet in top of double crochet, 2 chain, 1 double crochet
in top of double crochet, 2 chain, 1 double crochet in top of double
crochet, chain 2, 1 double crochet in 2nd stitch of chain of 5 at the
end; turn and repeat from 2nd row for length required. For the edge,
work on both sides of the belt into every chain loop 3 single crochet,
1 picot 3 single crochet.

_Rose Tie with lawn facing_ (Figure 251).

This bow has an under facing of lawn with a simple crochet edging of
double crochet and chain stitch with picots, worked at even intervals.
For the crochet tie:

[Illustration: Fig. 251. Rose tie with lawn facing]

1st row--Work rose the same way as the one in the wheel tie. Now
crochet around the rose in this manner * chain 3, 1 single crochet
caught in the 1st double crochet of the rose petal, 5 chain, 1 double
crochet in 5th stitch of petal, chain 5, 1 double in 8th stitch of
petal, 5 chain; repeat from * five times more.

2nd row--5 chain, 1 single crochet in each previous group of 5 chain,
continue around entire rose.

3rd row--6 chain 1 single crochet in each preceding loop of chain.

4th row--* 6 chain, 9 double crochet in first space, 6 chain, 1 single
crochet for next 4 spaces, 6 chain, then 9 double crochet in 5th space;
repeat from * twice more.

5th row--* 6 chain, 1 single crochet in 1st double crochet of group, 6
chain, 1 single crochet in 5th double, 6 chain, 1 single crochet in 9th
double; repeat from * all around.

For the next two rows work 6 chain, 1 single crochet in each previous
group of chain. Finish the edge with a row of chain and picot.

Work two sections like the one described and fasten together in the
centre. Sew this upon the lawn facing and the tie is complete.

If the tie shows any tendency to cap in the course of construction add
an extra chain in the group of chain stitches every now and then.

_Wheel Tie with Rose and Straps with Shamrock_ (Figure 252.)

Wind padding cotton 6 times around the crochet needle. Over this ring
work:

1st row--50 double crochet.

2nd row--Chain 5, miss 2 double crochet, * in the third stitch, work 1
double crochet, 2 chain, miss 2 double crochet repeat from * 24 times.
Work a spider in the centre of the ring, with a needle and thread.

[Illustration: Fig. 252. Wheel tie with rose and straps with shamrocks]

Make 8 of these wheels for the tie. Join together with filling stitch
(3 chain and a single crochet). After working 3 chains and a single
crochet around the edge of the tie, work 1 single crochet in first
space, 3 chain, 1 single crochet in second space, 3 chain * 1 double
crochet, 7 chain in third space (catch back into second chain from
needle to form a picot chain) repeat from * 4 times more, chain 3,
1 single crochet in next space, chain 3, 1 single crochet in second
space. Continue in this manner all around tie.

_For rose in centre of tie._

1st row--Chain 6, join in a ring.

2nd row--Chain 6 * 1 double crochet into ring, 4 ch 1 double crochet, 4
chain repeat from * twice more and join.

3rd row--Over first 4 chain work * 1 single crochet, 5 double crochet,
1 single crochet; repeat from * 5 times.

4th row--Work a row of 7 chain loops fastening at back of first row of
single crochet (this is what helps to form the rose petals and makes
them stand one above the other).

5th row--Over these loops work * 1 single crochet, 7 double crochet, 1
single crochet, repeat from * all around.

6th row--A row of 9 chain loops.

7th row--Into these loops work 1 single crochet, 9 double crochet, 1
single crochet; this completes the rose.

Let me mention here that roses can be substituted for the shamrocks
worn on the ends of the straps.

_For straps._

Work 27 single crochet over a padding cord, join in a ring. Work 9
single crochet over padding cord, 1 chain, 9 single crochet, 1 single
crochet, over padding cord into the chain stitch. Continue working
9 single crochet, 1 chain, 9 single crochet over padding cotton and
fastening each time in the chain stitch with a single crochet. One
strap is 6 inches long and the other is 7 inches long.

For the edge of straps work 2 chain, 1 double crochet, in first single
crochet of previous row, 2 chain, 1 double crochet in 3rd stitch, 7
chain count back 5 chains and slip stitch (to form a picot) 1 double
crochet in 5th stitch, 2 chain, 1 double crochet in 7th stitch, 2
chain, 1 double crochet in 9th stitch. Continue on both sides of straps.

_For the shamrocks._

Wind padding cotton over the end of crochet hook 6 times. Over this
ring work 30 single crochet. * Over 3 strands of padding cotton work
11 single crochet. Twist padding cotton in a downward loop and work
1 single crochet over crossing of padding cotton, continue 15 single
crochet over the loop, draw padding cotton to pull loop up close and
then work 11 single crochet over padding cotton alone. Miss 2 single
crochet on ring and work 2 single crochet over padding cotton into next
2 stitches of ring.

Turn, leave padding cotton, 12 chain, 1 single crochet into top of
crossing loop, 12 chain, 1 single crochet into ring just before
beginning of arch. Turn, over 12 chain work 4 single crochet, 1 double
crochet, 1 treble crochet. Work 1 treble crochet into single crochet
over crossing of loop. Continue over next 12 chain, 14 treble, 1 double
and 4 single crochet. Work 4 single crochet over padding cotton into
next 4 single crochet on ring, repeat from * twice more leaving out
the 4 single crochet over padding cotton into the ring the last time.
Turn, work a row of single crochet over padding cotton. Between petals
take the needle out, insert in stitch half way between the petals, and
pull loop through, this will give a better shape to the petals. Then
continue with single crochet.

For stem work 3 single crochet over padding cotton into ring. Then
40 single crochet over padding cotton alone, turn and work 40 single
crochet over padding cotton into the previous row of single crochet to
the ring. To shape the stem to the right pull the padding cotton before
working the second row of single crochet.

_Long Jabot_ (Figure 253).

Over a padding cotton work 50 single crochet, turn, and work down other
side, 41 single crochet over padding cotton into previous row of single
crochet (leaving one-half of stem still to be worked).

1st arm--Now twist the padding cotton under the stem, fasten with a
slip stitch, over the loose padding cotton work 18 double crochet, turn
and work over padding cotton into each double crochet, 18 trebles,
fasten with a single crochet in the 5th single crochet of centre stem.

2nd arm--Turn work over padding cotton, 10 double crochet into double
crochet of previous row. Now work 8 double crochet over padding cotton
alone, turn and work 18 treble crochet over padding cotton into the
double crochet of previous row. Fasten in 10th stitch, this completes
the second arm.

[Illustration: Fig. 253. Long jabot]

Now work 8 arms more in the same way, then finish the stem with 9
single crochet over padding cotton into the other single crochet of
stem.

For the centre work over 2 strand padding cotton 6 double crochet and
fasten into the single crochet which connects the arms to the stem,
continue all around centre and fasten off.

Work 36 chain, into these work 36 double crochet with 6 double on each
end. Continue working until there are 4 rows of doubles. Connect the
leaf to this with slip stitch, baste on paper and work 3 rows of the
filling stitch all around.

1st row--For the edge, work 6 chain loops into every loop of previous
row.

2nd row--Over 6 chain loops work 7 single crochet.

3rd row--6 chain loops caught into every 4th single crochet.

4th row--Into 6 chain loops work 4 single crochet, picot, 4 single
crochet, then into 2nd or next loop work 4 single crochet, picot, 4
single crochet, into 3 loop work 4 single crochet. 5 chain turn and
fasten in the 4th double crochet over 2nd loop, turn and over chain
work 4 double crochet, picot, 4 double crochet, then into the 3rd loop
finish with the other 4 single crochet; repeat from * all around jabot.

_Baby Irish Lace, with Rose Leaf and Grapes_ (Figure 254).

_For roses._

Chain 12. Into chain work * 1 double crochet, 3 chain repeat from *
for 6 times more. Into each group of 3 chain work 1 single crochet, 6
double crochet, 1 single crochet making seven petals to a rose.

_For the leaves._

Chain 8, join in a ring. Over this ring work 32 single crochet without
breaking the thread, chain 8 and form another to the right and a little
above the other ring, work 32 single crochet into this one also, again
chain 8 and form a ring to the left of the first ring, fill this ring
with 32 single crochet.

_For grapes._

[Illustration: Fig. 254. Baby Irish-lace edging]

Chain 3, join. Fill chain with single crochet, continue working
around, widening as needed for 3 rows. Decrease by missing a stitch
occasionally to shape grapes. Just before finishing stuff with cotton,
make 3 grapes for each cluster and fasten into centre of leaf. Baste
all motifs on muslin and fill with background stitch. For edge of
scallop work groups of 6 chain caught down with a single crochet then *
4 single crochet into first space, 2 single crochet into next space, 6
chain, turn, fasten into single crochet, turn, 3 single crochet over
chain, picot, 5 single crochet, 2 single crochet into same space, 4
single crochet into next space, 6 chain, turn, and catch down beside
first loop, turn, 4 single crochet over chain, 6 chain turn, catch
down in centre of first loop, turn, 4 single crochet, picot, 4 single
crochet, into chain, 1 single crochet into next loop, picot, 3 single
crochet, 4 single crochet into next space and repeat from * all around
edge of lace.

_Dutch Collar_ (Figure 255).

Begin the rose with a small thick ring made by winding the padding
cotton ten times around the end of the crochet needle. Cover this ring
with single crochet, cutting off the end of the padding cotton when the
ring is three quarters covered. *Chain 6, catch down into the ring;
repeat from * 5 more times, dividing the spaces as evenly as possible
so the last chain is caught down beside the first one.

Over the chain loop work * 1 single crochet 7 double crochet, 1 single
crochet, repeat from * all around.

*Chain 7, catch down at back in the same stitch as that in which the
chain loops of the preceding row was caught, repeat from * all around.

Over chain loop * 1 single crochet, 9 double crochet, 1 double
crochet. Repeat from * all around.

*Chain 8 catch down in back same place as before. Repeat from * all
around.

*Over chain loops work repeat from * 1 single crochet, 11 doubles, 1
single crochet, this finishes the rose centre.

*Now begin the first row around the rose * 7 chain 3 picot, (catch back
into third stitch) chain 7, picot, 3 chains, catch down in first petal
in outer row, repeat from * 12 times more, spacing these picot loops
evenly all around, catching the last one into the centre of the first.

*Next work one picot loop catching in into centre of loop of row below,
then a loop of 6 chains, repeat from * caught into centre of next picot
loop.

Turn and over this loop work 9 single crochet, turn, work 9 double
crochet over the single crochet 3 chain, catch down into same stitch as
the 6 chain loop was caught. Work 2 rows of picot loops, then repeat
from * all around finishing the row in the corner of the first 9 double
crochet ornament.

9th row--Work a row of plain picot loops.

10th row--Work a row of plain picot loops.

11th row--Another row of plain picot loops.

Five roses are required for the collar.

_For the wheels._

[Illustration: Fig. 255. An Irish-lace Dutch collar]

Over a padding cotton ring, work single crochet. Over a single strand
of the padding cotton crochet into every single crochet, a single
crochet, work 4 rows the same way only add a picot in every 4th single
crochet in the last row. Now begin the first row around the wheel *
chain 7, catch into the last single crochet of the wheel, chain 7,
picot, chain 7, chain 3, skip 2 stitches of the wheel and catch down
into the 3rd with a single crochet, repeat from * all around.

Next work 1 picot loop, catching it into the centre of loop in row
below, then a * loop of 6 chain caught into centre of next picot loop.
Turn, and over this loop work 9 single crochet, turn and work 9 double
crochet over the single crochet, 3 chain stitch down into same stitch
as the 6 chain loop was caught. Work 2 more picot loops, then repeat
from * all around finishing the row in the centre of the first ornament.

Work a row of plain picot loop. Another row of plain picot loops. Make
four wheels for the collar.

Sew the roses and wheels firmly on the cambric pattern (the size and
style having been cut out of the cambric).

Placing them so as to leave room for a single row of picot loops to
be worked between to join them, crochet a chain of chain stitches and
baste them upon the edge of the cambric pattern. Fill the work out to
the desired shape with the picot loops, which should contain the same
number of chain stitches as the loops in the roses and wheels, 3 chain,
1 double crochet, 3 chain, work a row all around collar, then begin
the border or edge. Work around the inner edge and fronts of collar 4
single crochet into each loop, then around the lower edge * 4 single
crochet in the first space, 4 single crochet in the second space, 2
single crochet in the third space; chain 6 down at the beginning of
second space. Over the loops thus formed make 3 single crochet, picot,
7 single crochet, 2 single crochet into same (third) space, 4 single
crochet into next space. Turn, 6 chain catch down into next to the
last loop, turn, 5 single crochet over the loop, chain 6, turn, and
catch down into centre of first loop. Turn, 5 single crochet, picot,
5 single crochet over this last loop, 2 single crochet into the next
loop, picot, 3 single crochet, repeat from * all around edge. Take the
collar up from the cambric and press upon the wrong side over a blanket
or heavy flannel.



XXX

KNITTING, PLAIN AND PURLING, WASH RAGS, AND FANCY STITCHES FOR SHAWLS


There are certain terms used in knitting that are peculiar to the work.
Until these terms are studied and practised, the instructions are as
bad as trying to read a foreign language that you know nothing about.

Knitting is usually done on two needles though there are times when
more needles are used, for instance, in knitting stockings.

Thread, silk or worsted can be used for the work. The latter is best
for practising the first stitches or pieces.

The first term we learn in knitting is "to cast on stitches" (Figure
256). Select a pair of medium-sized wooden needles. Your worsted should
be wound into a ball. "Casting on" is the foundation for the work. Take
a knitting needle in each hand between the thumb and first finger. Make
a loop of the worsted over the left-hand needle near the end. Put your
right-hand needle through this loop under the left needle. Holding
the needles in this position, throw the worsted around the point of
the right-hand needle and draw the right-hand needle through the first
loop. There is now a loop on each needle. Slip the last loop made over
the left needle. * Both needles are in the one loop, the left on top
of the right. Again throw the worsted over the point of the right-hand
needle and draw the needle through with the loop on it. Slip this
loop over the left-hand needle and repeat from *, till the number of
stitches desired are cast on.

[Illustration: Fig. 256. Casting-on]

The * indicates from which point the directions are to be repeated.

The German method of knitting is to hold the work in the left hand and
the worsted over the first finger, under the second and third and then
over the little finger.

To knit, the right-hand needle is in the first loop from the point of
the other needle. * Throw the worsted over point of the right-hand
needle and draw it through the loop. Slip the first stitch off the
left needle and insert the right needle into the next stitch and repeat
from *, till all the stitches have been transferred to the right-hand
needle (Figure 257).

[Illustration: Fig. 257. Knitting (K)]

Remember to hold the work in the left hand when starting to knit each
needle or row.

[Illustration: Fig. 258. Purling (P)]

To purl (Figure 258). The work is held in the left hand. The worsted is
brought in front of the work. The right-hand needle is inserted through
the stitch from right to left in front of the left needle. Pass the
point of the right needle over the worsted and draw the loop through.
Slip off the stitch on the left needle as in knitting. Repeat in this
manner until all the stitches are transferred.

Sometimes it is necessary to get rid of some of the stitches. In that
case the needle is slipped through two stitches instead of one and the
new stitch formed in the usual way. There are two abbreviations for
purling two together. They are p. 2 tog. or p-n. The latter means purl
narrow.

When knitting, two stitches can also be taken together. The
abbreviation for this is n. K. 3 tog. means knit three stitches (sts)
together as one stitch.

To slip-stitch means to take a stitch from the left-hand to the
right-hand needle without knitting it, and its abbreviation is sl.

To bind or cast off means to slip the stitches from the needle so that
you have a chain edge. Slip the first stitch and knit the second. You
now have two loops on the right-hand needle. * Put the point of the
left needle (from left to right) through the first stitch on the other
needle. Hold the worsted tight. Slip the right-hand needle through the
loop formed as described above and then slip the loop from the left
needle. There is only one loop on the right-hand needle. Knit the next
stitch and repeat from *.

Casting off must be done loosely or the work will have a puckered
appearance.

[Illustration: Fig. 259. A little girl's first piece of knitting]

It may be that you desire to widen the row of stitches. Both widening
and decreasing is done at the end of needle or row. Knit as usual
till there remains but one loop on the left-hand needle. Insert the
left-hand needle through the loop at the base of the last stitch. Bring
worsted around the point and make a stitch as usual. The last stitch
is knitted in the usual way.

After you have practised the stitches with wool, it is well to buy a
ball of coarse knitting cotton and a pair of steel needles. The cotton
makes excellent wash cloths. Cast on 50 stitches then knit or purl the
same amount of rows as stitches. To make a fancy cloth knit three rows
then purl three rows until you have the fifty rows.

The long straight shawls are the most popular at present.

A little one for yourself that would be quite pretty is made in pop
corn stitch (Figure 260). It requires five skeins of worsted and a pair
of wooden needles.

[Illustration: Photograph by Mary G. Huntsman. Her First Knitted Shawl]

Cast on 59 stitches on your needle.

1st row--K 1st, then knit two stitches together (2 K tog) the rest of
the way. You now have 30 stitches on your needle (Figure 260).

2nd row--K first stitch, then knit the loop which is formed between the
double stitches of the first row. Continue in this manner till you have
again on the needle the same number you cast on--59.

3rd row--K plain all the way across.

4th row--P plain all the way across.

5th row--K 2 together all the way across to the last stitch, then k
that by itself.

6th row--Same as second row.

7th row--K plain.

8th row--P plain.

Continue in this manner till you make a scarf about one yard long.

[Illustration: Fig. 260. The popcorn stitch]

The popcorn pattern affords good practice for the different stitches
explained before.

If a longer shawl is desired continue in the same manner. To make it
broader it will be necessary to cast on more stitches at the beginning.

A shawl may be finished in many ways. Sometimes a little crochet edge
is worked around it, or a chain stitch fringe can be made. The plain
fringe is the one most used however. This is made by cutting the wool
about ten inches long. Take four lengths and slip them through and knot
them into the border edge at each end of the shawl. This makes a fringe
about five inches deep.

[Illustration: Fig. 261. The basket stitch]

The basket stitch makes a thick shawl (Figure 261.)

To make a wide shawl in this stitch 10 skeins of Germantown wool will
be required.

Cast on 120 stitches.

1st row--Knit plain.

2nd row--* K 3, p 7, k 3, p 7, repeat from * to end of needle.

3rd row--* K 7, p 3, k 7, p 3, repeat from * to end of needle.

4th row--* K 3, p 7, k 3, p 7 repeat from * to end of needle.

5th row--P the entire row.

6th row--* P 7, k 3, p 7, k 3, repeat from * to end of needle.

7th row--* P 3, k 7, p 3, k 7 repeat from * to end of needle.

8th row--Like 6th row.

9th row--P entire row.

Nine rows form the pattern, repeat from second row until you have a
shawl two yards long.



XXXI

DOLL'S CAPE, HOOD, LEGGINGS AND JACKETS

DOLL'S CAPE.

     Material--3 Fold Saxony, 2 Steel Knitting Needles No. 10, 1 Steel
     Crochet Hook No. 6.


Commence with 1 stitch. Knit plain, increasing 1 stitch beginning of
each needle until there are 30 stitches on needle. Increase 1, knit
12 stitches, bind off 6 stitches, knit 12 stitches. Increase 1 stitch
beginning of needle, knit to end of row; turn, knit 1 row plain. Repeat
until there are 15 stitches on needle. Now increase 1 stitch at the
neck and decrease 1 stitch at end of row, 1 row plain. Repeat 3 times
more. Knit plain without increasing at front and 2 together at end of
needle, until 1 stitch is left on needle, fasten off. Finish the right
side same as left. Crochet a row of holes for ribbon, 1 chain, 1 double
all around. With blue yarn crochet 1 row, 3 chain, 1 single.

_Doll's Jacket_ (Figure 263).

     Material--3 Fold Saxony, 2 Steel Knitting Needles No. 16, 3 Steel
     Knitting Needles No. 13, 1 Steel Crochet Hook No. 6.

[Illustration: Fig. 262. Doll's knitted cape]

[Illustration: Fig. 263. Doll's knitted jacket]

Cast on steel needles No. 13, 64 stitches, 1 plain 1 purl for 26 rows,
Knit 16 stitches; turn. Take another needle, knit the 16 stitches for 5
rows with No. 16 needles knit plain for yoke, decreasing 1 stitch at
the neck until there are 12 stitches on needle, knit plain until there
are 7 ridges, bind off. From the 48 stitches left on needle, knit 32
stitches for 14 rows; bind off. Finish left front same as right.

Sleeves--Cast on steel needles No. 16, 26 stitches. Knit plain for 6
ridges. With steel needles No. 13 knit 1 plain, 1 purl for 20 rows.
Bind off 3 stitches beginning of each needle until 8 stitches are left
on needle; bind off. Sew up seam and shoulder seams. Crochet a row of
holes around neck for ribbon, 1 chain, 1 double. With blue yarn crochet
one row, 3 chain, 1 single all around.

_Doll's Cap_ (Figure 264).

     Material--2 Fold Saxony, 2 Steel Knitting Needles No. 16, 2 Steel
     Knitting Needles No. 13, 1 Steel Crochet Hook No. 6.

With blue yarn cast on No. 16 steel needles 45 stitches. Knit plain for
6 ridges. With white yarn and No. 13 needles, 1 plain, 1 purl for 17
rows.

[Illustration: Fig. 264. Doll's cap]

Crown--Knit 29 stitches, knit 2 together; turn, knit 14 stitches, knit
2 together. Repeat until all side stitches have been worked up and the
crown is complete. Then pick up stitches on both ends, first on one
side; turn, knit them plain, also the crown stitches, then pick up the
stitches on that side and knit them. Make a row of holes for ribbon,
yarn over needle twice, then knit 2 together to end of row. 1 row
plain, knitting only 1 of the stitches cast on. With blue yarn crochet
1 row, 3 chain, 1 single.

_Doll's Leggings_ (Figure 265).

     Material--3 Fold Saxony, 2 Steel Knitting Needles No. 13, 1 Steel
     Crochet Hook No. 6.

Cast on 32 stitches. 1 plain, 1 purl for 21 rows. Decrease beginning
and end of needle. Knit for five rows. Decrease continuously 1 stitch
beginning and end of needle every 6th row, until there are 22 stitches
on needle. Knit for 15 rows. Bind off 6 stitches, knit 10, take another
thread, bind off the remaining stitches. Knit the 10 stitches for 4
rows. Decrease beginning and end of each needle, until there are 4
stitches on needle. Bind off and sew up seam. With blue yarn crochet 3
chain, 1 single around top of legging.

[Illustration: Fig. 265. A doll's legging]

_Infant's Knitted Bootees_ (Figure 266).

     Material--2 Skeins White Wool, 1 Skein Pink or Blue, 1 Pair
     Knitting Needles No. 16.

1st row--Cast on 53 stitches in coloured wool.

2nd row--Knit plain to the end of row.

3rd row--Slip 1, make 1, knit 25, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 25, make
1, knit 1.

4th row--Knit plain to the end of row.

5th row--Slip 1, make 1, knit 27, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 1, knit
27, make 1, knit 1.

6th row--Knit plain to end of row.

7th row--Slip 4, make 1, knit 29, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 29, make
1, knit 1.

8th row--Knit plain to the end of row.

9th row--Slip 1, make 1, knit 31, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 31, make
1, knit 1.

[Illustration: Fig. 266. Infant's knitted bootee]

10th row--Knit plain to end of row.

11th row--Slip 1, knit 33, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 34.

12th row--Knit plain to end of row.

13th row--Slip 1, knit 34, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 35.

14th row--Knit plain to end of row.

15th row--Slip 1, knit 35, make 1, knit 1, make 1, knit 36.

16th row--Knit plain to end of row.

You must now have 75 stitches on your needle. Knit now 8 plain rows
then knit 43 stitches, now knit 2 together. Turn your needles and
continue this until you have 25 stitches on each side of needle. You
must now tie on the white wool then knit 12 plain, then knit 2 together
as above, you are beginning now to make the part that forms the little
sock. Knit 2 together 7 times, turn your needle, knit 1, pick up
the stitch that you will see between the two stitches that you have
knitted, two together, next row knit plain. Next row purl 1, then you
have four rows complete. Commence 2 together again 7 times continue
this until you have 5 pattern rows.

Always remember to take 2 stitches together after you have knitted the
12 stitches. There should be 14 stitches on each side needle. Tie on
the coloured wool again and knit plain to end. Knit 1 row plain then
make 1, knit 2 together to the end of row. Then make 1, pick up the
stitch already explained. Tie on white wool, knit 1 row plain. Begin
the pattern again by knitting 2 together. Remember you must always
begin a row on the right side of the bootee. Do 7 rows of the pattern,
then 12 rows ribbed. Rib is to knit 2 plain rows and purl 2 rows. After
knitting 12 rows cast off on the right side and sew the bootee up
neatly at the back and run some ribbon in to finish it off.

_A warm hood for the baby_ (Figure 267).

This hood requires an ounce and a half of Shetland wool and one pair of
fine bone needles No. 7.

Cast on 21 stitches, knit 6 rows or three ridges plain.

Second row--Knit one * wool over needle twice, knit 2 together, repeat
from *.

Knit 3 more rows plain. Cast on 21 stitches at one end and knit back
and cast on 20 more at the other. Knit on these 62 stitches that are on
the needle for 30 more rows. Now start a new pattern by knitting 1 for
the edge * wool over, slip the next stitch on the right-hand needle,
knit the next two, pass the slipped stitches over these two. Note the
two loops remain on the right-hand needle and the wool cast over.
There knit from * to the end of row, knitting last stitch plain, purl
back. Repeat these 2 rows 20 times. Cast off the 20 and 21 stitches at
the end. Knit on the original 21 stitches for 30 rows.

[Illustration: Fig. 267. A knitted hood]

Next row--Knit 1 * wool across the needle twice, knit 2 together,
repeat from *.

Knit 6 rows.

Cast off.

Your knitting is now finished and somewhat in the shape of a cross.
Join the X's to the X's on the wrong side. Sew right up to the corner.

Join the dashes to the dashes, the O's to the O's, the diamonds to the
diamonds in like manner (Figure 268).

You will have a piece of knitting that looks like a box cover. Turn it
so the wrong side is in the right position. Fold the backs over the
other so that the 2 rows of holes correspond. Sew along the bottom edge.

Turn back a little corner from the plain knitting and sew it down.

Run a ribbon through the holes and tie in a bow in front.

[Illustration: Fig. 268. Diagram of hood]

_Knitted Vest for Baby._

     Materials required, 10 oz. of Shetland Wool, a pair of Bone
     Knitting Needles No. 12 and 2 yds. of Ribbon.

Cast on 140 stitches.

1st row--Knit plain.

2nd row--Knit 2 purl 2 all the way across. Continue knitting 2 and 2
ribs for 5 inches.

To form the armholes work backward and forward on the 1st 40 stitches
for two and three quarter inches. Cast off all but 12 stitches for the
shoulder strap. Work 12 rows on these 12 stitches and cast off.

For back--Continue from where you divide it for the armhole for 60
stitches leaving 40 for the second front.

Work two and a quarter inches on the 60 stitches. Cast off. Make second
front the same as first. Sew up on shoulders.

A pretty little crochet edge around the neck and armhole will complete
this comfortable little vest.

A simple crochet edge is made by working one double crochet, * 4 chain,
1 double crochet in first chain, miss 2 stitches, 1 double crochet,
repeat from * sew the two small pieces of ribbon that have been cut
in half to the vest. Tie in a bow. The bows hold the little garment
together.

_Pine Pattern Lace._

Cast on 28 stitches and knit across plain.

1st row--Slip 1, knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 10,
knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 1, make 2, knit 2
together, make 4 (thread four times round needle) knit 2 together, knit
2 together, make 2, knit 2 together.

2nd row--Knit plain, but work twice (knit 1 and purl 1) in each of
these make 2 loops. In the 2nd row work 6 times (knit 1, purl 1, knit
1, purl 1, knit 1, purl 1,) all in the 4 made stitches.

3rd row--Slip 1, knit 2 together, * make 2, knit 2 together, knit 2,
knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together; repeat from * once, knit
2, make 2, decrease 2 (by working slip 1, knit 2 together, draw the
slipped stitch over), knit 5, decrease 2, make 2, knit 2 together.

4th row--The same as second row.

5th row--Slip 1, * knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 1,
repeat from * three times, knit 2, make 2, decrease 2, knit 3, decrease
2, make 2, knit 2 together.

6th row--The same as second row.

7th row--Slip 1, knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 2, knit
2 together, make 2, decrease 2, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 2, knit
2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 4, make 2, knit 2 together,
knit 2 together, draw the first two together; stitch over the second
thus decreasing again, decrease 2, make 2, knit 2 together.

8th row--The same as second row.

9th row--Slip 1, knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 4, knit
2 together, knit 5, knit 2 together, make 2, knit 2 together, knit 6,
make 2, decrease 2, make 2, knit 2 together.

10th row--Knit 2 together, drop the second loop of the "make 2," knit
1, draw the first stitch on the right-hand needle over the knitted one,
thus decreasing again; knit 1, purl 1, knit 8, purl 1, knit 13, purl 1,
knit 2. Repeat from first row.



XXXII

EMBROIDERY SUGGESTIONS FOR BOARDING SCHOOL GIRL


A girl who has to make a home of her boarding school should try and
make her room and little personal articles as attractive as possible.
Her room is her citadel where only her bosom friends and cronies meet.
One likes to feel when they enter their room that it is a place where
everything is hers and every object in sight means something to her.

A girl might not like to embroider, yet there are hundreds of
things that can be done without any needlework decoration, such as
stencilling, cut leather or simple appliqué. It always amused me to
hear a girl say, "I don't like to embroider." I always feel like asking
her, if we are acquainted, if she knows how to embroider. You will find
that in nine cases out of ten she does not. Embroidery is like anything
else, you have got to know it to like it. It may be you prefer one
branch to others. Some branches of this work may be tedious to you but
when you stop and think what simple things are classed under embroidery
you will find that you have a wide field from which to select.

It is not my object to go into details in regard to stitchery in this
chapter but rather to give you some helpful suggestions in regard to
knowing what to make and what colours to use. The stitches to be used
are fully described in the previous chapters.

The first thing to consider is, are you going to have a bedstead or a
couch in your room? Make it the latter unless you have a broad window
seat that you can heap up with pillows. No room at a boarding school
or college is complete without a half a dozen pretty pillows. When
the chairs give out you can use the cushions, Japanese fashion, on
the floor. Some girls like to carry their whole room out in cretonne,
which is very pretty and dainty if you can afford it. Cretonne covers
last about a year and then they get faded and dusty, while a linen
background embroidered will last for many years. It may need laundering
but it will stand any amount of that. If the embroidery fades a little
that also is no drawback as it takes the effect of newness from the
room. A room ought to look as if people lived in it and enjoyed it and
not as if it were an exhibition room in some department store. Don't
think I am trying to encourage untidiness but let the things be used
and enjoyed.

When I was about your age for several weeks I spent my spare time
embroidering a centre piece for my auntie's dining room table taking
care to get just the right colours that would look well with her every
day china. It nearly broke my heart when it was finished to have her
use it only for state occasions. If my cousins do not use it any more
than auntie did it will last for hundreds of years, or be thrown into
the rag bag by the next generations if they don't like it. Enjoy all
the pretty things that you possess if they are appropriate for the use
you intend them for.

Have you ever heard the story of the little dirty boy of the slums who
was given a new white tie by his teacher? He had first to wash his
hands before he touched it and then he washed himself to wear it and
asked his mother for a clean shirt so that everything would go with the
tie? Do you know that if you have one beautiful thing in your room of
which you are very proud you too will see that all the things around it
set off its beauty?

For the girl who has a window seat in a room and wants to keep her room
dainty and bright there is nothing as pretty as the lingerie pillow.
It may be made of heavy white linen or lawn as you desire and can be
oblong, round or square. The cushion is covered in any colour that you
prefer and the white top embroidered with large eyelets, Roman cut
work, Hardanger or drawn work so that the colour will appear through
the openings. Some of the handsomest imported pillows have motifs
of real Filet, Irish Crochet or Cluny lace. These motifs are very
expensive and not really necessary. The back and front of the linen
cover are scalloped on the edges and half an inch above this scalloping
a row of large eyelets is worked at intervals. The back and front are
laced together with ribbons the same shade as the coloured covering.
For a pink and blue room the cushion can be covered with pink and the
lingerie slip laced with blue. For a square pillow plan the design on a
square and arrange one in each corner and one in the direct centre.

These slips will require frequent laundering.

The lithographed pillow is a thing to be avoided by a girl of refined
taste. You would not hang lithograph posters in your bedroom so why
feel that it is all right to buy a lithograph pillow?

The chief point to remember in getting little accessories for your room
is to keep the colouring as harmonious as possible. Avoid getting
the popular things of to-day which are apt to be an eyesore to you
to-morrow.

Do not decide quickly to carry out your room in school colours, there
will probably be a dozen of the girls who will do this very thing and
you will be tired of it before your course is through. A fraternity
pillow is to be expected as there are dozens of ways that it may be
treated and look quite different from the other girls' pillows.

The general way in which a school or fraternity pillow is made is to
cut out of felt the letters, figures and any design that is to be
placed on it. The background may be broadcloth, ladies' cloth or felt.
Use one of the school or fraternity colours for the appliqué and the
other for the background.

One of the handsomest fraternity pillows I ever saw, was one belonging
to a Hamilton College man. Hamilton's colours are buff and bright
deep blue. The fraternity's colours were black and gold. A handsome
piece of Hamilton blue broadcloth was selected for the background. The
fraternity pin was reproduced in colour in fine filo silk. The gold
silk was a perfect match to the gold in the pin. Even the background
of the pin, which was black enamel, was represented by very fine
Kensington stitches. The rope-like edge of the pin was reproduced on
the pillow by little rope-like sections heavily padded and worked in
gold silk. On the back of the pillow were his initial and his class
year below. No beruffled ribbons or gaudy cord detracted from its
richness. It was a square cushion and its only finish was a large
button in each corner where the end was gathered and tucked in to give
a round effect.

The school girl of to-day is learning to eliminate the unnecessary
trumpery things that cheapen the room and serve as dust gatherers.
Outside of the pillow, bed or table covers and an occasional bag for
fancy work, laundry or gloves there is no ornate display of handwork.
Even the walls are left bare with the exception of a framed print or a
few family photographs.

Try if possible and see if you can get a plain paper for your wall.
More than one really charming room is spoiled by having an atrocious
paper on it. It is really impossible to try to be artistic with an ugly
wall paper.

Since stencilling has become so popular, it is not an uncommon thing to
have the entire room stencilled.

Suppose you had planned to have your room in lilac, green and light
gray. White can be substituted for the gray but it soils more readily
than the latter. The floor should be polished and a couple of small
rugs or one larger one be used on the floor. The lilac shade should
predominate in the rug. The covers should be of the gray or white with
a stencilled design in green and lilac. A pretty way to treat the
pillow is to get inexpensive lilac material of a coarse texture. Cut a
square about fourteen or fifteen inches. Cut four strips of white or
gray five inches wide by twenty-five inches long. These strips should
be finer than the lilac or of a different weave. Baste one strip on
each side of the lilac square. Mitre the strips at the corners. A
design is then stencilled on the four strips in lilac and green. The
backing of the pillow should be in plain lilac.

If preferred a striped lilac and white piece of material can be used
for the centre and back.

For the girl who is fond of initials or monograms I would suggest that
the cover be hemstitched and a wreath selected in different sizes
appropriate to the article on which it is to be used. These wreaths
can be carried out in colour or the background may be coloured and the
wreaths white. Inside of the wreath work your monogram or initial. If
you desire a Dutch room, carry out this scheme in Delft blue material
and have a dark set of Mission furniture.

Nile green linen with wreaths of conventionalized rosebuds or daisies,
worked in shades of pink, or white and yellow, suggests a French room,
with a brass bedstead. As I have stated in the chapter on initials,
the stem stitch is pretty for working single lines of a design that is
carried out in satin-stitch.

Stem stitch is too slow a method however to embroider school linens,
and I would suggest using a substitute that has the effect and yet does
not require the time. A row of outlining is made, and then turn the
work back in the same manner, this time instead of working through the
material, catch the places where the two successive stitches of the
first row overlap (Figure 269.)

Another wrinkle you might be glad to hear of and possibly want to
put in practice is how to clean a daintily embroidered piece without
washing it, such as a pincushion or pillow top. School is not like
home where you can be sure a piece sent to the laundry will have
proper attention. Another drawback is that all extras have to be well
paid for. If the piece is thickly covered with white talcum powder
and allowed to stand without disturbing it for forty-eight hours, the
embroidery will emerge almost as clean as if it had been laundered.

[Illustration: Fig. 269. A substitute for stem stitch]

Now then there are the curtains for your room. You may be fortunate
enough to have a room with dainty dotted swiss or dimity curtains that
will go very nicely with the things you are planning and then again
you may be inflicted with a pair of cheap imitation lace curtains.
If you can possibly afford it change them as soon as possible.
Personally I would rather have no curtains than the wrong ones. Dimity,
dotted swiss, scrim, plain net or grass linen are materials that are
inexpensive as well as artistic. Of course you can make them as fancy
as you wish. Any of the above mentioned materials can be stencilled.
Rick-rack braid, which is a wavy braid, can be used to edge the net
curtains or a Connemara lace design is also appropriate.

A narrow crochet edge can be used on the edge of the scrim curtains or
a narrow border of drawn work can be used.

Shadow work is effective on dimity or dotted swiss curtains. Another
pretty stitch very similar to the shadow stitch is the skeleton stitch.
Instead of the work being on the wrong side it all appears on the
right. Work a row of very fine running stitches on the right side.
Fagot stitch from side to side catching the thread into the running
stitches. The work is done from the centre of the flower to the tip
of the petal. Do not end your thread but weave over and under the
fagotting stitch to the end of the petal, leaf or space on which you
are working.

The curtains may be sash lengths or may be the full length of the
window but do not make them longer than to reach the sill.



[Illustration]

THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS

GARDEN CITY, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Notes:

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

Obvious typos and errors repaired:

  Maderia -> Madeira
  bottonholed -> buttonholed
  pading -> padding
  diferent -> different
  faggotting -> fagotting
  neccessary -> necessary
  separarely -> separately
  woolen -> woollen

  It is not necessary to to work -> It is not necessary to work
  about an an inch -> about an inch

Hyphenation is inconsistent and has been left in that state where there
was a balance of with and without spellings e.g. chain-stitching and
chainstitching, handwork and hand-work and over-cast and overcast.





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